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Lecture 6

Calculating Moment of Inertia from First Principles

Centre of Mass, Radius of Gyration

Parallel Axis Theorem, MoI of Thin Plates, Perpendicular Axis Theorem

Example Inertia Calculations: Discs, Cylinders, Cone

By

Brad Saracik

Lecturer

&

Dr Ian Howard

Associate Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Curtin University of Technology

Kinetics of Rotation

Overview

In this topic, we study what causes rotation to occur. Rotational

acceleration occurs when an unbalanced torque acts on a body.

Newtons 2nd Law can be extended to relate applied forces and

torques to the properties of a body and determine the resulting

acceleration and rotational acceleration. Using the kinematics

studied in other topics, you can then determine the complete

resulting motion.

Outcomes: After understanding this reading, completing the

exercises and practicing problems of these types, the reader should

be able to:

1. Define torque in terms of applied forces enabling the

calculation of resulting torques.

2. Identify forces causing translation and torques causing

rotation, separately and in combination, on a given body or

FBD

3. Explain Moment of Inertia (rotational inertia) as a measure of

the distribution of mass, conceptually and in equation form and

that it is a constant property of rigid bodies.

4. Resolve torques in FBDs and accurately apply Newtons 2nd

Law to determine the resulting rotational acceleration. Given a

rotational acceleration, determine the required torque.

5. Calculate Moment of Inertia of uniform shapes using

mathematical techniques. Apply these techniques to estimate

the moment of inertia of machine components.

Reading & Problem Sets:

Meriam: 6.1-6.5 pp408-459

Hibbeler:17.1-17.5 pp377-435

Rotational Concepts

As seen in our study of kinematics, real objects dont just move

through space, they can also rotate (change orientation). We have

first studied Newtons Laws for linear motion (translation) and need

to extend this for rotation to complete the full picture.

The majority of engineering machines involve rotating parts.

Although cars, trains and paddle steamers were designed to get us

from A to B (i.e. translation), they achieve it by turning wheels (ie

rotary motion or rotation). Electric motors, combustion engines and

turbines all provide useful power in the form of rotation. Thus

mechanical engineers need to have equivalent deep understanding

of rotational concepts as for translation.

While this may prove challenging at first, there are direct linear

analogies for every rotational concept you come across. This is

hardly surprising when you realise that rotation is movement about

a given axis. The kinematics of rotation have been dealt with in

detail. Recall the following table

Linear

(angular) displacement s

(angular) velocity

v,

ds

, s

dt

Dim

Rotational

Dim

[L]

[1]

[L/T]

[L/T2]

d

d 2

,

, , 2 ,

dt

dt

d

,

dt

[1/T]

(angular) acceleration

dv

d 2s

a,

, v, 2 , s

dt

dt

const. acceleration

s = ut + at 2

= 0t + t 2

const. acceleration

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

2 = 0 2 + 2

circular motion

st = r

in radians

circular motion

vt = r

in rad/s ; rpm

circular motion

at = r

in rad/s

[1/T2]

a) movement about a given axis

b) change of orientation (i.e. a change in angle)

Newtons 2nd law, as previously studied, completely solves the first

case. For example,

A particle rotating about an axis through

O, requires a normal acceleration and

therefore a normal Force (Fn).

vt

Fn

at

Ft

Fn

an

Fn

result in a tangential acceleration: the

particles speed will change.

particle is completely determined by the

linear Newtons 2nd Law, F=ma

Figure 1: Particle

Travelling in a Circle

in Figures 2 & 3.

2

2

vt

Fn

3

vt

Fn

at

at

Fn

an

O

Fn

Ft

1

m

Circular Translation

Fn

an

O

Fn

Ft

1

m

Translation and Rotation

As studied so far, Newtons 2nd Law does not explain the change in

orientation evident in Figure 3. We need to extend Newtons laws to

apply to this kind of rotation.

For a change in linear motion (acceleration) to occur, an

unbalanced force must act on a body.

If the unbalanced force acts through the centre of mass ONLY

translation occurs. (No net Torque)

If an unbalanced force exists, NOT acting through the centre of

mass, translation AND rotation occurs. (Net Force & Torque)

If forces balance, however an unbalanced moment (or torque)

exists, ONLY rotation occurs. (Net Torque)

Thus an unbalanced force causes linear acceleration according to

Newtons 2nd Law. An unbalanced moment (or torque) causes

angular acceleration. As we will see, the exact relationship can be

derived from Newtons 2nd Law.

Forces are interactions between bodies which (unopposed) cause

changes in velocity. Torque is a vector concept used to describe the

tendency of a force to cause rotation about a given axis. Torques

do not exist in isolation, they only occur as a result of the location of

forces. Note that in statics, torques cause bending, while in

dynamics, torques cause rotation. Torques are also known as

Moments; the two are synonymous.

T= F x r where

(Eq 1)

T is the Torque vector due to a force about a given axis (Nm)

F is the applied force vector (N)

r is a vector from the given axis to the line of action of the

applied force, called the moment arm (m)

Thus, the torque magnitude |T|=|F||r|.sin, where is the angle

between F and r. The direction of T is given by the right hand rule

and is the axis about which the torque causes rotation.

perpendicular to the moment arm, |T|=|F||r|, i.e. T=Fr

If r.sin is 0, the line of action of the force acts through the given

point and no torque results.

F=ma defines exactly how an unbalanced force causes any body

to instantaneously accelerate in a line. Torque is the rotational

affect of force on a body and causes rotational acceleration of the

body ().

Thus we seek an equation of the form T=C, where C is a

constant property of the body (related to its mass, and the ease with

which it can be rotated). We call this constant C, the Mass Moment

of Inertia, and use the symbol I.

Newtons 2nd Law for rotation is thus

T=I

(Eq 2)

about a given axis (Nm = kgm2/s2)

is the resulting rotational acceleration vector of the body

about that axis (1/s2)

I is a scalar constant, called the mass moment of inertia

relating to that body about the given axis (N.m/s2 = kg.m2)

We will see later how mass moment of inertia is mathematically

defined and how we can calculate it. Once the mass moment of

inertia is known, solving problems with Newtons 2nd Law for

rotation is similar to solving problems with Newtons 2nd Law for

translation.

Problem: A cable is wrapped several times around a uniform solid

cylinder having a moment of inertia about its axis of rotation of

0.090kg.m2 and an outer diameter of 12cm. The cable is pulled with

a tension force of 9.0N. Assuming the cable does not stretch or slip,

find its acceleration. What is the speed of the cable after travelling

2m from rest?

Solution:

FT=9.0N

d=0.12m

to reaction forces from the

supports. i.e. Fdrum=0. Neglecting

friction, the only torque present is

due to the applied tension.

i.e. Tdrum = Idrumdrum = T

Since the Tension is

perpendicular to the drum,

T=FT.r = 9*(0.12 / 2) = 0.54Nm

a=r = 0.06 * 6.0 = 0.36m/s2

Assuming the cable unwinding does not change the effective

radius, the cable acceleration will be constant, thus

v2=0+2as ; v=2*0.36*2 = 1.2m/s

Alternative: 2m travelled means the drum has turned by

=2m/ d * 2 radians. Then use = 6.0rad/s2. 2=2, v=r.

Student Exercise: Draw a free body diagram for the drum.

Student Exercise: After studying the remaining notes, return here

with your new knowledge and calculate the mass of the cylinder in

this example. Tip: How do you calculate the moment of inertia of a

solid cylinder? (ans: 50kg)

Moment of Inertia is more than a mathematical concept given by a

formula. Before deriving how we calculate moment of inertia, it is

worthwhile using our intuition and existing knowledge to predict

what the concept must look like:

Known

an objects mass is a measure

of its linear inertia

an object of larger mass is more

difficult to accelerate in a line

than an object of smaller mass

A force causes translation

regardless where it acts on a

body. A torque depends on the

distance from the axis where

the force acts. A body

accelerates linearly regardless

how the mass is distributed

Prediction / Intuition

mass moment of inertia will

be a measure of rotational

inertia

an object with a larger mass

moment of inertia will be

more difficult to rotate than

an object of smaller mass

moment of inertia

A bodys rotational

acceleration will depend on

the distribution (location) of

its mass and the location of

the forces magnitude of

torques

distribution of mass within a body and inversely affect the resulting

rotational acceleration when subjected to a given torque.

For bodies of constant density, the mass is distributed according to

the shape (area in 2D, volume in 3D) of the body.

A quite straight forward way of mathematically defining the mass

moment of inertia uses the concept that a rigid body is a summation

of smaller masses. Conceptually we can reduce any rigid body to a

collection of point / particle masses. For a particle rotating about an

axis, we know:

F=m.a (3)

a = r (4)

T = Fxr (5)

T=Fxr

T=I.

(Eq 6)

a

F=m.a

Thus over the entire rigid body, we only need to lump together the

mass and distance (radius) for every point mass

Irigid body = Ipoint masses =

i =1

mi.ri2

(Eq 7)

infinity and the above expression yields integration over the rigid

bodys volume

Irigid body =

Volume

(Eq 8)

Vol

(If you are not sure about the last bit, recall av = mass/volume)

10

Note that the value for the mass moment of inertia of a body

depends on the axis about which it is to rotate. Technically every

body has an infinite variety of mass moments of inertia, depending

on where we define the axis of rotation (origin of r) to be.

ie wrong: The mass moment of inertia for this object is x kg.m2

right: The mass moment of inertia for this object about axis AA is x

It is relatively easy to find tables such as those in Meriam Appendix

D and the back inside page of Hibbeler showing the properties of

common shapes, including the mass moment of inertia.

(Source http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu)

can be used to determine the moment of inertia. However this is not

always the case, therefore mechanical/mechatronic engineers

(students) also need to be able to calculate these via integration.

Concentrating the mass at the centre of an object and using MR2

will almost always yield the incorrect result (as demonstrated in the

above table). Dont do it.

11

Calculate the Mass Moment of Inertia of a uniform slender rod

about an axis passing through its centre of mass as shown.

Solution

Axis

the rod M and the length

of the rod L.

dm

dx

element dx, with mass

dm shown in the Figure.

x

L/2

L/2

dm = (M / L) * dx

Figure 7: MMoI for a slender rod

About the axis shown, the moment of inertia can be calculated as

I axis

M

= r .dm = x .dm =

L

Volume

length

I axis =

L/2

M x3

=

x

dx

.

L 3 L / 2

length

2

M

ML2

L3 ( L) 3 =

L *3*8

12

Student Exercise: show that an axis through the rods end yields a

Moment of Inertia

I end =

ML2

3

be larger about an axis at the end than in the centre of the rod

You may see elsewhere that Mass Moments of Inertia is commonly

derived via the concept of kinetic energy. Recall for linear motion

that the Kinetic Energy of a particle is given by

K.E linear = mv2.

The rotational analogy for velocity v is angular velocity .

Since v = .r, K.E rotation = (m.r2) 2 = Iparticle 2.

So Iparticle =mr2. For the general case, K.E rotation = I2

N

i =1

Volume

.dm =

.r

Vol

.dV

12

Composite Bodies

If an object is constructed of a combination of parts, the total mass

is the sum of the mass of the parts i.e. M=m1+m2+m3. Similarly the

inertia of parts can be summed to determine the total Moment of

Inertia of a composite body (I = I1 + I2 + I3). The mass or inertia

which is missing from a hole can similarly be subtracted from that

of a solid part. The distance to the axis of rotation must be correct

for each component added or subtracted as shown below.

Radius of Gyration

There is one distance (radius) from any axis for which the whole

mass of a rigid body could be concentrated and result in the same

moment of inertia about that axis. We call this the radius of gyration

(Eq 9)

(k) and it is given by I = mk 2 or k = I m

Note that in linear systems, we often treat a rigid body as if all its

mass was concentrated at its centre of mass. This is the rotational

equivalent, since equation Eq 9 resembles the moment of inertia of

a particle given by I = mr2, when k replaces r as the radius of

gyration.

Tabled formulae or values for Radius of Gyration are generally

given about an axis of rotation through the centre of mass.

Worked Example: Find the radius of gyration about the axis

through the centre of mass of the slender rod shown in Figure 7.

Solution: From the previous solution,

kz = I z

2

= L

Iz =

12

ML2

12

= L

12

, therefore

13

A 60kg, 800mm wide drum has a radius of gyration about its axis of

rotation of 0.25m. A 20kg load is suspended from a massless rope

wrapped around the drum. Assuming no slip, determine the drums

angular acceleration.

Solution

The drums acceleration depends

on the tension in the rope and will

be accelerated by the mass m1,

i.e. the drum will accelerate

clockwise.

r=0.4m

m=60kg

k=0.25m

for the two bodies

Figure 9: Load accelerating drum

m1=20kg

T

mg

O

a

T

R

m1.g

T.r = IO. (1)

IO = mkO2 = 60*0.252 = 3.75kg.m2

No stretching/slip a = .r. (3) T = m1(g - r). Substitute in (1)

m1(g-r).r = IO.. so (IO+m1.r2)=m1.g.r.

On Earth: = (20*9.81*0.4)/(3.75+20*0.42)=78.48/6.95 =11.3 rad/s2

14

Centre of Mass

How do you expect the boomerang to move under application of the

different forces in the following free body diagrams?

F

F

F

Figure 10: Boomerang FBDs

Recall that: an object will rotate as well as move if the resultant

force does not act through its centre of mass.

On Earth (in a uniform gravitational field), the centre of mass

coincides with the centre of gravity, so we can find it by finding the

point at which the object balances. Mathematically, the distance to

the centre of mass is given by

xcom =

m x

m

i

x.dm ; y

M

com

m y

m

i

y.dm

M

(10)

Moments of Inertia are often given for axes running through the

centre of mass of an object. We will show why these are most

useful. Note the use of the following notation. In general the axis

used for a given moment of inertia will be designated by the symbol

I with two subscript letters denoting the axis (Ixx, Iyy, Izz). One

subscript is used to demonstrate when the Moments of Inertia is

about an axis going through the centre of mass (Ix, Iy, Iz)

Thus in the slender rod example Iaxis could be designated Iz since it

went through the centre of mass, while Iend could be designated Izz.

15

The parallel axis theorem gives us a relationship between the

moment of inertia about an axis at the centre of mass and any other

axis parallel to it.

Parallel Axis Theorem: IAA=IA + Md2

(Eq 11)

Proof:

I AA = rA .dm

2

&

I BB = rB .dm

2

dm

Geometry: rB2=a2 + y2

rB

rA

and rA2=(a+d)2 + y2

d

a

x

therefore

rA2 = rB2 + 2.a.d + d2

thus

I = r

AA

.dm = rB dm + 2d a.dm + d 2 dm

2

I AA = I BB + md 2 + 2d a.dm

y

(Eq 12)

Since the final term in equation Eq 12 is 0 when BB is an axis

through the centre of mass, we have the Parallel Axis Theorem.

Equation 10 shows why the final term in equation Eq 12 is 0. It also

shows that the theorem is valid only between two axes when one of

them is through the centre of mass.

You will almost certainly come across the second moment of area

during your studies, since it is used to determine how crosssections respond to bending. Second Moment of Area = r 2 .dA .

Area

Be careful not to confuse this or its radius of gyration, with the mass

moment of inertia and its radius of gyration.

16

Consider a thin homogeneous plate of thickness t and density

About the axis AA we know

I AA = r 2 .dm

dm = .t.dA

thus

dA

I AA = t r 2 .dA

A

second moment of area, therefore

(Eq 13)

The perpendicular axis theorem states that for a planar object (thin

plate), the moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular to the

plate is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about two

perpendicular axes going through the same point in the plane of the

(Eq 14)

object. i.e. FOR PLANAR OBJECTS ONLY: Iz = Ix + Iy

Proof: for a point mass, dm at x,y,z

Ix = dm.y2

Iy = dm.x2

Iz = dm.r2

Iz = dm(y2+x2)= Ix + Iy

This theorem is useful for 3d objects which can be broken down into

planar sections and then integrated (summed) along its length.

17

Use of tabled moment of inertias, sometimes in combination with

the parallel and/or perpendicular axis theorems, often enable

estimation of moment of inertia for rotating machinery components.

This is often useful as a rapid check of values obtained by other

means (e.g. catalogs, computer aided engineering models etc).

Two bars welded together as shown in Figure

13 will be fitted as part of a new lightweight

bucket design. Each 1m bar is 5kg.

i. Find the Centre of Mass

1m

1m

through the pivot.

iii. Find the Radius of Gyration from the pivot

pivot

Figure 13

Solution: The body consists of two slender rods, which may be

found in tables such as Figure 6. Label the section connected to the

pivot rod 1 and the other rod 2.

Use Equation 10 to locate the centre of mass. Due to symmetry, the

centre of mass is above the pivot at a height halfway between the

centre of the equal mass sections. i.e. yCOM = (0.5 + 1)/2=0.75m

Rod 1: I1 = MoI of slender rod about one end I1= ML2/3 = 1.67kgm2

Rod 2: I2 = MoI of slender rod about centre + parallel axis theorem,

i.e. I2= ML2/12 + Md2 = 0.42 + 5 = 5.42kgm2

Thus, Ipivot = I1 + I2 = 7.1 kgm2

The radius of gyration about the pivot: k =I/m = (7.1/10) = 0.84m

Student Exercise: Show the CoM and radius of gyration about the

pivot on Figure 13. Find the radius of gyration about the CoM and

sketch a circle showing this radius. (0.38m, hint: parallel axis)

18

centre of mass for a rectangular plate is:

M a2 + b2

IZ Rect Plate =

12

(Eq 15)

Use the previous equation to determine the MoI

and radius of gyration about an axis through the

pivot at O for the 5mm thick uniform plate

shown, with density =2700kg/m3.

O

1.4m

1.4m

=300mm

Solution

First recognise that the Moment of Inertia of this

plate can be found by subtracting a circular

section (I2) from a square section (I1): I = I1 I2

Figure 14

I1C = m1(a2+b2)/12 ; m1 = tab = 26.5kg ; I1C = 8.64kgm2

I2C = m2*(/2)2/2 ; m2 = t2/4 = 0.954kg ; I2C = 0.01kgm2

IC = I1C I2C = 8.53 kgm2, where C is for an axis through the CoM

(note that I2c is insignificant)

IOO = IC + md2 ; d = 1.4/2 = 0.99m ; IOO = 33.6kgm2

kOO=(33.6/25.5)=1.15m

Student Exercise: Show the CoM and radius of gyration about the

pivot on Figure 14. Find the radius of gyration about the CoM and

sketch a circle showing this radius. (0.58m)

Note (from the exercises) that mass further away from the axis of

rotation contributes more to the Moment of Inertia. With practice,

this realisation enables you to intuitively estimate the Radius of

Gyration based on the distribution of mass for any object. This

enables rapid checking that your answer seems reasonable.

19

Using the previous results, a deep understanding of integral

calculus and some practice, you should now be able to calculate

the moments of inertia for 2D and 3D objects. This is useful where

the moment of Inertia cannot be found using tables and may be

programmed in computer aided engineering software.

Calculate the moment of inertia about the x, y and z axis through

the centre of a thin homogeneous disc.

Solution

dr

Symmetry Ix = Iy = Iz / 2

So we only need to calculate the

moment of inertia about any one

axis to know all 3.

dm

For these notes, I have chosen to integrate about the z axis. You

should be able to obtain the result yourselves integrating about the

x or y axis. See that a disc consists of rings of growing radius. Each

ring has circumference 2.r, therefore dm = 2.r.dr.

So

Iz = r .dm = 2

2

r =R

r =0

Area

r4

R 4

r .dr = 2 =

2

4 0

3

Thus

Iz =

R 4

2

MR 2

2

Since we now know the inertial properties of a disc, we can use

these results in any 3-dimensional object built up of discs, in much

the same way as the disc was built up of rings.

20

Problem: Calculate the Mass Moment of Inertia for a homogeneous

cylinder of mass M, radius R and length L about axes through its

centroid.

z

dx

x

dm

x

R

R

x

Solution

From Symmetry we see that Iz = Iy.

Since we know the inertial properties of a thin disc, use these as dm

as shown above. Since the cylinder is homogeneous note that

dm = (M / L)dx.

To solve for Ix, note that the x axis runs through the centroid of each

thin disc. For each incremental dm, dIx = 0.5dm.R2 =(0.5M R2 / L)dx

L

2

Thus

Ix =

MR 2

2L

dx =

L

2

2

MR 2 2

[x] L = MR

2L

2

2

of a cylinder is independent of its length.

To solve for Iz, we will need to use the parallel axis theorem since

the discs are away from the centroid axis. For each incremental dm,

dIZ = 0.25dm.R2 + dm.x2 = dm(0.25.R2 + x2)

Thus

L

2

M R2

M R2

x3 2

M R 2 L L3

MR 2 ML2

2

+

=

+

Iz =

x

dx

x

=

+

=

+

L

L L 4

L

L

4

3

12

4

12

Note how easy it now is to find Izz about the end of the cylinder.

21

Calculate the Mass Moment of Inertia for a homogeneous circular

cone of mass M, base radius R and height H about the XX and YY

axes shown.

Y

dx

x

X

R

R

Y

Solution

Well use the same technique as the previous example. At a

distance along the x-axis, the cross section is a disc of radius

r = (R / H).x and mass dm. dm can be calculated, by knowing the

volume of a cone is V=R2H/3 and the volume of each disc is given

by r2.dx. Therefore dm=(M. dV / V) = 3M.x2dx / H3.

XX again runs through the centroid of each disc, so for each

2

3MR 2

Ix =

2H 5

3MR 2

=

x

dx

0

2H 5

4

x5

3MR 2

=

10

5 0

dm, dIZ = 0.25dm.r2 + dm.x2. Thus

3MR 2

Iz =

4H 5

3M

0 x dx + H 3

4

3M

0 x dx = H 3

4

R2

x 5

3M R 2

+

=

1

+ H 2

2

5 4

4H

5 0

Linear

(angular) displacement s

ds

, s

dt

Dim

Rotational

Dim

Conversion

[L]

[1]

st = r

[L/T]

[1/T]

vt = r

[1/T2]

at = r

T=Fxr

d

,

dt

(angular) velocity

v,

(angular) acceleration

dv

d 2s

a,

, v, 2 , s

dt

dt

const. acceleration

s = ut + at 2

= 0t + t 2

const. acceleration

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

2 = 0 2 + 2

force / torque

Nm

inertia

(mass/rotational)

kg

kgm2

Work

F = ma

W = F .ds = Fav .s

Joule

T = I

W = T .d = Tav

Joule

Kinetic Energy

.m.v2

Joule

.I.2

Joule

Instantaneous Power

P=

Watt

P=

dW

= Fv

dt

[L/T ]

d

d 2

,

, , 2 ,

dt

dt

dW

= T

dt

Watt

I=

Volume

.dm

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