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# MACHINE DYNAMICS 231

Lecture 6

## Mechanics of Rotation & Moment of Inertia

Calculating Moment of Inertia from First Principles
Centre of Mass, Radius of Gyration
Parallel Axis Theorem, MoI of Thin Plates, Perpendicular Axis Theorem
Example Inertia Calculations: Discs, Cylinders, Cone

By

Lecturer
&
Dr Ian Howard
Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Curtin University of Technology

## MD231 Lecture 6: Kinetics of Rotation & Moment of Inertia

Kinetics of Rotation
Overview
In this topic, we study what causes rotation to occur. Rotational
acceleration occurs when an unbalanced torque acts on a body.
Newtons 2nd Law can be extended to relate applied forces and
torques to the properties of a body and determine the resulting
acceleration and rotational acceleration. Using the kinematics
studied in other topics, you can then determine the complete
resulting motion.
Outcomes: After understanding this reading, completing the
exercises and practicing problems of these types, the reader should
be able to:
1. Define torque in terms of applied forces enabling the
calculation of resulting torques.
2. Identify forces causing translation and torques causing
rotation, separately and in combination, on a given body or
FBD
3. Explain Moment of Inertia (rotational inertia) as a measure of
the distribution of mass, conceptually and in equation form and
that it is a constant property of rigid bodies.
4. Resolve torques in FBDs and accurately apply Newtons 2nd
Law to determine the resulting rotational acceleration. Given a
rotational acceleration, determine the required torque.
5. Calculate Moment of Inertia of uniform shapes using
mathematical techniques. Apply these techniques to estimate
the moment of inertia of machine components.
Reading & Problem Sets:
Meriam: 6.1-6.5 pp408-459
Hibbeler:17.1-17.5 pp377-435

## MD231 Lecture 6: Kinetics of Rotation & Moment of Inertia

Rotational Concepts
As seen in our study of kinematics, real objects dont just move
through space, they can also rotate (change orientation). We have
first studied Newtons Laws for linear motion (translation) and need
to extend this for rotation to complete the full picture.
The majority of engineering machines involve rotating parts.
Although cars, trains and paddle steamers were designed to get us
from A to B (i.e. translation), they achieve it by turning wheels (ie
rotary motion or rotation). Electric motors, combustion engines and
turbines all provide useful power in the form of rotation. Thus
mechanical engineers need to have equivalent deep understanding
of rotational concepts as for translation.
While this may prove challenging at first, there are direct linear
analogies for every rotational concept you come across. This is
hardly surprising when you realise that rotation is movement about
a given axis. The kinematics of rotation have been dealt with in
detail. Recall the following table
Linear
(angular) displacement s
(angular) velocity

v,

ds
, s
dt

Dim

Rotational

Dim

[L]

[1]

[L/T]

[L/T2]

d
d 2
,
, , 2 ,
dt
dt

d
,
dt

[1/T]

(angular) acceleration

dv
d 2s
a,
, v, 2 , s
dt
dt

const. acceleration

s = ut + at 2

= 0t + t 2

const. acceleration

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

2 = 0 2 + 2

circular motion

st = r

circular motion

vt = r

in rad/s ; rpm

circular motion

at = r

[1/T2]

## It is again necessary to differentiate between rotation referring to:

a) movement about a given axis
b) change of orientation (i.e. a change in angle)
Newtons 2nd law, as previously studied, completely solves the first
case. For example,
A particle rotating about an axis through
O, requires a normal acceleration and
therefore a normal Force (Fn).

vt
Fn

at

Ft

Fn
an

Fn

## Any unbalanced tangential force (Ft) will

result in a tangential acceleration: the
particles speed will change.

## The instantaneous acceleration of a

particle is completely determined by the
linear Newtons 2nd Law, F=ma

Figure 1: Particle
Travelling in a Circle

## For a rigid body rotating about O, compare the orientations evident

in Figures 2 & 3.
2

2
vt
Fn
3

vt

Fn

at

at
Fn
an

O
Fn

Ft
1
m

## Figure 2: Rigid Body

Circular Translation

Fn
an

O
Fn

Ft
1
m

## Figure 3: Rigid Body

Translation and Rotation

As studied so far, Newtons 2nd Law does not explain the change in
orientation evident in Figure 3. We need to extend Newtons laws to
apply to this kind of rotation.

## The Cause of Rotation: Newtons 2nd Law

For a change in linear motion (acceleration) to occur, an
unbalanced force must act on a body.
If the unbalanced force acts through the centre of mass ONLY
translation occurs. (No net Torque)
If an unbalanced force exists, NOT acting through the centre of
mass, translation AND rotation occurs. (Net Force & Torque)
If forces balance, however an unbalanced moment (or torque)
exists, ONLY rotation occurs. (Net Torque)
Thus an unbalanced force causes linear acceleration according to
Newtons 2nd Law. An unbalanced moment (or torque) causes
angular acceleration. As we will see, the exact relationship can be
derived from Newtons 2nd Law.

## Torques and Moments

Forces are interactions between bodies which (unopposed) cause
changes in velocity. Torque is a vector concept used to describe the
tendency of a force to cause rotation about a given axis. Torques
do not exist in isolation, they only occur as a result of the location of
forces. Note that in statics, torques cause bending, while in
dynamics, torques cause rotation. Torques are also known as
Moments; the two are synonymous.

## The fundamental definition of Torque is a vector or cross product.

T= F x r where
(Eq 1)
T is the Torque vector due to a force about a given axis (Nm)
F is the applied force vector (N)
r is a vector from the given axis to the line of action of the
applied force, called the moment arm (m)
Thus, the torque magnitude |T|=|F||r|.sin, where is the angle
between F and r. The direction of T is given by the right hand rule
and is the axis about which the torque causes rotation.

## In the special case where =90, i.e. the applied force is

perpendicular to the moment arm, |T|=|F||r|, i.e. T=Fr
If r.sin is 0, the line of action of the force acts through the given
point and no torque results.

## Newtons 2nd Law for Rotation

F=ma defines exactly how an unbalanced force causes any body
to instantaneously accelerate in a line. Torque is the rotational
affect of force on a body and causes rotational acceleration of the
body ().
Thus we seek an equation of the form T=C, where C is a
constant property of the body (related to its mass, and the ease with
which it can be rotated). We call this constant C, the Mass Moment
of Inertia, and use the symbol I.
Newtons 2nd Law for rotation is thus
T=I

(Eq 2)

## T is the combined (resultant) torque vector acting on a body

about a given axis (Nm = kgm2/s2)
is the resulting rotational acceleration vector of the body
about that axis (1/s2)
I is a scalar constant, called the mass moment of inertia
relating to that body about the given axis (N.m/s2 = kg.m2)
We will see later how mass moment of inertia is mathematically
defined and how we can calculate it. Once the mass moment of
inertia is known, solving problems with Newtons 2nd Law for
rotation is similar to solving problems with Newtons 2nd Law for
translation.

## Worked Example using Moment of Inertia

Problem: A cable is wrapped several times around a uniform solid
cylinder having a moment of inertia about its axis of rotation of
0.090kg.m2 and an outer diameter of 12cm. The cable is pulled with
a tension force of 9.0N. Assuming the cable does not stretch or slip,
find its acceleration. What is the speed of the cable after travelling
2m from rest?
Solution:
FT=9.0N
d=0.12m

## The drum does not translate due

to reaction forces from the
supports. i.e. Fdrum=0. Neglecting
friction, the only torque present is
due to the applied tension.
i.e. Tdrum = Idrumdrum = T
Since the Tension is
perpendicular to the drum,
T=FT.r = 9*(0.12 / 2) = 0.54Nm

## T = Idrumdrum = T / Idrum = 0.54 / 0.090 = 6.0rad/s2

a=r = 0.06 * 6.0 = 0.36m/s2
Assuming the cable unwinding does not change the effective
radius, the cable acceleration will be constant, thus
v2=0+2as ; v=2*0.36*2 = 1.2m/s
Alternative: 2m travelled means the drum has turned by
=2m/ d * 2 radians. Then use = 6.0rad/s2. 2=2, v=r.
Student Exercise: Draw a free body diagram for the drum.
Student Exercise: After studying the remaining notes, return here
with your new knowledge and calculate the mass of the cylinder in
this example. Tip: How do you calculate the moment of inertia of a
solid cylinder? (ans: 50kg)

## Moment of Inertia : Distribution of Mass

Moment of Inertia is more than a mathematical concept given by a
formula. Before deriving how we calculate moment of inertia, it is
worthwhile using our intuition and existing knowledge to predict
what the concept must look like:
Known
an objects mass is a measure
of its linear inertia
an object of larger mass is more
difficult to accelerate in a line
than an object of smaller mass
A force causes translation
regardless where it acts on a
body. A torque depends on the
distance from the axis where
the force acts. A body
accelerates linearly regardless
how the mass is distributed

Prediction / Intuition
mass moment of inertia will
be a measure of rotational
inertia
an object with a larger mass
moment of inertia will be
more difficult to rotate than
an object of smaller mass
moment of inertia
A bodys rotational
acceleration will depend on
the distribution (location) of
its mass and the location of
the forces magnitude of
torques

## In summary, the moment of inertia must be a measure of the

distribution of mass within a body and inversely affect the resulting
rotational acceleration when subjected to a given torque.
For bodies of constant density, the mass is distributed according to
the shape (area in 2D, volume in 3D) of the body.

## Moment of Inertia Derivation

A quite straight forward way of mathematically defining the mass
moment of inertia uses the concept that a rigid body is a summation
of smaller masses. Conceptually we can reduce any rigid body to a
collection of point / particle masses. For a particle rotating about an
axis, we know:
F=m.a (3)

a = r (4)

T = Fxr (5)

T=Fxr
T=I.

(Eq 6)

a
F=m.a

## Figure 5: Point Mass Rotational Inertia

Thus over the entire rigid body, we only need to lump together the
mass and distance (radius) for every point mass
Irigid body = Ipoint masses =

i =1

mi.ri2

(Eq 7)

## Mathematically this is most accurately obtained as N approaches

infinity and the above expression yields integration over the rigid
bodys volume
Irigid body =

Volume

## .dm = .r 2 .dV since dm=.dV

(Eq 8)

Vol

(If you are not sure about the last bit, recall av = mass/volume)

10

## MD231 Lecture 6: Kinetics of Rotation & Moment of Inertia

Note that the value for the mass moment of inertia of a body
depends on the axis about which it is to rotate. Technically every
body has an infinite variety of mass moments of inertia, depending
on where we define the axis of rotation (origin of r) to be.
ie wrong: The mass moment of inertia for this object is x kg.m2

right: The mass moment of inertia for this object about axis AA is x

## Common Mass Moments of Inertia

It is relatively easy to find tables such as those in Meriam Appendix
D and the back inside page of Hibbeler showing the properties of
common shapes, including the mass moment of inertia.

## Figure 6: Example MMoI

(Source http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu)

## Some objects resemble common shapes and tables such as these

can be used to determine the moment of inertia. However this is not
always the case, therefore mechanical/mechatronic engineers
(students) also need to be able to calculate these via integration.

## Common Error to Avoid

Concentrating the mass at the centre of an object and using MR2
will almost always yield the incorrect result (as demonstrated in the
above table). Dont do it.

11

## Worked Example MMoI Calculation

Calculate the Mass Moment of Inertia of a uniform slender rod
about an axis passing through its centre of mass as shown.
Solution
Axis

## Define the total mass of

the rod M and the length
of the rod L.

dm
dx

## Consider the small

element dx, with mass
dm shown in the Figure.

x
L/2
L/2

dm = (M / L) * dx
Figure 7: MMoI for a slender rod
About the axis shown, the moment of inertia can be calculated as
I axis

M
= r .dm = x .dm =
L
Volume
length

I axis =

L/2

M x3
=
x
dx
.

L 3 L / 2
length
2

M
ML2
L3 ( L) 3 =
L *3*8
12

## (about the axis shown only)

Student Exercise: show that an axis through the rods end yields a
Moment of Inertia

I end =

ML2
3

## . Explain why the moment of inertia must

be larger about an axis at the end than in the centre of the rod

## Moment of Inertia via Kinetic Energy

You may see elsewhere that Mass Moments of Inertia is commonly
derived via the concept of kinetic energy. Recall for linear motion
that the Kinetic Energy of a particle is given by
K.E linear = mv2.
The rotational analogy for velocity v is angular velocity .
Since v = .r, K.E rotation = (m.r2) 2 = Iparticle 2.
So Iparticle =mr2. For the general case, K.E rotation = I2
N

i =1

Volume

.dm =

.r

Vol

.dV

12

## MD231 Lecture 6: Kinetics of Rotation & Moment of Inertia

Composite Bodies
If an object is constructed of a combination of parts, the total mass
is the sum of the mass of the parts i.e. M=m1+m2+m3. Similarly the
inertia of parts can be summed to determine the total Moment of
Inertia of a composite body (I = I1 + I2 + I3). The mass or inertia
which is missing from a hole can similarly be subtracted from that
of a solid part. The distance to the axis of rotation must be correct
for each component added or subtracted as shown below.

## Figure 8: Adding or Subtracting Composite Bodies

There is one distance (radius) from any axis for which the whole
mass of a rigid body could be concentrated and result in the same
moment of inertia about that axis. We call this the radius of gyration
(Eq 9)
(k) and it is given by I = mk 2 or k = I m
Note that in linear systems, we often treat a rigid body as if all its
mass was concentrated at its centre of mass. This is the rotational
equivalent, since equation Eq 9 resembles the moment of inertia of
a particle given by I = mr2, when k replaces r as the radius of
gyration.
Tabled formulae or values for Radius of Gyration are generally
given about an axis of rotation through the centre of mass.
Worked Example: Find the radius of gyration about the axis
through the centre of mass of the slender rod shown in Figure 7.
Solution: From the previous solution,
kz = I z

2
= L

Iz =

12

ML2
12

= L

12

, therefore

13

## Worked Example: Falling Load Accelerating a Drum

A 60kg, 800mm wide drum has a radius of gyration about its axis of
rotation of 0.25m. A 20kg load is suspended from a massless rope
wrapped around the drum. Assuming no slip, determine the drums
angular acceleration.
Solution
The drums acceleration depends
on the tension in the rope and will
be accelerated by the mass m1,
i.e. the drum will accelerate
clockwise.

r=0.4m

m=60kg
k=0.25m

## Free body diagrams are required

for the two bodies
Figure 9: Load accelerating drum
m1=20kg

T
mg

O
a

T
R
m1.g

T.r = IO. (1)

## IO is given by the mass and radius of gyration,

IO = mkO2 = 60*0.252 = 3.75kg.m2
No stretching/slip a = .r. (3) T = m1(g - r). Substitute in (1)
m1(g-r).r = IO.. so (IO+m1.r2)=m1.g.r.
On Earth: = (20*9.81*0.4)/(3.75+20*0.42)=78.48/6.95 =11.3 rad/s2

14

## MD231 Lecture 6: Kinetics of Rotation & Moment of Inertia

Centre of Mass
How do you expect the boomerang to move under application of the
different forces in the following free body diagrams?

F
F

F
Figure 10: Boomerang FBDs
Recall that: an object will rotate as well as move if the resultant
force does not act through its centre of mass.
On Earth (in a uniform gravitational field), the centre of mass
coincides with the centre of gravity, so we can find it by finding the
point at which the object balances. Mathematically, the distance to
the centre of mass is given by

xcom =

m x
m
i

x.dm ; y
M

com

m y
m
i

y.dm
M

(10)
Moments of Inertia are often given for axes running through the
centre of mass of an object. We will show why these are most
useful. Note the use of the following notation. In general the axis
used for a given moment of inertia will be designated by the symbol
I with two subscript letters denoting the axis (Ixx, Iyy, Izz). One
subscript is used to demonstrate when the Moments of Inertia is
about an axis going through the centre of mass (Ix, Iy, Iz)
Thus in the slender rod example Iaxis could be designated Iz since it
went through the centre of mass, while Iend could be designated Izz.

15

## Parallel Axis Theorem

The parallel axis theorem gives us a relationship between the
moment of inertia about an axis at the centre of mass and any other
axis parallel to it.
Parallel Axis Theorem: IAA=IA + Md2

(Eq 11)
Proof:

I AA = rA .dm
2

&

I BB = rB .dm
2

dm

Geometry: rB2=a2 + y2

rB
rA

and rA2=(a+d)2 + y2
d

a
x

therefore
rA2 = rB2 + 2.a.d + d2
thus
I = r
AA

.dm = rB dm + 2d a.dm + d 2 dm
2

I AA = I BB + md 2 + 2d a.dm
y

(Eq 12)

## Figure 11: Mass element about parallel

Since the final term in equation Eq 12 is 0 when BB is an axis
through the centre of mass, we have the Parallel Axis Theorem.
Equation 10 shows why the final term in equation Eq 12 is 0. It also
shows that the theorem is valid only between two axes when one of
them is through the centre of mass.

## Relationship with the Second Moment of Area

You will almost certainly come across the second moment of area
during your studies, since it is used to determine how crosssections respond to bending. Second Moment of Area = r 2 .dA .
Area

Be careful not to confuse this or its radius of gyration, with the mass
moment of inertia and its radius of gyration.

16

## Moment of Inertia of Thin Plates

Consider a thin homogeneous plate of thickness t and density
About the axis AA we know

I AA = r 2 .dm

dm = .t.dA
thus

dA

I AA = t r 2 .dA
A

## We just noted that this integral is the

second moment of area, therefore

(Eq 13)

## Perpendicular Axis Theorem

The perpendicular axis theorem states that for a planar object (thin
plate), the moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular to the
plate is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about two
perpendicular axes going through the same point in the plane of the
(Eq 14)
object. i.e. FOR PLANAR OBJECTS ONLY: Iz = Ix + Iy
Proof: for a point mass, dm at x,y,z
Ix = dm.y2

Iy = dm.x2

Iz = dm.r2

## Since r2 = y2+ x2,

Iz = dm(y2+x2)= Ix + Iy
This theorem is useful for 3d objects which can be broken down into
planar sections and then integrated (summed) along its length.

17

## Moment of Inertia using Tables of Common Shapes

Use of tabled moment of inertias, sometimes in combination with
the parallel and/or perpendicular axis theorems, often enable
estimation of moment of inertia for rotating machinery components.
This is often useful as a rapid check of values obtained by other
means (e.g. catalogs, computer aided engineering models etc).

## Worked Example: MMoI of Composite Body

Two bars welded together as shown in Figure
13 will be fitted as part of a new lightweight
bucket design. Each 1m bar is 5kg.
i. Find the Centre of Mass

1m

1m

## ii. Find the moment of inertia about an axis

through the pivot.
iii. Find the Radius of Gyration from the pivot

pivot

Figure 13
Solution: The body consists of two slender rods, which may be
found in tables such as Figure 6. Label the section connected to the
pivot rod 1 and the other rod 2.
Use Equation 10 to locate the centre of mass. Due to symmetry, the
centre of mass is above the pivot at a height halfway between the
centre of the equal mass sections. i.e. yCOM = (0.5 + 1)/2=0.75m
Rod 1: I1 = MoI of slender rod about one end I1= ML2/3 = 1.67kgm2
Rod 2: I2 = MoI of slender rod about centre + parallel axis theorem,
i.e. I2= ML2/12 + Md2 = 0.42 + 5 = 5.42kgm2
Thus, Ipivot = I1 + I2 = 7.1 kgm2
The radius of gyration about the pivot: k =I/m = (7.1/10) = 0.84m
Student Exercise: Show the CoM and radius of gyration about the
pivot on Figure 13. Find the radius of gyration about the CoM and
sketch a circle showing this radius. (0.38m, hint: parallel axis)

18

## The Mass Moment of Inertia about a perpendicular axis through the

centre of mass for a rectangular plate is:

M a2 + b2
IZ Rect Plate =
12

(Eq 15)

## Worked Example: MMoI via Subtraction

Use the previous equation to determine the MoI
and radius of gyration about an axis through the
pivot at O for the 5mm thick uniform plate
shown, with density =2700kg/m3.

O
1.4m

1.4m

=300mm

Solution
First recognise that the Moment of Inertia of this
plate can be found by subtracting a circular
section (I2) from a square section (I1): I = I1 I2

Figure 14

## Both sections have the same centre of mass (C). Thus,

I1C = m1(a2+b2)/12 ; m1 = tab = 26.5kg ; I1C = 8.64kgm2
I2C = m2*(/2)2/2 ; m2 = t2/4 = 0.954kg ; I2C = 0.01kgm2
IC = I1C I2C = 8.53 kgm2, where C is for an axis through the CoM
(note that I2c is insignificant)
IOO = IC + md2 ; d = 1.4/2 = 0.99m ; IOO = 33.6kgm2
kOO=(33.6/25.5)=1.15m

Student Exercise: Show the CoM and radius of gyration about the
pivot on Figure 14. Find the radius of gyration about the CoM and
sketch a circle showing this radius. (0.58m)
Note (from the exercises) that mass further away from the axis of
rotation contributes more to the Moment of Inertia. With practice,
this realisation enables you to intuitively estimate the Radius of
Gyration based on the distribution of mass for any object. This
enables rapid checking that your answer seems reasonable.

19

## Moment of Inertia via Numerical Integration

Using the previous results, a deep understanding of integral
calculus and some practice, you should now be able to calculate
the moments of inertia for 2D and 3D objects. This is useful where
the moment of Inertia cannot be found using tables and may be
programmed in computer aided engineering software.

## Worked Example: Mass Moment of Inertia of a Thin Disc

Calculate the moment of inertia about the x, y and z axis through
the centre of a thin homogeneous disc.
Solution

## For a thin disc, Iz = Ix + Iy

dr

Symmetry Ix = Iy = Iz / 2
So we only need to calculate the
moment of inertia about any one
axis to know all 3.

dm

## Figure 15: Inertia of a Disc

For these notes, I have chosen to integrate about the z axis. You
should be able to obtain the result yourselves integrating about the
x or y axis. See that a disc consists of rings of growing radius. Each
ring has circumference 2.r, therefore dm = 2.r.dr.
So

Iz = r .dm = 2
2

r =R

r =0

Area

r4
R 4
r .dr = 2 =
2
4 0
3

Thus

Iz =

R 4
2

MR 2
2

## Perpendicular Axis Theorem Ix = Iy = Iz / 2 = MR2 / 4

Since we now know the inertial properties of a disc, we can use
these results in any 3-dimensional object built up of discs, in much
the same way as the disc was built up of rings.

20

## 3D Example: Mass Moment of Inertia of a Cylinder

Problem: Calculate the Mass Moment of Inertia for a homogeneous
cylinder of mass M, radius R and length L about axes through its
centroid.
z

dx
x
dm
x
R

R
x

Solution
From Symmetry we see that Iz = Iy.
Since we know the inertial properties of a thin disc, use these as dm
as shown above. Since the cylinder is homogeneous note that
dm = (M / L)dx.
To solve for Ix, note that the x axis runs through the centroid of each
thin disc. For each incremental dm, dIx = 0.5dm.R2 =(0.5M R2 / L)dx
L
2

Thus

Ix =

MR 2
2L

dx =

L
2

2
MR 2 2
[x] L = MR
2L
2
2

## unsurprising) result. About the axis of rotation, the moment of inertia

of a cylinder is independent of its length.
To solve for Iz, we will need to use the parallel axis theorem since
the discs are away from the centroid axis. For each incremental dm,
dIZ = 0.25dm.R2 + dm.x2 = dm(0.25.R2 + x2)
Thus

L
2

M R2
M R2
x3 2
M R 2 L L3
MR 2 ML2
2

+
=
+
Iz =
x
dx
x
=
+
=
+

L
L L 4
L
L
4
3
12
4
12

Note how easy it now is to find Izz about the end of the cylinder.

21

## 3D Example: Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Cone

Calculate the Mass Moment of Inertia for a homogeneous circular
cone of mass M, base radius R and height H about the XX and YY
axes shown.
Y

dx

x
X
R

R
Y

## Figure 16: Moment of Inertia of a Uniform 3D Cone

Solution
Well use the same technique as the previous example. At a
distance along the x-axis, the cross section is a disc of radius
r = (R / H).x and mass dm. dm can be calculated, by knowing the
volume of a cone is V=R2H/3 and the volume of each disc is given
by r2.dx. Therefore dm=(M. dV / V) = 3M.x2dx / H3.
XX again runs through the centroid of each disc, so for each
2

3MR 2
Ix =
2H 5

3MR 2
=
x
dx
0
2H 5
4

x5
3MR 2
=

10
5 0

## Iz again requires the parallel axis theorem. For each incremental

dm, dIZ = 0.25dm.r2 + dm.x2. Thus
3MR 2
Iz =
4H 5

3M
0 x dx + H 3
4

3M
0 x dx = H 3
4

R2
x 5

3M R 2

+
=
1
+ H 2

2

5 4
4H
5 0

## Summary: Linear and Rotational Analogies

Linear
(angular) displacement s
ds
, s
dt

Dim

Rotational

Dim

Conversion

[L]

[1]

st = r

[L/T]

[1/T]

vt = r

[1/T2]

at = r

T=Fxr

d
,
dt

(angular) velocity

v,

(angular) acceleration

dv
d 2s
a,
, v, 2 , s
dt
dt

const. acceleration

s = ut + at 2

= 0t + t 2

const. acceleration

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

2 = 0 2 + 2

force / torque

Nm

inertia
(mass/rotational)

kg

kgm2

Work

F = ma

W = F .ds = Fav .s

Joule

T = I

W = T .d = Tav

Joule

Kinetic Energy

.m.v2

Joule

.I.2

Joule

Instantaneous Power

P=

Watt

P=

dW
= Fv
dt

[L/T ]

d
d 2
,
, , 2 ,
dt
dt

dW
= T
dt

Watt

I=

Volume

.dm