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Lecture 4

The tactics of WWI were largely trench warfare.

New generation of tanks and aircraft were being developed after WWI.

German: Bleitzkreig – lightning war – opposite of trench warfare. French focused on

trench warfare. Made network of trenches (MArgenoux line), became ineffective in
stopping the Germans.

British focused on fighter aircraft and radar.

Video of kitty hawk flight.

Military purposes immediately known – and purchased some of Wright Brother’s plane.
General fear that war was eminent.

Feared that aircraft would bomb panama canal. But this was sci-fi.. during WWI it made
little impact in terms of firepower.

Radar was important:

 Great Britain utilized radar to shoot down german bombers
Towers are the radar. Had to big in those days.

American team pioneered microwave technology for more compact radar systems, and
more accurate.

Microwave radar was accurate enough to direct SAMs. Can also be put into airplanes.
On the sea, battleships and cruisers were being improved. US and Japan developed
aircraft carriers.

German subs were improved. Anti sub techniques have to developed to combat them.
WWII saw major use of tanks, carriers, radio, etc. The tactics shifted, and no longer
trench warfare, but highly mobile.

Fast moving military operations.

Radio technology was primary. Between aircraft, tanks, and commanders.

Radar jamming was also produced., first time soldiers could use radio. Encryption
needed to be used – was a critical role.

The british encryption was key to destroying the german subs.

American and Br were masters of decryption. It was the essential ingredient of the battle
of midway.

Japanese fleet were sailing eastward. We needed to know when/where they will be. We
intercepted a msg, but couldn’t find out where (only found out when). An officer sent out
“midway is out of water”.. then the Japanese sent out “AF is out of water”. Therefore,
AF was midway. We surprised them, and this was the turning point in the pacific war.

Unprecendented use of bombs and firepower. US industrial capacity was key to win.
Not by technology.

We built 100,000 planes a year. That is large. We could build all our B-2 bombers in
ONE day.

This was more than Br, Germany, and Japan put together.

Four points:
- how emerging technology made improvements in tanks, radar, ships
- this causes totally new tactics: blietzkrieg, electronic
- industrial capacity allowed US to make more of these weapons

Pearl Harbor:
He had just turned 14. He remembered thinking this was going to be a long difficult war.
Wanted to become a pilot.

Caught US by surprise, and sank many ships.

Pearl Harbor Video.

Brilliantly executed by Japanese, except the aircraft carriers were not at Pearl Harbor that

Midway Video.

Permitted island hopping strategy. Would not have successful without decoding.

Island of Iwajema

Logistics of D-day was the largest logistics ever.

Dday + 2. Lots of facilities etc on beach.

Hitler had one more surprise after this. The V-2 project (first military rocket), long range
weapon. It took 10 years to develop it. Only effective as psychological weapon, but
didn’t play an important role.

It will be the basis of rockets that were developed during cold war.

Okinawa – last great battle of WWII. Major blood-letting for both sides.

Video of Trinity atomic bomb test.

ground zero at Hiroshima.

He then turned 18 after we won the war.

The use of atomic bomb probably suppressed some more fatalities that would have
occurred if not used.
Nuclear age ushered in cold war.