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Grammar

WILL AND GOING TO


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WE USE GOING TO RATHER THAN WILL WHEN WE PREDICT THAT STH


WILL HAPPEN IN THE FUTURE BECAUSE WE HAVE SOME EVIDENCE FOR
IT NOW.

'What's that matter with her?' 'She thinks she's going to faint.'
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HOWEVER, IF WE MAKE A PREDICTION BASED ON OUR OPINION OR OUR


PAST EXPERIENCE WE USE WILL:
I imagine the stadium will be full for the match on Saturday.

WHEN WE TALK ABOUT INTENTIONS OR DECISIONS ABOUT THE


FUTURE THAT WERE MADE SOME TIME BEFORE WE REPORT THEM, WE
PREFER GOING TO OR THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

' Who's arranging the party?' ' Jo's going to do it.'


( this has been planned )
Toni told me that she's going to move back to Spain.
( reporting an intention )
PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR THE FUTURE
WHEN WE TALK ABOUT AN INTENTION TO DO STH IN THE FUTURE,
ALTHOUGH NO DEFINITE ARRANGEMENT HAS BEEN MADE, WE PREFER
GOING TO RATHER THAN THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS.
TO EMPHASISE THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT A DEFINITE ARRANGEMENT,
WE PREFER THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS.
-Before I go to China next year,
I'm going to learn some Cantonese.
-I'm still not feeling very well, so I think
I'm going to see the doctor some time this
week.

-They're leaving from Frankfurt airport at


6.30 pm.
-We're having a party on Sunday, 12th
November. Can you come?

Exercises
Choose will ( 'll ) or ( be ) going to, whichever is correct or more likely, and one of
these verbs.
collapse
eat
enter
explode
have increase
leave
paint
phone
re-open
retire
see show
be sick
walk
1. Get out of the building! It sounds like the generator 's going to explode.
2. Tim _________ early before he reaches 65. He mentioned it at the meeting
recently.
3. 'I think I __________ home across the park.' ' That's a good idea.'
4. Next year, no doubt, more people __________ the competition as the prize
money increases.
5. 'Can we meet at 10.00 outside the station?' ' Okay. I ________ you there.'
6. Don't sit on that bench, I ________ it.
7. I'm not feeling well. In fact, I think I _________ !
8. Closed over the New Year period. This office _________ on 2nd January.
( sign on an office window ).
9. I'm sure you _________ a good time staying with Richard.
10. We _________ with Tim tonight. He's asked us to be there at 7.00.
11. 'The 2.35 to Bristol _________ from platform 5.' ( announcement at railway
station )
12. I wouldn't walk across that old bridge if I were you. It looks like it
____________ .
13. I read in the paper that they _______ the price of gas again.
14. Do you like my new solar watch? Here, I ________ you how it works.
15. 'Dr Jackson isn't in his office at the moment.' ' In that case, I ________ him at
home.

These sentences refer to the future. Complete them with either going to or the
present continuous, whichever is correct or more likely.
I can't go any further. I ________ on that bench for a while. ( sit )
The game _________ at two o'clock tomorrow. I hope you can be there. ( start )
The service here is very slow. I ________ to the manager if we're not served soon.
( complain )
I have a right to be heard, and no-one _________ me from putting my side of the
argument. ( stop )
The two leaders __________ for talks later this afternoon. ( meet )
The bank has announced that it _________ its interest rates by one per cent from
tomorrow. ( increase )
Are you _________ my questions or not ? ( answer )
I have to get up early tomorrow. I __________ a physics class at 8.00 in the morning.
( teach )
Before I apply for the job, I _________ more information about it.
( get )

Brazil ________ Colombia in today's final. ( play )


ANSWERS
I.
1. 'S GOING TO EXPLODE 2. 'S GOING TO RETIRE
3. 'LL WALK 4. WILL ENTER
5. 'LL SEE
6. 'M GOING TO PAINT
7. 'M GOING TO BE SICK
8. WILL REOPEN
9. 'LL HAVE 10. 'RE GOING TO EAT
11. WILL LEAVE
12. 'S GOING TO COLLAPSE
13. 'RE GOING TO INCREASE
14. 'LL SHOW
15. 'LL PHONE
II.
1. 'M GOING TO SIT 2. IS STARTING
3. 'M GOING TO COMPLAIN
4. IS GOING TO STOP
5. ARE MEETING 6. IS INCREASING
7. GOING TO ANSWER
8. 'M TEACHING
9. 'M GOING TO GET
10. ARE PLAYING

REPORTED STATEMENTS
USE
When we report what someone has said, we change the pronouns.
'I understand you',said Ann. = Ann said (that) she understood him.
When we report what someone said in the past, we have to change the tense in
the Reported Speech.

FORM
Original tense and message
Present Simple:
'I need it.'

Present Continuous:
'He's sleeping.'
Present Perfect:
'She's gone out.'
Present Perfect Continuous:
'It's been working OK.'
Past Simple:
'He won.'
Past Continuous:
'He was snoring.'
Will:
'I'll do it.'
Be going to:
'She's going to be late.'
First Conditional:
'We'll go there if you want us to.'

Reported Speech
Past Simple:
He said he needed it.
Past Continuous:
They said he was sleeping.
Past Perfect:
He said she had gone out.
Past Perfect Continuous:
He said it had been working OK.
Past Perfect:
She said he had won.
Past Perfect Continuous:
She said he had been snoring.
Would:
She said she would do it.
Was/were going to:
He said she was going to be late.
Second Conditional:
They said they would go there if he
wanted them to.

Note that the Past Perfect, and the Second and Third Conditionals don't
change in the Reported Speech.
We usually change time and place expressions in the Reported Speech:
now = then; today = on that day; yesterday = the day before; last week = the
week before/the previous week; tomorrow = the next day/the following day;
at that time, at the moment = at that moment; here = there

REPORTED REQUESTS AND ORDERS


When we report a request or command, we often use the pattern ask / tell /
order someone + infinitive:
The teacher asked the students to close their books.
When the request or command is negative, we use the pattern ask / tell / order
someone not + infinitive:
The doctor told them not to worry.

REPORTED QUESTIONS

In reported questions we use ask, want to know + when, where, how, what, etc.
We use the same word order as in statements:
'Where do you come from?' = She asked me where I came from.
If there is no question word, we add if or whether.
'Do you speak French?' = He wanted to know if/ whether I spoke French.

Turn the following into Reported Speech.


1. 'It's time they moved to a new house', Ann said.
2. ' I was reading the children a story last night when the lights went out,' she
said.
3. ' I'll help you to repair your car tomorrow,' he said to me.
4. ' You can come to me if you have any problems', she said to me.
5. ' I saw the film you recommanded last night', he said to her.
6. 'Where have you been?', he said to me.
7. 'Did you pay the electricity bill?', he said to his wife.
8. 'What size shoes do you take?', the shop assistant said to him.
9. 'Go to your room and stay there!',said his father.
10. ' Don't walk on the grass!' the park attendant said to us.