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Lecture 2

As technology changes, the way war is fought changes. Tactics change, balance of power
changes, HISTORY changes.


From china, who used it as fireworks. Europe made weapons. Napaloean mastered the
techniques for guns, which was why he was so successful.

Civil War

Technological innovations spawned from industrial revolution. Cotton gin, looms, plows,
etc. Southern economy boomed, and political prowess greater. Slavery was vital, and
southern states would never abolish it.

“Cotton is king, and the African must be a slave or it will be the end of all things.”

1820 – Missouri slave state or free state? Worked on compromise (Missouri

Compromise), the days of compromise were coming to an end. Passionate debates
rocked the nation.

Southern states succeeded from the union. Firing on fort sumpter—civil war began.

Both sides believed war would be easy and quick. Wrong.

First use in warfare:

Telegraph, railwords, rifles, artillery, gatling gun, telescopes, land mines, ironclad
warship, submarines. The intensity of firepower increased dramatically.

The repeating rifle could fire 10 times faster than normal rifle.

Soldiers were now too powerful. New tactics needed to be developed.

1863 – Picket’s Charge—Lee made a big mistake. Made a frontal assault, which is bad.
Since union soldiers were ready with cannons lined up, now more powerful than in other
wars. General Lee was advised NOT to do it! Lee overruled it, he was overconfident.
Thousands of southern soldiers died.

His men marched in perfect formation, right into the cannon fire. Union artillery fire at
them, like shooting fish in a barrel. Marching in formation is not good. Trench warfare
replaced it. There were also intense navy warfare. Ironclad warships were built. 1862,
the Monitor was built (union) to counter the Merrimack (confederate), they fought
together to a stand off. A week after this battle, England got word—their whole wooden
fleet was now obsolete!
The Monitor sank, and today it is below the sea.

The Alabama (privateer from south) was used to sink many union ships.

The submarine was built (CSS Hunley) in 1864. They brought a mine to a ship, both ship
and sub sank!

Red means it made a big impact in the war.

Battlefield awareness is also very important. Sensors are used for this. For years, this
were Eyes and ears of cavalry.
Gave precise and timely information about union forces.
Cavalry is seen here in red. Lee had a great advantage, since he had eyes and ears and
senses of the battlefield.

Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg was due in part to incomplete intelligence from the calvary.

Mead (union) made a gut decision the night before Gettysburg, even against advice. He
said he would fight it out. Imagine if he took that advice, how history may be different.

Balloons were used to report what was beyond the hill (telling back through telegraph).

Sharp shooters always tried to shoot these down.

Also, spying was used. Pinkerton (hired to do this) had bad intelligence. Good leaders
are needed to act upon information. Information needs to be passed to commanders and
troops in a timely matter. The telegraph was used in commerce, military leaders used it
in civil war, and became ubiquitous.

General Grant—instinct to use telegraph.

Suddenly, encryption was needed:

A cipher wheel, which encrypts telegraph signals.

Intelligence graph:

The 3rd major component of military is mobility: Supplies and troops. Steam trains and
steam ships played a big role.
River boats were used too.
Military effectiveness is also about moral. In the civil war, music played a role. Ballads
were played, and both armies would stop shooting while played. General Lee: “I do not
believe we could have an army without music.”

Marching songs, grassbands…

The union had great marching songs.. is this why they won?

Battle hymn of the republic.

Disease led to creation of Medical units for soldiers, and red cross. Clara Barton started
the red cross.

Made real hospitals. There were great nurses, including Walt Whitman:
Civil war: it was lucky that we did not destroy ourselves.

World Military Power

The tactics used in civil war became world standard, for at least 70 years, until tanks and
bombers became prevalent.
The machine gun was developed further.

The evolution of the technologies.

The civil war battles (after Gettysburg) were fought in trenches.

WWI started in trenches (for 1 year). The allied generals were frustrated, and tried to
charge the German trenches. 400000 troops attacked Germans in trenches. Attack center
of best fortified decision. It ended in catastrophe. These kinds of charges are obsolete,
since machine guns. Allied troops cut to shreds.

British lost 400000 men. French lost 200000. WWI continued for another 2 years. The
battle of the sun was a disaster. Over 1 million people total died. Both sides returned to
trench warfare.. until US entered and tipped balance to allies.

The submarine caused Germany to lose war. Germany would sink any vessal
approaching England. US would not tolerate this. Lucitania was struck by German U-
boat, and then struck again. It sunk. 1198 innocent people were killed.

This assault on unarmed ships eventually brought US against Germany, and eventually
defeated Germany.