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Biofuels As Sources of Renewable Energy Instead of Fossil Fuels

Iqlima Ramiza Fauzi (4001413030)


Abstract
The need for energy continues to increase in line with economic growth raises the supply of
energy resources are lacking, and a time will run out, because energy resources are used by
human fossil-fuel resources that are not renewable. Started the energy crisis in 1970 that led
to biofuels as renewable alternative energy solutions. alternative energy solutions. Brazil as a
country pioneers is now 40% of vehicles are already using biofuels and also parse the effects
of global warming. Indonesia began to follow the success of Brazil to start a national energy
policy. National energy policy also includes efforts to diversify energy utilization. Indonesia
launches biofuel production in Indonesia in 2025 could reach 15.9 billion liters and 16.5
million liters per year of ethanol and biodiesel, respectively. And it can save oil resources.
Key words: Biofuels, renewable resources, national energy
Introduction
Energy resources are natural wealth as mandated in Article 33 of the Constitution of the
Republic of Indonesia Year 1945 controlled by the state and used for the prosperity of the
people. The role of energy is very important for the improvement of the economic and
national-security activities, thus covering the provision of energy management, utilization
and enterprise must be conducted in a fair, sustainable, rational, optimal, and integrated.
It is common knowledge that fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources. Formation
process requires a very long time. If the energy source is used continuously, there will be a
scarcity, which in turn led to the energy crisis. Therefore, the use of energy from fossil fuels
must be offset by renewable-energy sources in order ensuring the availability of energy.
Utilization of the plant as a source of energy called biofuels. (ESDMMAG,2012)

Discussion
A. Biofuels in Indonesia
Indonesia has one of the richest sources of biodiversity and is supported with an
excellent climate where they grow many variety of plants, including plants that can
produce alternative energy. The plants are well known such as palm, coconut, castor,
cassava, sugar cane and others.
Energy Issues in Indonesia
Energy issues in Indonesia same as that faced by the world. If there is no oil field
discovery and exploration of new oil reserves in Indonesia is estimated at just enough to
meet the needs for the next 18 years. Meanwhile, sufficient gas reserves for 60 years and
coal about 150 years. Indonesia's oil production capacity has decreased when compared
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with the 1970s are still around 1.3 million barrels per day. Today, Indonesia's oil
production capacity is only 1.070 million barrels per day.
Besides, since the field is old, the decline of Indonesian crude oil production
capacity as well as the discovery of new oil reserves continues to decline. It also led to
Indonesia became a net oil importer until now. At least, there are three ways out of this.
First, search for new oil fields; second, to use energy efficiently; and third, to develop
renewable-energy sources, such as sunlight, geothermal, water, wind, and biofuels. The
most likely thing to do now is to develop renewable-energy sources.
In line with these problems , the government through Presidential Regulation No.5
of 2006 has been issued a national energy policy. This policy aims to realize the security
of energy supply in the country . The main policies include providing optimal energy ,
efficient energy utilization, energy pricing and the economic price towards environmental
conservation. The national energy policy also includes efforts to diversify the energy
utilization. This diversification followed by the issuance of Presidential Instruction 1 of
2006 on the supply and use of biofuels as other fuels.
Potential
Biofuels are derived from biomass is a material with the potential to produce a variety of
beneficial products through a conversion process of physical, chemical, biological, or
enzymatically. Moreover, biofuels can be used as the power plant. One example of the use
biofuels as the power plant is the palm oil processing plant into Crude Palm Oil (CPO).
The processing of palm fruit bunches (TBS) into crude palm oil requires water vapor and
electricity to drive the engine. Electricity is obtained from steam power plants. Obtained
from water vapor by heating stoves burning husk and palm kernel shell. Sugar cane mill
can also use biofuels for energy sources. Bagasses taken the form of rods that water is not
only used for fuel for boiling sugar, but also for power generation in order to grind the
cane.
Minister Jero Wacik encouraged businesses to be able to build a biofuel plant as much as
possible. Therefore, in addition to environmentally friendly biofuels can also replace fuel
power stations with fuel costly. "We would encourage all oil palm plantations to generate
own electricity so it is more efficient and does not depend PLN," said Wacik.

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Wacik said, 70 percent of the biofuel feedstock are palm shells. According to him, when
all the estate does not export oil palm shell but to use it for power generation biofuels,
electricity shortage can be resolved. Utilization of biofuels from waste also can solve the
problems that occur at this time. During this time, we assume the garbage is something
that is not useful and often burned in vain or not utilized at all. In fact, if the garbage is
mixed with biofuels technologies such as pyrolysis, gasification and carbonization, the
useless junk that could be something useful, ie briquettes. The briquettes can be used as
fuel stove. Alternatively, this waste can be used as bio-oil drive the motor as gasoline.
In addition, the utilization waste as the biofuels can be used as the power plant. Organic
waste such as palm bunches by using pyrolysis if utilized, will get methane gas. This gas
can be used to drive the turbines. The advantages of the use of biofuels will be achieved if
biofuels utilized. Utilization of biofuels does not have to turn off the use of fossil energy,
but as a counterweight to the use of fossil energy available today. Scarcity of fossil energy
can be slowed. And, the more choice of energy sources used, are expected to grow more
and make life better. Some experts argue, the use of biofuels as the renewable-energy
source is a way out of the human dependence on fossil fuels. Central Bureau of Statistics
(BPS) of Indonesia's natural-gas reserves account for about three trillion cubic meters.
This amount is expected to be discharged less than 50 years. Coal reserves of about four
billion ton and is expected to be discharged less than 20 years. Even worse are Indonesia's
oil reserves, which is about three billion barrels. This number is expected to run about 10
years. If biofuels are used by 20% or more of total energy sources, it can extend the
availability of fossil-fuels. Biofuels can be effective energy reserves while they seek or
explore locations of fossil fuels are still there. Biofuels can be used as a counterweight
and minimize dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels can be processed into biogas as a
counterweight natural gas, bio-oil as a counterweight.
B. Environmentally Friendly
Besides greatly benefit, biofuels are also environmentally friendly. Utilization of
biofuels, for example, can reduce the effects of greenhouse gases. The use of biofuels will
make the organic waste which can produce methane gas can be utilized. As a result, methane
gas which causes the formation of greenhouse gases can be minimized. Coupled utilization of
biofuels will reduce the use of fossil energy contributes the largest impact of greenhouse
gases. Vacant land can be used to grow plants that can produce biodiesel such as Jatropha,
palm oil and others. Biofuels can also protect the cleanliness of the water and soil. Trash will
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release the liquid accumulated harmful and absorbed by the soil and contaminate
groundwater. In fact, some people still use the ground water for consumption and other needs.
If used as biofuels, garbage can directly be used as fuel. Piled waste volume will be reduced.
Water and soil will be protected cleanliness. Besides the trash, the utilization of biofuels can
reduce the volume of organic waste. Because the processed trash can be utilized for biogas
plants. used for the primary purpose such as fiber, food, animal feed, vegetable oil, building
materials and so on, also used as biofuels energy (fuel).
Generally used for fuel are biofuels that low economic value or a primary product
waste after it is taken. Utilization of biofuels will produce a wide range of fuels that can be
used as a counterweight to the fossil energy, including briquettes, bio-oil and biogas. Trash
can be utilized as biofuels. Waste that can be used as biofuels are the organic waste. For
example, garbage or agricultural and forestry waste (corn stalks, rice husks, palm bunches,
etc.), household waste (vegetables, fruits and others), office waste such as paper and more.
Additionally, biofuels can also be produced from waste oil palm plantations, either solid or
liquid waste. Not only that, air pollution can be reduced when using biofuels. Utilization of
biofuels into biogas, biodiesel, or fuel briquettes are little produce harmful gases as air
pollutants trigger.

Conclusion
There is a great opportunity to develop biofuels in Indonesia, so far great awareness
must be taken into account. Biofuels can contribute to reducing greenhouse gases, improving
local energy security and reduce poverty. Biofuels can be effective energy reserves while they
seek or explore locations of fossil fuels are still there. Biofuels can be used as a
counterweight and minimize dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels can be processed into
biogas as a counterweight natural gas, bio-oil as a counterweight.

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