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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

1/2010

CERCETRI EXPERIMENTALE

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON

PRIVIND SUDAREA CU

ULTRASONIC WELDING

ULTRASUNETE A COMBINAIILOR

OF MATERIAL COMBINATIONS AL -

DE MATERIALE AL -AL

AL

Dr. ing. Cornelia LUCHIAN


Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti

PhD Eng. Cornelia LUCHIAN


Politehnica University of Bucharest

Dr. ing. Delia GRLEANU


Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti

PhD Eng. Delia GRLEANU


Politehnica University of Bucharest

Conf. univ. dr. ing. Gabriel GRLEANU


Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti

Assoc. Prof. PhD Gabriel GRLEANU


Politehnica University of Bucharest

Prof. univ. dr. ing. Florea DUMITRACHE


Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti

Prof. PhD Florea DUMITRACHE


Politehnica University of Bucharest

Rezumat: In lucrare se determin parametrii


optimi la sudarea cu ultrasunete a tablelor de aluminiu
folosind metodele de analiz statistic a rezultatelor i
analiz structural microscopic. De asemenea, se
ajunge la concluzia c formarea sudurii se produce n
urma unor procese de deformare plastic a metalelor ca
urmare a aciunii energiei ultrasonore n zona de
mbinare.

Abstract:This paper presents the optimum


ultrasound welding parameters of aluminum sheets
using static analysis methods results and microscopic
structural analysis. Also it get the conclusion that weld
formation its produced after the plastic deformation
process of metals because the action of ultrasonic
energy in the joint area.

Cuvinte cheie: ultrasunete, tehnologie optim,


aluminiu

Keywords:Ultrasounds,
Aluminum

1. Consideraii teoretice
Sudarea cu ultrasunete a materialelor
metalice face parte din procedeele de sudare
prin presiune n stare solid. Energia necesar
sudrii se introduce n componentele de sudat,
prin provocarea unor vibraii n locul
mbinrii, cu o frecven corespunztoare
ultrasunetelor
(161031010
Hz),
componentele de sudat fiind presate cu o for
normal pe suprafaa lor de contact.
Prin aciunea simultan a vibraiilor i
forei de apsare se produc tensiuni oscilante
n zonele vecine celei de contact. Acestea
conduc la alunecri si frecri ntre cele dou
componente de sudat, la expulzarea oxizilor i

1. Theoretical Considerations
Ultrasonic welding of metallic materials
is part of the processes of welding pressure in
solid shape. Energy required for welding is
introduced in welded components, the
challenge of combining vibrations instead,
with
an
appropriate
frequency
3
10
ultrasound(1610 10
Hz),
welded
components are pressed with a normal force
on their surface contact.
The simultaneous action of vibration and
pressing force producing oscillating tension
in the neighboring areas of contactless. This
leads to slip and friction between the two
components soldered, to expel oxides and

Optimum

tehnology,

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impuritilor de pe suprafeele n contact,


urmnd astfel, realizarea mai usoar a
legturilor metalice a celor dou componente.
n zona a-a se formeaz un punct de sudur a
crui mrime depinde de timpul de sudare
(ptrunderea este de 5040010-3mm). Zona
b-b, n care particulele metalice vibreaz, este
de 23 ori mai mare dect zona a-a [1].
Procesele ce au loc la sudarea cu
ultrasunete a materialelor metalice trebuie
nelese ca o serie de fenomene, care se
influeneaz reciproc: dezvoltarea de cldur
i presarea straturilor superficiale sub aciunea
forei de presare i a frecrii; deformarea
plastic, ecruisarea i recristalizarea; difuzia i
formarea continu de microsuduri ntre cele
dou metale de sudat. Partea cea mai
important a unei instalaii de sudare cu
ultrasunete o constituie sistemul ultraacustic.
n general, alegerea parametrilor de
sudare se face din tabele, nomograme sau
diagrame. Valorile alese ale parametrilor
reprezint doar un punct de plecare, deoarece
pentru fiecare material i tip de instalaie de
sudare se stabilesc parametrii optimi ai
regimului de sudare numai pe cale
experimental.
In majoritatea cazurilor calitatea
imbinrilor sudate se apreciaz prin
determinarea forei de forfecare-traciune F,
necesar ruperii imbinrii a dou epruvete
sudate.
Analiza statistic a rezultatelor obtinue
presupune calculul urmtoarelor mrimi:
- valoarea medie a forei de rupere la
traciune F , care se face cu relaia:

F=

1 n
Fi
n i =1

(1)
- dispersia corectat s-2, cu relaia:
2

s =

impurities from the surfaces in contact, thus


remain, easier hardware implementation of
metal ties of the two components. In area a-a
a welding point formed whose size depends
on the time of welding (penetration is
5040010-3mm). Area b-b , where the metal
particles vibrate, is 23 more then in area aa. [1],[3] .
Processes occurring in ultrasonic welding
of metallic materials must be understood as a
series of phenomenals, which influence each
other: development of heat and pressing
superficial surface layers under the action of
pressing and of friction; plastic deformation;
hardening and recrystallization; diffusion and
micro-welding continues training between
those two
welded metals. The most
important part of an ultrasonic welding
equipment is the ultraacoustic system. It
contains
the
transducer,
acoustic
concentrators and tool.
In general, the choice of welding
parameters its made from table, diagrams or
nomogrames. The chosen values of
parameters represents just one starting point,
because for each material and welding
equipment type it sets optimal parameters of
welding regime only experimentally.
In most cases the quality of welded joins
is estimated metallographic way by
determining the shearing-traction force F,
needed to break the join of two welded bars.
The statistic analysis of the results
presumes the calculation of the following
measures:
- the medium value of the traction break
force , that is calculated with the relation:

1 n
( Fi F ) 2
n 1 i =1

F=

1 n
Fi
n i =1

(1)
- the corrected dispersion
2

s =

, with:

1 n
( Fi F ) 2
n 1 i =1

(2)
(2)
- abaterea medie ptratic corectat s , cu
- the corrected medium square deviation
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relatia:
s=

, with:

2
1 n
( Fi F )

n 1 i =1

s=

(3)
- coeficientul de variaie W, cu relaia:
W =

2
1 n
( Fi F )

n 1 i =1

(3)
- the variation coefficient W, with:

s
100 0 0
F

W =

s
100 0 0
F

(4)
n care: Fi este rezultatul unei msurtori; n
(4)
numrul de experiene (suduri);
where: is the tested value ; n- number
Pentru excluderea rezultatelor rebut se of measurements
foloseste criteriul student:
To exclud the result of a reject we use the
student criterion:
Fj F
t=
Fj F
s
t=
(5)
s
n care: F j este valoarea testat (cea mai
mare sau cea mai mic din cele n (5)
where: is the tested value (the highest
msurtori); F - valoarea medie a forei de
or the lowest in the n measurements); - the
rupere la traciune.
Pentru verificarea ipotezei c dou medium value of the traction break force.
To verify the hypothesis that two random
valori medii oarecare F1 si F2
aparin
medium values and
belong to the same
aceleai valori reale se folosete mai ntai
real value, first the F test is used:
testulF, de forma:
F = s12 /s 22

(6)
i apoi testul t, de forma:

F = s12 /s 22
(6)
and then the t test,under the form :

n1 n 2
n1 + n 2
(7)
(7)
where: ,
are the studied medium
n care: F1 ; F2 sunt valorile medii studiate;
values; ; the number of experiments
n1;n2 - numrul de experiene din care s-au
where
were determined;
- the
determinat F1 , ; F2 ; s - abaterea medie corrected
medium
square
deviation,
ptratic corectat, calculat dupa formula:
calculated as such:
t=

F1 F 2
s

s=

n1 n 2
n1 + n 2

t=

f 1 s12 + f 2 s 22
f

s=

(8)

F1 F 2
s

f 1 s12 + f 2 s 22
f
(8)

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where: f1=n1-1; f2=n2-1; f=f1+f2=n1+n2-2 are


the degrees of freedom.

n care:
f1=n1-1; f2=n2-1; f=f1+f2=n1+n2-2 sunt gradele
de libertate respective.

2. Experimental Results
The conditions for welding realization
are
the fallowing: power 860W for
aluminum ; pressing force adjustable between
175.2050N ; welding time adjustable
between
0,55,5s;
tool
oscillation
amplitude: 6,411,8 m; frequency:
2,16104 Hz; tool and anvil with flat and
rough surface; direction of oscillation of the
tool: perpendicular to the direction of rolling;
surface state components: degreased in
trichloroethylene.
In all situations the welding resistance
was over 85% from the base material
resistance. From speciallity documents results
that welded joints quality is not influenced
just by welding parameters, also by a series
of technological factors:the tool and anvil
geometry,the tool oscillation direction
compared with rolling direction.
For studing the tool geometrical influency
about welded joint quality are chosen
different types of tools(fig.1,a ) made from
stelit with hardness 50-55 HRC and
roughness Ra = 1,5 10-3 mm. In figure 1,b
are represented different geometry for used
anvils.
In first stage of experience its settled the best
geometry. For this it used the tool A and the
four anvils N1,N2,N3 and N4 . from the
beginning its seems that anvil N4 are not
good because its very smooth is produced
the sliding of the inferior board on her.

In prima etap a experientelor s-a stabilit


cea mai bun geometrie. Pentru aceasta s-a
folosit scula A si cele patru nicovale N1, N2, N3
si N4. De la inceput s-a constatat c nicovala N4
nu este bun deoarece fiind foarte neted
produce alunecarea tablei inferioare pe ea.

30

60

O 5 ,2

O 5 ,2

O 9

0,6

O 9

0,6

O 9

0,6

O 9

R1

0,6

O 9

0,6

2. Rezultate experimentale:
Condiiile n care s-au realizat sudurile
sunt urmtoarele: puterea: 860W pentru
aluminiu; fora de apsare: reglabil n limitele
1752050 N; timpul de sudare reglabil n
limitele 0,55,5s; amplitudinea de oscilaie a
sculei: 6,411,8 m; frecvena: 2,16104 Hz;
scula i nicovala cu suprafee plane i rugoase;
direcia de oscilaie a sculei: perpendicular pe
direcia de laminare; starea suprafeelor
componentelor: degresate n tricloretilen.
In toate situatiile rezistenta sudurii a fost
peste 85% din rezistenta materialului de baz.
Din literatura de specialitate rezult c asupra
calittii imbinrilor sudate influenteaz nu
numai parametrii regimului de sudare ci si o
serie de factori tehnologici: geometria sculei si
a nicovalei, directia de oscilare a sculei in
raport cu directia de laminare.
Pentru studierea influentei geometriei
sculei asupra calittii imbinrii sudate s-au
ales diferite tipuri de scule (fig. 1, a), executate
din stelit cu duritatea 50-55HRC si rugozitatea
Ra = 1,5 10-3 mm. In figura 1, b sunt
reprezentate diferite geometrii pentru
nicovalele utilizate.

O 5 ,2

O 5 ,2

O 3

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3 ,2

0 ,8

O 35

O 35

O 35

O 35

Fig. 1. Forma geometric a prii active:


a pentru scul; b pentru nicoval.
Geometrical form of the active part:
a for tool; b for anvil.

In tabelul 1. este prezentat dependena


forei de rupere la forfecare Fs, de fora de
apsare Fp i timpul de sudare t, pentru
aluminiul degresat cu grosimea 0,8 mm,
folosind scula tip A, iar n figurile 2,3,4,5
sunt reprezentate dependenele respective.

In table 1 are presented the dependency of


the tear strength in shear Fs, by the pressing
force Fp and the welding time t, for skimmed
aluminum with thickness 0,8 mm, using tool
of type A, and in figures 2; 3;4;5; are
represented the respective dependency.

Tabelul 1. Dependenta fortei de


Table 1 The dependency of the tear
rupere la forfecare Fs, de forta de apsare P, si
strength
in shear Fs, by the pressing force Fp
timpul de sudare t.
and the welding time t
Forta
de
apsare
P [N]
390

950

Timpul
de
sudare
t[s]

Nicovala
N1

N2

N3

Forta de rupere la
forfecare Fs [N]

1,0

642

677

653

3,0

665

822

4,0

688

5,5

Forta
de
apsare
P [N]
1550

Timpul
de
sudare
t[s]

Nicovala
N1

N2

N3

Forta de rupere la
forfecare Fs [N]

1,0

705

735

720

707

3,0

730

785

827

878

745

4,0

642

835

817

773

880

867

5,5

687

867

817

1,0

730

730

727

1,0

730

753

753

3,0

727

848

742

3,0

758

780

860

4,0

783

863

760

4,0

633

800

853

5,5

790

885

816

5,5

607

838

772

2050

Forta de rupere a metalului de baz F= 887 N


Pressing Welding
time
force
t[s]
P [N]
390

950

Anvil
N1

N2

N3

Tear strenght in shear


Fs [N]

1,0

642

677

653

3,0

665

822

4,0

688

5,5
1,0

Pressing Welding
time
force
t[s]
P [N]
1550

Anvil
N1

N2

N3

Tear strenght in shear


Fs [N]

1,0

705

735

720

707

3,0

730

785

827

878

745

4,0

642

835

817

773

880

867

5,5

687

867

817

730

730

727

1,0

730

753

753

2050

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3,0

727

848

742

3,0

758

780

860

4,0

783

863

760

4,0

633

800

853

5,5

790

885

816

5,5

607

838

772

Tear strength of the base material F= 887 N


From table its observe that for the anvil
N2 are gathering the best results in specially
for stroke an bigger forces. The physical
effect of this reality is that the anvil N2
prevents slipping of the inferior board and
helps at destruction of the oxides layers, at
the plastic deformation in welded joints place
and so its achieving a big number of micro
weldings.
In the second part of the experiments for
establishing the best tool geometry is used
combinations between the anvil N2 and tools
of type A,B,C,D (the tool type E has not give
results since the first experiment).
In table 2 is presented the dependency of
the tear strength in shear Fs, by the pressing
force Fp and the welding time t, for skimmed
aluminum with thickness 0,8 mm using the
anvil N2, and in figures 6,7,8,9; are presented
the those dependencys.
From the tabel is observed that the best
results its obtained when we used the tool
type C.

Din tabel se observ c pentru nicovala


N2 se obtin rezultatele cele mai bune mai ales
pentru timpi si forte de apsare mai mari.
Sensul fizic al acestei realitti il constitue
faptul c nicovala N2 impiedic alunecarea
tablei inferioare si ajut la distrugerea
straturilor de oxizi, la deformarea plastic la
locul imbinrii si deci la realizarea unui
numr foarte mare de microsuduri.
In partea a doua a experienelor pentru a
se stabili cea mai bun geometrie a sculei sau folosit combinaiile nicovalei N2, cu
sculele tip A, B, C, D (scula tip E nu a dat
rezultate nc de la primele experiene).
In tabelul 2 este prezentat
dependenta forei de rupere la forfecare Fs, de
fora de apsare Fp i timpul de sudare t,
pentru aluminiul degresat cu grosimea 0,8
mm folosind nicovala N2, iar n figurile
6,7,8,9 sunt reprezentate dependenele
respective.
Din tabel se observ c pentru scula tip C
s-au obtinut cele mai bune rezultate.

850
Forta de tractine F [N]

Forta de tractine F [N]

850

750

650

550
0

P = 390 N

Nicovala N 1
Nicovala N 2
Nicovala N 3

4
Timpul de sudare t[s]

Fig. 2. Dependena forei de rupere la


traciune timp de sudare / the dependency of
tensile breaking strength- welding time

750

650

550
0

P = 950 N

Nicovala N 1
Nicovala N 2
Nicovala N 3

4
Timpul de sudare t[s]

Fig. 3 Dependena forei de rupere la


traciune timp de sudare. / the dependency of tensile
breaking strength- welding time

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850
Forta de tractine F [N]

Forta de tractine F [N]

850

750

650

550
0

400

800

t = 3[s] (6,48 10 z)
Nicovala N 1
Nicovala N 2
Nicovala N 3
1200
1600
2000
Forta de presare P [N]

650

550
0

Fig. 4. Dependena forei de rupere la


traciune forta de presare. / the dependency of
tensile breaking strength- pressing force

t = 4[s] (8,46 10 4 z)
Nicovala N 1
Nicovala N 2
Nicovala N 3
400
800

1200

1600
2000
Forta de presare P [N]

Fig. 5. Dependena forei de rupere la


traciune forta de presare. / the dependency of
tensile breaking strength- pressing force

850

850
Forta de tractine F [N]

Forta de tractine F [N]

750

750

650

P =390 N
Nicovala N2

550
0

Scula A
Scula B
Scula C
Scula D

4
Timpul de sudare t[s]

750

650

P=950 N
Nicovala N2

550
0

Fig. 6. Dependena forei de rupere


la traciune timp de sudare. / The dependency
of tensile breaking strenght + welding time

Scula A
Scula B
Scula C
Scula D

4
Timpul de sudare t[s]

Fig. 7. Dependena forei de rupere


la traciune timp de sudare. / The dependency
of tensile breaking strenght + welding time

850

Forta de tractine F [N]

Forta de tractine F [N]

850
750

650

550
0

t = 3s
Nicovala N 2

Scula A
Scula B
Scula C
Scula D
400

800

1200

1600
Forta de presare P[N]

2000

650

550
0

Fig. 8. Dependena forei de rupere


la traciune forta de presare. / The dependency
of tensile breaking strenght + pressing force

In ultima etap a experienelor s-a urmrit


influena direciei de oscilaie a sculei n
raport cu direcia de laminare a tablelor
asupra
calitii
mbinrilor
sudate.
Experienele
s-au efectuat n condiiile
prezentate n tabelul 3 folosind scula tip C i
nicovala tip N2.
In timp ce rugozitatea suprafetei masurata
in directia de laminare a fost Ra = 1,6 . 10-4
mm in directie perpendiculara pe directia de
laminare a fost Ra = 5,3 . 10-4 mm. Aceasta
valoare mai mare a rugozitatii creeaza
conditii mai favorabiole din punct de vedere
energetic pentru formarea sudurii, aceasta
reflectanduse intro rezistenta mecanica a

750

t = 4s
Nicovala N 2
400

800

1200
1600
Forta de presare P[N]

Scula A
Scula B
Scula C
Scula D
2000

Fig. 9. Dependena forei de rupere


la traciune forta de presare. / The dependency
of tensile breaking strenght + pressing force

In the last stage of experiments its


fallowed the direction influence of the tool
oscillation compared with rolling direction of
the boards over the welded joints. The
experiments are made with the tool type C
and the anvil N2.
While surface roughness, measured in
rolling direction was
, in
perpendicular direction on the rolling was
. This higher value of
roughness creates more favorable conditions
by the energy point of view for welding
forming, which reflects in a larger weld area
so is giving a higher strength to the weld
.(fig.10 a,c)

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sudurii mai mare (figura 10. a, c)


Tabelul 3. Influenta directiei de oscilatie a
sculei in raport cu directia de laminare a
tablelor asupra calittii imbinrilor sudate. /
The direction influence of the tool oscillation
compared with rolling direction of the boards
over the welded joints

Tabelul 2. Dependenta fortei de rupere la


forfecare Fs, de forta de apsare P si timpul de
sudare t. / The dependency of the tear strength in
shear Fs, by the pressing force Fp and the welding
time t

Directia de oscilatie a sculei n


raport cu directia de laminare

Forta de
apasare
Fp [N]

k1

k2
950

k3
k4

Timpul de Forta de
rupere la
sudare
forfecare
t[s]
Fs [N]
0,5
1,0
3,0

650
665
745

0,5
1,0
3,0

490
570
665

0,5
1,0
3,0

570
590
652

0,5
1,0
3,0

530
545
600

In figures 10 a, b and c are represented the


In figura 10 a, b si c sunt reprezentate
microfotografiile imbinrilor pentru diferite micro photo of the welded joints for different
types of the tool oscillation directions.
directii de oscilatie a sculelor.

100x

800x

800x
Fig. 10. Microfotografia imbinrii / welded joints micro photos:
a - K2, t = 3 s; b - K1, t = 3 s ; c - K2, t = 1 s

Analiza microstructurala a sudurilor


realizate cu ultrasunete a evideniat urmtoarele:
- ruperea i dispersia peliculelor ce
acopereau suprafeele componentelor nainte de
sudare precum i formarea primelor microsuduri
ca urmare a deformaiilor plastice a

Microstructural analysis of welds made


with ultrasound revealed the following:
- breaking and dispersion components of
films that covered the area before welding
and forming the first micro welds due to
plastic deformations of surfaces micro

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microneregularitilor suprafeelor (fig. 11);


- la timpi de sudare mai mari numrul
microsudurilor crete, n unele cazuri are loc o
deformare turbulent a suprafeei de contact,
care se poate observa mai mult la marginea
sudurii
- deformri ale grunilor cristalini;
- transformri de faze i difuzie.
n funcie de condiiile concrete de sudare
pot avea loc unele sau altele din fenomenele
menionate mai sus.
Parametrii optimi recomandati pentru
conditiile mentionate sunt pentru aluminiu
0,8 + 0,8 mm: P = 950N; t = 2,5s;
amplitudinea = 7,8 10-3 mm;

irregularities (Fig. 11)


- at higher welding times, the number of
micro welds increases, in some cases there
is a turbulent deformation of contact
surface, which can be seen better at the
weld's edge
- deformation of crystalline grains;
- phase transformation and diffusion.
Depending on the specific conditions of
welding can take place some or other of the
above phenomena:
The optimal parameters recommended
for the mentioned conditions are for
aluminum at 0,8 + 0,8 mm: P = 950N; t =
2,5s; amplitude = 7,8 10-3 mm .

800x

800x

800x
Fig. 11 Microstructura imbinarii:
a aluminiu-aluminiu, t= 1s; b - aluminiu-aluminiu, t= 2s; c - aluminiu-aluminiu, t= 3s
Fig. 15. welded joints micro structure:
a - aluminum- aluminum , t=1s; b aluminum- aluminum, t=2s; c aluminum- aluminum, t=3s.

3. Concluzii
La sudarea cu ultrasunete a
materialelor metalice, vibratiile produse de
transductorul magnetostrictiv si amplificate de
concentratoarele acustice sunt transmise la
locul mbinrii intr-un plan paralel cu
suprafata de contact. Prin actiunea simultan a
vibratiilor si a fortei de apsare se produc
tensiuni oscilante in zonele vecine celei de
contact. Acestea conduc la alunecri ntre cele
dou componente de sudat la expulzarea
oxizilor si impurittilor de pe suprafetele in
contact, urmnd astfel realizarea legturilor
metalice a celor dou componente;
Asupra calittii imbinrii sudate cu

3. Conclusions
On ultrasonic welding of metallic
materials , vibrations produced by
magnetostrictive transducer and amplified by
acoustic concentrators are transmitted at the
join by a parallel plan with the contact
surface. The simultaneous action of vibration
and pressing force is producing oscillating
tension in areas neighboring the contact. This
leads to sliding between the two welded
components at the expel of the oxides and
impurities from the surfaces in contact,
following such the achievement of metal
connections of the two components;
On ultrasonic welded joint quality acts

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 1/2010

109

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 1/2010

ultrasunete
actioneaz
att
parametrii
principali ai regimului de sudare (amplitudine
de oscilatie a sculei (325)*10-3 mm, forta
specific de apsare (40120MPa), frecventa
de oscilatie (1825)*103 Hz, timpul de
sudare (0,053)s , ct si factorii tehnologici
(geometria sculei si ai nicovalei, materialul din
care se face sistemul oscilant, componentele
de sudat si directia de oscilatie a sculei in
raport cu directia de laminare a tablelor;
Aproape toate materialele i aliajele
metalice se pot suda cu ultrasunete, dar nu
intotdeauna procedeul este cel mai economic.
In fiecare caz n parte, parametrii optimi de
sudare
se
stabilesc
pe
cale
experimental;Procedeul de sudare cu
ultrasunete se aplic deja pe cale industrial n
industria electrotehnic i electronic la
fabricarea componentelor miniaturizate i
ultraminiaturizate, a diferitelor tipuri de
contacte electrice i a produselor din aluminiu,
mai ales dac ele se compun din folii. Se
sudeaz bine componentele conductoare de
curent electric din diferite materiale (aluminiu,
cupru, argint), precum i srme subiri
calibrate , cu rezitena electric ridicat.
Bibliografie:

the main parameters of welding regime


,amplitude of oscillation of the tool
(325)*10-3 mm, Specific pressing force(40
...
120MPa),
oscillation
frequency
(1825)*103 Hz, welding time (0,053)s ,
and also technological factors (the geometry
of the tool and anvil,the material that
oscillating system is made, welded
components and direction of oscillation of the
tool in relation to the direction of plate
rolling;
Almost all materials and metal alloys can
be welded with ultrasound, but the procedure
is not always the most economical. In each
case, the optimal welding parameters are
established experimentally;
Ultrasonic welding process is already
applied industrially in the electrical industry
to manufacture miniaturized components of
different types of electrical contacts and
aluminum products, especially if they are
composed by sheets.The components that
lead electrical power made of different
materials, such as aluminum, copper, silver
must be well welded along with calibrated
thin wire with high power density.
Bibliography

[1] Cornelia LUCHIAN, Contributii teoretice


si experimentale privind sudarea cu
ultrasunete a materialelor compuse, Teza de
doctorat, Bucuresti, 2007;
[2] Gheorghe AMZA, Sisteme ultraacustice,
Editura Academiei Bucuresti, 2005;
[3] Florea DUMITRACHE Ultrazvukove
bodove zvaranie niektorych kombinacii
nezeleznycs kovov. Teza de doctorat
Bratislava, 1976.

[1] Cornelia LUCHIAN, Contributii teoretice


si experimentale privind sudarea cu
ultrasunete a materialelor compuse, Teza de
doctorat, Bucuresti, 2007;
[2] Gheorghe AMZA, Sisteme ultraacustice,
Editura Academiei Bucuresti, 2005;
[3] Florea DUMITRACHE Ultrazvukove
bodove zvaranie niektorych kombinacii
nezeleznycs kovov. Teza de doctorat
Bratislava, 1976.

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