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Annaliza Torres
Writing 10
Professor Matthew Moberly
16 March 2015
Annotated Bibliography
"California." Encyclopedia of Capital Punishment in the United States. Jefferson:
McFarland, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 15 Mar 2015. This website entails the
current law enacted in California about capital punishment as well as jurisdictions
and rules. It gives its readers different circumstances which capital punishment is
applicable; what and which crimes qualify capital punishment to be its form of
punishment. It also provides a table of the number of inmates executed by
California from 1976-2006. It also provides a pie chart that contains the number
of executions by California from 1976-2006. The pie chart compares the number
of executions by California and the number of executions in other sates. This is
important to my research because I am focusing on determining the effectiveness
of the current enacted law and how that affects the levels of crime. My ultimate
question is despite the enactment of the law why do people commit homicide?
This website gave me more knowledge about the current law concerning capital
punishment in California. This is a great support to my research in the sense that I
get to compare the effectiveness of capital punishment enactment in different
places in the United States. This trustworthy because CREDO, a scholarly
database, recommended it and this excerpt came from Encyclopedia of Capital
Punishment.
Cao, Qing. "Perspectives on China--Western." Berkshire Encyclopedia of China: Modern
and Historic Views of the World's Newest and Oldest Global Power. Great
Barrington: Berkshire Publishing Group, 2009. Credo Reference. Web. 15 Mar
2015. This article gives some information of penalty of death in the China. I
wanted to know about death penalty outside United States and how effective
death penalties are outside the country. However, I am very skeptical that Ill go
out of my range. I am not sure if it is a good idea to compare death penalty in a
worldwide scale. Plus, this article briefly mentions death penalty. It gives
comments on death penalty. It doesnt give me information.
"Capital Punishment Collection." Indiana. Ed. Calvert Roy, Hanly Frank, and Lewis
Lawes. United Nations, 19 Sept. 2013. Web. 3 Mar. 2015. It provides statistical
data on crime available data on the crime of intentional homicide internationally.
It lists different continents and countries and give a bar chart on the number of
homicides per year. I wanted to see how effective death penalties are outside the
country. However, I am very skeptical that Ill go out of my range. I am not sure
if it is a good idea to compare death penalty in a worldwide scale.

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"Death Penalty and Sentencing Information." Sharp, Dudley. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.
<http://la.utexas.edu/users/jmciver/357L/2481_DP_proarguments.html>. This is
website entails background information about Death Penalty. It also calculates its
pros and cons. At first I thought this was a really great source until I looked at the
publication date, which was October 1, 1997. I believe that Death Penalty and
Capital Punishment is an ongoing debate whether it should be abolished or not
and information about Death Penalty back then was different from what it is now.
This is a great source but I am not sure if this gives me information about whats
happening now. Also, this is a trustworthy source because it came from
University Of Texas.
Deterrence and the Death Penalty. Washington, DC: National Academies, 2012. Print.
This book has collected many recent deterrence studies, which proves that the
effect of capital punishment is not effective. They emphasized that legislation for
capital punishment enacted currently has no effect on the homicide rates as they
say, Nothing is known about how potential murderers actually perceive their risk
of punishment. This book also reports on the analysis of the costs of the death
penalty. This book recommends that these studies not be used to inform
deliberations requiring judgments about the effect of the death penalty on
homicide. This is very helpful in my background information and
problem/solution section of my research paper and supports my research paper
because it presents the problem whether death penalty is effective in deterring
crimes. It exposed me to different articles that collected many recent deterrence
studies that examined the effectiveness of death penalty. I am now more
knowledgeable about different deterrent studies focused on death penalty. This is
a trustworthy source because it came from an organization known for research in
different fields. National Academies is nation's premier source of independent,
expert advice on scientific, engineering, and medical issues.
Donohue, John, and Justin Wolfers. "The Death Penalty: No Evidence for Deterrence."
Stanford
Law
Review.
Stanford,
1
Apr.
2006.
Web.
<http://www.stanfordlawreview.org>. This website examines and questions the
effectiveness of capital punishment as the author says, the view that the death
penalty deters is still the product of belief, not evidence. The author provides a
statistical data on homicides and execution and shows it readers how capital
punishment does not decrease the murder rate. The author talks about how even
though United States have been experimenting with capital punishment
throughout the years, the policy makers should find a balance and reform the
current enacted policy in regards to capital punishment. Thus, reform is needed.
Also, the author talks about his main concern, which is the risk of executing
innocents. The author ends with a question, In light of this evidence, is it wise to
spend millions on a process with no demonstrated value that creates at least some
risk of executing innocents when other proven crime fighting measures exist?
This will be very helpful for the problem/solution section of my research paper
and supports my research paper because it presents the problem The Death
Penalty has no Evidence for Deterrence. As the author mentions in the article the
law that was currently enacted is not functioning. I gained more knowledge on the
flaws of the legislation enacted currently. It also exposed me to some pitfalls such
as the risks of executing innocents. The authors conclude that the estimates

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claiming that the death penalty saves numerous lives "are simply not credible."
This is a trust worthy source because it was recommended by Academic Search
Complete, an academic database. I also searched some information about the
authors; Donohue, John, and Justin Wolfers are members of the Stanford Law
Review who are professors widely known for their writings.
Haines, Herbert H. Against Capital Punishment: The Anti-Death Penalty Movement in
America, 1972-1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Internet
resource. This book accounts for the anti-death penalty activism in United States
of America. This exposed me to different viewpoints about Death Penalty. This
book elaborated on public opinion about Death Penalty. The author says, While
most western democracies have renounced the death penalty, capital punishment
has growing support in the United States. A significant and vocal minority
continues to oppose it. This could be a plausible pitfall in my research. I still
have a problem eradicating the role of ethics into death penalty because its
ineffable.
Johnson, Michelle. "Death Penalty." CQ Researcher 13 May 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
This website explains the decline in capital punishment and how Capital
punishment is gradually fading from the American criminal justice system, and
hoe fewer criminals are being sentenced to death in states that still impose the
death penalty. The author, Michelle Johnson, uses Maryland as an example. In the
beginning, she says that Maryland became the sixth state to ban capital
punishment. The author also mentions how California has more inmates on Death
Row than any other state but it has not executed any due to shortage of the drugs
used in the procedure. This website also talks about different counterarguments
such as mental health issues and exonerations. This is important to my research
because explains the decline in capital punishment and how Capital punishment is
gradually fading from the American criminal justice system. It challenges my
research question by finding possible pitfalls in the areas mental health issues and
exonerations. This will help me look at possible solutions in my research paper in
different perspective. Seeing counterarguments make my perspective widen
therefore my vision is so much wider in terms of information. This increased my
knowledge about how many inmates are there in death row but the state does not
proceed with it because of financial problems. I have learned that there is more to
just the morality of capital punishments. I have not to consider different factors
such as cost. This a reliable source because this source from an academic
scholarly database.
Jost, Kenneth. "Death Penalty Debates." CQ Researcher 19 Nov. 2010: 965-88. Web. 15
Mar. 2015. In this website, it compares different viewpoint regarding capital
punishment. Some believe that death penalty is essential; others believe that we
should abolish it because it is in humane. The author, Kenneth Jost, and I share
the same hypothesis as the author states in his subtitle Is the capital punishment
system working? As an example he analyzes the Steven Hayes triple-murder trial
in Connecticut. He also provides statistics the number of inmates executed by
California from 1976-2006. It also provides a bar chart that contains the number
of executions by California from 1976-2006. The author also analyzes different
perspective such as capital punishments effectiveness, cost, and representations.

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He also provides a Background that contains different debates about capital
punishment. This is very important to my research because not only it supports
my research question, the author and I share the same question, but also gives me
different viewpoints about capital punishment. From different peoples
perspective to its effectiveness and cost, this article provides me with plethora of
support and counterarguments. I also got a detailed look at why capital
punishment is an issue. I can draw my Background content from this website. I
have been exposed to different viewpoints in my research. This is a credible
source because it came from CQ Researcher, a scholarly database. I also searched
about the author. Kenneth Jost is Harvard College and Georgetown University
Law Center graduate and is a member of the CQ Researcher, who has won
numerous awards for his work.
Jost, Kenneth. "Rethinking the Death Penalty." CQ Researcher 16 Nov. 2001: 945-68.
Web. 15 Mar. 2015. The author, Kenneth Jost, and I share the same hypothesis Is
the capital punishment system working? The author says that most Americans
still favor the death penalty, but support has declined because reliability and
fairness of court procedures in capital punishment cases are inconsistent. The
author provides us with statistical data and it also provides a table of the number
of inmates executed from 1976-2006. It also provides a pie chart that contains the
number of executions from 1976-2006. The pie chart compares the number of
executions throughout the years. It also briefly discusses whether it is
unconstitutional to execute mentally retarded offenders. The author claims, The
death penalty system is not functioning in a rational or effective measure [when]
judged by the standards we would apply to any other process in the private or
public sector This will be very helpful for the problem/solution section of my
research paper and supports my research paper because it presents the problem,
which is the death penalty system is not functioning in a rational or effective
measure therefore reforms in the death penalty legislation must be made. The
author, Kenneth Jost, and I share the same hypothesis Is the capital punishment
system working? I also got a detailed look at why capital punishment is an issue
such that is not functioning in a rational or effective measure This is a credible
source because it came from CQ Researcher, a scholarly database. I also searched
about the author. Kenneth Jost is Harvard College and Georgetown University
Law Center graduate and is a member of the CQ Researcher, who has won
numerous awards for his work.
Kronenwetter, Michael. Capital Punishment : A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara,
Calif: ABC-CLIO, 1993. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
This Handbook examines different aspects in capital punishment. It gives its
readers different laws and regulations of death penalty in different places. It
discuses questions such as Does the Death Penalty Really Deter Crime?, Might
the Death Penalty Actually Encourage Murder?, Do We Need the Death Penalty
To Stop Murderers from Killing Again?, Does the Death Penalty Discourage
Convictions?, and Is Death the Ultimate Punishment? It questions death penaltys
fairness, expense, clemency, and risks. It also provides facts and documents from
The United States Constitution, International Standards, Declarations and
Resolutions of the United Nations and Other International Bodies, Two Historic
Views on Capital Punishment, Biblical References Used in the Debate over the

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Death Penalty, Lawyers, and The Supreme Court. It also outlines the progression
of capital punishment throughout the years. This is very helpful in my background
information. There are a lot of topics the author talked about. The author and I
share the same questions such as Does the Death Penalty Really Deter Crime?
Might the Death Penalty Actually Encourage Murder? Do We Need the Death
Penalty To Stop Murderers from Killing Again? Does the Death Penalty
Discourage Convictions? I gave me more information about different aspects and
concerns in death penalty such as the risks of killing an innocent, the cost,
fairness, and many more. This is good information for my research paper as well
as a couple of counterarguments. I get to look at the counterarguments and
possible pitfalls so I could prepare for the possible pitfalls of my research paper.
This is a credible source because Academic Search Complete, a scholarly
database, recommended it. The book also collected data from The United States
Constitution, International Standards, Declarations and Resolutions of the United
Nations and Other International Bodies, Two Historic Views on Capital
Punishment, Biblical References Used in the Debate over the Death Penalty,
Lawyers, and The Supreme Court.
Kohl, Marvin. "Life and Death." Encyclopedia of Ethics. London: Routledge, 2001.
Credo Reference. Web. 15 Mar 2015. This website compares the theory of life
and death and says how ethics play in assisted death or death penalty. Although it
does weighs the pros and cons. This website is focused on ethics. I was
considering this as a source for my counterarguments but it briefly mentions death
penalty but does not go into detail. I am not sure if this is a good source.
Lenthall, Ann. "Nowt So Queer As Folks." BMJ: British Medical Journal (International
Edition) 301.6742 (1990): 28. Academic Search Complete. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
This article gives some information of penalty of death in the Middle East. I
wanted to know about death penalty outside United States and how effective
death penalties are outside the country. However, I am very skeptical that Ill go
out of my range. I am not sure if it is a good idea to compare death penalty in a
worldwide scale. Plus, this article briefly mentions death penalty. It gives
comments on death penalty. It doesnt give me information
Shatz, Steven F., and Terry Dalton. "CHALLENGING THE DEATH PENALTY WITH
STATISTICS: FURMAN, Mccleskey, AND A SINGLE COUNTY CASE
STUDY." Cardozo Law Review 34.4 (2013): 1227-1282. Academic Search
Complete. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. This research paper reports on the study of the
death penalty in Alameda County, California. It is known to the largest county
death penalty study and the only study to examine intra county geographic
disparities in death charging and death sentencing. This provides examples such
as data set drawn from 473 first-degree murder convictions for murders occurring
over a 23-year period, compares death charging and death-sentencing in the two
halves of the county. This also explains racial makeup and location plays role in
death penalty. The study reveals that there were statistically significant disparities
in death charging and death sentencing according to the location of the murder
and the race of the murderer. They provide statistical evidence such as the "race
of neighborhood" disparities found in the present study should support
constitutional challenges to the death penalty under both the Equal Protection
Clause and the Eighth Amendment. This research paper gives a lot of information

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about death penalty and capital punishment in California. It exposed me to
different laws. I also saw a couple of cases such as Furman v. Georgia (1972) and
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987) where both cases examines statistical evidence that
race played a significant role in death-charging and death-sentencing that the
death penalty was infrequently applied to death-eligible defendants. This looks at
the unfair and just uses of the capital punishment. This supports my research
because this research paper analyzes the unfair and just usage of the death
penalty. This is related in my research because when this research report is read it
gives it readers a sense that the law regarding capital punishment should be
reformed. Even the reader said so in the research report. This is a credible source
because it was recommended by Academic Search Complete and also this is a
research report from 2 universities namely: University of California, Irvine and
University of San Francisco - School of Law.
Streib, Victor L. Death penalty for juveniles. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
1987. This book examines the legal issues involved, with attention to the lack of
constitutional justification for the death penalty for juveniles and current State
laws. This could be a plausible pitfall in my research. My questions are What
about the adolescents that committed a serious crime? Are they going to be
exempted? I put this as a runner up because I dont see this as a problem but just
in case I have some basis and reference.

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Synthesis
Crime is a distinctive part of the society, and it is safe to state that people would
be eager to do something about serious offenses and eager to have protection against it. It
is one of the biggest problems in the nation. Crimes have a big impact on society. To
crimes such as homicide and murder, many people would say argue that, we, as a nation,
must have zero tolerance for horrific crimes, and the country must have a fair punishment
for horrific crimes to ensure some control over repeat criminals as well as people that
have intention of committing a serious crime, hence sanction Death Penalty. Death
Penalty has a wide range of viewpoints. Fifteen of these sources exhibited many potential
pitfalls such as risks of executing an innocent, the high cost of executing the death
penalty, determining whether children, adolescents, and mentally disabled who
committed serious crimes should be sanctioned, and issues about morality. However,
many of these authors and sources prove that the death penalty is not a deterrent to crime.
Even though many pitfalls are encountered, it is still a testable fact that the current
legislation for the death penalty is not a deterrent of crime at all. Although capital
punishment has been explored and traversed throughout the years, some authors such as
Kenneth Jost and Michael Kronenwetter in these sources believe that the current
legislation for the death penalty is unreliable and inefficient. Many of these authors and
myself aim to find suitable and proficient means of deterring serious crimes. Many agree
that there are flaws in the structure of the legislation of the capital punishment in the
United States. Capital Punishment is an ongoing debate; mentioning of the death
penalty alone can bring out a fury of most people, and as mentioned before there are
many viewpoints on this issue. It took a very long for me to find good, non-dogmatic and
bias articles because many of the arguments are based on beliefs and facts. Some people
try to make their belief an indisputable fact. As I have been traversing the database, I
found many articles that contained debates about morality and death penalty. Majority of
the Americans are identified as Christians, they believe that the death penalty is morally
wrong. Others believe it is only fair to take a life of who commits murder and atrocious
crimes. However, I believe this is out of the range. I am not sure where to tie this. Also, it
is hard to untangle and separate the morality issue from my research because almost all
the articles I have read mentions the question death penaltys morality. However, I am
interested in whether the reformation of the current legislation for the death penalty
would make it effective and efficient. My main questions are: Does the Death Penalty
Really Deter Crime? Might the Death Penalty Actually Encourage Murder? Do We Need
the Death Penalty To Stop Murderers from Killing Again? Do the Death Penalty
Discourage Convictions? What can we do in the current legislation to make it work? My
goal is to spread awareness of possible solutions to the issues in the framework of the
death penalty and the capital punishment and reveal issues in the current framework of
death penalty and capital punishment so that death penalty and capital punishment more
efficient in reducing the rates of criminal homicide and rape cases in the United States.
With some of the authors above, to whom I share a sentiment, we are aiming for a
compromise between many issues in the death penalty legislation. I believe it would be
very wise if I continue to analyze each of the counterarguments and search for solutions
for each then tie them together in a coherent solution. I am still skeptical about this topic
and very intimidated by the amount of counterarguments that arises every time I search
death penalty.