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A UNSW Press book

Published by
University of New South Wales Press Ltd
University of New South Wales
UNSW Sydney NSW 2052
AUSTRALIA
www.unswpress.com.au

O Steven Ian Barry and Stephen Alan Davis 2002


First published 2002
This book is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for
purposes of private study, research, criticism or
review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part
may be reproduced by any process without written
permission. Inquiries should be addressed to the publisher.
National Library of Ausbalia
Cataloguing-in-Publicationenby:
Barry, Steven Ian.
Essential mathematical skills for engineering, science
and applied mathematics.
Includes index.
ISBN 0 86840 565 5.
1. Mathematics. 2. Mathematics - Problems,
exercises, etc. I. Davis, Stephen. II. Title.

Printer BPA

CONTENTS
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Algebra and Geometry


1.1 Elementary Notation . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Expansion and Factorisation . . . . . . .
1.5.1 Binomial Expansion . . . . . . .
1S.2 Factorising Polynomials . . . . .
1.6 Partial Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Polynomial Division . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8 Surds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8.1 Rationalising Surd Denominators
1.9 Quadratic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 Summation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Factorial Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Permutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.13 Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.14 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.14.1 Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.15 Example Questions . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Functions and Graphs
2.1 The Basic Functions and Curves . . .
2.2 Function Properties . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Straight Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Quadratics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Hyperbola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Exponential and Logarithm Functions
2.8 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . .
2.9 Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 Ellipses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 1 Example Questions . . . . . . . . . .

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3 Transcendental Functions
3.1 Exponential Function . .
3.2 IndexLaws . . . . . . .
3.3 Logarithm Rules . . . .
3.4 Trigonometric Functions
3.5 Trigonometric Identities
3.6 Hyperbolic Functions . .
3.7 Example Questions . . .

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4 Differentiation
4.1 First Principles . . . . . .
4.2 Linearity . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Simple Derivatives . . . .
4.4 Product Rule . . . . . . .
4.5 Quotient Rule . . . . . . .
4.6 ChainRule . . . . . . . .
4.7 Implicit Differentiation . .
4.8 Parametric Differentiation
4.9 Second Derivative . . . . .
4.10 Stationary Points . . . . .
4.11 Example Questions . . . .

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Integration
5.1 Antidifferentiation . . . .
5.2 Simple Integrals . . . . . .
5.3 The Definite Integral . . .
5.4 Areas . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Integration by Substitution
5.6 Integration by Parts . . . .
5.7 Example Questions . . . .

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6 Matrices
6.1 Addition . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Multiplication . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Identity . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Transpose . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Determinants . . . . . . . . .
6.5.1 Cofactor Expansion . .
6.6 Inverse . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.1 Two by Two Matrices .
6.6.2 Partitioned Matrix . .
6.6.3 Cofactors Matrix . . .
6.7 Matrix Manipulation . . . . .
6.8 Systems of Equations . . . . .
6.9 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors .
6.10Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.11 Symmetric Matrices . . . . . .

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vii

CONTENTS

6.12 Diagonal Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


6.13 Example Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Vectors
7.1 Vector Notation . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Addition and Scalar Multiplication
7.3 Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 Cartesian Unit Vectors . . . . . .
7.5 Dot Product . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 Cross Product . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7 Linear Independence . . . . . . .
7.8 Example Questions . . . . . . . .

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8 Asymptotics and Approximations


8.1 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 L'H6pital's Rule . . . . . . . .
8.3 Taylor Series . . . . . . . . .
8.4 Asymptotics . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 Example Questions . . . . . .

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9 Complex Numbers
9.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 Addition and Multiplication
9.3 Complex Conjugate . . . . .
9.4 Euler's Equation . . . . . . .
9.5 De Moivre's Theorem . . . .
9.6 Example Questions . . . . .

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10 Differential Equations
10.1 First Order Differential Equations .
10.1.1 Integrable . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2 Separable . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.3 Integrating Factor . . . . . .
10.2 Second Order Differential Equations
10.2.1 Homogeneous . . . . . . .
10.2.2 Inhomogeneous . . . . . . .
10.3 Example Questions . . . . . . . . .

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11 Multivariable Calculus
11.1 Partial Differentiation
11.2 Grad. Div and Curl .
11.3 Double Integrals . . .
11.4 Example Questions .

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...

Vlll

12 Numerical Skills
12.1 Integration . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Differentiation . . . . . . . .
12.3 Newton's Method . . . . . .
12.4 Differential Equations . . . .
12.5 Fourier Series . . . . . . . .
12.5.1 Even Fourier Series .
12.5.2 Odd Fourier Series .
12.6 Example Questions . . . . .

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13 Practice Tests
13.1 Test 1: First Year .
Semester One
13.2 Test 2: First Year .
Semester One
13.3 Test 3: First Year .
Semester Two
13.4 Test 4: First Year .
Semester Two
13.5 Test5.SecondYear . . . . . . . .
13.6 Test 6: Second Year . . . . . . . .

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115
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129

14 Answers

131

15 Other Essential Skills

143

Index

146

PREFACE

ix

PREFACE
TO THE STUDENT

There are certain mathematical skills that are essential for any of your courses that use mathematics. Your lecturer will assume that you know them perfectly - not just a vague idea, but that you
have completely mastered these skills. Without these necessary skills, you will find present and later
subjects extremely difficult. You may also lose too many marks making 'silly' mistakes in exams.
So what skills do you need to have?
This book contains the mathematical skills we think are essential for you to not only know but remember. It is not a textbook and does not attempt to teach you, hence there are no long wordy explanations.
This book should act as a reminder to you of material you have already learned. If you are having
trouble with a section or chapter then we suggest you consult a more thorough textbook. We have left
a number of blank pages at the back of the book for you to add in skills that you or your lecturers
think are important to remember but we did not include.
This book covers the essential mathematics in the first one to two years of a science, engineering
or applied mathematics degree. If you are in a first year undergraduate course you may not have
covered some of the material included in this book.
As a guide, we expect our students at University College to have mastered (by the start of each
semester) the following:
0

First Year - Semester One: Chapters 1-3.

First Year - Semester Two: Chapters 1-7.

Second Year: Chapters 1-10.

Third Year: Everything in the book!

There are practice tests in Chapter 13 based on these divisions.


Can you do the practice test a t the end of these notes?

If you can't then perhaps there are some skills you need to do some revision on. If you can then you
may need this book to help you revise those skills later on.
If you want more questions to practice on then see our extensive website:

It contains extra questions, fully worked solutions, practice tests and also code for the Maple algebraic
manipulation package giving solutions for every example and question.

TO THE LECTURER

What do you assume your students know? What material do you expect them to have a vague idea
about (say the proof of Taylor's Theorem) and what material do you want students to know thoroughly
(say the derivative of sinx)? This book is an attempt to define what material students should have
completely mastered at each year in an applied mathematics, engineering or science degree. Naturally
we would like our students to know more than the bare essentials detailed in this book. However,
most students do not get full marks in their previous courses and a few weeks after the exam will
only remember a small fraction of a course. They are also doing many other courses not involving
mathematics and are not constantly using their mathematical skills. This book can then act as guide to
what material should realistically be remembered from previous courses. Naturally both the material
and the year in which the students see this material will vary from university to university. This book
represents what we feel is appropriate to our students during their degrees.
We invite you to look at our extensive web site:

http://www.ma.adfa.edu.ad-sib/EMS.
html
It contains more questions, solutions, practice tests and Maple code. There is a database of questions
in LaTeX and pdf, which you can use to format your own tests and assignments. We are not concerned
that students may access this database; if they can do the questions in the database then they have, in
effect, learned the necessary skills.
If you have any questions or queries please do not hesitate to email us.

Steven Barry and Stephen Davis


School of Mathematics and Statistics
University College, UNSW
Canberra, ACT, 2600
email: s.barry @adfa.edu.au

PARTIAL FRACTIONS

EXAMPLES
1. Writing

1
A
B
+ l)(x - 1) in the form x + l + 2 - 1
-

(x

implies

The constants A and B can be found two simple ways. First, setting

Alternatively the equation could be expanded as

and the coefficients of x1 and xO equated giving

Solving these equations simultaneously gives A = -112 and B = 112. Thus

2. To expand

3x
using partial fractions write
( x + 7)(x - 3)
+

giving

Setting x = 3 implies B = 1 and setting x = -7 implies A = 2. Alternatively, equating the


coefficients of

gives

These simultaneous equations are solved for A and B to give A = 2 and B = 1. Hence

ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY

3. The partial fraction for

1
( x + 1)2(x+2)

giving

so that

Thus

4. The partial fraction for

(x2

+ x + 1 )( x + 2 )

giving

3 = (Ax
Hence

Thus

+B ) ( x +2) +c ( x 2 +x + 1).

1.15

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)

5. Write the following expressions as partial fractions.


3
( ) (2 - 2)(2 - 4)
42 - 1
(ii)
(2 - 1)(2 2)
1
(iii)
x2 52 6

1. Simplify the following

+ +

(ii)
(iil)

2
5
-- -

2-3

2+2

2-1
2+2

-----

22+1
(iv)
2-4

22
2-2

----

6. Simplify the following.

2-1
2+2

-----

(iii)
(vi)

23 - 2 2
2(x2 - 1)

------------

(iv)

2. Find the solution set for the following inequalities.

3+v5
7. Factorise the following quadratic equations.

+ 62 + 5
+5

(ii) y = x2 - 62

(ii) 3 d - 2 > 4 d + 6
12 -

(i) y = x2

(i) 2 d + 2 < 4 d - 3

(iii)

m + 5 m
2 m
2

(iii) y = x 2 + 4 2 - 5
(iv) y = x2 - 42 - 5

101 < 5

(v) y = 2 z 2 + 2 - 1

(iv) lz+31

28

(v) la+41

>1

8. Find the zeros of the following quadratics.

(i) y = z 2 + 4 2 + 4

+ 72 + 6
+ 2 - 12
y = x2 + 2 - 2

(ii) y = x2
(iii) y = x2
(iv)

3. Expand the following.

(v) y = x2
(i) ( 2 - 3) (2

+ 3)

(vi) y = x2

(iv)

+ yI2(2 Y)
(3 + 2)(32 + 2) (2

+ 32 + 4)/(2 + 2)
+ 32 + 2)/(2 + 2)
(x3 + 5x2 + 72 + 2)/(2 + 2)

(i) (x2

(ii) (22
- 3)

(iii)

10. Find the following.

(v) ( 2 - 413
4. Use Pascal's triangle (Binomial theorem) to find

+ 2)4
the expansion of (1 + 2)8

(i) the expansion of (2


(ii)

-4

+2 - 3

9. Use polynomial division to calculate the following.

(ii) (4 - 3 4 2
(iii) ( 2

+ 32

(iii) the coefficient of z 5 in (1

+z ) ~ .

(ii) p,6
(iii)

~ , 6

29

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

2.11 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS


(Answers are given in Chapter 14)

Circles and ellipses

+ 1what is f (2)?
I f f (z) = z3 + 1what is f (g)?
If f (z) = z3
I f f (z) = z3

+ ( z - 2)2 = 4.
+ 2z2 = 1.
Draw the ellipse 4y2 + ( z - 1)2 = 1.
Where does the ellipse ( z - 1)2 + 2y2 = 1 cut the z

23. Draw the circle y2

I f f (z) = z3

24. Draw the ellipse y2

+ 1and g(z) = ( z

- 1) what

is f (g(z))?

+ 1and g(z) = ( z - 1) what is f (g(b))?

25.
26.

axis?

Iff (z) = z2and g(z) = sin z find f (g(a)) and df (z)). 27. What is the equation for an ellipse centred on (0,O) with
z axis twice as long as the y axis?
1find f (f (z)).
28. What is the equation for a circle centred on (1,2) with
I f f (z) = ( z - 1)2 and g(z) = z2 - 1 find f (g(z))
radius 2?
and g(f (XI).
29. What is the equation for a circle centred on (a, 2) with
radius 3?
If f (z) = 5 1find the inverse f - (z).
I f f (z) = z2

I f f (z) =
If f (z) =

-find

z t l
1

,2

the inverse f -

'
'(z).

General

30. What type of curve has equation


Y2 + ( z - 2 = O?

+ 1find the inverse f - '(z).

31. What type of curve has equation


2y2 ( z - q2- 2 = O?

Lines

Draw the line y = -2%

32. What type of curve has equation


2y ( z - 1)2 - 2 = O?

+ 1for z E [0, 11.

Where is the zero of the line y = z

l?

Where does the line 2y z - 1 = 0 cross the y axis?


What is the slope of the line?

34. %_at type of curve has equation

( z - 1) = O?
Y-1
35. What is the equation of the quadratic below:

Draw 3y - z + 3 = O f o r z E [0,4].
Quadratics

Draw the quadratic y = z2 - 22

33. What type of curve has equation


2y ( z - 1) = O?

+ 1for z E [O, 21.

Where are the zeros of the curve


y = (Z - 3 ) ( ~ 4)?
(For more questions on manipulation of quadratics see
Chapter 1.)
0

Sines and cosines

36. What is the equation of the shape below:

Draw the curve y = 2 sin 32 from z = 0 to z = T.

Draw the curve y = cos

z = 4T.

Draw the curve y = cos 22

Y
from z = 0 to

+ 1from z = 0 to z = 2
+ I)?

2-

~ .
1-

What is the period of y = sin(%

What is the period of y = cos 3z?


What is the period of y = sin(3z

+ I)?

00

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34

TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

EXAMPLES

4. If In x = 2 and In y = 5 then to find ln(x3y2)we write

5. I f l n y = 3ln2x+cthentofindy write

In y = ln ( 2 ~ ) c~
==+

y = e x p ( l n ( 2 ~ )+~c )
= k exp(1n ( Z X ) ~ ) , where eC= k
= kpx)3.

6. If x = In 3 and y = In 4 then to find exp(x

+ 2y) write

+ Tie-" then

7. If T = To

8. If y = a" then
lny = x l n a

y = e"lna.

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

3.7

39

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)


1. Simplify as much as possible

7. Solve the following for values of 0 between 0 and 27r

1
(i) 6z3y-2 x z z - 5 ~ 4

(i) c o s 2 0 + 3 s i n 2 0 = 2
(ii) 2 cos2 0 = 3 sin 0

(ii) 8- 3
(iii) 2 loglo 5
(iv) 3- log3 p

+ loglo 8 - loglo 2

8. Rove the following identities:

(9

(v) l n z 2 + l n y - l n z - l n y 2

(ii) 3sin20 - 2 = 1 - 3cos20

(vi) e2 l n X
2. Solve for t using natural logarithms:
(i) 5t = 7

(iv) sinh z

+ cosh z = ex

(iii) 3t7 = 2t5

o
a
(v) y = 3 - 21nt

cos
~

7r

(i) ln(st)
(ii) ln(st2)
(iii) l n ( a )
(iv) ln 5
t

1
pi+
fi).

10. For the following angles find cos 0, sin 0, tan 0, and sec 0:

(vi) 3y = 1 + 2e4t
3. If Ins = 2 and In t = 3 calculate

(v) ln

cosh z = -eCX

(iii) sinh z

9. Use the trigonometric addition of angle foimulae to show

(ii) 2 = (1.02)~
(iv) Q = ~

1+ sin 0
= (sec 0 + tan 0)2
1 - sin0

(i) 0 =

7r
-

7r

(ii) 0 = 136
27r
(iii) 0 =
3
57r
(iv) 0 = - 3
-

t3

(i) exev
(ii) ex+v
(iii) e2*

11. Use the multiple angle foimulae to find cos

12
12. In an experiment you have to calculate the time to melt a
block of ice using the foimula

(iv) ex + ev

5. Evaluate
(i) t an(^)

(iii) cos

(F)
(F)

(iv) sec

(%)

(ii) sin

where

Find t.
13. Is f (z) = z cos z an odd or even function?

6. Simplify
1
(i)
- tan2 0
c0s2 0
(ii) (sin z + cos z)2 + (sin 2 - cos z)2
tan 0
(iii)
dl + tan2 0
-

7r
-

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50

DIFFERENTIATION

4.11

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)


1. Use linearity to find dyldz:

(i) y = 3 s i n z - 5 ~ 0 s ~
(ii) y = 3ex

- z2

5. Use implicit differentiation to find dyldz:


(i)

Y2

=sin(% - 1)

(ii) cos(2y) = (1 - z2)l/2

(iii) y = 3 l n z

(iii) ln(y) = zex

(iv) y = 2 sinh z

+5

- 3 cosh z

(iv) e"

e3*

2. Use the chain rule to find dyldz:

(v) y

+ y3 = z 2

(vi) y2

(i) y = sin(2z)

(ii) y = sin(% z3)


(iii) y = ( z

(iv) y = ( z

+ 4)3
+ sin z)5

+ sin y = sin z

(vii) y ( z + l )

- y2

=z

6. Use parametric differentiation to find dyldz:


(i) y(t) = cost, z(t) = sin(t2)

(v) y = sin(lnz2)

(ii) y(t) = et, z(t) = t 2

(vi) y = exp(cos2 2)

(iii) y(t) = t2, z(t) = sint

(vii) y = cosh(2z2)

7. Find the derivative dT/dt:

3. Use the product rule or the quotient rule to find dyldz:

(i) y = zex
(ii) y =

COS 2

where a is a constant.

z2
(iii) y = ex sin z
In z
(iv) y = -

8. For the following functions find the stationary points and


classify them.

(i) y = ( z - 2)2

24

+ 9%+ 1
8z3 + 6z2

(ii) y = z 3 - 6z2

(v) y = sin z cos z


In z
(vi) y =
ex
(vii) y = z 2 sin 2

(iii) y = 3z4 -

(iv) y = zeCX
(v) y = z 2 ln(z)

(viii) y = cosh z sinh z


(ix) y =

4. Find dyldz for these more difficult problems:

(i) y = exp(z cos z 2 )


(ii) y = ex cos((2z
1
(iii) y = --------

(iv)

m
sin z
y=
(z +

(vi) y =

exp z 2
z2

(vi) y = sin z

+ (1 - 2) cos 2, for z E [-I,

21

(vii) y = ( z - 1)2ex

+I ) ~ )

9. The function y = f (z) is drawn below. Roughly sketch


the function fl(z).

58

INTEGRATION

5.7

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)


1. Find

4. Evaluate the following integrals using a substitution.

(ii)

J ;( +

.5)

dz

(vi) 1 4 c o s h ( z ) - e x d z
2. Evaluate

(ii) l z / 2 sin z d z

16
;
dz

(iii) /
(iv)

5. Evaluate the following integrals using integration by pxts.

1'

sin(3z) d z

e2. sin z d z (integrate twice).

J(z

+ 1 )s i n z d z

J z2ex d z

3. Find

(i)

J2

f ( z ) d z where

l n z d z b y u s i n g u = l n z a n d d v = 1.

6. Find the following integrals using any method.

/_: f

(iii)

lm

( z ) d z where

f ( z ) d z where

J z dz
(ii) J z2 sin z d z
(i)

(ii)

COS

MATRIX MANIPULATION

69

EXAMPLES
1. Given that ABC = I find B?

ABC
(A-'A) BC
I B (CC-')
B

=
=
=
=
=

I
A-'I
A-'IC-'
A-'C-'
(CA)-'.

pre-multiply both sides by A-'


post-multiply both sides by C-'
simplifying

2. If A = PDP-', then A3 is

A3 = (PDP-') (PDP-') (PDP-')


= PD ( P - ~ PD
) P-~PDP-~
= PD~P-~PDP-'
= pD3p-I

since PP-I = I
again since PP-I = I.

3. If Av = Xv then
,-d

,-d

4. If Av = Xv then if A-' exists then


,-d

,-d

See Section 6.9 on eigenvalues since this example shows that if A has eigenvalue A, with eigenvector v, then A-' has eigenvalue 1/X for the same eigenvector.
,-d

SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS

the augmented matrix is

This gives the straightforward solution by back substitution of x = -61, y = 40, z = 11.
2. Consider the system

written as Ax = b such that

The matrix A has inverse A-I =

[:

;]so

71

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

6.13

75

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)


1. Find A

+ B , A B , B A and the trace(A):

5. Find the deteiminants of the following matrices.

(ii)

(iii)

0
0
0

o]
6

6. Solve the system of equations


(iil)

7. First showing that anon-trivial solution does indeed exist,


solve

2. Find A B :
8. For what values of a and c do you get

(i) one solution,


(ii) no solution,
(iii) infinite solutions,
for the system

3. Find A t , A t A , A A t :

9. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A :

[ ; -;]
6

(ii) A

4. Find the inverse, if it exists, of the matrices

(ii)

A=[;

i 81

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7.8

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)

+ +, 3:

Evaluate the sum 2

Find u .v , u x v and cos 0 where 0 is the angle between

and IIuII:
N

(i)

(ii) u = (3,4), v = (4,3)

2 = (1,2, I), _v

= (-1,3,1)

(ii) u = (-3,2, -11, v = ( 6 , 1 , 1 )

(iii) u = (-2, I), v = (-1, -1)


N

(iii) u = ( 2 , 3 , 0 ) ,v = (4,1, -2)

(iv) u = (3,4,2), v = (1,1,1)


N

(v)

theuandv:

(i) u = (-2, -I), v = ( 1 , l )

(iv) u = (O,O,O),v = ( 1 , 4 , 3 )

2 = ( 3 , 1 , 1 ,O), v = (l,O, 1 , l )

(vi) u = 2 i + 3 j + k S v = i - j - k
N

(vii) u = i + j , v = i - 3 j
N

For the above vectors verify the triangle inequality that

112 + +I1 5 11211 + ll+ll.

For the previous question verify that w = u x v is


N

In the diagram below write down the two vectors u and


v in algebraic foim then find and draw the vector u v.

orthogonal (at right angles) to both u and v .


N

Deteimine whether the following vectors x e linexly


independent

Find a number c so that (1,2, c) is orthogonal to (2,1,2).


Find the vector which goes from the point ( 1 , 3 , 1 ) to the
point (2,5,3). What is the length of this vector?
Show that the line through thepoints (1,1,1) and (2,3,4)
is perpendiculx to the line through the points ( 1 , 0 , 0 )
and (3, -1,O).
Show that a . ( b x c ) can be written as

Evaluate the sum u


N

(i)

+ v and 1121 + v 11:


N

2 = (3,2, -11,

v = (-1, - 2 , l )
N

(ii) u = (1,0,9), v = (-2, -2, -2)


N

(iii) u = (4, -4, -3), v = (8,7,1)


N

Verify the above equation using the vectors


a=(l,1,2),b=(1,0,1),~=(0,1,1).

90

ASYMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS

8.5

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)


1. Find the limits as x

+ 0 of the following functions.

(i) (x - 2) (X - 3)

x2+x
(i) 3x2 22

+ cos x
ex + xe-"

(ii) x
(iii)
(iv)

(')
(vi)

Find the leading order behaviour for the following


functions as x + w.

+ +1

+ 2%+ 1
+ 22
3x2 + V G T i

(ii) Jx3

sin(%- a )
(x - a )
x3 x2 1
x2 3% 2

(iii)

+ +
+ +
x2 + 1

x3

x2

+1

(iv)

(vi)

+ 11%

+ 21%

2. Use L'HBpital's Rule to find the following limits.


sinx - x
x+O
23

(i) lim

x3-3x+2
23 - 1

(ii) lim
x+1

x3 - 22 1
x+1
23 - 1
xcosx - sinx
(iv) lim
X+O
x3

(iii) lim

3. Find the first two non-zero teims in the Taylor Series for
the following functions as x + 0.

(i) cos x
("11) sin x

(iil)

x2

+1

+ 11%

(iv) xex
cosx - 1
(v)
x
(vi) sinhx

sinh(3x)
1 e4"

xe-x
(vii)
sinh x
x e-"
(viii)
1 xe-x
ex
(ix)
sinh x
-

Find the first three non-zero teims of the Taylor series as


x + 0 for the functions f (x) = ex and g(x) = sinx
and hence find the Maclaurin series for
(i) ex sin x
(ii) e2"
(iii) sinx2
(iv) ex3
Find the first two non-zero teims for the Taylor series
about x = a / 2 for

------------

(vii)

cosh x - 1
22

(i) sin x
(ii) cos x
Find the first three teims in the Maclaurin series for e-"'
and hence find an approximation for

1'

e-X' dx

where E is a small number. (Expand the exponential and


then integrate.)

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

9.6

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)

+ bi.
+ (7 - 9i) - (3 + 13i)

1. Write the following in the foim a

(i) (2 - 3i)
(ii) (1

+ i) + (5 - i) + (6 + 6i)

(iii) 5(8 - 9i)


(iv) 3(2 - i)
(v) (7

+ 6i)'

+ i(12 - 4%)

+ 2i(l - i)

(vi) (1 - i)3
(vii) (8 - 2i) (3
(viii) (1
(ix) (2

4. Write the following in the foim z = x

+ iy.

(i) 2ei"/'
(ii) 3ei"/4
a
(iii) cis 6
lla
(iv) cis 6
(v) ei"/3

+ 5i)

5. Find zlz2 and z: if

+ i) (1 - i)

+ 3i) (2 - 3i)

(x) (1 - 4i) (2

+ i)

6 - 2i
(xi)
2 - 7i

-5a
6
6. Use De Moivre's theorem to find all z where
(iv) zl = cis

a
z2 = 3
6

(i) z2 = i
(xiv)

3-i
(2 - i) (5

(ii)

24

=1

(iii) z3 = 4@(-1+

+ 2i)

i)

(iv) z2 = -i
(v) z6 = -1

2. Find x, y if

(i) 2% 3yi = (7 - i ) ( l
(ii) (x2

+ i)

+ 6) + x i = 3(2 + 3i)(l - i)

3. Write the following in polar foim.

7. Use Euler's theorem to show


(i) cosh ix = cos x
(ii) sinh ix = i sin x

(i) z = -1

(iii) cos(x + y) = cos x cos y - sin x sin y

(ii) z = -i

(iv) sin(% y) = sin x cos y

(iii) z = 3i

8. Use De Moivre's theorem to show

(iv) z = -1

+i

(i) z"

+ z-"

+ cos x sin y

= 2 cos no

(v) z = l + i

(ii) cos 2%= cos2 x - sin2 x

(vi) z = 1 - i

(iii) sin 2%= 2 sin x cos x

(vii) z = -2 - 2i
5
(viii) z = - (& - i)
2

+ &i
-& + 3i

(ix) z = 1
(x)

(xi) z = 5 + 5 i
(xi) z = & + i
(xiii) z = -4%
- id5

9. Show that the solution to

where a, b, c are all real, must be of the foim

10. Show that


i(2

+ 2i)6 = 2'

95

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104

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

leads to the set of equations

1
which gives A = -- and B = 0. The complete solution is thus
3

y (x) = cl cos x

3. Solve y"

+ c2 sin x - 31 sin 22.


-

+ y = sinx.

As with the previous problem


yh(x) = c1 cosx

+ c2 sinx

however a guess of A sin x B cos x will not work because sin x and cos x are already solutions
to the homogeneous equation. In this case try
yP(x) = Axsinx

+ Bxcosx + C s i n x + Dcosx

which eventually gives the solution


1
1
y(x) = C ~ C O S X+ c 2 s i n x + -sinx - -xcosx.
2
2

The extra term x cos x grows in amplitude and is the resonance term.

4. Solve y" - 2y'

+ y = 4e3".

The solution to the homogeneous equation is

with the extra x factor in xe" coming from the repeated root in the characteristic equation. The
form of a particular solution is

leading to A = 1. Hence the solution is

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

10.3

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)


1. Solve for y = y(x) by direct integration:

-dy= ( x + ~ ) ~
dx
1
(ii) dy = dx
x2
(iii) (%+I)- dy = x
dx
dx
(iv)
= 5%
dy
(

4. Solve using any workable method:


(i)

dQ
dt = k(Q - 70),fork = a constant.

(ii) (1 ex)-dy

dx

+ exy = 0

(v)

9
= -3% sin x
dx

2. Solve for y(x) using separation methods:

dy = 1
dx
y3
dy = dx
x2
dy = Y + I
dx
x
dy = e3"+2"
dx
dy
(Y - Y X ~ =)(Y~ 112

(i) Y3(ii)
(Kl)
(iv)
(v)

(i) y"-16y = O
(ii) y"

x sin x e-"
(vii)
=
dx
Y

dx
=
dy

(-)4%2y+3+ 5

3. Solve for y(x) using an integrating factor:

dy
1Oy = 1
dx
dy
(ii) x
2y = 3
dx
dy +2xy = x
(iii)
(i) 2-

+ 9y = 0
d2y
dy
+ 8 dx
+ l6y = 0
dx2
8y" + 2y' - y = 0
2y" + 5y' = 0
3y" + 2y' + y = 0

(iv) y"
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)

(k) d2y - 1 0 3 +25y = 0


dx2
dx
6. Solve for y = y(x):
(i)

d2y
dx2

dy
- 1Oy = -3
dx

- - 3-

(iv) y'

+ 4y' - y = 0

(iii) 12~"- 5y' - 2y = 0

dx= - 1 2y2
(v1)
. dy
y sinx

(viii)

di
+ Ri = E,with L ,R,E constants.
dt
5. Solve for y = y(x):
(vi) L-

+ 3xZy= x2
dy
dx

(v) cosx-+ysinx=I

dy
dx

(vi) (1- x3)- = 3xZy

(iii)

d2y
dx2

+ y = cos(3x)

105

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109

GRAD, DIV AND CURL

EXAMPLES
1. I f f = 2x2y

2. I f f = x

+ z3 then

+ xyz then
Vf=
N

af af af
a,)

- - -

(ax ay,

= (1

+ yz, x z , x y ) .

and

xyz

3y

sinx

VN
(L

= ($[sin x] - -[3y]

a~

= O i - (cosx-xy)j -xzk
N

= (0,xy - cos x , - 2 2 ) .

4. 1f f = x2

5. I f f = x

+ Y 2 + Y z 2then

+ y + z2 then V f

= (1,1,2z) and

6. I f v = ( x ,x , z
N

v2f = 2.
N

+ x ) then V . v = 2 and V x v = (0,- 1 , l ) .


N

YN

[ s i nx] - -[xyz]

a~

122

NUMERICAL SKILLS

12.6

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)


Find an approximation to the integral

using an interval size of h = 0.2.


Approximate the integral

1'

ex dx

11. Numerically solve the the equation

with y(0) = 0 to find an approximation to y(0.4) using


h = 0.2.

+ 1 over the interval

12. Find the Fourier series of y = x


x E [-a, a ] .
13. Find the Fourier sine series of

using an interval size of h = 0.5.


A function f ( x ) is defined by the set of points

{?

-2<x<o
0 5 x < 2.

Hence find an approximation for the integral

L5 ( X I
f

ax.

For the function f ( x ) = s i n h x find an approximate


value for f l ( l ) using a discretisation h = 0.1 and the
central differencing rule.

15. Find the Fourier series for

f(x)=

A function f ( x ) is given by the set of points


(O,O),

( L l ) ,( 2 , 3 ) ,(3,513 ( 4 , 6 ) ,(537).

Find an approximation for f' ( x ) at all the points


x = 0 ., 1 ., 2 ., 3 ., 4 ., 5 .
Use Newton's method to find a zero of y = x2 - 3 starting with xo = 1.
Use Newton's method to find an approximate value for
51/3. (Hint: solve y = x3 - 5 = 0 with a starting guess
of xo = 2.)
Find the zero to two decimal places of y = sin x using
Newton's method starting with xo = 3.
Numerically solve the differential equation

L y 2 + 1
dx
with y(0) = 0 to find an approximation to y(0.6) using
a step size of h = 0.2.

-2 < x < -1
-1<x<1
1<x<2.

16. A double derivative can be approximated by

f" ( x ) =

fl(x+h) -fl(x -h)


2h

If You now replace f l ( x - h ) and f l ( x


respective definitions, for example

fl(x

+ h ) by their

-f (XI
+ h ) = f ( x + 2h)
2h

derive the approximation

f "( x ) =

f ( x 2h) - 2 f ( x ) f ( x - 2h)
(2hI2

or by rewriting H = 2h as

f" ( x ) =
with y(0) = 1 to find an approximation to y(0.3) using
a step size of h = 0.1.

-1,
0,
1,

f(x+H)-2f(~)+f(x-~).

rr?
n

17. For the function f ( x ) defined by the set of points

find estimates of f l ( l ) and f1'(3).

CHAPTER 13
PRACTICE TESTS

Each test should be easily completed in one hour although good students will be able to do them in
half an hour. A passing grade would be approximately 15 correct answers out of 20. Solutions are
given in Chapter 14. The tests are only a guide and some of the more difficult areas of work may be
covered at different stages in a mathematics course.
There are six tests, two for each major component of an undergraduate degree.
(i) First Year Semester One: Students should have a basic knowledge of algebra, functions, transcendental functions, simple differentiation and simple integration. This material is covered in
Chapters 1 to 5 and it is assumed many students will know at the beginning of the semester
and all students should know by the end of the semester.
(ii) First Year Semester Two: Students should have a more detailed knowledge of algebra, functions and transcendental functions plus differentiation (including parametric and implicit differentiation) and integration (including definite integrals, substitution and areas). A basic
knowledge of vectors, matrices and asymptotics is also expected. This material is covered
in Chapters 1 to 8.
(iii) Second Year: In addition to the previous test material the student should have a knowledge
of complex numbers, integration by parts, eigenvectors, basic differential equations and multivariable calculus. Some of this material will be taught during the second year of a mathematics
course depending on the university.

124

PRACTICE TESTS

13.1 TEST 1: FIRST YEAR - SEMESTER ONE


Find the roots of the quadratic x2
For what values of m is Im
Expand

(i+

+ 1 = 52.

+ 71 > 7?

ab) .
1

1
+
x = .
x
Y

Rearrange the following equation to find y: -

Simplify -- &.

2fi
dy if y = -1x 3 .
Find dx

If f ( x ) = 1 -

find f 1 ( x ) .

dy if y = sin 3x2
Find dx

Evaluate

3:

+ 1 dx.

dy if y = x cosx.
Find dx

Simplify exp (ln t2 - 2 In t ).


simplify in

($).
+

The equation ( x - 1)2 y - 3 = 0 is what type of curve?


What does f ( x ) = e-" approach as x
~f f

( 2 ) = 22

Evaluate

+ -m?

+ 1 and g ( x ) = x what is f (g(a))?


1

(i

+ 2).

6!
4!2!
Find A and B such that
Evaluate - .

1
( x - 1 - 2 )

-- A
2-1

+-2 -B2 '

+ x ) using
~ the binomial theorem (Pascal's triangle).
20. ~ i v i d x3
e + 3x2 + x + 1 by x + 1.
19. Expand ( 1

TEST 2: FIRST YEAR

13.2 TEST 2: FIRST YEAR - SEMESTER ONE


1. S o l v e f o r m i f m ( m - 4 ) + 4 = 0 .
2. Factorise x3

+ 2x2 + x.

3. For what values of x is 1x

+ 21 > l ?

4. Expand ( a + b + c ) ( a - b-c).
5. Rearrange

/:

1
-

= 3 to find x.

6. Solve for r if 6r2 - 6r - 1 = 0.


dy if y = -.4
7. Find dx
x2
1

8. Find fl(x) i f f (x) = - C O S ~ X .


3
x
9. Find fl(x) if f ( x ) = x2 - 3 .
lo. Find fl(x) i f f (x) = xe"
11. Evaluate
12. Evaluate

/
/ iX

5x6 dx.
- dx.

13. If In a = 2 and In b = 3 what is In ab2?


14. The equation 2x2

15. Evaluate the sum

+ y2 - 3 = 0 is what type of curve?


(2i

+ 1).

16. I f f (z) = z2 and g(x) = x

+ 2 what is g(f (a))?

5!
17. Evaluate -.
3!
18. Find the partial fraction form for

x
(X - I ) ( $ - 3 ) '

19. Use polynomial division to divide x3

+ 1by x + 1.

20. Find the inverse function f -l(x) if f (x) =

m.

- SEMESTER ONE

125

126

PRACTICE TESTS

13.3 TEST 3: FIRST YEAR - SEMESTER TWO


1. Findx if x(3x - 5) = -1.

2. For what values of x is lx - 31 < 15?


3. Expand (3x2 - 42) 2.
1
1
4. Rearrange - - & = - - to find x.
lh
x

5. Rearrange

/z;
-

= - to find x.

6. Find f'(x) i f f (x) = 3 cos(x2).


dy if y = x2e".
7. Find dx
dy in terms of x and y if
8. Find dx

y2

+ y = sin x2

dy in terms of t if y (t) = t2 and x (t) = sin t.


9. Find dx
10. Evaluate / x '2dx.
11. Evaluate

I2e2" dx.

12. I f f (z) = 22 and g(z) = 1/z2 what is g(f (z))?


13. Simplify exp(1n x - 2 In y).
14. Find the determinant

17. Find (1,2,3) . (1,1,1).


18. Write 2 sinh x + 2 cosh x in terms of exponentials and simplify.
19. What does

approach as x

+ m.

20. How many ways are there of choosing a team of 4 people from a group of 8 people (with no
order)?

TEST 4: FIRST YEAR

13.4 TEST 4: FIRST YEAR - SEMESTER TWO


1
Solve form if m(m - 2) = -.
2
For what values o f t is It - 51
Expand ( x

+ :)

< lo?

6 - -.1
Make as one fraction the expression 2
6
m

Rearrange the following equation to find m: -= t2 3.


1-m
1
Find f l ( x ) i f f ( x ) =
(1 - 3 ~' ) ~
Find x l ( t )if x ( t ) = eCt sinh 2t.

dy if xy2 y = coshx.
Find dx
1
Find
4x2 dx.

The equation x2
Find

lr

+ x - 2 + 3y = 0 is what type of curve?

sin x dx.

6 -1
0
Find the determinant 4
1
0

2
-3 .
-2

What is the angle between the vectors (1,2,1)and (2, -1, O)?
Find llull if u = (2, - 2 , l ) .
N

15. Find the partial fraction form of


16. What does f ( x ) =
17. Find

/
l2

xe"
sinh ( x )

1
(x-

- 2)'

approach as x

x sin(x2 - 1) dx by writing u = x2 - 1.

18. Find

1x1 dx.

19. Is f ( x ) = x cosh x an odd or even function?


20. What is ATA if A =

[::I7

+ cm?

- SEMESTER TWO

127

128

PRACTICE TESTS

13.5

TEST 5: SECOND YEAR

1. Rearrange

/z

to find y.

1
2. Simplify -- tan2 x.
cos2 x
3. Find x if x2

+ 52 + 6 = 0.

dy if y = sin 3x2.
5. Find dx
dy if y = x2 sinh 22.
6. Find dx
1
7. Find -dx.
22 - 3
8. Find

/
/

teCt dt.
2

9. Find

2 x d E d x .

lo. Find (5,2) . ( - 7 , l ) .


11. Find (2,3,-1) x (2,0,3).
12. Find the eigenvalues of

[;;I.

dy = - Y
13. Solve the differential equation for y ( x ) if dx
x3 '
d2Y = -9y.
14. Find y ( x ) if dx2

4 2i
15. Find the imaginary component of 3-i'
16. Write z = 2

+ 2i in polar form z = reie.

[ k ; ;I.

17. Find the inverse of the matrix

18. Find the first two non-zero terms of the Taylor series for y = sin x about x = 0.
19. What does

cosx - 1
approach as x
x2

20. I f f ( x ,y) = x2 - 3y4 what is V f ?


w

+ O?

TEST 6: SECOND YEAR

13.6

TEST 6: SECOND YEAR

Factorise 2x2 - 32 - 2.
I f l n x = 7andlny = 2findln
Find

af

at

(f).

if f (x, t) = eCt sin TX.

Find the imaginary component of z = 3ei"I2.


Simplify

2x
4x2 - 22

+ 1 asx+cm.

For what values of p is 15p - 41 > l ?


Simplify cos(n.rr) where n = 0,1,2,. . .
dy = xy.
Solve the differential equation dx
Solve the differential equation y"
Find

+ 6y' + 5y = 0 for y (x).

x cos TX dx.

By letting u = sin x find

dx.

Findu x v i f u = (1,0,1) andv = (0,1,1/2).


N

Find the eigenvalue of

:]

corresponding to the eigenvector v = (1,2).


N

Find the first three terms of the Taylor series for exp(x2) about x = 0.
I f f (x, y) = 1- x2 - 3Y2find the slope in the direction ( 1 , l ) when at the point ( 0 , l ) .
I f f (x, y) = 1- x2 - 3Y2find the direction of maximum slope at the point ( 0 , l ) .
Find the eigenvector of A =
If v = (z
N

I f f = x2

[ f :]

+ x, xy, 22) what is V . v ?


N

+ y3 w h a t i s v 2 f ?
N

corresponding to eigenvalue X = 1.

129

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CHAPTER

14

ANSWERS

Chapter 1
Algebra and Geometry

5.
(i)

x2 - 32 15
(x 2)(x - 3)
x2 7%- 2
(iil)
4-22
(ii)

(vi)

(ii)

2-1
1

--

+ x +3 2

1
x+3
x+2
2
1
(iv) - x+4
2-2

(iil) -

x
x+1

(ii)
(i) d

> 512

< -8
5 < x < 15

1
3

(iil) 3

(ii) d
(iii)

+ 32 2 -14

- 3 1
2 2-2
1

--

(iv)

3 - v5
3

(iv) z > 5 o r z 5-11


(v) a > - 3 o r a < - 5
(vi) -3

<x <5

(i) y = ( x + ~ ) ( x +1)
(ii) y = (x - 5)(x - 1)
(iii) y = (x

(i) x2 - 9
(ii) 9 x 2 - 2 4 x + l 6

+ xZy- xy2 - y3
3x3 + 2x2 - 27%- 18
x3 - 122' + 48%- 64

+ 5)(x - 1)

(iv) y = (x - 5)(x

+ 1)
+ 1)

(v) y = (22 - 1)(x

(iii) x3
(iv)
(v)

+ 8x3 + 24%' + 32%+ 16


xs + 8x7 + 28x6 + 56x5 + 70x4 + 56x3 +
28%' + 82 + 1

(i) x4
(ii)

(iil) 21

(i) x = -2, -2
(ii) x = -6, -1
(iil) x = -4,3
(iv) x = -2, I
(v) x = -4, I
(vi) x =

- 1 + 0 - 1 - 0
2
'
2

132

ANSWERS

(i) ( x + 1) +

+ 1)
(iii) x2 + 3%+ 1
(ii) ( x

10.
(i) 720
(ii) 30
(iii) 15

(iv) 27

Chapter 2
Functions and Graphs
1. 9
2. 93

+1

+1
( b - 1)3 + 1

3. ( x - 1)3

4.

5. f (g(a)) = sin2(a), g(f (x)) = sinx2


6. f (f (x)) = (x2

+ 1)' + 1

7. f(g(x)) = ( x ~ 212, g(f(x)) = (X - 114 - 1


1
2-1
1
9. f - l ( x ) = - - 1
x
8. f - l ( x ) =

ANSWERS

+3 = 5
+6 = 8
= (2 + 3)/2 = 512

(i) ln(st) = 2

(ii) ln(st2) = 2
(iii) l n ( f i )

(iv) ln(s/t) = 2 - 3 = -1
(v) ln(s/t3) = 2 - 9 = -7
2 and 0.

x2

+ 4y2 = a 2 for some constant a.


+ (y - 2)2 = 4

(x - 1)2

(x-a)'+(y

-2)'

=9

Circle, centre (1'0) radius &.

(i) exe"
(ii) ex+"
(iii) e2" =
(iv) ex

+ e"

Ellipse, centre (1'0).


Parabola, vertex (1'0).

(i) 0

Line, gradient of -112.

(ii)

Hyperbola, centre (1'1).

+ (x -2)2
1
(y - 112 + ( 2 - 2 1 2
4

y =1

(iii)
=1

Chapter 3
Transcendental Functions

43

2
(iv) -2

(i) 1
(ii) 2
(iii) sin 0

a 5a
6' 6
8. Results given.
(ii)

(iil) 2
1
(iv)
P

3 x 5 = 15
eXeY = 15

9. Results given.

= 32 = 9

+5 = 8

133

134

ANSWERS

(i) exp(%cos x2)(cos x2 - 2%' sin x2)


(ii) ex(cos(2x 1)' - 4(2x 1) sin(2x

4.

(i) 0 = x/4: cos 0 = I/&,


sinO=l/&,tanO=l,secO=&.

(iii)

(ii) 0 = 13x16: cos 0 = a / 2 ,


sin 0 = 112, tan 0 = 116,sec 0 = 2 / a .

(2

+ x2)3/2

cos x

sin x
(X 112
(X 113
(v) cos(x2 exp(x3 x))
x (2% (3%' 1) exp(x3

(iv)

(iii) 0 = 2x13: cos 0 = -112,


sin 0 = a / 2 , tan 0 = -&, sec 0 = -2.
(iv) 0 = - 5 ~ 1 3 : cos 0 = 112,
sin 0 = a / 2 , tan 0 =
sec 0 = 2.

+ 1)')

-2

-- 2
-

+
+

+ 5))

a,

(v) 0 = 5x14: cos 0 = -I/&,


sin 0 = -I/&, tan 0 = 1, sec 0 = -&.

-4

(i)

1 1 cos- =
12
12. t = 170000
13. odd

dy
cos(x - 1) - cos(x - 1)
=
dx
2~
- 2J s i n ( x 7

(iii) dy = ex (x l)y = ex (x
dx
3e3" - 3e3"
(iv) dy = dx
eg
5 e3"
du
2%
(v) 2 =
dx
1 3y2
dy
cosx
(vi) - =
dx
2y +cosy
dy =
1-Y
(vii)
dx
x+1-2y
-

Chapter 4
Differentiation

+ 1) exp(xex)

3 c o s x + 5sinx
3ex - 2%
3
x
2 cosh x - 3 sinh x

6.
(i) d~
dx

sin t
2tcos(t2)

dy-et
dx - %
dy
2t
(ii)
=
dx
cost
(..

11'

5(x

+ sin x ) (1~ + cos x)

- exp(cos2 x)2 sin x cos x


4%sinh(2x2)

8.

(i) x = 2 minimum.
(ii) x = 3 minimum, x = 1maximum.
(iii) x = 0 minimum, x = 1inflection.
(iv) x = 1maximum.

- sinx
cosx
- 2x2
x3
(cos x sin x)ex

(v) x = e-'/'

minimum.

(vi) x = 0 maximum, x = 1minimum.


(vii) x = -1 maximum, x = 1minimum.

9.
Y

ANSWERS

Chapter 5
Integration

5.
(i) -2
(ii) -

7
(i) +c
2x2

1
(iii) e 2 " (2 sin x - cos x) c
5
(iv) - ( x + l ) c o s x + s i n x + c

x6
(ii) 1 2 1 n 1 x 1 + + c
6
e7x

(iil)

e-14x

1
ln(3)
2

(v) ex(x2 - 2 x + 2 ) + c

+c

14

(vi) x l n x - x

(iv) +
+
+
10
11
12
1
(v)
cosh 2% c
2
(vi) 4sinhx - e x
c

13

+c

6.
(i) -In Icoszl

+c

(ii) ( 2 - x 2 ) c o ~ x + 2 x s i n x + c

+c
2
2
-u5/' + -u3/' + c
5
3
arcsinh x + c

(iii) 9 e ~ / ~ ( x3)
(i) 1 -e-5

(iv)

(ii) 0

(v)

(iii) 16 1n 2
2
(iv)
3

Chapter 6
Matrices

(vi) 7(1 - e-3)

(i)

1
(ii) -12
1
(iil) -2
1
(iv)
2
-

[-

(ii) A
(i)

1
2

--e-"2

+c

(ii) ?2l n 1 x 2 + 4 x + 5 1 + c
(iii) In I lnyl

(vi) 2efi
(vii)

+c

(1 - cos(?T2))

(viii) e-3 - e-2

A
.

[ -57
[

-42
-1

trace(A) = 5

+c

1
(iv) ( 7 x 4 - 1)3/2
21

A.

+c

:]
'I

-44

-59
22

135

136

ANSWERS

Chapter 7
Vectors

(iii)

[ -; -;]

(ii) At =

AtA

[: ; I
-

A=

AAt =

85
35

35
41

3:
42

1
-20

-::]
74

(vii) 2 4 5

<

rn+ 45

(i) -38
(ii) -36
(iil)

8.

(i) a

# 2112

(ii) a = 2112, c # I
(iii) a = 2112, c = I

(i) u . v = 6
,., ,.,
u
x v = (-1, -2,5)
,., ,.,

cost' =

(ii) u . v = - 1 7
,., ,.,
u
x v = ( 3 , - 3 , -15)
,., ,.,
17
cost' = --

dad%

(iii) u . v = 11
,., ,.,
u
x v =(-6,4-10)
,., ,.,
11
cost'= -

mm

137

ANSWERS

(iv) u
,.,. v
,.,= 0
u
x
v = 0,undefined.
,.,,.,,.,

x2
(i)cosx~l-2

3.

sin x
x2
(ii) - - - - - M I - x
6

(v) u . v = - 9
,., ,.,
u
xv=o
,.,,.,,.,

x2+1 Mx-x2
(iil) 1 11%

cost' = -1

(iv) xex M x x2
cosx-1
x
1
(v) -M -x
1
(vi) sinh x M x -x3
6
coshx-1
1
1
(vii)
M -2'
x2
2
24

(vi) u
,.,. v
,.,= 2
u
x
v = (-20,10,0)
,., ,.,

zX3

6. Orthogonality easily verified.


7.
(i) independent (det=7)

(iii) dependent

+ x) M x - x21

(ix) ln(1

(ii) dependent

4. As x

+ w:

(iv) independent (det=2)


(v) dependent
(vi) dependent
(iil)

Chapter 8
Asymptotics and Approximations

23 22
3x2 V G

x
4

x2 + 1
1 11%

(iv)

(vi)

--------

sinh(3x)
1+e4"

M-

(vii)

-M

xe-x
sinh x

2xe-'"

e-"
2

(i) 6
(ii) 1
(iil) 1
(iv) 0
(v)

(i) ex sinx

(vi) 0

(ii) eZx M 1

x +x2

1 3
+ sx

+ 22 + 2x2

(iii) sinx2 M x2 - kx6 + 1120x l 0

(i) -

1
6

(ii) 0
(iil)

(iv) ex3 M 1

6.
(i) sinx

1
3

(iv) -

1
3

+ 23 + 3x6

(ii)

COSXM

1-

3 (x-

-(x-

$)'

4) +;

(x-

4)3

138

ANSWERS

Chapter 9
Complex Numbers

(i) 2i
3
(ii) -(1

45

(i) 6 - 25i

1
(iii) (
a i)
2
1
(iv) ( 4 - i)

(ii) 1 2 + 6 i
(iii) 82 - 33i
(iv) 8 - i
(v) 13

+ i)

+ 84i

(vi) -2 - 2i
(vii) 34(1

+ i)

(vii1) 2
(ix) 13
(x) 6 - 7i
26
38.
(xi) - -z
53 53
( x i ) -i

(xiii) $(1 - i)
(xiv)

37
9 .
145 145%

5 (1 + i)

2.

(i) ei"/4 =
ei5?r/4 -

(i) x = 4 , y = 2

+i)

(ii) x = 3

(ii) f 1,f i
(iii) 2ei?r/4 2eill?r/12 2e-i5?r/12

(i) cis a

(iv) & ( I - i), &(-I

3.

(ii) cis3a/2
a
(iii) 3 cis 2
3a
(iv) &cis 4

(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)

(v) cis (i(a/6 ka/3)), k = 0 , . . . , 5 or


z=fi,i(a&i),$(-afi)

Chapter 10
Differential Equations

7a
4
5a
2 4 5 cis
4
1la
5 cis 6
a
2 cis 3
2v% cis 2x13

(vi) &cis

+i)

(xi) 5 4 5 cis

a
( x i ) 2 cis 6
(xiii) 2 4 5 cis

7a
6

1
(ii) -- + c
x
(iii) y = x - l n 1 x + l I + c
1
(iv) y = l n x + c
5
(v) y = 3 ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ - 3 s i n x + c

2.

1
(i) x = y 4 + c
4

(iii) y = cx - 1
(iv) -3e-'9

= 2e3"

+c

139

ANSWERS

6.

3
+ c2e-2x
e ~ +~10
y(x) = 6 - 42 + x2 + cle-" + c2xe-"

(i) y(x) = ~

1
y(x) = c l c o s x + c 2 s i n x - c o s 3 x
8
1
y(x) = e 2 " c l cos x c2 sinx
5
24
18
y(x) = -- cos 22 - - sin(2x) cle-"
25
25
c~xe-~
1
1
y(x) = c l e x + c 2 e - x + x e x - e x - x 2 - 2
2
4

Chapter 11
Multivariable Calculus
y = s i n % + ccosx

(i)

2 =2y

g =2y+2x
82f
=2
BxBy

(ii)

2 = y cos xy
Bf
BY

= xcosxy,
= cosxy -xysinxy

(iii)

2 = 22 - sin(%+ Y)
Bf

BY

= - sin(% y)

& = - cos(x + y)
(iv)

2 = ex-"
Bf = -ex-Y

BY
B2f - -ex-a,

BxBy

(v)

2 = 3yx2
Bf = % 3

Y(X)= c1e4x

BY
B2f - 3%2

+ c2e-4x

BxBy

+ c2efix)

y(x) = e-2x(cle-fix

+ c2e-x/4
y(x) = cl cos 32 + c2 sin 32
Y(X)= c1e-4x + c2xe-4x
y(x) = ~ l e - " / +
~ c2ex/4
Y(X)= c1 + c2e-5x/2
Y(X)= c1e2x/3

Y(X)= e-x/3cl cos

fi

(iil)

+ 112

2fl

+ 4y + 62

(vii) 2 + 2 + 2 = 6

+ c2xe5"
e ~

(i) (2x+2z,-2y,2x)
(ii) sec2(xyz)(yz, xz, XY)

(vi) 22

fi

(viii) 2(yz)2

+e-x/3~2sin x
3
y(x) = ~

2.

(ix)
(x)

+ 2(xz)2 + 2(xy)2

P , O , 2%- 2
PY,22, 2%)

~ )

140

ANSWERS

(i) ( 4 , 3 )
(ii) 5
(iii) f ( 3 , - 4 )

(iv)

7
-

fi

(i) ( - 1 , - 1 )
(ii) fi
(iil) f ( 1 , - 1 )
(iv)

16. Easily proved.

-d5

17. f l ( l ) = 2, f l 1 ( 3 ) = -2

4t3 - 3 t 2

Chapter 13
Practice Tests

(i) 54
(..

11)

Test 1: Section 13.1

(iii) 416

x2

44
+ y2 d x d y = 105

x + ydydx =

3
20

Proof by expansion.

1
2x2
10. c o s x - x s i n x
9. x - -

Chapter 12
Numerical Skills

11. 1
12. x - y
13. Parabola.

3.

L5

f ( x ) d x M 25.5

14. w
2
15.
a
16. 18
-

+1

17. 15
18. A = -1, B = 1
19. x 4 + 4 x 3 + 6 x 2 + 4 x + 1

ANSWERS

Test 2: Section 13.2

Test 4: Section 13.4


1
12. l n x
2

14. Ellipse
4.

2-2
-

2fi
t2 3
5.
4 t2
6
6. (1 - 3x)3

7. e-t(2 cosh 2t - sinh 2t)


sinh x - y2
8.

Test 3: Section 13.3

10. Parabola
11. 2
12. -5

2%cos x2
1 2y
2t
9.
cos t
8.

+ 2yx

19. odd

141

142
-

ANSWERS

Test 5: Section 13.5

12. 2 4 5
13. (-1,

16%

-A, 1)

1
6
z

14. X = 4

15. ex'

x = -2,3
16. - 3 4 5

17. (0,-6)

62 cos 3x2
22 sinh 22

+ 2x2 cosh 22

y = ci sin 32

+ c2 cos 32

i
2 f i cis

sinz

x3
6

M X -

Test 6: Section 13.6


(22

+ 1)(x - 2)

12
-e-t sin a x
3i
2
3
p>lorp<5
(-I)n
y = cl exp

-(cos a x

a2

(f )
+ a x sin a x )

18. (1, -1)

x4
+ x2 + 2

CHAPTER 15
OTHER ESSENTIAL SKILLS

Use these pages to write any other essential mathematics skills your lecturers think are appropriate.

144

OTHER ESSENTIAL SKILLS

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OTHER ESSENTIAL SKILLS

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145

Index
absolute value, 3
algebra, 1
angle, 35
antiderivative, 5 1
approximations, 87
area
integration, 55
numerical, 115
asymptotics, 87
augmented matrix, 70
binomial expansion, 5
calculus
differentiation,41
fundamental theorem, 53
integration, 5 1
Cartesian unit vectors, 80
central difference, 116
chain rule, 45
characteristic equation
differential equations, 100
eigenvalues, 73
circle, 27
cofactors matrix, 64,68
combinations, 13
complex number, 9 1
conjugate, 92
De Moivre's theorem, 94
Euler's equation, 93
imaginary, 92
polar form, 93
real, 92
conjugate, 92
cosh, 38
derivative, 43
integral, 52
cosine, 14, 26

derivative, 43
integral, 52
cross product, 82
curl, 108
De Moivre's theorem, 94
definite integral, 53
denominator, 2
surd, 10
derivative, 4 1
determinant, 63
diagonal matrix, 74
differential equations, 97
characteristic equation, 100
first order, 97
homogeneous, 100
inhomogeneous, 102
integrable, 97
integrating factor, 99
numerical, 118
particular solution, 102
resonance, 104
second order, 100
separable, 98
undetermined coefficients, 103
differentiation, 41
chain rule, 45
double, 47
first principles, 41
implicit, 46
linearity, 42
maxima, 48
numerical, 116
parametric, 47
partial, 107
product rule, 43
quotient rule, 44
second, 47

INDEX

divergence, 108
domain, 18
dot product, 80
double derivative, 47
double integrals, 111
eigenvalues, 73
eigenvectors, 73
ellipse, 28
equilateral triangle, 15
Euler's equation, 93
even
Fourier series, 120
function, 20
expansion, 4
binomial, 5
exponential, 3 1
derivative, 43
function, 25
general, 3 1
integral, 52
factorial, 12
factorising, 4
polynomial, 6
first order differential equations, 97
first principles, 41
forward difference, 116
Fourier series, 119
even, 120
odd, 121
fractions, 2
partial, 6
function, 17
circle, 27
cosine, 26
domain, 18
ellipse, 28
even, 20
exponential, 25, 3 1
hyperbola, 24
hyperbolic, 38
inverse, 19
line, 21
logarithm, 25, 3 1
odd, 20
parabola, 22

polynomial, 23
properties, 18
quadratic, 22
range, 18
shifting, 20
sine, 26
tangent, 26
trigonometric, 35
zeros, 19
fundamental theorem of calculus. 53
Gaussian elimination, 70
gradient, 108
graphs, 17
homogeneous differential equations, 100
hyperbola, 24
hyperbolic functions, 38
hypotenuse, 14
identity matrix, 61
imaginary
complex number, 92
implicit differentiation, 46
index laws, 32
inequalities, 3
inflection points, 48
inhomogeneous differential equations, 102
integrable differential equations, 97
integrating factor, 99
integration, 5 1
area, 55
by parts, 57
definite, 53
double, 111
linearity, 52
numerical, 115
substitution, 56
inverse
cofactors matrix, 68
function, 19
matrix, 65
isosceles triangle, 15
L'H6pital's Rule, 88
length
vector, 79
limit, 87

147

line, 21
linearity
differentiation, 42
integration, 52
logarithm, 33
derivative, 43
function, 25
general, 3 1
integral, 58
natural, 33
Maclaurin series, 88
matrix, 59
addition, 59
augmented, 70
characteristic equation, 73
cofactors, 64, 68
determinant, 63
diagonal, 74
eigenvalues, 73
eigenvectors, 73
identity, 61
inverse, 65, 68
manipulation, 68
multiplication, 60
partitioned, 66
row operations, 66
symmetric, 74
systems of equations, 70
trace, 74
transpose, 62
maxima, 48
minima, 48
modulus, 3 , 4
multivariable calculus, 107
natural logarithm, 33
Newton's method, 117
notation, 1
numerator, 2
numerical methods, 115
area, 115
central difference, 116
differential equations, 118
differentiation, 116
finding zeros, 117
integration, 115

Newton's method, 117


odd
Fourier series, 121
function, 20
parabola, 22
parameterised curves, 47
parametric
circle, 27
ellipse, 28
parametric differentiation, 47
partial differentiation, 107
partial fractions, 6
particular solution, 102
partitioned matrix, 66
Pascal's triangle, 5
permutations, 13
polar form, 93
polynomial
division, 9
factorising, 6
function, 23
product rule, 43
Pythagoras' theorem, 14
quadratic, 11, 22
quadratic equation, 11
quotient rule, 44
range, 18
rationalised surd, 10
real
complex number, 92
numbers, 1
reciprocal trigonometric functions, 36
resonance, 104
right angled triangles, 14
roots
quadratic, 11
row operations, 66
second derivative, 47
second order differential equations, 100
separable differential equation, 98
simplification, 4
sine, 14,26
derivative, 43

INDEX

integral, 52
sinh, 38
derivative, 43
integral, 52
slope, 41
stationary points, 48
substitution
integration, 56
summation, 12
surd, 10
symmetric matrix, 74
systems of equations, 70
tangent, 14, 26,41
Taylor series, 88
trace, 74
transcendental functions, 3 1
transpose, 62
triangle
equilateral, 15
isosceles, 15
right angled, 14, 15
trigonometric
functions, 35
identities, 36
reciprocal, 36
undetermined coefficients, 103
unit circle, 35
unit vector, 80
vector, 77
addition, 78
angle, 8 1
Cartesian, 80
cross product, 82
curl, 108
divergence, 108
dot product, 80
gradient, 108
length, 79
multiplication, 78
zeros, 19
quadratic, I1

149