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NAME: Janina Suzette C.

PROFESSOR: Ms. Gladys Fauni-Guirre
DATE: June 18, 2014

The Nuts and Bolts of Taxonomy and Classification
I. Objectives
1. To be able to define and differentiate the terms taxonomy,
systematics and phylogeny.
2. To understand the principles of evolution, organisms
adaptation and mutation & proper naming of organisms guided
by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
3. To demonstrate an understanding about the hierarchical
system of nomenclature.
4. To develop skills in comparing and analyzing similarities and
differences of closely related animals in terms of their
evolutionary history, morphology, divergence and ancestral traits.
II. Materials




galvanized flat head (trimmed) bolts

galvanized Hex nuts
Zinc plated flat head (trimmed) bolts
Zinc plated Hex nuts

III. Results
1. Question: What are some difficulties and differences between
classifying inanimate objects and living organisms?
Answer: In this activity we are assigned to put a hierarchy into
non-living things like nuts and bolts then associate our learning

into the basic principles of taxonomy, phylogeny and systematics

of organisms. Some of the difficulties that I encountered during
the experiment were to classify their functions in different fields,
understanding the physiological importance from size, structure
and color because they are non-living things. It is also hard to
classify and group them in such way that they do not have wider
biological backgrounds or history in comparison with animals. The
difference between classifying inanimate objects from living
organisms, inanimate objects have minimal or great differences
from each other depending on the process of making that is
already standard and can be easily classified or grouped with
enough knowledge. Unlike to living organisms, differences can be
also determined but they are observed in a longer period of time
or it is scientifically determined through genes and mutations.
2. Is it easier or more difficult to classify living or inanimate
objects? Why.
Answer: It is easier to classify inanimate objects because they
are man-made. Things or objects that are created by human can
be determined, group and named easily. They project a standard
identification and characteristic that will help you to easily
categorized, rank or put them into order; Provided by a simple
knowledge about the materials, parts and functions about it.
Scientific research, observation and experimentation will not be
needed in order to prove their changes and distinct
characteristics because it is dictated by humans.
3. If you knew nothing about each objects function, would that
have made a difference in your classification scheme?
Answer: Yes, without knowing the objects function it would
have made a difference in my classification. Inanimate or living
organisms, knowing their functions is important in order to
classify them from one another. Morphological and physical
characteristics are not enough to differentiate and further specify
them to each kind. In terms of inanimate objects like nuts and
bolts having minimal differences between each kind would make
it hard for them to be categorized ;our only basis would be their
size, shape, diameter and color. These factors are insufficient to

produce a well organize and classified phylogenic chart either

naming them would be hard to. Knowing their function is
essential to know why they are designed or crafted in that way,
Also it would help and guide us to specify that each object is
unique and has a distinct properties from one another though
they are same in size, shape and color because of their function
or usage in certain fields.
IV. Analysis of data
Given with 10 pcs. Of different flat (trimmed) bolts and 10
pcs. Of different hex nuts that are distinct from another in terms
of height, diameter, materials, and structures, they are examples
of non-living things that are named and placed in order of who
evolved from whom? What are the changes that appear over
time? And what made them more primitive or advanced from the
other? In this experiment, they are inanimate objects that are
treated like things with life. A lot of things should be considered in
order to group either classify them for they dont have a
biological background to be studied nor compared. Basic skills
like pointing out the similarities and differences would be
essential in order to categorized and differentiate them easily.
Explanation of its phylogenic chart and grouping would be based
on the understanding, analyzation and background knowledge of
the person, for non-living things do not posses an evolutionary
history, relationships nor adaptation like organisms have.
V. Conclusion
Taxonomy is the study that deals with laws and principles
governing the classification or identification of organisms; while
Systematics is about the study of diversity of living organisms
and their evolutionary relationships, and Phylogeny is the study
of evolutionary history of groups. These terms differ but are
interrelated with one another. Indeed identifying, classifying and
putting diverse set of an organism into an organized hierarchy is
hard. In this experiment, we have appreciated the beauty of life
and its capacity to change, interact, build relationships and adapt
with its changing environment for survival and continuity of life. I
have learned that organisms do have similarities, differences and

distinct characteristics from another. Their evolutionary history,

relationship, morphology, physiology, habitat, and traits are being
observed and studied in order to create an organize system. This
will help us to identify which are closest or farthest from each
other? Where does this kind of animal belong? Why is it called
like this? Or Why some species project the same behavior but
differ in physical characteristics? The study of taxonomy does not
only pave the way to create and name organisms but also help us
see the connection between living things and their importance in
our environment.

VI. Recommendation
I would like to recommend that the materials that will be
use next time for this kind of activity should have more variation
in terms of physical characteristics and more identifiable specific
functions. Like mixing up some nails and screws that come in
different types, sizes, color or diameter. This would be helpful in
enhancing ones ability of putting order or rank into a group of
organisms that posses a common trait or distinct characteristic
from each other whether by feature or function of the objects.
VII. References
Miller SA, Harley JP. 2013 Zoology 9th edition. Singapore:
Mc-graw Hill Education.
Hickman Jr. Cp et al 2012. Animal Diversity. 6th edition. New
York: Mc-graw Hill Education.
Storer, Stebbins, Nybakken. 1979 General Zoology. 6th
edition. Mc-graw Hill Education.