# 1.

Programming in ‘C’
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
1.1 Algorithm
Algorithm is a method of representing the step-by-step logical procedure for solving a problem. According to D.E. Knuth, a pioneer in the computer science discipline, an algorithm must possess the following properties (i) (ii) (iii) Fitness: An algorithm must terminate in a finite number of steps Definiteness: Each step of the algorithm must be precisely and unambiguously stated. Effectiveness: Each step must be effective, in the same that it should be primitive (easily converted into program statement) and can be performed exactly in a finite amount of time. Generality: The algorithm must be complete in itself so that it can be used to solve all problems of a specific type for any input data.

(iv)

(v)

Input / Output: Each algorithm must take zero, one or more quantities an input data and produce one or more output values. An algorithm can be written in English like sentences or in any standard representation. Sometimes, algorithm written in English like language is called Pseudo Code. Example: Suppose we want to find the average of three numbers Step 1. Read the numbers a, b, c Step 2. Compute the sum of a, b and c Step 3. Divide the sum by 3 Step 4. Store the result in variable d Step 5. Print the value of d Step 6. End of the program Formally, an algorithm can be defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations that, when executed, will always produce a result and eventually terminate in a finite amount of time.

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1.2 Flowchart
Flowchart is diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. It is constructed using different types of boxes and symbols. Arrows among themselves to indicate the flow of information and processing connect all symbols. Following are the Standard symbols used in drawing flowcharts. Oval Terminal

Parallelogram

Input/ output

Document

Printout

Rectangle

Process

Diamond

Decision

Circle

Connector

Arrow Double sided Rectangle Important Points in drawing flowcharts 1. Flowchart should be clear, neat and easy to follow 2. Flowchart should be logically correct

Flow Predefined Process

3. Flowchart should be verified for its validity with some test data Limitations of flowcharts 1. Flowcharts are difficult to modify. Re-drawing of flowchart may be necessary 2. Translation of flowchart into computer program is always not easy

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Advantages of flowcharts 1. Logic of program is clearly represented 2. It is easy to follow logically the flow chart Example: Find out the average of n numbers.

Start

Count = 0 Sum = 0 Avg = 0

Sum = Sum + a Count = Count+1

Count<= n ?

True

False
Avg = sum / n

Print avg.

Stop

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1.3 Introduction
C is a programming language developed at AT & T Bell Laboratories of USA in 1972. It was designed and written by “Dennis Ritchie”. C is a powerful general purpose and most popular computer programming language. C is highly portable i.e., software written for one computer can be run on another computer. C language is well suited for structured programming. An important feature of ‘C’ is its ability to extend itself. A C program is basically a collection of functions. Historical Development of C Yea r Language Developed by International Committee Cambridge University Martin Richards at Cambridge University Ken Thomson at AT & T Remarks Too general, too abstract Hard to learn, difficult to implement Could deal with only specific problems Could deal with only specific problems

1960 ALGOL 1963 CPL 1967 BCPL 1970 B 1972 C ALGOL CPL BCPL   

Dennis Ritchie at AT & T Lost generality of BCPL and B restored Algorithmic Language Combined Programming Language Basic Combined Programming Language

1.4 Where C Stands
All programming languages can be divided into two categories: (a) Problem oriented languages or High-level languages: These languages have been designed to give a better programming efficiency, i.e., faster program development. Ex: FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL, etc. (b) program execution. Ex: Assembly Language and Machine Language. Machine oriented languages or Low-level languages:

These languages have been designed to give a better machine efficiency, i.e., faster

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C stands in between these two categories. That’s why it is often called a “Middle Level language”, since it was designed to have both: a relatively good programming efficiency and relatively good machine efficiency.

1.5 C Tokens
A token is an atomic unit (smallest indivisible units) in a program. The most basic elements in a C program recognized by the compiler are a single character or a group of characters called C tokens. The compiler cannot breakdown the token any further. For example, the words main, ‘{‘ (brace), ‘(‘ (parenthesis) are all tokens of C program. C language has 6 types of tokens. 1. Keywords Examples: float, int, double, while, for 2. Identifiers Examples: main, amount 3. Constants Examples: 12.4, 7894 4. Strings Examples: “CSM”, “Thursday” 5. Special Symbols Examples: [,], {, }, (, ) 6. Operators Examples: +, *, / Steps in learning C language are … 1. Character Set – Alphabets, Digits and Special Symbols 2. Datatypes, Constants, Variables and Keywords 3. Instructions 4. Functions, Program In C, the alphabet is a set of characters. The words correspond to constants, variables, keywords, etc. These are classified into different datatypes. Further, these are combined with operators to form expressions, of various types. These are in turn

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combined to form instructions. Combining a group of instructions into functions makes a program.

1.6 The C character set
The C character set includes the upper case letters A to Z, the lower case a to z, the decimal digits 0 to 9 and certain special characters/symbols. The character set is given below. Alphabets Digits A, B, C, …………Z a, b, c, ……………z 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Special characters/Symbols ~ , . ; : ? ‘ “ ! ( ) [ ] { } / \ < > = + - \$ # @ & * % ^
Character/Symbol ~ . ? “ ( [ { / < = # & % _ Meaning Tilde Period Question Mark Double Quote Left Parenthesis Left Bracket Left Brace Slash Less than Equal to Minus Hash Ampersand Percent Underscore Blank Space Character/Symbol , ; : ‘ ) ] } \ > ! + \$ * ^ | Meaning Comma Semicolon Colon Apostrophe (single quote) Right Parenthesis Right Bracket Right Brace Back Slash Greater than Exclamatory Mark Plus Dolor Sign Asterisk (or star) Carat Vertical Bar

1.7 Identifiers
Identifiers are distinct names given to program elements such as constants, variables, etc. An Identifier is a sequence of letters, digits, and the special character ‘_’ (underscore). (i) It must start with either a letter or underscore. ‘_’ (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) No commas or blanks are allowed within a variable name. The upper case and lower case letters are treated as distinct, i.e., An identifier can be of any length. No special symbol can be used in a variable name.

identifiers are case-sensitive.

The following are valid identifiers. i, income_tax, _pass, n10xy

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The following are invalid identifiers. 2module, first program, -pass

1.8 Keywords
Keywords are predefined tokens in C. These are also called reserved words. Key words have special meaning to the C compiler. These key words can be used only for their intended action; they cannot be used for any other purpose. C has 32 keywords. The standard keywords are
auto continue enum if short switch volatile break default extern int signed typedef while case do float long sizeof union char double for register static unsigned const else goto return struct void

Note that all these keywords are in lowercase.

1.9 Datatypes
A datatype defines a set of values and the operations that can be performed on them. Every datatype item (constant, variable etc.) in a C program has a datatype associated with it. C also has a special datatype called void, which, indicates that any data type, i.e., no data type, does not describe the data items. The following are the basic datatypes along with their size and range
Datatypes Char Int Float double Void signed char unsigned char short signed int short unsigned int Long singed int Description Single character An integer Floating point number Floating point number No datatype Character Unsigned character Short signed integer Short unsigned integer Long signed integer
Size (No. of Bytes) Range

1 2 4 8 0 1 1 2 3 4

0 to 255 -32768 to +32767 -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647 Approximately 15 digits of Precision -128 to 127 0 to 255 -32768 to +32767 0 to 65535 -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647

Generally, the following rule is true for any compiler to specify the size of data types:
sizeof(char) <= sizeof(short int) <= sizeof(int) <= sizeof(long int) <= sizeof(float) <= sizeof(double)

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There are some other datatypes in C that can be derived from the basic datatypes. The basic datatypes are often called Primary datatypes and the derived datatypes are often called Secondary datatypes. C Datatypes

Basic datatypes

Derived datatypes

char

integer

float double void

array structure

union

pointer

1.10 Constants and Variables
A constant is a literal, which remain unchanged during the execution of a program. A variable is a name that is used to store data value and is allowed to vary the value during the program execution. Constants A constant is a fixed value that cannot be altered during the execution of a program. C constants can be classified into two categories. (i) (ii) Primary Constants Secondary Constants Constants

Primary constants Numeric integer float Character Logical

Secondary constants Array Structure Union Pointer

Single char String

C has five types of primary constants. They are integer, float, char, logical and string. The numeric constants can be preceded by a minus sign if needed. Rules for constructing Integer constants

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(a) An integer constant must have at least one digit. (b) It should not contain either a decimal point or exponent. (c) If a constant is positive, it may or may not be preceded by a plus sign. If it is a negative, it must be preceded by a minus sign. (d) Commas, blanks and non-digit characters are not allowed in integer constants. (e) The value of integer constant cannot exceed specified limits. The valid range is –32768 to +32767. Rules for constructing Real constants Real values are often called floating-point constants. There are two ways to represent a real constant decimal form and exponential form. In exponential form of representation, the real constant is represented in two parts. The part appearing before ‘e’ is called mantissa, whereas the part following ‘e’ is called exponent. (a) The mantissa part and the exponential part should be separated by a letter e. (b) The mantissa part may have a positive or negative sign. (c) Default sign of mantissa part is positive. (d) The exponent must have at least one digit, which must be a positive or negative integer. Default sign is positive. (e) Range of real constants expressed in exponential form is –3.4e38 to 3.4e38. Rules for constructing Characters constants (a) A character constant is a single alphabet, a single digit or a single special symbol enclosed within single inverted commas. Both the inverted commas point to the left. For example, ‘A’ is valid character constant whereas A is not. (b) The maximum length of a character constant can be 1 character. Note: Every character has its ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) value. That means every character is interchange with integer constant. For example, ‘A’ value is 65 and ‘a’ value is 97. String constants A string constant is a sequence of characters enclosed in double quotes. The characters may be letters, numbers, blank space or special characters. Note that “” is null string or empty string. And the single string constant “A” is not equivalent to the single character constant ‘A’.

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Each string constant must end with a special character ‘\0’. This character is called null character and used to terminate the string. The compiler automatically places a null ‘\0’ character at the end of every string constant. Escape sequence Some non-printing characters and some other characters such as double quote (“), single quote (‘), question mark (?) and backslash (\), require an escape sequence. A list of commonly used backslash character constants is given below.
Escape Sequence Meaning ASCII value Escape Sequence Meaning ASCII value

\a \b \t \n \v \f

Bell Back Space Tab New line Vertical tab Form feed

7 8 9 10 11 12

\r \” \’ \? \\ \0

Carriage return Double Quote Single Quote Question Mark Back Slash Null

13 34 39 63 92 0

Variables A variable can be considered as a name given to the location in memory. The term variable is used to denote any value that is referred to a name instead of explicit value. A variable is able to hold different values during execution of a program, where as a constant is restricted to just one value. For example, in the equation 2x + 3y = 10; since x and y can change, they are variables, whereas 2,3 and 10 cannot change, hence they are constants. The total equation is known as expression. Rules for constructing variable names (a) The name of a variable is composed of one to several characters, the first of which must be a letter (b) No special characters other than letters, digits, and underscore can be used in variable name. Some compilers permit underscore as the first character. (c) Commas or Blanks are not allowed with in a variable name. (d) Upper case and Lower case letters are significant. That is the variable income is not same as INCOME. (e) The variable name should not be a C key word. Also it should not have the same name as a function that is written either by user or already exist in the C library. The following are valid variable names:

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Alpha income x fyear_9899 matrix

1.11 C Instructions
There are basically four types of instructions in C: (a) Type Declaration Instruction (b) Input/Output Instruction (c) Arithmetic Instruction (d) Control Instruction The purpose of each these instructions is (a) Type Declaration instruction (b) Input/Output instruction to declare the type of variables used in a C program to perform the function of supplying input data to a program and obtaining the output results from it. to perform arithmetic operations between constants and variables. to control the sequence of execution of various statements in a C program.

(c) Arithmetic instruction (d) Control instruction Type Declaration Instruction

-

This instruction is used to declare the type of variables being used in the program. Any variable used in the program must be declared before using it in any statement. The type declaration statement is usually written ate the beginning of the C program. Ex: int bas; float rs, grosssal; char name,code; A C arithmetic instruction consists of a variable name on the left hand side of = and variable names & constants on the right hand side of the =. The variables and constants appearing on the right hand side of = are connected by arithmetic operators like +, -, *, and /. Assigning Values The values can be assigned to variables using assignment statements.

Arithmetic Instruction

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The general format of assignment statement is… Variable-name = expression; where expression may be as simple as a constant or as complex as an expression. The operator = is called assignment operator. The left of assignment operator must be a variable. It should not be a function or a constant.

1.12 Operators & Expressions
C is extremely rich in built-in operators. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform certain mathematical or logical manipulations. Operators are used in program to manipulate data and variables. The data items that operators act upon are called operands. Some operators require two operands, while others act upon only one operand. The operators are classified into unary, binary and ternary depending on whether they operate on one, two or three operands respectively. C has four classes of operators Arithmetic Operators Relational Operators Logical Operators Bit-wise Operators Increment & Decrement Operators Conditional Operators Assignment Operators, etc.

In addition, C has some special operators, which are unique to C, they are

Arithmetic Operators There are five arithmetic operators in C. The following table lists the arithmetic operators allowed in C:
Operator Meaning

+ * / %

Addition Subtraction; also for unary minus Multiplication Division Modulo division (remainder after integer division)

The modulo division operator % cannot be used on type float or double. It can be used only on type int and char. A C arithmetic statement could be of three types.

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1. Integer Mode : In this mode, all operands in an arithmetic statement are either integer constants or integer variables. 2. Real Mode : All operands in an arithmetic statement are either real constants or real variables. 3. Mixed Mode : Some of the operands in an arithmetic statement are integer and some of the operands are real. Relational Operators Relational Operators are symbols that are used to test the relationship between two variables or between a variable and a constant. We often compare two quantities, and depending on their relation takes certain decisions. These comparisons can be done with the help of relational operators. C has six relational operators as shown below.
Operator Meaning

> >= < <= == !=

Greater than Greater than or Equal to Less than Less than or Equal to Equal to Not equal to

There should not be any space between two characters in an operator, i.e., <= should not be written as < =. Logical Operators Logical Operators are symbols that are used to combine or negate expressions containing relational operators. C has three logical operators as defined below.
Operator Meaning

&& || !

Logical AND Logical OR Logical NOT

The && and || operators are binary operators, whereas ! is a unary operator. OR, is used when at least one of the two conditions must be true in order for the compound condition to be true. AND, is used to both conditions must be true in order for the compound condition to be true. NOT, is used to reverse the truth-value of its operand.

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An expression containing a logical operator is termed as a logical expression. Like the simple relational expressions, a logical expression also yields a value of one or zero. Bitwise operators C supports a set of bitwise operations. The lowest logical element in the memory is bit. C allows the programmer to interact directly with the hardware of a particular system through bitwise operators and expression. These operators work only with int and char datatypes and cannot be used with float and double type. The following table shows the bitwise operators that are available in C.
Operator Meaning

| & ^ >> <<

One’s Complement Bitwise OR Bitwise AND Bitwise Exclusive OR (XOR) Right Shift Left Shift

Increment & Decrement operators C has two very useful operators for adding and subtracting a variable. These are the increment and decrement operators, ++ and -These two operators are unary operators. The increment operator ++ adds 1 to its operand, and the decrement operator -- subtracts 1 from its operand. Therefore, the following are equivalent operations. ++i; --i; is equivalent to is equivalent to i = i + 1; i = i – 1;

These operators are very useful in loops. Assignment operators In addition to usual assignment operator =, C has a set of shorthand operators, that simplifies the coding of a certain type of assignment statement. It is of the form var op = exp where var is a variable, op is a C binary arithmetic operator and exp is an expression. The operator += means add the expression on the right to the variable on the left and the operator -= means subtract the expression on the right from the variable on the left.

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Statement

Equivalent Statement

a + = b; a - = b; a * =b; a * = b + c; a / = b; a % = b; a * = a;

a=a+b a = a - b; a = a * b; a = a * ( b+ c); a = a / b; a = a % b; a = a * a;

Conditional Operator C provides a peculiar operator ? : which is useful in reducing the code. It is ternary operator requiring three operands. The general format is exp1 ? exp2 : exp3; where exp1, exp2 and exp3 are expressions. In the above conditional expression, exp1 is evaluated first. If the value of exp1 is non zero (true), then the value returned will be exp2. if the value of exp1 is zero (false), then the value returned will be exp3. Hierarchy (precedence) of operators The priority or precedence in which the operations of an arithmetic statement are performed is called the hierarchy of operators. Each operator has a precedence associated with it. This precedence is used to determine how an expression involving more than one operator is evaluated. The operators of at the higher level of precedence are evaluated first. The operators of the same precedence are evaluated either from left to right or from right to left, depending on the level. This is known as the associativity property of an operator.
PRECEDENCE OF OPERATORS (Arithmetic operators only) Operator Description Associativit y Rank

* / % + -

Left to right “ “ “ “

3 3 3 4 4

1.13 Structure of a ‘C’ program
C programs consist of one or more functions. Each function performs a specific task. A function is a group or sequence of C statements that are executed together. MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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The following is a simple C program that prints a message on the screen.

/* A simple program for printing a message */ # include <stdio.h> # include <conio.h> void main( ) { clrscr( ); printf(“Welcome to C”); getch( ); } Description The first line /* A simple program for printing a message */ is a comment line. Comments in the c program are optional and may appear anywhere in a C program. Comments are enclosed between /* and */. The second line # include <stdio.h> tells the compiler to read the file stdio.h and include its contents in this file. stdio.h, one of header files, contain the information about input and output functions. stdio.h means Standard Input Output Header file. This file contains the information about printf() function. The third line # include <conio.h> tells the compiler to read the file conio.h and include its contents in this file. conio.h means Consoled Input Output Header file. This file contains the information about clrscr() and getch() functions. The fourth line void main( ) is the stat of the main program. The word main is followed by a pair of ordinary parenthesis ( ), which indicates that main is also a function.

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The fifth line { the left brace represents the beginning of the program. The sixth line clrscr( ); tells the compiler to clear the screen and kept the cursor at left side corner. The seventh line printf( “Welcome to C”); this function causes its arguments to be printed on the screen on the computer. The eight line getch( ); is reads the single character directly from the keyboard without printing on the screen. The ninth line } the right brace represents the ending of the program. The body of the function is enclosed within a pair of braces. This section contains two parts. (a) Declaration part. (b) Executable part. The following are some of rules to write C programs. 1. All C statements must end with semicolon. 2. C is case-sensitive. That is, upper case and lower case characters are different. Generally the statements are typed in lower case. 3. A C statement can be written in one line or it can split into multiple lines. 4. Braces must always match upon pairs, i.e., every opening brace { must have a matching closing brace }. 5. Every C program starts with void main( ) function. 6. Comments cannot be nested. For example, /* Welcome to ‘C’ ,/* programming*/ */ 7. A comment can be split into more than one line.

1.14 Execution of C Program
Steps to be followed in writing and running a C program. MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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(a) Creation of Source Program Create a C program file in various C compilers are available under MS-DOS, Turbo C Editor etc. (b) Compilation of the Program Turbo C compiler is user friendly and provides integrated program development environment. Thus, selecting key combination can do compilation. That means press Alt + F9 for compilation. (c) Program Execution In Turbo C environment, the RUN option will do the compilation and execution of a program. Press Ctrl + F9 for execution the program.

1.15 Different types of files in C
In C programming language every source file is saved with an extension of .c. The compiler automatically converts this source file into machine code at compiling time and creates an executable file. The machine code is saved with an extension of .obj, and the executable file is saved with an extension of .exe. For Example, the source file name is emp.c then the object and executable files are emp.obj and emp.exe respectively. These two files (emp.obj and emp.exe files are automatically created by the compiler at compile time.)

1.16 printf( ) Function: Writing Output Data
The printf( ) function is used to write information to standard output (normally monitor screen). The structure of this function is printf(format string, list of arguments); The format string contains the following: Characters that are simply printed on the screen. Specifications that begin with a % sign and define the output format for display of each item. Escape sequence characters that begin with a \ sign such as \n, \t, \b etc.

Examples printf(“This is C statement”); printf(“The number is:%d”,a); printf(“The number %d is equal to %d”,10,10);
Field type, format specifiers used by printf( )
Character Argument Resulting Output

c

Character

A single character

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d s f

Integer String Floating point

Signed decimal integer Prints character strings Single floating point number

Note: Use a prefix l with %d, %u, %x, %0 to specify long integer (for example, %ld).

Program Code

Enter Program

Edit Source Program

C Compiler

Compile Source Program

Synta x Errors ?

System Library

Input Data

Execute Object Code

Logic and Data

Errors?

CORRECT OUTPUT

Stop

1.18 scanf( ) Function: getting user input
The real power of a technical C program is its ability to interact with the program user. This means that the program gets input values for variables from users.

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The scanf( ) function is a built-in C function that allows a program to get user input from the keyboard. The structure of this function is scanf(format string,&list of arguments); Examples scanf(“%d”,&a); scanf(“%d%c%f”,&a,&b,&c);

PROGRAMS
Prog.1: To print a message on the screen. /* Printing a message on the screen */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); printf(“This is my First Program in C ”); getch(); }

Output
This is my First Program in C

Prog.2: To print our Institute Name. /* Printing our institute name */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); printf(“Welcome to Millennium Software Solutions”); getch(); }

Output
Welcome to Millennium Software Solutions Prog.3: To Display Multiple Statements. /* Printing our Institute Address*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { clrscr(); printf(“Millennium Software Solutions”);

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printf(“\nVisakhapatnam”); getch(); }

Output
Millennium Software Solutions Visakhapatnam Prog.4: To Display a value of single variable /*Initialization of a variable*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a; /* Declaration */ clrscr(); a = 10; /* Initialization */ printf(“The value is:%d”,a); getch(); }

Output
The value is:10 Prog.5: To Display values of two variables. /*Declaration and Initialization of a variables*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a=10,b=20; clrscr(); printf(“%d is a value,%d is b value”,a,b); getch(); }

Output
10 is a value,20 is b value Prog.6: To calculate the sum of two numbers. /* Sum of two numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a=10,b=20; clrscr(); printf(“Sum of two numbers is:%d”,a+b); getch(); }

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Output
Sum of two numbers is:30 Prog.7: To calculate all arithmetic operations. /*All arithmetic operations*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a=4,b=2; clrscr(); printf(“Sum is:%d”,a+b); printf(“\nDiff is:%d”,a-b); printf(“\nProd is:%d”,a*b); printf(“\nQuo is:%d”,a/b); printf(“\n Rem is:%d”,a%b); getch(); } Sum is:6 Diff is:2 Prod is:8 Quo is:2 Rem is:0 Output

Prog.8: To swap two variables using third variable. /* Swapping of two variables*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a=10,b=20,c; clrscr(); printf(“Before swapping:%d,%d”,a,b) ; c = a; a = b; b = c; printf(“\nAfter swapping:%d,%d”,a,b); getch(); } Output Before swapping:10,20 After swapping:20,10 Prog.9: To initialize all datatypes (int, char, float) /* Initialization of all datatypes */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h>

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void main() { int a=10; char i=’x’; float pi=3.14; clrscr(); printf(“The integer is:%d”,a); printf(“\nThe char is:%c”,i); printf(“\nThe float is:%.2f”,pi); getch(); } Output The integer is:10 The char is:x The float is:3.14 Prog.10: To input a number and display on the screen. /* Input and display a number */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int n; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); printf(“%d is given by you”,n); getch( ); } Output Enter a number:10 10 is given by you (press Enter)

Prog.11: To input two numbers and print them. /* Scanning two numbers and printing 1st method*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int a,b; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter 2 numbers:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); printf(“The 2nos are:%d,%d”,a,b); getch( ); } Output Enter 2 numbers:10 20 (press Enter) The 2nos are:10,20

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(OR)
/* Scanning two numbers and printing 2nd method*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int a,b; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter a value:”); scanf(“%d”,&a); printf(“Enter b value:”); scanf(“%d”,&b); printf(“The 2nos are:%d,%d”,a,b); getch( ); } Output Enter a value:10 (press Enter) Enter b value:20 (press Enter) The 2nos are:10,20 Prog.12:Input two numbers and calculate all arithmetic operations /* To calculate all arithmetic operations */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int a,b; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter a value:”); scanf(“%d”,&a); printf(“Enter b value:”); scanf(“%d”,&b); printf(“a+b=%d”,a+b); printf(“\na-b=%d”,a-b); printf(“\na*b=%d”,a*b); printf(“\na/b=%d”,a/b); printf(“\nRem=%d”,a%b); getch( ); } Output Enter a value:4 Enter b value:2 a+b=6 a-b=2 a*b=8 a/b=2 Rem=0

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Prog.13: Swapping two numbers with using third variable. /* Swapping 2variable using third variable */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int a,b,c; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter a value:”); scanf(“%d”,&a); printf(“Enter b value:”); scanf(“%d”,&b); printf(“Before swapping the values are:%d,%d”,a,b); c = a; a = b; b = c; printf(“\nAfter swapping the values are:%d,%d”,a,b); getch( ); } Output Enter a value:10 Enter b value:20 Before swapping the values are:10,20 After swapping the values are:20,10 Prog.14: Swapping two numbers without using third variable. /* Swapping 2variables without using third variable */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter a and b values:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); printf(“Before swapping the values are:%d,%d”,a,b); a = a+b; b = a-b; a = a-b; printf(“\nAfter swapping the values are:%d,%d”,a,b); getch( ); } Output Enter a value:10 Enter b value:20 Before swapping the values are:10,20 After swapping the values are:20,10 Prog.15: To convert the hours into minutes and seconds /* Conversion of hours into minutes and seconds */

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#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int hr; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter an hour:”); scanf(“%d”,&hr); printf(“minutes=%d”,hr*60); printf(“\nseconds=%d”,hr*60*60); getch( ); } Output Enter an hour:2 minutes=120 seconds=7200 Prog.16: To convert the years into days and months /* Conversion of years into days and months */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int y; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter a year:”); scanf(“%d”,&y); printf(“Days=%d”,y*365); printf(“\nMonths=%d”,y*12); getch( ); } Output Enter a year:2 Days=730 Months=24 Prog.17: To calculate Area and Perimeter of a Rectangle /* Area and Perimeter of a Rectangle */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int l,b; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter l and b values:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&l,&b); printf(“Area=%d”,2*(l+b)); printf(“\nPerimeter=%d”,l*b); getch( );

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} Output Enter l and b values:2 4 Area=12 Perimeter=8 Prog.18: To calculate Area and Perimeter of a Square /* Area and Perimeter of a Square */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int s; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter s value:”); scanf(“%d”,&s); printf(“Area=%d”,s*s); printf(“\nPerimeter=%d”,4*s); getch( ); } Output Enter s value:3 Area=9 Perimeter=12 Prog.19: To calculate Area and Circumference of a Circle /* Area and Circumference of a Circle */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { float r,pi=3.14; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter radius of a circle:”); scanf(“%f”,&r ); printf(“Area=%.2f”,2*pi*r); printf(“\nCircumference=%.2f”,pi*r*r); getch( ); } Output Enter radius of a circle:2 Area=12.56 Circumference=12.56 Prog.20: To calculate total and average of a student. /* Total and Average calculation */ #include<stdio.h>

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#include<conio.h> void main( ) { int stuno,sub1,sub2,sub3; float tot,avg; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter stuno:”); scanf(“%d”,&stuno); printf(“Enter sub1:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub1); printf(“Enter sub2:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub2); printf(“Enter sub3:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub3); tot = sub1 + sub2 + sub3; avg = tot/3; printf(“\nTotal=%.2f”,tot); printf(“\nAverage=%.2f”,avg); getch( ); } Output Enter stuno:101 Enter sub1:65 Enter sub2:65 Enter sub3:65 Total=195.00 Average=65.00

-x-

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2. CONTROL STRUCTURES
2.1 Introduction: A C statement consists of keywords, expressions and other
statements. There are two types of statements in C. These are single statements and compound statements. A compound statement is a series of statements enclosed with in braces ({}) while a single statement ends with a semicolon (;). The control flow statements of a language determine the order in which the statements are executed. We also need to be able to specify that a statement, or a group of statements, is to be carried out conditionally, only if some condition is true. Also we need to be able to carry out a statement or a group of statements repeatedly based on certain conditions. These kinds of situations are described in C using Conditional Control and Loop Control structures. A conditional structure can be implemented in C using (a) The if statement (b) The if-else statement (c) The nested if-else statement (d) The switch statement. whereas loop control structures can be implemented in C using (a) while loop (b) do-while loop (c) for statement

2.2 The if statement
The if statement is used to control the flow of execution of statements. The general form of if statement is
if (condition) statement;

Suppose if it is required to include more than one statement, then a compound statement is used, in place of single statement. The form of compound statement is

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if (condition) { statement1; statement2; }

If the condition is true, then the statement/statements will be executed. If the condition is false, then the statement/statements will not be executed. A simple condition relates two quantities using relational operators (==, !=, <, <=, >, >=). quantity 1 Relation operator quantity 2

The quantities may be variables, constants or expressions. Example
The following program illustrates whether the number is even or odd. /* Even or Odd */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int n; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); if(n%2==0) printf(“It is Even number”); if(n%2!=0) printf(“It is Odd number”); getch( ); } Output 1 Enter a number:4 It is Even number Output 2 Enter a number:5 It is Odd number

Note that there is no semicolon between the condition and the statement i.e., no semicolon following if(n%2==0). It is important to note that, if the condition is false the statement is skipped and control goes to the next statement immediately after if statement.

2.3 The if-else Statement
The general form of if-else statement is… MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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if (condition) statement1; else statement2;

If the condition is true, then statement1 is executed. Otherwise if the condition is false, then the statement2 is executed. Here statements statement1 and statement2 are either simple statements or compound statements. That is… if (condtion) { statements } else { statements } Note that only one block will be executed but not both. Example
Program illustrates the if-else statements. /* Even or Odd using if-else */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int n; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); if(n%2==0) printf(“Even number”); else printf(“Odd number”); getch( ); } Output 1 Enter a number:4 Even number Output 2 Enter a number:5 Odd number

/* if block */

/* else */

2.4 Nested if-else Statements

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When a series of conditions are involved, we can use more than one if-else statement in nested form. This form is also known as if-else if-else statements. The general form of if-else if-else statement is
if (condition) statements; else if (condition) statements; else statements;

Note that a program contains number of else if statements and must be ended with else statement. Example
Program illustrates the if-else if-else statements. /* Find the highest of three values */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int a,b,c; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter the three values:”); scanf(“%d%d%d”,&a,&b,&c); if(a>b && a>c) printf(“%d is big”,a); else if(b>a && b>c) printf(“%d is big”,b); else printf(“%d is big”,c); getch( ); } Output 1 Enter the three values:3 5 7 7 is big Output 2 Enter the three values:5 6 2 6 is big Output 3 Enter the three values:3 2 1 3 is big

2.5 The Switch Statement – Selecting One Of Many Alternatives

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The Switch statement is an extension of the if-else if-else statement. The switch makes one selection when there are several choices to be made. The direction of the branch taken by the switch statement is based on the value of any int (or int compatible) variable or expression. The general form of Switch statement is shown below.
switch (variable) { case constant1:statement 1; case constant2:statement 2; case constant3:statement 3; “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ case constant n:statement n; default :statement; }

The variable following the keyword switch is any C expression that that will result an integer value. The break statement used inside each case of the switch, causes an intermediate exit from the switch statement; and continue onto the next statement outside the switch statement. Note: If the break statement is not including, all of the statements at and below the match will be executed. The advantage of switch over if is that it leads to a more structured program and the level of indentation is manageable. C allows nesting switch statements, i.e., a switch may be a part of a case. Example
Program illustrates the switch statement. /* Words corresponding Numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number(0-9):”); scanf(“%d”,&n); switch(n) {

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} getch(); }

case 0: printf(“Zero”); break; case 1: printf(“One”); break; case 2: printf(“Two”); break; case 3: printf(“Three”); break; case 4: printf(“Four”); break; case 5: printf(“Five”); break; case 6: printf(“Six”); break; case 7: printf(“Seven”); break; case 8: printf(“Eight”); break; case 9: printf(“Nine”); break; default:printf(“More than 9”);

Output 1 Enter a number (0-9):0 Zero Output 2 Enter a number (0-9): 10 More than 9

PROGRAMS
Conditional Operators (?:)
Prog.21: To check whether the year is leap or not /* Inputting year is Leap or not */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int year; clrscr(); printf(“Enter year:”); scanf(“%d”,&year); (year%4==0)?printf(“Leap year”):printf(“Not leap year”); getch(); }

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Output 1 Enter year:1990 Not leap year Output 2 Enter year:1996 Leap year Prog.22: To find the biggest number in two variables /* Biggest number in two variables */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a,b values:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); (a>b)?printf(“a is big”):printf(“b is big”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a,b values:3 4 b is big Output 2 Enter a,b values:4 2 a is big Prog.23: To check the enter number is single digit or not /* Single digit or not */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); (n<=9)?printf(“Single digit”):printf(“Not single digit”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a number:5 Single digit Output 2

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Enter a number:12 Not single digit Prog.24: To check the number is whether even or odd /* Even or Odd */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int x; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&x); (x%2==0)?printf(“It is Even Number”):printf(“It is Odd Number”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a number:5 It is Odd Number Output 2 Enter a number:4 It is Even Number Prog.25: To check the number is positive, negative or zero. /* To check whether +ve, -ve or zero */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); (n>0)?printf(“+ve”):(n<0)?printf(“-ve”):printf(“zero”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a number: -2 -ve Output 2 Enter a number:0 zero Output 3 Enter a number:5 +ve

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Prog.26: Find the highest number in three variables. /* Biggest number in 3 variables */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,c; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a,b,c values:”); scanf(“%d%d%d”,&a,&b&c); (a>b && a>c)?printf(“a is big”): (b>a && b>c)?printf(“b is big”):printf(“c is big”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a,b,c values:3 5 7 c is big Output 2 Enter a,b,c values:8 4 6 a is big

If statement
Prog.27: To check whether the year is leap or not /* Inputting year is Leap or not */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int year; clrscr(); printf(“Enter year:”); scanf(“%d”,&year); if(year%4==0) printf(“Leap year”); if(year%4!=0) printf(“Not leap year”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter year:1990 Not leap year Output 2 Enter year:1996 Leap year

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Prog.28: To find the biggest number in two variables /* Biggest number in two variables */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a,b values:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); if(a>b) printf(“a is big”); if(a<b) printf(“b is big”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a,b values:3 4 b is big Output 2 Enter a,b values:4 2 a is big Prog.29: To check the enter number is single digit or not /* Single digit or not */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); if(n<=9) printf(“Single digit”); if(n>9) printf(“Not single digit”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a number:5 Single digit Output 2 Enter a number:12 Not single digit Prog.30: To check the number is positive, negative or zero.

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/* To check whether +ve, -ve or zero */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); if(n>0) printf(“+ve”); if(n<0) printf(“-ve”); if(n==0) printf(“zero”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a number: -2 -ve Output 2 Enter a number:0 zero Output 3 Enter a number:5 +ve Prog.31: Find the highest number in three variables. /* Biggest number in 3 variables */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,c; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a,b,c values:”); scanf(“%d%d%d”,&a,&b&c); if(a>b && a>c) printf(“a is big”); if(b>a && b>c) printf(“b is big”); if(c>a && c>b) printf(“c is big”); getch(); } Output 1

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Enter a,b,c values:3 5 7 c is big Output 2 Enter a,b,c values:8 4 6 a is big Output 3 Enter a,b,c values:4 9 1 b is big

If-else Statement
Prog.32: To check the enter number is single digit or not /* Single digit or not */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); if(n<=9) printf(“Single digit”); else printf(“Not single digit”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a number:5 Single digit Output 2 Enter a number:12 Not single digit Prog.33: To find the biggest number in two variables /* Biggest number in two variables */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a,b values:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); if(a>b) printf(“a is big”); else printf(“b is big”);

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}

getch(); Output 1

Enter a,b values:3 4 b is big Output 2 Enter a,b values:4 2 a is big Prog.34: To check whether the year is leap or not /* Inputting year is Leap or not */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int year; clrscr(); printf(“Enter year:”); scanf(“%d”,&year); if(year%4==0) printf(“Leap year”); else printf(“Not leap year”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter year:1990 Not leap year Output 2 Enter year:1996 Leap year Prog.35: To check whether the character is vowel or consonant. /* Vowel or Consonant */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char x; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a letter:”); scanf(“%c”,&x); if(x==’a’ || x==’A’ || x==’e’ || x==’E’ || x==’i’ || x==’I’ || x==’o’ || x==’O’ || x==’u’ || x==’U’) printf(“It is Vowel”); else printf(“It is Consonant”); getch();

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} Output 1 Enter a letter:b It is Consonant Output 2 Enter a letter:u It is Vowel

If-else if-else statement
Prog.36: Find the highest number in three variables. /* Biggest number in 3 variables */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,c; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a,b,c values:”); scanf(“%d%d%d”,&a,&b&c); if(a>b && a>c) printf(“a is big”); else if(b>a && b>c) printf(“b is big”); else printf(“c is big”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a,b,c values:3 5 7 c is big Output 2 Enter a,b,c values:8 4 6 a is big Output 3 Enter a,b,c values:4 9 1 b is big Prog.37: To check the number is positive, negative or zero. /* To check whether +ve, -ve or zero */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr();

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}

printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); if(n>0) printf(“+ve”); else if(n<0) printf(“-ve”); else printf(“zero”); getch(); Output 1

Enter a number: -2 -ve Output 2 Enter a number:0 zero Output 3 Enter a number:5 +ve Prog.38:To calculate the grade of a student. /* Grade of a student */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int stuno,sub1,sub2,sub3; float tot,avg; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter stuno:”); scanf(“%d”,&stuno); printf(“Enter sub1:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub1); printf(“Enter sub2:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub2); printf(“Enter sub3:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub3); tot = sub1 + sub2 + sub3; avg = tot/3; printf(“\nTotal=%.2f”,tot); printf(“\nAverage=%.2f”,avg); if(avg>=60) printf(“\nFirst Class”); else if(avg>=50) printf(“\nSecond Class”); else if(avg>=35) printf(“\nThird Class”); else

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printf(“\nFail”); getch( ); Output 1 Enter stuno:101 Enter sub1:65 Enter sub2:65 Enter sub3:65 Total=195.00 Average=65.00 First Class Output 2 Enter stuno:105 Enter sub1:30 Enter sub2:65 Enter sub3:65 Total=160 Average=53.34 Second Class Prog.39:To calculate the grade of a student if passed. /* Grade of a student if passed*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int stuno,sub1,sub2,sub3; float tot,avg; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter stuno:”); scanf(“%d”,&stuno); printf(“Enter sub1:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub1); printf(“Enter sub2:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub2); printf(“Enter sub3:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub3); tot = sub1 + sub2 + sub3; avg = tot/3; printf(“\nTotal=%.2f”,tot); printf(“\nAverage=%.2f”,avg); if(sub1>=35 && sub2>=35 && sub3>=35) { if(avg>=60) printf(“\nResult:First Class”); else if(avg>=50) printf(“\nResult:Second Class”); else printf(“\nResult:Third Class”); } }

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}

else printf(“\nResult:Fail”); getch( );

Output 1 Enter stuno:101 Enter sub1:65 Enter sub2:65 Enter sub3:65 Total=195.00 Average=65.00 Result:First Class Output 2 Enter stuno:105 Enter sub1:30 Enter sub2:65 Enter sub3:65 Total=160 Average=53.34 Result:Fail Prog.40:To print the Result of a student. /* Result of a student*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int stuno,sub1,sub2,sub3; float tot,avg; clrscr( ); printf(“Enter stuno:”); scanf(“%d”,&stuno); printf(“Enter sub1:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub1); printf(“Enter sub2:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub2); printf(“Enter sub3:”); scanf(“%d”,&sub3); tot = sub1 + sub2 + sub3; avg = tot/3; printf(“\nTotal=%.2f”,tot); printf(“\nAverage=%.2f”,avg); if(sub1>=35 && sub2>=35 && sub3>=35) { if(avg>=60) printf(“\nResult:First Class”); else if(avg>=50) printf(“\nResult:Second Class”); else printf(“\nResult:Third Class”);

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} else {

}

} getch( ); Output 1

if(sub1<35 && sub2>=35 && sub3>=35) printf(“\nResult:Fail in Sub1”); else if(sub1>=35 && sub2<35 && sub3>=35) printf(“\nResult:Fail in Sub2”); else if(sub1>=35 && sub2>=35 && sub3<35) printf(“\nResult:Fail in Sub3”); else if(sub1<35 && sub2<35 && sub3>=35) printf(“\nResult:Fail in Sub1 & Sub2”); else if(sub1<35 && sub2>=35 && sub3<35) printf(“\nResult:Fail in Sub1 & Sub3”); else if(sub1>=35 && sub2<35 && sub3<35) printf(“\nResult:Fail in Sub2 & Sub3”); else printf(“\nResult:Fail in all subjects”);

Enter stuno:101 Enter sub1:65 Enter sub2:65 Enter sub3:65 Total=195.00 Average=65.00 Result:First Class Output 2 Enter stuno:105 Enter sub1:30 Enter sub2:65 Enter sub3:65 Total=160 Average=53.34 Result:Fail in Sub1 Output 3 Enter stuno:103 Enter sub1:60 Enter sub2:30 Enter sub3:50 Total=140 Average=46.67 Result:Fail in Sub2 Prog.41:To check whether letter is small, capital, digit or special symbol /* Small, Capital, Digit or Special Symbol */ #include<stdio.h>

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#include<conio.h> void main() { char x; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a letter:”); scanf(“%c”,&x); if(x>=’a’ && x<=’z’) printf(“Small letter”); else if(x>=’A’ && x<=’Z’) printf(“Capital letter”); else if(x>=’0’ && x<=’9’) printf(“Digit”); else printf(“Special Symbol”); getch(); } Output 1 Enter a letter:a Small letter Output 2 Enter a letter:C Capital letter Output 3 Enter a letter:6 Digit Output 4 Enter a letter:# Special Symbol

Switch statement
Prog.42: To check whether the letter is vowel or consonant /* Vowel or Consonant */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char x; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a char:”); scanf(“%c”,&x); switch(x) { case ‘a’: case ‘A’: case ‘e’:

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case case case case case case case } getch();

‘E’: ‘i’: ‘I’: ‘o’: ‘O’: ‘u’: ‘U’:printf(“Vowel”); break; default:printf(“Consonant”);

}

Output 1 Enter a char:a Vowel Output 2 Enter a char:b Consonant Output 3 Enter a char:U Vowel Prog.43: To print words corresponding numbers below 9 /* Numbers -> words (0-9)*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number(0-9):”); scanf(“%d”,&n); switch(n) { case 0:printf(“Zero”); break; case 1:printf(“One”); break; case 2:printf(“Two”); break; case 3:printf(“Three”); break; case 4:printf(“Four”); break; case 5:printf(“Five”); break; case 6:printf(“Six”);

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break; case 7:printf(“Seven”); break; case 8:printf(“Eight”); break; case 9:printf(“Nine”); break; default:printf(“More than 9”); } getch(); Output 1 Enter a number(0-9):3 Three Output 2 Enter a number(0-9):12 More than 9 Prog.44:To print Day corresponding Number /* Number corresponding Day */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); switch(n) { case 1:printf(“Sunday”); break; case 2:printf(“Monday”); break; case 3:printf(“Tuesday”) break; case 4:printf(“Wednesday”); break; case 5:printf(“Thursday”); break; case 6:printf(“Friday”); break; case 7:printf(“Saturday”); break; default:printf(“No week day”); } getch(); } Output 1 }

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Enter a number:3 Tuesday Output 2 Enter a number:9 No week day Prog.45: To print color name corresponding letter /* Letter -> color name */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char x; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a char:”); scanf(“%c”,&x); switch(x) { case ‘w’:printf(“w->white”); break; case ‘b’:printf(“b->black”); break; case ‘l’:printf(“l->blue”); break; case ‘y’:printf(“y->yellow”); break; case ‘g’:printf(“g->green”); break; case ‘r’:printf(“r->red”); break; case ‘o’:printf(“o->orange”); break; default:printf(“No color”); } getch(); } Output 1 Enter a char:l l->blue Output 2 Enter a char:y y->yellow Output 3 Enter a char:c No color

The exit( ) Function

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The exit( ) is a function in the standard library of C. This function causes immediate termination of the program and execution control return to the operating system. In general, the termination to exit( ) function is 0 to indicate that termination is normal. Other arguments may be used to indicate some sort of an error.
Prog.46: To calculate Arithmetic operations depends on user choice. /* Arithmetic operation depends on user choice*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,choice; clrscr(); printf(“Welcome to Arithmetic operations”); printf(“\n--------------------------------\n”); printf(“\n\t1.Add”); printf(“\n\t2.Sub”); printf(“\n\t3.Mul”); printf(“\n\t4.Div(quo)”); printf(“\n\t5.Rem”); printf(“\n--------------------------------\n”); printf(“\nEnter U r choice here:”); scanf(“%d”,&choice); printf(“Enter 2nos:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); switch(choice) { case 1:printf(“\nThe sum is:%d”,a+b); break; case 2:printf(“\nThe sub is:%d”,a-b); break; case 3:printf(“\nThe Product is:%d”,a*b); break; case 4:printf(“\nThe quo is:%d”,a/b); break; case 5:printf(“\nThe rem is:%d”,a%b); break; default:exit(0); } getch(); } Output 1 Welcome to Arithmetic operations -------------------------------1.Add 2.Sub 3.Mul 4.Div(quo)

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5.Rem -------------------------------Enter U r choice here:1 Enter 2nos:5 4 The sum is:9 Output 2 Welcome to Arithmetic operations -------------------------------1.Add 2.Sub 3.Mul 4.Div(quo) 5.Rem -------------------------------Enter U r choice here:6 Enter 2nos:3 4 Prog.47: To calculate Arithmetic operations depends on arithmetic operator /* Arithmetic operations depends on arithmetic operator */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b; char ch; clrscr(); printf(“Enter any arithmetic operator(+,-,*,/,%):”); scanf(“%c”,&ch); printf(“Enter 2nos:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); switch(ch) { case ‘+’:printf(“\nThe sum is:%d”,a+b); break; case ‘-‘:printf(“\nThe sub is:%d”,a-b); break; case ‘*’:printf(“\nThe Product is:%d”,a*b); break; case ‘/’:printf(“\nThe quo is:%d”,a/b); break; case ‘%’:printf(“\nThe rem is:%d”,a%b); break; default:exit(0); } getch(); } Output 1 Enter any arithmetic operator(+,-,*,/,%):* Enter 2nos:4 5

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The Product is:20

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3. LOOPS
3.1 Def: A portion of program that is executed repeatedly is called a loop.
The C programming language contains three different program statements for program looping. They are 1. For loop 2. While loop 3. Do-While loop

3.2 The For Loop
The for loop is most common in major programming languages. However, the for loop in languages is very flexible and very powerful. Generally, the for loop is used to repeat the execution statement for some fixed number of times. The general form of for loop is for(initialization;condition;increment/decrement) statement; where the statement is single or compound statement. initialization is the initialization expression, usually an assignment to the loopcontrol variable. This is performed once before the loop actually begins execution. condition is the test expression, which evaluated before each iteration of the loop, which determines when the loop will exist. increment is the modifier expression, which changes the value of loop control variable. This expression is executed at the end of each loop. Semi colons separate these three sections.

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The for loop repeats the execution of the statement as long as the conditional expression evaluates to true. Once this test condition becomes false, the for loop will terminate and control resumes to the statement that immediately following for loop.
The following program illustrates the use of for loop /* Print 1 to 10 numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=10;i++) printf(“\n%d”,i); getch(); }

In this example, the for loop is repeated 10 times. In for-loop, any or all of the three sections in the parentheses can be omitted, although the semicolons must remain. If the conditional expression is omitted, it is assumed to have a value1 and the loop continues infinitely. The for statement for(; ;) { statement; } is an infinite loop. This can be terminated by using a break statement or an exit() function. The comma operator, is the power of the for loop. The general rule of comma operator is multiple C expressions may be separated by a comma operator as expression1, expression2, expression3, ………… and so on. Expressions separated by comma operator are evaluated from left to right. For example, the following for statement initializes the value of counter1 and counter2 values; and also increments the counter1 and counter2 for each iteration. for (counter1=0,counter=1;couter<=10;coutr1++,counter2++) printf(“\n%d %d”,counter1,counter2); Of all operations in C the comma operator has the lowest precedence.

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This important feature of loops in C languages is that the statement in the loop also can be omitted. Generally this type of loops is used in time-delay programs. For example. for(i=0,j=5;i<10 && j<50;i++,j=i+j) printf(“\n%d %d,”i,j); This loop is repeated as long as the value of 1 is less than 10 and the value of j is less than 50. The increment and decrement operators are very useful in loops for incrementing or decrementing the loop-control variable.

3.3 Nested Loops: C allows nested loops, i.e., a loop within a loop. The nested loops
are generally used when we want to run the program repeated by placing the entire program within a loop such as while or for loop. In such case, prompt may be included whether to continue the program or to terminate.

3.4 The While Loop
The while loop is best suited to repeat a statement or a set of statements as long as some condition is satisfied. The general form of while loop is initial expression; while(conditional-expression) { statement; increment/decrement; } where the statement (body of the loop) may be a single statement or a compound statements. The expression (test condition) must results zero or non-zero. First of all, the expression in the while loop is evaluated. If the result is true (nonzero), then the statement is executed and the expression is evaluated again. The statements continue executes until the expression evaluates to false (zero). Then the loop is finished and the program execution continues with the statement that follows by body of while loop. The statement in the while loop is executed zero or more times depending on the expression. If the expression evaluates to false at the first time, then the statement is never executed.

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3.5 The do-while loop
The structure of do-while loop is similar to while loop. The difference is that in case of do-while loop the expression is evaluated after the body of loop is executed. In case of while loop the expression is evaluated before executing body of loop. The general form of do-while statement is do { statement; }while(expression); where statement is a single statement or compound statement. In contrast to while loop statement (body of loop), do-while loop is executed one or more times. In do-while loop, first the statement is executed and then the expression is tested. If the expression evaluates to false, the loop terminates and the execution control transfer to the next statement that follows it. Otherwise, if expression evaluates to true (nonzero), execution of the statement is repeated and the iterative process continues. In case of do-while loop, the statement is executed at least once, whereas in case of while loop, the statement may not execute at all if the expression results false for the first time itself.

PROGRAMS
The for loop
Prog.48: To print the message 10 times. /* Print a message 10 times */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=10;i++) printf(“\nMillennium Software Solutions”); getch(); } Output Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Software Software Software Software Solutions Solutions Solutions Solutions

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Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium

Software Software Software Software Software Software

Solutions Solutions Solutions Solutions Solutions Solutions

Prog.49: To print 1 to 10 numbers. /* Print 1 to 10 numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=10;i++) printf(“\n%d”,i); getch(); } Output 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Prog.50: To print 1 to 10 even numbers. /* Print even numbers below 10 */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for(i=2;i<=10;i=i+2) printf(“\n%d”,i); getch(); } Output

2 4 6 8 10

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Prog.51: To print 1 to 10 odd numbers. /* Print odd numbers below 10 */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=10;i=i+2) printf(“\n%d”,i); getch(); } Output 1 3 5 7 9 Prog.52: To calculate sum of 10 natural numbers. /* Sum of first 10 natural numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,sum=0; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=10;i++) sum = sum + i; printf(“The sum of 10 natural numbers is:%d”,sum); getch(); } Output The sum of 10 natural numbers is:55 Prog.53: To calculate sum of even numbers below 10. /* Sum of even numbers below 10 */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,sum=0; clrscr(); for(i=2;i<=10;i=i+2) sum = sum + i; printf(“The sum of even numbers is:%d”,sum); getch(); }

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Output The sum of even numbers is:30 Prog.54: To calculate sum of odd numbers below 10. /* Sum of odd numbers below 10 */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,sum=0; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=10;i=i+2) sum = sum + i; printf(“The sum of odd numbers is:%d”,sum); getch(); } Output The sum of odd numbers is:25 Prog.55: To print 1 to n numbers. /* Print 1 to n numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) printf(“\n%d”,i); getch(); } Output Enter n value:5 1 2 3 4 5 Prog.56: To print 1 to n even numbers. /* Print 1 to n even numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,n;

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clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); for(i=2;i<=n;i=i+2) printf(“\n%d”,i); getch(); } Output Enter n value:15 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Prog.57: To print 1 to n odd numbers. /* Print 1 to n odd numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); for(i=1;i<=n;i=i+2) printf(“\n%d”,i); getch(); } Output Enter n value:15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Prog.58: To calculate sum of 1 to n numbers /* Sum of 1 to n numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,n,sum=0;

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}

clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) sum = sum + i; printf(“Sum of first %d numbers is:%d”,n,sum); getch(); Output

Enter n value:5 Sum of first 5 numbers is:15 Prog.59: To calculate 1 to n even numbers sum /* Sum of 1 to n even numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,n,sum=0; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); for(i=2;i<=n;i=i+2) sum = sum + i; printf(“The sum of below %d even numbers is:%d”,n,sum); getch(); } Output Enter n value:10 The sum of below 10 even numbers is:30 Prog.60: To calculate 1 to n odd numbers sum /* Sum of 1 to n odd numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,n,sum=0; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); for(i=1;i<=n;i=i+2) sum = sum + i; printf(“The sum of below %d even numbers is:%d”,n,sum); getch(); } Output Enter n value:10

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The sum of below 10 odd numbers is:25 Prog.61: To calculate factorial of first five natural numbers. /* Factorial of five */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,fact=1; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=5;i++) fact = fact * i; printf(“The factorial is:%d”,fact); getch(); } Output The factorial is:120 Prog.62: To calculate factorial of any number /* Factorial of any number */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,n; long int fact =1; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) fact = fact * i; printf(“Factorial is:%ld”,fact); getch(); } Output Enter n value:8 Factorial is:40320 Prog.63: To check the input number is prime or not. /* Prime or not*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n,status=0,i; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n);

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if(n==1) printf(“It is prime number”); else { for(i=2;i<n;i++) { if(n%i == 0) { status =1; break; } } } if(status == 0) printf(“It is prime number”); else printf(“It is not prime number”); getch(); } Prog.64: To print Fibonacci series (1,1,2,3,5,8,13,…………) /* Fibonacci Series */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int m; int n0,n1,n2,i; int count; clrscr(); n0=1; n1=1; printf(“Enter the number of Fibonacci series:”); scanf(“%d”,&m); printf(“%d %d”,n0,n1); for(i=3;i<=m;i++) { n2 = n0+n1; printf(“ %d”,n2); n0 = n1; n1 = n2; } getch(); } Output Enter the number of Fibonacci series: 7 1 1 2 3 5 8 13

Nested For Loop
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Pyramids
Prog.65: To print the following format * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * /* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

*/

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=5;i++) { for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf(“* ”); } printf(“\n”); } getch(); }

Output
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Prog.66: To print the following format 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 5

/*

*/

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#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=5;i++) { for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf(“%d ”,j); } printf(“\n”); } getch(); }

Output
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 5

Prog.67: To print the following format 1 2 3 4 5 /* 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5

*/

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=5;i++) { for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf(“%d ”,i); } printf(“\n”); }

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}

getch();

Output
1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Prog.68: To print the following format 5 4 3 2 1 /* 5 4 3 2 1 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 */

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=5;i>=1;i--) { for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf(“%d ”,i); } printf(“\n”); } getch(); }

Output
5 4 3 2 1 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2

Prog.69: To print the following format 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2
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1 /* 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2 */

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=5;i>=1;i--) { for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf(“%d ”,j); } printf(“\n”); } getch(); }

Output
1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 2 3 2

Prog.70: To print the following format 1 2 3 4 5 /* 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 */

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=5;i++)

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{

for(j=5;j>=i;j--) { printf(“%d ”,i); } printf(“\n”);

} getch(); }

Output
1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4

Prog.71: To print the following format 5 5 5 5 5 /* 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 4 3 4 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 4 3 4 */

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=1;i<=5;i++) { for(j=5;j>=i;j--) { printf(“%d ”,j); } printf(“\n”); } getch(); }

Output
5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2

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5 4 3 5 4 5 Prog.72: To print the following format 5 5 5 5 5 /* 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 3 2 1 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 3 2 1

*/

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=5;i>=1;i--) { for(j=5;j>=i;j--) { printf(“%d ”,j); } printf(“\n”); } getch(); }

Output
5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 3 2 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 2 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 2

Prog.73: To print the following format

/*

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1 1 1 1 1

*/

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j; clrscr(); for(i=5;i>=1;i--) { for(j=5;j>=i;j--) { printf(“%d ”,i); } printf(“\n”); } getch(); }

Output
5 4 3 2 1 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

While Loop
Prog.74 : To print the message 10 times. /* Print a message 10 times */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while(i<=10) { printf(“\nMillennium Software Solutions”); i++; } getch(); } Output Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Software Software Software Software Software Solutions Solutions Solutions Solutions Solutions

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Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium

Software Software Software Software Software

Solutions Solutions Solutions Solutions Solutions

Prog.75: To print 1 to 10 numbers. /* Print 1 to 10 numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while(i<=10) { printf(“\n%d”,i); i++; } getch(); } Output 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Prog.76: To print 1 to 10 even numbers. /* Print even numbers below 10 */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=2; clrscr(); while(i<=10) { printf(“\n%d”,i); i + =2; } getch(); } Output

2

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4 6 8 10 Prog.77: To print 1 to 10 odd numbers. /* Print odd numbers below 10 */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1; clrscr(); while(i<=10) { printf(“\n%d”,i); i + =2; } getch(); } 1 3 5 7 9 Output

Prog.78: To calculate sum of 10 natural numbers. /* Sum of first 10 natural numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1,sum=0; clrscr(); while(i<=10) { sum + = i; i++; } printf(“The sum of 10 natural numbers is:%d”,sum); getch(); } Output The sum of 10 natural numbers is:55 Prog.79: To calculate sum of even numbers below 10. /* Sum of even numbers below 10 */

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#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=2,sum=0; clrscr(); while(i<=10) { sum = sum + i; i +=2; } printf(“The sum of even numbers is:%d”,sum); getch(); } Output The sum of even numbers is:30 Prog.80: To calculate sum of odd numbers below 10. /* Sum of odd numbers below 10 */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1,sum=0; clrscr(); while(i<=10) { sum = sum + i; i +=2; } printf(“The sum of odd numbers is:%d”,sum); getch(); } Output The sum of odd numbers is:25 Prog.81: To print 1 to n numbers. /* Print 1 to n numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1,n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); while(i<=n) { printf(“\n%d”,i);

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}

i++; } getch(); Output

Enter n value:5 1 2 3 4 5 Prog.82: To print 1 to n even numbers. /* Print 1 to n even numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=2,n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); while(i<=n) { printf(“\n%d”,i); i +=2; } getch(); } Output Enter n value:15 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Prog.82: To print 1 to n odd numbers. /* Print 1 to n odd numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1,n; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n);

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while(i<=n) { printf(“\n%d”,i); i + = 2; } getch(); } Output Enter n value:15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Prog.83: To calculate sum of 1 to n numbers /* Sum of 1 to n numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1,n,sum=0; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); while(i<=n) { sum + = i; i++; } printf(“Sum of first %d numbers is:%d”,n,sum); getch(); } Output Enter n value:5 Sum of first 5 numbers is:15 Prog.84: To calculate 1 to n even numbers sum /* Sum of 1 to n even numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=2,n,sum=0; clrscr();

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printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); while(i<=n) { sum + =i; i + =2; } printf(“The sum of below %d even numbers is:%d”,n,sum); getch(); } Output Enter n value:10 The sum of below 10 even numbers is:30 Prog.85: To calculate 1 to n odd numbers sum /* Sum of 1 to n odd numbers */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1,n,sum=0; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); while(i<=n) { sum + =i; i + = 2; } printf(“The sum of below %d even numbers is:%d”,n,sum); getch(); } Output Enter n value:10 The sum of below 10 odd numbers is:25 Prog.86: To calculate factorial of first five natural numbers. /* Factorial of five */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1,fact=1; clrscr(); while(i<=5) { fact * =i; i++; }

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printf(“The factorial is:%d”,fact); getch(); } Output The factorial is:120 Prog.87: To calculate factorial of any number /* Factorial of any number */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i=1,n; long int fact =1; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); while(i<=n) { fact * = i; i++; } printf(“Factorial is:%ld”,fact); getch(); } Output Enter n value:8 Factorial is:40320 Prog.88: To check the input number is prime or not. /* Prime or not*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n,status=0,i=2; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); if(n==1) printf(“It is prime number”); else { while(i<n) { if(n%i == 0) { status =1;

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} } if(status == 0) printf(“It is prime number”); else printf(“It is not prime number”); getch(); } Prog.89: To print Fibonacci series (1,1,2,3,5,8,13,…………) /* Fibonacci Series */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int m; int n0,n1,n2,i=3; int count; clrscr(); n0=1; n1=1; printf(“Enter the number of Fibonacci series:”); scanf(“%d”,&m); printf(“%d %d”,n0,n1); while(i<=m) { n2 = n0+n1; printf(“ %d”,n2); n0 = n1; n1 = n2; i++; } getch(); } Output Enter the number of Fibonacci series: 7 1 1 2 3 5 8 13

} i++;

break;

do-while Loop:
Note: Do all above programs using do-while loop syntax. Syn:
initialization; do { statements; incre / decre; }while(condition);

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4. ARRAYS
4.1 Def: An Array is a collection of same data type. The elements of an array are
referred by a common name and are differentiate from one another by their position with in an array. The elements of an array can be of any data type but all elements in an array must be of the same type. The general form of declaring a array is type array_name[size]; where type is a valid datatype, array_name is the name of the array and size is the number of elements that array_name contains. Example: int A[100],marks[20]; float rates[50]; char name[30]; int A[100]; here int  data type of elements that an array A  name of array 100  size of an array The individual elements of an array can be referenced by means of its subscript (or index) Suppose A is an array of 20 elements, we can reference each element as A[0]  1st element A[1]  2nd element MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS

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A[2]  3rd element : : : : A[19]  20th element

Note: Subscript enclosed within parenthesis.
In C subscript starts from 0. That is, if we declare an array of size n, then we can refer the elements from 0 to (n-1)th element. Generally Arrays are 3 types. They are (i) (ii) (iii) Single Dimensional Array Double Dimensional Array Multi Dimensional Array

4.2 Single Dimensional Array
The general form of Single Dimensional array is: datatype variable[size]; Example: int A[20];

Initialization of arrays during declaration
Similar to other datatypes, the array also can be initialized at the time of declaration. int num[5] ={3,2,1,5,4}; char name[15] = {‘c’,’o’,’m’,’p’,’u’,’t’,’e’,’r’,’s’}; float rate[] = {20.5,15.75,12.34};
The following points can be noted regarding initialization of an array at the time of declaration:

1. The size of an array can be omitted in the declaration. If the size is omitted, then the compiler will reserve the memory location corresponds to number of individual elements that includes in the declaration. 2. If the array elements are not given any specific values, they are supposed to contain garbage values. 3. C will not allow to specify repetition of an initialization, or to initialize an ] element in the middle of an array without supplying all the preceding values. The following program illustrates the Initialization of array
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a[5] = {4,3,2,1,5},i;

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}

clrscr(); printf(“The elements in an array:”); for(i=0;i<=4;i++) printf(“%d\n”,i); getch();

Inserting elements into an array
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a[5],i; clrscr(); printf(“Enter 5 elements into an array:”); for(i=0;i<=4;i++) scanf(“%d”,&a[i]); printf(“The 5 elements are:”); for(i=0;i<=4;i++) printf(“\n%d”,a[i]); getch(); }

4.3 Two-Dimensional Array
The general form of Two-Dimensional Arrays is type array_name[row_size][column_size]; Example: int a[2][2];

Initializing Two-Dimensional Arrays
Like the one-dimensional arrays, following their declaration with a list of initial values enclosed in braces may initialize two-dimensional arrays. For example, int a[2][2] ={1,2,5,4}; initializes the elements of the first row to zero and the second row to one. initialization is done row by row. The above statement can be equivalently written as int a[2][2]={{1,2},{5,4}}; We can also initialize a two-dimensional array in the form of a matrix as shown below: int a[2][2]= { {1,2}, {5,4} }; Program showing two-dimensional arrays The

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#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a[2][2],i,j; clrscr(); printf(“Enter 4 elements into array:”); for(i=0;i<=1;i++) { for(j=0;j<=1;j++) { scanf(“%d”,&a[i][j]); } } printf(“The 4 elements are:\n”); for(i=0;i<=1;i++) { for(j=0;j<=1;j++) { printf(“%d ”,a[i][j]); } printf(“\n”); } getch(); }

5. Handling of Character Strings
As it was mentioned earlier character is stored internally as an integer. For convenience the C compiler as well as the programmer treat certain values as characters and manipulate them accordingly. Like an integer array, a group of characters can be stored in a character array. These character arrays are often called strings. A string is an array of characters. There is no string built-in data type in C. But we can declare string as an array of characters. To recognize a character array, it should end with a null character (‘\0’). For example, the string SCIENCE would be stored as ‘S’ ‘C ‘I ‘E’ ‘N’ ‘C ‘E’ ‘\0’ ’ ’ ’ The length of a string is the number of characters it contains excluding null character. Hence, the number of locations needed to store a string is one more than length of string. In this example, the length of the string is 7. Since, the first null character in a string is assumed to be the end of a string, more exactly the length of a string can be

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defined as the number of non-null characters between the first character and first null character in a string.

Declaring and initializing string variables
The general form of declaration of string variable is char string-name[size]; where, string-name is the name of a string and size is the maximum number of characters the string-name can contain. Example: char name[30]; char designation[25]; char date_of_join[8]; String variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. Example: char name[30] = “Millennium”; char designation[25] = “Computers”; A string can also be initialized at the time of declaration in the following ways. char name[30] = “Millennium”; or char name[30] ={‘M’,’i’,’l’,’l’,’n’,’n’,’i’,’u’,’m’,’\0’}; or char name[] = “Millennium”; or char name[] = {‘M’,’i’,’l’,’l’,’e’,’n’,’n’,’i’,’u’,’m’,’\0’}; Note that, when initialize a character array by listing its elements, we must explicitly specify the null terminator. When a character string is assigned to a character array, C adds the null character at the end of string automatically. A two-dimensional array can be initialized to a list of strings. For example, char day[7][15] = { “Monday”, “Tuesday”, “Wednesday”, “Thursday”, “Friday”, “Saturday”, “Sunday”

};

The scanf(), printf() function is used with %s with format specification to read and print a string.

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Example: char str[30]; scanf(“%s”,str); printf(“%s”,str); In the case of reading strings, the ampersand (&) is not required before the string variable name. As mentioned earlier, one of the limitations of the scanf() function is that it is not capable of holding multiword strings, even though it can read them. Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char line[80]; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a line\n”); scanf(“%s”,line); printf(“The entered line is:%s”,line); getch(); }

While executing this program, if you have typed as This is a line Then the output is The entered line is: This To overcome this type of situation, we can use gets() function in place of scanf() function. Similarly puts() function can be used in place of printf() function. The gets() function will continue to read and hold a string of input until it encounters a new line character (‘\n’). It will replace the new line character with a null character (‘\0’), thus creating a string. The above program can be written using gets() and puts() function as….
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char line[80]; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a line\n”); gets(line); puts(“The entered string is:”); puts(line); getch(); }

5.1 String handling Functions: string.h
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Every C compiler provides a large set of string handling library functions, which are contained in the header file string.h
The following table shows some of the functions available in string.h header file.
Functio n Meaning

strcat() strlen() strlwr() strupr() strcpy() strcmp() strrev()

String concatenate.

Append one string to another.

First character of string2

overwrites null character of string1. Returns the length of the string not counting the null character. Converts a string to lower case. Converts a string to upper case. Copies a string into another. Compares two strings Reverses a string.

Note: The functions deal with strings (a string of characters) ending with null character ‘\0’. To use these functions, including the following line in the program. #include<string.h>

5.2 strcat() function
The strcat() function concatenates the source string at the end of the target string. For example “Computing” and “Techniques” on concatenation would result in string “ComputingTechniques”. The general form is strcat(string1, string2); strong2 appends to string1 and the first character to string2 overwrites null character of first string1. This function returns the first argument i.e., string1. The string2 remains unchanged. Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char s1[30],s2[15]; clrscr(); printf(“Enter String1:”); gets(s1); printf(“Enter String2:”); gets(s2); printf(“The entire string is:%s”,strcat(s1,s2)); getch(); }

Output
Enter String1:Millennium Enter String2:Software Solutions The entire string is:MillenniumSoftware Solutions

5.3 strcmp() function:
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strcmp(string1, string2); strcmp() function compares two strings to find out whether they are same or different. The two strings are compared character by character until there is a mismatch or end of one of the strings is reached, whichever occurs first. If the two strings are same, strcmp() returns a value 0. If they are not same, it returns the numeric difference between the ASCII values of the first non-matching characters. That is, it returns less than 0 if string1 is less than string2, and greater than 0 if string1 is greater than string2. Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char s1[25],s2[25]; int c; clrscr(); printf(“Enter string1:”); gets(s1); printf(“Enter string2:”); gets(s2); c=strcmp(s1,s2); if(c>0) printf(“String1 > String2”); else if(c<0) printf(“String2 > String1”); else printf(“Both are equal”); getch(); }

Output
Enter String1:abc Enter String2:ABC String1 > String2

5.4 strcpy() function
strcpy(String1, String2); The strcpy() function is used to copy the character string from String2 to String1. This function returns the result string String1 the String2 remains unchanged. String2 may be a character array or a string constant. Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h>

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void main() { char s1[15],s2[15]; clrscr(); printf(“Enter String1:”) gets(s1); printf(“The String2 is:%s”,strcpy(s2,s1)); getch(); }

Output
Enter String1:Millennium The String2 is:Millennium

5.5 strlen() function
This function counts the number of characters present in a string. The counting ends at the first null character. strlen (String1); The strlen() function returns the length of the argument String1 excluding the null character. The argument may be a string constant. Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char str[30]; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a string:”); gets(str); printf(“The length of a string is:%d”,strlen(str)); getch(); }

Output
Enter a string: Millennium Software Solutions The length of a string is:29

5.6 strupr(), strlwr(), strrev() functions
The strupr() function is converted the string into upper case and strlwr() function is converted the string into lower case and strrev() function prints the entire string in reverse order. Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h>

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void main() { char str[15]; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a string:”); gets(str); printf(“The upper case string is:%s”,strupr(str)); printf(“\nThe lower case string is:%s”,strlwr(str)); printf(“\nThe reverse string is:%s”,strrev(str)); getch(); }

Output

Enter a string:millennium The upper case string is:MILLENNIUM The lower case string is:millennium The reverse string is:muinnellim

6. Functions and Storage Classes
6.1 User-defined Functions
Functions are building blocks of C. Function performs the same set of instructions on different sets of data or at different portions of a program. C functions can be classified into two categories, namely library functions and user-defined functions. main is an example of user-defined functions. printf and scanf belong to the category of library functions. The main distinction between these two categories is that library functions are not required to be written by us whereas a user-defined function has to be developed by the user at the time of writing a program. Advantages of user-defined functions: 1. It facilitates top-down modular programming as shown in fig. while the details of each lower-level function are addressed later. 2. The length of a source program can be reduced by using functions at appropriate places. This factor is particularly critical with microcomputers where memory space is limited. 3. As mentioned earlier, it is easy to locate and isolate a faulty function for further investigations. In this programming style, the high level logic of the overall problem is solved first

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4. Many other programs may use a function. This means that a C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting over, from scratch.
Main Program

Function1

Function2

Function3

Function4

Function5

Top-Down modular programming, using functions

The general form of C function is
Return-type Function-name (parameter list) parameter declaration; { Body of function; }

6.2 Features of Functions:
(a) Function Declaration and prototypes. (b) Calling functions by value or by reference. (c) Recursion

6.3 Category of functions:
A function, depending on whether arguments are present or not and whether a value is returned or not, may belong to one of the following categories: Category 1: Functions with no arguments and no return values. Category 2: Functions with arguments and no return values. Category 3: Functions with arguments and return values. Example: 6.3.1 Functions with no arguments and nor return values
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h>

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void printline(); Function Declaration void main() { clrscr(); printline(); printf(“This illustrates the use of C functions\n”); printline(); getch(); } Return Type void printline() { int i; for(i=1;i<=40;i++) printf(“-”); printf(“\n”); }
Function Name

6.3.2 Arguments but no Return values
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void swap(int,int); void main() { int a,b; clrscr(); printf(“Enter 2 numbers:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); Function Call swap(a,b); getch(); } void swap(int x, int y) Called Function { int z; z = x; x = y; y = z; printf(“\nAfter swapping:%d,%d”,x,y); }

Actual arguments: The arguments mentioned in function call are called as “actual
arguments”. For example, in the function call statement swap(a,b), the two parameters a and b are known as Actual parameters.

Formal arguments: The arguments in the function declaration are called as “Formal
arguments”. In the function definition swap(int x, int y), the parameters x and y are known as Formal parameters. MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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6.3.3 Arguments with Return Values
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int big(int,int); void main() { int a,b,max; clrscr(); printf(“Enter 2 numbers:”); scanf(“%d%d”,&a,&b); max = big(a,b); printf(“\nThe biggest number is:%d”,max); getch(); } int big(int x, int y) { if(x>y) return x; else return y; }

6.4 Recursion: Recursion is a technique to be used to call itself. In C, it is possible for
the functions to call themselves. A function is called recursive if a statement with in the body of a function calls the same function itself. Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> long int fact(int); void main() { int n; long int res; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a positive number:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); res = fact(n); printf(“The factorial is:%ld”,res); getch(); } long int fact(int n) { long int f; if(n==1) return 1; else f = n*fact(n-1); return f;

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}

The following are important points about functions: 1. All C programs must contain atleast one function. [The main() function serves this rule] 2. A function can return only one value. Thus we should not specify two values to return. 3. The return type in function declaration is optional. If no return type is specified it is assumed to be an integer which is default. 4. When a function is not returning any value, void type can be used as return type. 5. Parameter list is optional. 6. ‘C’ provides a statement return return expression 7. Return statement is used in function definition to communicate the return value to the calling function. 8. Return statement indicates exit from the function and return to the point from where the function was invoked. 9. There may be any number of return statements in function definition, but only one return statement will activate in a function call. 10. The variable declarations within the function (between braces { }) are local to the function and are not available outside the function. 11. If there is no return statement, the program will return to the calling point after it reaches the end of the function body (}). 12. A function call can be used wherever a variable of same type is used (except the left side of an assignment statement). 13. There should be one to one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters in type, order and number. 14. C allows recursion. That is a function can call itself. 15. A C function cannot be defined in another function.

6.5 Functions with Arrays
Like the values of simple variables, it is also possible to pass the values of an array to a function. To pass an array to a called function, it is sufficient to list the name of the MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS

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array, without any subscripts, and the size of the array as arguments. For example, the call largest(a,n); will pass all the elements contained in the array a of size n. The called function expecting this call must be appropriately defined. The largest function header might look like: int largest(array,size); int array[]; int size; Program: Sorting of array elements
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i; int marks[5]; clrscr(); printf(“Enter 5 sub marks:”); for(i=0;i<=4;i++) scanf(“%d”,&marks[i]); printf(“\nMarks before sorting\n”); for(i=0;i<=4;i++) printf(“%d”,marks[i]); sort(marks,5); printf(“\nMarks after sorting\n”); for(i=0;i<=4;i++) printf(“%d”,marks[i]); getch(); } void sort(int x[],int n) { int i,j,t; for(i=1;i<=n-1;i++) for(j=1;j<=n-1;j++) if(x[j-1] >= x[j]) { t = x[j-1]; x[j-1] = x[j]; x[j] = t; } }

6.6 Variables and Storage Classes: There are three basic places in a C program
where variables will be declared: inside the function, in the definition of function parameters, or outside of all functions. These variables are called local variables, formal parameters, and global variables respectively.

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Local Variables: The body of any function comprises of two parts: declaration of
variables and a set of executable statements. Variables declared inside a function are called local variables. This name derives from the fact that a variable inside a function can be used only inside that function. An attempt on our part or access the local variable of one function in another, will draw an error from the compiler: Identifier undefined. Global Variables: C program consists of three sections namely: the preprocessor directives, the global variable section and finally the functions. The variables that are declared in the global variable section are called global variables. While a local variable can be used only inside a function in which it is declared, a global variable can be used anywhere in the program. Block Variables: Yet another place to declare variables is inside any block: these variables are called block variables and these can be used only inside that block.

Global Vs Local Variables:
There are a number of differences between global variables and local variables.

1. Local variables can be used only inside the function or the block in which they are declared. program. 2. The rules of initialization differ. All global variables, in the absence of explicit initialization, are automatically initialized. A global int variable begins with the value 0, a global float gets initialized to 0.0, a global char holds the ASCII null byte, and a global pointer points to NULL. As against this, local variables do not get initialized to any specified value, when a value is not provided. Thus a local variable begins with an unknown value, which may be different each time. 3. Global variables get initialized only once, before the program starts executing. But, local variables get initialized each time the function or block containing their declaration is entered. 4. The initial value that you supply for a global variable must be a constant, whereas a local variable can contain variables in its initializer. 5. A local variable loses its value, the moment the function/block containing it is exited. Global variables retain their values throughout their execution. On the other hand, global variables can be used throughout the

Storage classes:

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The storage class of a variable dictates how, when and where storage will be allocated for the variable. The different storage classes available are: 1. Auto 2. Register 3. Extern 4. Static 1. Auto: Automatic variables are declared inside a function in which they are to be utilized. They are created when the function is called and destroyed automatically when the function is exited, hence the name automatic. Automatic variables are therefore private (or local) to the function in which they are declared. Because of this property, automatic variables are also refereed to as local or internal variables. A variable declared inside a function without storage class specification is, by default, an automatic variable. One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed accidentally by what happens in some other function in the program. This assures that we may declare and use the same variable name in different functions in the same program without causing any confusion to the compiler. Program: ILLUSTRATION OF WORKING OF auto VARIABLES
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void function1(); void function2(); void main() { int m = 1000; clrscr(); function2(); printf(“%d\n”,m); getch(); } void function1() { int m = 10; printf(“%d\n”,m); } void function2() { int m = 100; function1(); printf(“%d\n”,m); }

2. Register: It is possible for use to attribute the register storage class to certain variables. We can tell the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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machine’s registers, instead of keeping in the memory (where normal variables are stored). Since a register access is much faster than a memory access, keeping the frequently accessed variables in the register will lead to faster execution of programs. This is done as follows: register int count; The important point while using register variables is, registers of CPU do not have addresses. Thus, we should not refer the address of a register variable. For example, The following statement will result an error. register int i; scanf(“%d”,&i); Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { register int count; int sum; clrscr(); for(count=0;count<10;count++) sum = sum + count; printf(“The sum is:%d”,sum); getch(); }

3. Extern: This is the default storage class for all global variables. Extern storage class variables get initialized (to zero in the case of integers) automatically, retain their value throughout the execution of the program and can be shared by different modules of the same program. (another file) should have “extern int intvar”. Example: a.c file #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int intvar; extern float f; void main() { char ch; funct(ch,intvar); b.c file float f = 84.237; extern int intvar; funct(char c, int intvar) { char c1,c2; : : } However, assuming “int intvar;”is present in a.c., to be also to have proper binding with the same variable, b.c

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printf(“%f”,f); getch(); } If we intend to share a variable say f, between a.c and b.c files, f must be declared in both files. Note that it is qualified as extern in a.c file. The extern qualifier indicated the compiler that f is a variable of type float for which no memory needs to be allocated and it will be allocated elsewhere. Note that if a variable is declared as extern, it must appear as global variable once in another source file. 4. Static: The static storage class has a number of implications depending upon its usage. (a) The default storage class for all local variables is auto. This can be changed to static by prefixing the declaration with the keyword static as in static int intvar. A local variable with static storage class is still a local variable as far as its scope is concerned, it is still available only inside the function in which it is declared. But certain other properties of the variable change; It gets initialized to zero automatically, is initialized only once, (during program startup) and it retains its value throughout the execution of the program. (b) When applied to a global variable, the global variable becomes inaccessible outside the file in which it is declared. (c) This storage class can be applied to functions too. Similar to case 2, the functions become inaccessible outside the file. Example:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { function1( ); function1( ); function1( ); getch(); } void function1() { static int n; n++; printf(“\nThe value of n is:%d”,n); } The output of above program is The value of n is 1 The value of n is 2 The value of n is 3

Note that the static variable is initialized to zero automatically. Test the above program without the keyword static to understand the static storage class clearly.
Storage class Type Default initial value Where declared Scope Life Storage

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Auto or none Register

Local Local

An unpredictable value, which is often called a garbage value Garbage value

within the function or block within the function or block within the function or block A heat of all functions within a file

Static

Local

Zero

only within the function / block where it is declared only within the function / block where it is declared only within the function / block where it is declared All files including other files where declared extern

until function block is no longer active until function block is no longer active until program ends, value of the variable persists between different function calls While any of these files are active. That is, as long as the program’s execution doesn’t come to an end

Memory

CPU registers Memory

Extern

Global

Zero

Memory

-x -

7. Structures and Unions
7.1 INTRODUCTION
We seen that arrays can be used to represent a group of data items that belong to the same type, such as int or float. However, if we want to represent a collection of data items of different types using a single name, then we cannot use an array. Fortunately, C supports a constructed data type known as structure, which is a method for packing data of different types. A structure is a convenient tool for handling a group of logically related data items. These fields are called structure elements or members.

7.2 Declaring A Structure
The general form of a structure declaration statement is given below: struct <structure name> { structure element1; structure element2; structure element3; ………. ………. } Example: struct book { char name[20]; char author[15]; int pages; float price; MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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} Note that the above declaration has not declared any variables. describes a format called template to represent information. We can declare structure variables using the tag name anywhere in the program. For example, the statement struct book book1, book2,book3; declares book1, book2, book3 as variables of type struct book. It is also allowed to combine both the template declaration and variables declaration in one statement. The declaration struct book { char name[20]; char author[15]; int pages; float price; }book1,book2,book3; is valid. The use of tag name is optional. For example, struct { char name[20]; char author[15]; int pages; float price; }book1,book2,book3; declares book1, book2, book3 as structure variables representing three books, but does not include a tag name for later use in declarations. Note the following points while declaring a structure type: (a) The closing brace in the structure type declaration must be followed by a semicolon. (b) It is important to understand that a structure type declaration does not tell the compiler to reserve any space in memory. All a structure declaration does is, it defines the ‘form’ of the structure. (c) Usually structure type declaration appears at the top of the source code file, before any variables or functions are defined. It simply

7.3 ACCESSING STRUCTURES ELEMENTS

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We can assign values to the members of a structure in a number of ways. As mentioned earlier, the members themselves are not variables. They should be linked to the structure variables in order to make them meaningful members. The link between a member and a variable is established using the member operator ‘.’ Which is also known as ‘dot operator’ or ‘period operator’. The general form is Structure-Variable. Structure-Member; For example, book1.price; We can also use scanf to give the values through the keyboard. scanf(“%s”,book1.name); scanf(“%d”,&book1.pages); are valid input statements. Example: Program: Defining and Assigning Values to Structure Members
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> struct personal { char name[20]; int day; char month[10]; int year; float salary; }; void main() { struct personal person; clrscr(); printf(“Input values\n”); scanf(“%s%d%s%d%f”,person.name, &person.day, person.month, &person.year, &person.salary); printf(“%s %d %s %d,%.2f\n”,person.name,person.day, person.month,person.month,person.year,person.salary); getch(); } Output
Input Values Mahesh 15 February 1982 5000 Mahesh 15 February 1982 5000.00

7.4 ARRAYS OF STRUCTURES
We use structures to describe the format of a number of related variables. For example, in analyzing the marks obtained by a class of students, we may use a template to describe MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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student name and marks obtained in various subjects and then declare all the students as structure variables. In such cases, we may declare an array of structures, each element of the array representing a structure variable. For example, struct class student[100]; defines an array called student, that consists of 100 elements. Each element is defined to be of the type struct class. Consider the following declaration: struct marks { int sub1; int sub2; int sub3; }s[5]; Program: Usage of an array of structures
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> struct book { char name[15]; float price; int pages; }b[3]; void main() { int i; clrscr(); printf(“Enter name, price and pages(3 records):”); for(i=0;i<=2;i++) scanf(“%s %f %d”,b[i].name,&b[i].price,&b[i].pages); printf(“\nThe details are:\n”); printf(“name\tprice\tpages”); for(i=0;i<=2;i++) printf(“\n%s %f %d”,b[i].name,b[i].price,b[i].pages); getch(); } linkfloat() { float a=0,*b; b = &a; a = *b; }

Now a comment about the program What is the function linkfloat() doing here? If you don’t define it you are bound to get the error “Floating Point Formats Not linked” with majority of C compilers. What causes this error to occur? When parsing our source file, if the compiler encounters a reference to the address of a float, it sets a flag to have the linker link in the floating-point MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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emulator. A floating point emulator is used to manipulate floating point numbers in runtime library functions like scanf().

7.5 ARRAYS WITHIN STRUCTURES
C permits the use of arrays as structure members. We have already used arrays of characters inside a structure. Similarly, we can use single-or multi-dimensional arrays of type int or float. For example, the following structure declaration is valid: struct marks { int number; float sub[3]; }s[2];

7.6 STRUCTURES WITHIN STRUCTURES
Structures within a structure means nesting of structures. struct salary { char name[20]; char dept[10]; struct { int dearness; int house_rent; int city; }allowance; }employee; The salary structure contains a member named allowance which itself is a structure with three members. The members contained in the inner structure namely dearness, employee.allowance.dearness employee.allowance.house_rent employee.allowance.city house_rent, and city can be referred to as Nesting of structures is permitted in C. Let us consider the following structure definition:

7.7 STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS
We know that the main philosophy of C language is the use of the functions. Therefore, it is natural that C supports the passing of structure values as arguments to functions. There are three methods by which the values of a structure can be transferred from one function to another.

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The first method is to pass each member of the structure as an actual argument of the function call. The actual arguments are then treated independently like ordinary variables. This is the most elementary method and becomes unmanageable and inefficient when the structure size is large. The second method involves passing of a copy of the entire structure to the called function. Since the function is working on a copy of the structure, any changes to structure members within the function are not reflected in the original structure (in the calling function). It is, therefore, necessary for the function to return the entire structure back to the calling function. All compilers may not support this method of passing the entire structure as a parameter. The third approach employs a concept pointers to pass the structure as an argument. In this case, the address location of the structure is passed to the called function. The function can access indirectly the entire structure and work on it. This is similar to the way arrays are passed to functions. This method is more efficient as compared to the second one. In this section, we discuss in detail the second method, while the third approach using pointers is discussed in the next chapter, where pointers are dealt in detail. The general format of sending a copy of a structure to the called function is: Function_Name (structure variable name) The called function takes the following form: data_type function_name(st_name) struct_type st_name; { ……… ……… return(expression); } The following points are important to note: 1. The called function must be declared for its type, appropriate to the data type it is expected to return. For example, if it is returning a copy of the entire structure, then it must be declared as struct with an appropriate tag name. 2. The structure variable used as the actual argument and the corresponding formal argument in the called function must be of the same struct type.

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3. The return statement is necessary only when the function is returning some data. The expression may be any simple variable or structure variable or an expression using simple variables. 4. When a function returns a structure, it must be assigned to a structure of identical type in the calling function. 5. The called function must be declared in the calling function for its type, if it is placed after the calling function.

Example: Program: STRUCTURE AS FUNCTION PARAMETERS
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> struct stores { char name[20]; float price; int quantity; }; struct stores update(struct stores,float,int); float mul(struct stores); void main() { float p_increment, value; int q_increment; static struct stores item={“XYZ”,25.75,12}; clrscr(); printf(“\nInput increment values:”) ; printf(“price increment and quantity increment\n”); scanf(“%f%d”,&p_increment,&q_increment); item = update(item,p_increment,q_increment); printf(“\nUpdate values of item”); printf(“\n\nName:%s”,item.name); printf(“\nPrice:%.2f”,item.price); printf(“\nQuantity:%d”,item.quantity); value = mul(item); printf(“\nValue of the item=%.2f”,value); getch(); } struct stores update(struct stores product, float p, int q) { product.price+=p; product.quantity+=q; return(product); } float mul(struct stores stock)

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{ }

return stock.price*stock.quantity;

7.8 UNIONS
Unions are a concept borrowed from structures and therefore follow the same syntax as structures. However, there is major distinction between them in terms of storage. In structures, each member has its own storage location, whereas all the members of a union use the same location. This implies that, although a union may contain many members of different types, it can handle only one member at a time. Like structures, a union can be declared using the keyword union as follows: union item { int m; float x; char c; }code;

7.9 SIZE OF STRUCTURES
We normally use structures, unions, and arrays to create variables of large sizes. The actual size of these variables in terms of bytes may change from machine to machine. We may use the unary operator sizeof to tell us the size of a structure (or any variable). The expression sizeof(struct x) will evaluate the number of bytes required to hold all the members of the structure x. If y is a simple structure variable of type struct x, then the expression sizeof(y) would also give the same answer.

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8. Pointers
8.1 INTRODUCTION Pointers are another important feature of C language. They are a powerful tool and handy to use once they are mastered. There are a number of reasons for using pointers. 1. A pointer enables us to access a variable that is defined outside the function. 2. Pointers are more efficient in handling the data tables. 3. Pointers reduce the length and complexity of a program. 4. They increase the execution speed. 5. The use of a pointer array to character strings results in saving of data storage space in memory. 8.2 ACCESSING THE ADDRESS OF A VARIABLE The actual location of a variable in the memory is system dependent and therefore, the address of a variable is not known to us immediately. We can determine the address of the variable with the help of the operator & in C. We have already seen the use of this address operator in the scanf function. The operator & immediately preceding a variable returns the address of the variable associated with it. For example, p = &quantity; would assign the address to the variable p. The & operator can be remembered as ‘address of’. Example: Accessing Addresses of variables
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h>

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void main() { char a; int x; float p, q; clrscr(); a = ‘A’; x = 125; p = 10.25, q = 18.76; printf(“%c is stored at address %u”, a, &a); printf(“\n%d is stored at address %u”, x, &x); printf(“\n%f is stored at address %u”, p, &p); printf(“\n%f is stored at address %u”, q, &q); getch(); }

8.3 DECLARING AND INITIALIZING POINTERS In C, every variable must be declared for its type. Since pointer variables contain addresses that belong to a separate data type, they must be declared as pointers before we use them. The declaration of a pointer variable takes the following form:
datatype *pt_name;

This tells the compiler three things about the variable pt_name. 1. The asterisk (*) tells the variable pt_name is a pointer variable. 2. pt_name needs a memory location. 3. pt_name points to a variable of type datatype. For example, int *p; declares the variable p as a pointer variable that points to an integer data type. Remember that the type int refers to the data type of the variable being pointed to by p and not the type of the value of the pointer. Similarly, the statement float *x; declares x as a pointer to a floating point variable. Once a pointer variable has been declared, it can be made to point to a variable using an assignment statement such as p = &quantity; which causes p to point to quantity. That is, p now contains the address of quantity. This is known as pointer initialization. Before a pointer is initialized, it should not be used.

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A pointer variable can be initialized in its declaration itself. For example, int x, *p=&x; is perfectly valid. It declares x as an integer variable and p as a pointer variable and then initializes p to the address of x. Note carefully that this is an initialization of p, not *p. And also remember that the target variable x is declared first. The statement int *p=&x, x; is not valid. 8.4 ACCESSING A VARIABLE THROUGH ITS POINTER Once a pointer has been assigned the address of a variable, the question remains as to how to access the value of the variable using the pointer. This is done by using another unary operator * (asterisk), usually known as the indirection operator. Consider the following statements: int quantity, *p, n; quantity = 179; p = &quantity; n = *p; The first line declares quantity and n as integer variables and p as a pointer variable pointing to an integer. The second line assigns the value 179 to quantity and the third line assigns the address of quantity to the pointer variable p. The fourth line contains the indirection operator *. When the operator * is placed before a pointer variable in an expression, the pointer returns the value of the variable of which the pointer value is the address. In this case, *p returns the value of the variable quantity, because p is the address of quantity. The * can be remembered as ‘value of address’. Thus the value of n would be 179. Example: Program to illustrate the use of indirection operator ‘*’
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int x, y; int *ptr; clrscr(); x = 10; ptr = &x; y = *ptr; printf(“Value of x is %d”,x); printf(“\n%d is stored at address %u”, x, &x); printf(“\n%d is stored at address %u”, *&x , &x); printf(“\n%d is stored at address %u”, *ptr, ptr);

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printf(“\n%d is stored at address %u”, y, &*ptr); printf(“\n%d is stored at address %u”, ptr, &ptr); printf(“\n%d is stored at address %u”, y, &y); getch(); }

Example: Arithmetic operations on Pointers
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a, b, *p1, *p2; clrscr(); a = 4; b = 2; p1 = &a; p2 = &b; printf(“\n Sum = %d”,*p1 printf(“\n Sub = %d”,*p1 printf(“\n Mul = %d”,*p1 printf(“\n Div = %d”,*p1 printf(“\n Rem = %d”,*p1 getch(); }

+ * / %

*p2); *p2); *p2); *p2); *p2);

8.5 POINTERS AND ARRAYS When an array is declared, the compiler allocates a base address and sufficient amount of storage to contain all the elements of the array in contiguous memory locations. The base address is the location of the first element (index 0) of the array. The compiler also defines the array name as a constant pointer to the first element. If we declare p as an integer pointer, then we can make the pointer p to point to the array x by the following assignment: p = x; This is equivalent to p = &x[0]; When handling arrays, instead of using array indexing, we can use pointers to access array elements. Note that *(p+3) gives the value of x[3]. The pointer accessing method is much faster than array indexing. Example: Pointers in one-dimensional array
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int *p, sum=0,i; clrscr(); printf(“Enter 5 elements:”); for(i=0;i<=4;i++) scanf(“%d”,*(p+i));

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for(i=0;i<=4;i++) sum = sum + *p; printf(“\nThe sum is:%d”,sum); getch(); }

Pointers can be used to manipulate two-dimensional arrays as well. We know that in a one-dimensional array x, the expression *(x + i) or *( p + i) represents the element x[i]. Similarly, an element in a two-dimensional array can be represented by the pointer expression as follows: *(*(a+i)+j) or *(*(p+i)+j) 8.6 DYNAMIC MEMORY ALLOCATION C language requires the number of elements in an array to be specified at compile time. But we may not be able to do so always. Our initial judgment of size, if it is wrong, may cause failure of the program or wastage of memory space. Many languages permit a programmer to specify an array’s size at run time. The process of allocating memory at run time is known as dynamic memory allocation. In C language there are four library routines known as “memory management functions” that can be used for allocating and freeing memory during program execution. Memory Allocation Functions

malloc

Allocates requested size of bytes and returns a pointer to the first byte of the allocated space. calloc Allocates space for an array of elements, initializes them to zero and then returns a pointer to the memory. Free Frees previously allocated space. realloc Modifies the size of previously allocated space. Allocating a Block of Memory A block of memory may be allocated using the function malloc. The malloc function reserves a block of memory of specified size and returns a pointer of type void. This means that we can assign it to any type of pointer. It takes the following form: ptr = (datatype *)malloc(byte-size); ptr is a pointer of type datatype. The malloc returns a pointer (of datatype) to an area of memory with size byte-size. Example: MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
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x = (int *) malloc (sizeof(int) * n); Note: In above example n is always a numeric. Example: Use of malloc Function
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int *p, n, i; clrscr(); printf(“Enter n value:”); scanf(“%d”,&n); p = (int) malloc(sizeof(int)*n); printf(“\nEnter %d numbers:”,n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf(“%d”,*(p+i)); printf(“\nThe numbers are:”); for(i=0;i<n;i++) printf(“\n%d”,*(p+i)); getch(); }

Allocating Multiple Blocks of Memory calloc is another memory allocation function that is normally used for requesting memory space at run time for storing derived data types such as arrays and structures. While malloc allocates a single block of storage space, calloc allocates multiple blocks of storage, each of the same size, and then sets all bytes to zero. The general form of calloc is: ptr = (datatype *) calloc (n,elem-size); The above statement allocates contiguous space for n blocks, each of size elem-size bytes. All bytes are initialized to zero and a pointer to the first byte of the allocated region is returned. If there is not enough space, a NULL pointer is returned. Releasing the Used Space Compile-time storage of a variable is allocated and released by the system in accordance with its storage class. With the dynamic run-time allocation, it is our responsibility to release the space when it is not required. The release of storage space becomes important when the storage is limited. We may release that block of memory for future use, using the free function: free(ptr); ptr is a pointer to a memory block which has already been created by malloc or calloc. Altering the Size of a Block

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It is likely that we discover later, the previously allocated memory is not sufficient and we need additional space for more elements. It is also possible that the memory allocated is much larger than necessary and we want to reduce it. In both the cases, we can change the memory size already allocated with the help of the function realloc. This process is called the reallocation of memory. For example, if the original allocation is done by the statement ptr = malloc(size); then reallocation of space may be done by the statement ptr = realloc(ptr, newsize); 8.7 POINTERS AND CHARACTER STRINGS We know that a string is an array of characters, terminated with a null character. Like in one-dimensional arrays, we can use a pointer to access the individual characters in a string. Example: Pointers and Character Strings
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char *str; int i=0; clrscr(); printf(“Enter a string:”); gets(str); while(*str!=’\0’) { i++; str++; } printf(“\nThe length is:%d”,i); getch(); }

8.8 POINTERS AND FUNCTIONS In functions we can pass the duplicate values for the actual parameters, but we can pass the address of a variable as an argument to a function in the normal fashion. When we pass addresses to a function, the parameters receiving the addresses should be pointers. The process of calling a function using pointers to pass the addresses of variable is known as call by address.

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Example: Pointers as function Parameters
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b; clrscr(); printf(“Enter 2 numbers:”); scanf(“%d %d”,&a,&b); printf(“\nBefore exchange: a=%d, b=%d”,a, b); swap(&a,&b); printf(“\nAfter exchange: a=%d, b=%d”,a, b); getch(); } void swap(int *x, int *y) { int z; z = *x; *x = *y; *y = z; }

8.9 POINTERS AND STRUCTURES We know that the name of an array stands for the address of its zeroth element. The same thing is true of the names of arrays of structure variables. Suppose product is an array variable of struct type. The name product represents the address of its zeroth element. Consider the following declaration: struct inventory { char name[30]; int number; }product[3], *ptr; Example: Pointers to Structure variables
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> struct invent { char name[20] ; int number; }product[3], *ptr; void main() { clrscr(); printf(“INPUT\n\n”); printf(“Enter name and number(3 records):”); for(ptr = product;ptr<product+3;ptr++) scanf(“%s %d”,ptr->name,&ptr->number); printf(“\n\nOUTPUT”); for(ptr = product;ptr<product+3;ptr++) printf(“\n%s\t%d”,ptr->name,ptr->number); getch();

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}

8.10 DYNAMIC MEMORY ALLOCATION We may also use malloc to allocate space for complex data types such as structures. Example: st_var = (struct store *)malloc(sizeof(struct store)); where st_var is a pointer of type struct store.

9. File Management in C
9.1 INTRODUCTION A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. Like most other languages, C supports a number of functions that have the ability to perform basic file operations, which include:  Naming a file,  Opening a file,  Reading data from a file,  Writing data to a file, and  Closing a file. High level I/O functions
Function Name Operation

fopen() fclose() Getc() putc() fprintf() fscanf() getw() putw() fseek() Ftell() rewind()

Creates a new file for use Opens an existing file for use. Closes a file which has been opened for use. Reads a character from a file. Writes a character to a file. Writes a set of data values to a file. Reads a set of data values from a file. Reads an integer from a file. Writes an integer to file. Sets the position to a desired point in the file Gives the current position in the file Sets the position to the beginning of the file.

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9.2 DEFINING AND OPENING A FILE If we want to store data in a file in the secondary memory, we must specify certain things about the file, to the operating system. They include: 1. Filename. 2. Data Structure. 3. Purpose. Following is the general format for declaring and opening a file: FILE *fp; fp = fopen(“filename”, “mode”); The first statement declares the variable fp as a “pointer to the data type FILE”. As stated earlier, FILE is a structure that is defined in the I/O library. The second statement opens the file named filename and assigns as identifier to the FILE the pointer fp. This pointer which contains all the information about the file is subsequently used as a communication link between the system and the program. The second statement also specifies the purpose of opening this file. The mode does this job. Mode can be one of the following: r open the file for reading only. w open the file for writing only. a open the file for appending (or adding) data to it. Note that both the filename and mode are specified as strings. They should be enclosed in double quotation marks. When trying to open a file, one of the following things may happen: 1. When the mode is ‘writing’ a file with the specified name is created if the file does not exist. The contents are deleted, if the file already exists. 2. When the purpose is ‘appending’, the file is opened with the current contents safe. A file with the specified name is created if the file does not exist. 3. If the purpose is ‘reading’, and if it exists, then the file is opened with the current contents safe; otherwise an error occurs. Consider the following statements: FILE *p1, *p2; p1 = fopen(“data”,”r”); MILLENNIUM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS

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p2 = fopen(“results”,”w”); Many recent compilers include additional modes of operation. They include: r+ The existing file is opened to the beginning for both reading and writing. w+ Same as w except both for reading and writing a+ Same as a except both for reading and writing. We can open and use a number of files at a time. This number however depends on the system we use. 9.3 CLOSING A FILE A file must be closed as soon as all operations on it have been completed. The general form is: fclose(file_pointer);

9.4 INPUT/OUTPUT OPERATIONS ON FILES Once a file is opened, reading out of or writing to it is accomplished using the standard I/O routines that are listed. The getc and putc Functions The simplest file I/O functions are getc and putc. These are analogous to getchar and putchar functions and handle one character at a time. Assume that a file is opened with mode w and file pointer fp1. Then, the statement putc(c, fp1); writes the character contained in the character variable c to the file associated with FILE pointer fp1. Similarly, getc is used to read a character from a file that has been opened in read mode. For example, the statement c = getc(fp2); would read a character from the file whose file pointer is fp2. The file pointer moves by one character position for every operation of getc or putc. The getc will return an end-of-file marker EOF, when end of the file has been reached. Therefore, the reading should be terminated when EOF is encountered. Example: Writing to and Reading from a File
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { FILE *f1; char c;

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clrscr(); printf(“Data Input\n\n”); f1 = fopen(“INPUT”, “w”); while((c=getchar()!=EOF) putc(c,f1); fclose(f1); printf(“\nData Output\n\n”); f1 = fopen(“INPUT”,”r”); while((c=getc(f1))!=EOF) printf(“%c”,c); fclose(f1); getch(); }

9.5 The fprintf and fscanf Functions So far, we have seen functions which can handle only one character or integer at a time. Most compilers support two other functions, namely fprintf and fscanf, that can handle a group of mixed data simultaneously. The functions fprintf and fscanf perform I/O operations that are identical to the familiar printf and scanf functions, except of course that they work on files. The first argument of these functions is a file pointer which specifies the file to be used. The general form of fprintf is fprintf(fp, “control string”, list); where fp is a file pointer associated with a file that has been opened for writing. The control string contains output specifications for the items in the list. The list may include variables, constants and strings. Example: fprintf(f1, “%s %d %f”,name,age,7.5); Here, name is an array variable of type char and age is int variable. The general format of fscanf is fscanf(fp, “control string”, list); This statement would cause the reading of the items in the list from the file specified by fp, according to the specifications contained in the control string. Example: fscanf(f2, “%s %d”, item, &quantity); Like scanf, fscanf also returns the number of items that are successfully read. When the end of file is reached, it returns the value of EOF. Example: Handling of files with mixed Data Types
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() {

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} }

FILE *fp; int number, quantity, i; float price, value; char item[10], filename[10]; clrscr(); printf(“Input file name\n”); scanf(“%s”,filename); fp = fopen(filename, “w”); printf(“Input inventory data\n\n”); printf(“Enter Item name, Number, price and quantity (3 records):\n”); for(i=1;i<=3;i++) { fscanf(stdin, “%s %d %f %d”,item, &number, &price, &quantity); fprintf(fp, “%s %d %.2f %d”, item, number, price, quantity); } fclose(fp); fprintf(stdout, “\n\n”); fp = fopen(filename, “r”); printf(“Item name Number price quantity value\n”); for(i=1;i<=3;i++) { fscanf(fp, “%s %d %f %d”,item, &number, &price, &quantity); value = price * quantity; fprintf(stdout, “%-8s %7d %8.2f %8d %11.2f\n”,item, number, price, quantity, value); fclose(fp); getch();

9.6 COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS What is a command line argument? It is a parameter supplied to a program when the program is invoked. This parameter may represent a filename the program should process. For example, if we want to execute a program to copy the contents of a file named X_FILE to another one named Y_FILE, then we may use a command line like C:\TC>PROGRAM X_FILE Y_FILE PROGRAM is the filename where the executable code of the program is stored. This eliminates the need for the program to request the user to enter the filenames during execution. How do these parameters get into the program? We know that every C program should have one main function and that it marks the beginning of the program. But what we have not mentioned so far is that it can also take arguments like other functions. In fact main can take two arguments called argc and argv and the information contained in the command line is passed on to the program through these arguments, when main is called up by the system.

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The variable argc is an argument counter that counts the number of arguments on the command line. The argv is an argument vector and represents an array of character pointers that point to the command line arguments. The size of this array will be equal to the value of argc. For instance, for the command line given above, argc is three and argv is array of three pointers to strings as shown below: argv[0] PROGRAM argv[1] X_FILE argv[2] Y_FILE In order to access the command line arguments, we must declare the main function and its parameters as follows: main(argc,argv); int argc; char *argv[]; The first parameter in the command line is always the program name and therefore argv[0] always represents the program name. Example: Command line Arguments
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main(argc,argv) int argc; char *argv[]; { FILE *fp; int i; char word[15]; clrscr(); fp = fopen(argv[1],"w"); printf("\nNo.of arguments in Command line=%d\n\n",argc); for(i=2;i<argc;i++) fprintf(fp,"%s",argv[i]); fclose(fp); printf("Contents of %s file\n\n",argv[1]); fp=fopen(argv[1],"r"); for(i=2;i<argc;i++) { fscanf(fp,"%s",word); printf("%s",word); } fclose(fp); printf("\n\n"); for(i=0;i<argc;i++) printf("%*s\n",i*5,argv[i]); getch(); }

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