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INSTRUCTION MANUAL

IM

BOOK-1

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION

AK685 CALQUIPA S.A.C.


Callalli, Peru
F2S - 300/400 tpd MAERZ finelime kiln (coal / opt.gas)

Document No.
Revision
Revision Date / saved on
Author
Based on template edition

Maerz Ofenbau AG
Richard Wagner-Strasse 28
CH-8027 Zrich
Switzerland

AK685_971.01
0
06 January 2014
Patrick Ewert
14-1 / MRZTD.DOT

Telefon: +41 44 287 27 27


Telefax: +41 44 201 36 34
E-Mail: info@maerz.com
www.maerz.com

IM

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION

Table of Contents
1

BASIC INFORMATION

1.1

About this instruction manual

1.2

Terminology

1.3

Reference material

1.4

Explanation of signs and symbols

10

1.4.1
1.4.2

Signs and symbols used in the manual


Safety labels and signs on plant equipment

10
10

1.5

Liability and warranty

16

1.6

Copyright protection

16

1.7

Transport, Packaging and Storage

17

1.7.1
1.7.2
1.7.3

Safety notes
Transport inspection
Packaging

17
18
18

1.8

Spare parts

19

1.9

Storage

19

1.10

Disassembly

20

1.11

Waste disposal

20

SAFETY

21

2.1

General

21

2.2

Responsibility of the plant operator

22

2.3

Intended use

23

2.4

Workers' safety

23

2.5

Personal safety equipment (PSE)

24

2.6

Possible dangers at the plant

25

2.7

Emergency process stop

28

2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3

Staff and kiln protection


Emergency process stop system
Emergency stop switch reset

28
28
29

2.8

Operating personnel

30

2.9

Conduct in dangerous situations and in case of accidents

30

2.10

Danger areas

32

2.11

Noisy areas

34

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TECHNOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE

37

3.1

Useful literature

37

3.2

Calcination of limestone and dolomite

37

3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.2.7
3.2.8
3.2.9
3.2.10

Limestone
Formation of limestone
Mineralogical composition
Impurities
Mineral structure and grain size
Porosity and density
Bulk density and particle size
Thermal dissociation of carbonate
Mechanical strength and abrasion resistance
Data and properties of limestone

37
37
37
38
39
39
40
40
41
42

3.3

Calcination of limestone

43

3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5

Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate


Physical-chemical phenomena during calcination
Reactivity of quicklime
Influence of feed size on retention time
Lime to limestone factor

43
44
47
48
50

3.4

Fuel

51

3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5

Definition of calorific values


Combustion air volume (vol)
Wobbe index
Heat flow
Fuel data

52
52
52
53
53

DESIGN AND FUNCTIONING (TYPE FS)

55

4.1

Design

56

4.2

Design

58

4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.2.9

Parallel-flow firing system


Preheating the combustion air
Two-shaft kiln
Burner lances
Reversing devices
Charging device
Discharge device
Hydraulic system
Kiln refractory lining

58
58
58
59
59
60
61
62
62

4.3

Functional description

63

4.3.1
4.3.2

Special requirements of limestone calcination


Process description

63
63

4.4

Characteristic data

66

4.4.1
4.4.2

Grain size of charged limestone


Operating cycles

66
66

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4.4.3
4.4.4

Heat and mass flow


Temperature profile

67
68

4.5

Kiln control system

69

4.6

Electric switchboard

70

4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3

Main components
Safety information
Additional documents

70
73
73

4.7

Local operation panel

74

4.7.1

Main components

74

4.8

Instrumentation

76

4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4

General description
Arrangement of instruments
Wiring diagrams
Purpose of the most important measuring instruments

76
76
76
76

COMMISSIONING

81

5.1

General information / Definition

81

5.2

Requirements for cold commissioning

82

5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.2.8

Consumables
Lubricating points
Shaft construction
Refractory
Kiln systems
Electrical installations / instrumentation
Firing system
Waste gas filter

82
82
83
85
85
85
86
86

5.3

Cold commissioning

87

5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5

Suspended cylinder (if existent)


Components
Software
Integration test
Charging the kiln with limestone:

87
87
87
87
88

5.4

Hot commissioning

89

5.4.1

Process adjustments

89

5.5

Conclusion of the commissioning

89

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OPERATION

91

6.1

General

91

6.2

Safety

91

6.3

Visualization system

95

6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.5
6.3.6
6.3.7
6.3.8
6.3.9

Screen layout
Color definitions
User level
Parameter tables
Process pictures
Alarms
Tuning screens
Trend messages

96
99
101
102
105
120
124
125

6.4

Theoretical Basis of Lime Kiln Operation

127

6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5

Modes of operation
Filling mode
Heating mode
Production mode charging during reversal time
Production mode charging during burning time

127
127
128
128
129

6.5

Reversal and charging sequences

130

6.5.1
6.5.2

Production mode charging during the reversal time


Production mode Charging during burning time

130
133

6.6

Calculation of the process parameters (sample)

135

6.7

Description of the Operational Procedures

137

6.7.1
6.7.3
6.7.4
6.7.5

Limestone charging
Filling the kiln
Start-up process
Production operation

137
138
139
145

6.8

Preconditions for production operation

147

6.8.1
6.8.2
6.8.3
6.8.4
6.8.5
6.8.6
6.8.7
6.8.8
6.8.9

Basic recommendations
Key factors for the lime burning process in the lime kiln
Adjustment of the cooling air
Setting the Heat Input
Adjusting the Air Excess Factor
Setting the Fuel Parameters
Setting the Reversal Time
Setting the Nominal Burn-out Time
Setting the discharge tables

147
147
147
148
148
150
150
150
151

6.9

Kiln stoppage and restarting

152

6.9.1
6.9.2
6.9.3
6.9.4
6.9.5

Kiln stoppage
Restarting
Kiln stoppage by an alarm
Kiln stoppage in the case of a power cut
Emptying the kiln

152
153
154
155
155

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6.10

Fine Lime Charging

157

6.10.1
6.10.2
6.10.3

Effect on lime quality


Distribution system
Kiln charging method

157
158
158

MALFUNCTION

165

7.1

Safety

165

7.2

Steps to be taken in the event of a failure

166

7.3

Alarm systems

167

7.3.1
7.3.2

Failure of machine components


Failure of the machine's control system

168
168

7.4

Restart after failure

169

7.5

Steps for troubleshooting

169

MAINTENANCE

175

8.1

In general

175

8.2

Safety

176

8.3

Lubricating instruction

176

8.4

Maintenance schedule

177

8.4.1

Check list

177

8.5

After maintenance

188

INDEX

189

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Basic information

1.1

About this instruction manual

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Basic information

This instruction manual describes the design, start-up, operation, and maintenance of
the kiln plant.
Compliance with all safety notes and directives specified is a precondition for safe
working with and proper handling of the plant. Furthermore, all specific local accident
prevention regulations and general safety rules must be strictly observed.
This instruction manual is an essential part of the product. At least one copy must be
kept in the kiln plant control room at all times. It must be accessible to the operating,
maintenance, and cleaning personnel.
The illustrations in this manual are meant for better understanding and are not
necessarily true to scale. The contents of the manual may vary from the version of the
actual plant. For more precise and detailed information, the respective drawings and
diagrams must be kept on hand.
In addition, the individual documents and instructions related to the installed
components and equipment will apply. Strictly observe the notes contained therein especially safety notes.

1.2

Terminology
The terms "plant" or "kiln used in this manual refer to the Maerz Parallel Flow
Regenerative Shaft Kilns for Limestone and Dolomite.
Some views in this manual, the PI diagrams, as well as other documents and drawings
use identifiers and tag numbers to refer to a specific component installed.
The term "operating company" is used to relate to the "plant owner". The term
"operator" however is used strictly to refer to the "operating person" to the "kiln
attendant".

1.3

Reference material
Unless otherwise specified, the individual components of the kiln plant are purchased
from other manufacturers than MAERZ. All components used in the plant have been
tested and subjected to risk assessment by the respective manufacturers. The
manufacturers of these components have confirmed the compliance of the equipment
with applicable European and national regulations.
The declarations of conformity of the manufacturers as well as operating, maintenance,
and repair instructions for the various plant components are integral parts of the overall
documentation. The directives on safety, setup and installation, operation, preventive
maintenance, disassembly and disposal of the components included in the
manufacturers' documentation must be strictly observed by all personnel involved.

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1.4

Explanation of signs and symbols

1.4.1

Signs and symbols used in the manual

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Basic information

Important safety and technical notes in this operating manual are marked with symbols.
These notes must be adhered to in order to avoid accidents, personal injuries and
damage to property.
WARNING
This symbol stands for dangers that can lead to adverse effects on health,
injuries, permanent physical damage, or death.
Absolutely adhere to the notes regarding safety at work, and be particularly
careful in this respect.
DANGER OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
This symbol draws attention to dangerous situations involving electrical
currents. There is the risk of serious injuries or death if the safety notes are
not complied with. Any work is to be carried out by qualified electricians
only.
CAUTION
This symbol stands for dangers that can lead to adverse effects on health,
injuries, or physical damage.
NOTICE
This symbol indicates notes, which if not complied with can lead to
damage, malfunctions and/or breakdown of the plant.
INFORMATION
This symbol highlights tips and information to be observed for efficient and
trouble-free operation of the plant.
1.4.2

Safety labels and signs on plant equipment


The following table lists all mandatory signs, prohibition, warning, fire, and rescue
labels attached to plant equipment.
WARNING
The safety labels below indicate prohibitions, dangers, and directives.
Strictly comply with these safety labels. Failure to observe any of them may
lead to death, serious injury, or damage to the plant.

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Basic information

Prohibition labels
Prohibition labels are white and contain a crossed-out black symbol surrounded by a
red circle.
Smoking prohibited
Risk of fire caused by combustible or explosive solid, liquid, or gaseous
materials.
Do not touch, live housing
Danger caused by electric shock.
Fire, open light, and smoking prohibited
Do not introduce or generate any kind of ignition source, such as:
- open flames and hot gases (e.g. burning candles, matches, welding
beads, welding sparks, or gleaming charcoal)
- warm / hot surfaces (e.g. radiators, hot plates, light bulbs, crankcases,
exhaust systems)
- frictional heat (e.g. hot bearings)
- mechanically generated sparks (e.g. rock, concrete, metal sparks
produced by grinding, abrasive cutting, or hammer strokes)
Fire extinguishing with water prohibited
Water may prove to be unsuitable for extinguishing fires and may further
increase the danger caused by fire
Authorized personnel only
Access to the danger area is limited to authorized persons (personnel
authorized by the plant operator to enter the danger area).
Do not touch
Containers or parts may become damaged when touched.
Prohibition
Used in combination with another sign specifying the prohibition

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Basic information

Mandatory signs
Mandatory signs are blue and contain a white symbol.

Wear safety goggles

Wear hearing protection

Wear safety shoes

Wear safety clothing

Wear safety harness

Wear safety hat

Wear breathing mask

Wear safety gloves

Wear face screen

Switch off before beginning work

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Basic information

Warning signs
Warning signs are yellow and contain a black symbol.
Warning of inflammable materials

Warning of a danger area

Danger of tripping and falling

Warning of gas bottles

Warning of explosive atmosphere

Danger of crushing

Warning of automatic start

Warning of hand injuries

Warning of dangerous voltage

Warning of hot surface

Warning of toxic materials

Warning of chemical burns

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Basic information

Fire labels
Fire labels are red and contain a white symbol.

Fire hose

Fire fighting equipment

Directional arrow (only to be used in combination with another fire label)

Ladder

Fire alarm box

Fire fighting facility

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Basic information

Rescue signs
Rescue signs are green and contain a white symbol.

First aid

Stretcher

Eye rinsing facility

Emergency phone

Arrow pointing to first-aid facilities (only to be used in combination with


another first aid symbol)

Rescue paths and emergency exits

Emergency path

Emergency path

Emergency exit

Emergency exit

Emergency exit

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1.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Basic information

Liability and warranty


All specifications and information used in this instruction manual are provided in
consideration of all applicable regulations, the current state of the art, and our longstanding expertise and experience.
For special designs and order-specific configurations or, in the event of technical
changes, the actual scope of supply may deviate from the described specifications and
provided drawings and sketches. Please contact MAERZ if you have any questions.
INFORMATION
Carefully read this instruction manual before starting any work at or with the
plant and, in particular, before first-time operation. MAERZ cannot assume
any liability for damage or failures caused by the non-observance of the
instructions provided in this instruction manual.
We reserve the right to introduce technical modifications to the product with the
intention to improve and further develop the useful properties of the plant.
Components, such as tools that are subject to normal wear and tear during standard
operation of the kiln, as well as commodities, such as greases, oils, or detergents, are
excluded from the warranty.
The obligations agreed upon in the supply contract, the terms and conditions, as well
as the manufacturers terms of delivery, and all legal requirements applicable at the
time of conclusion of the contract remain in full effect.

1.6

Copyright protection
The instruction manual is to be treated confidentially. It is exclusively intended for
persons working on and with the plant. Leaving the instruction manual to a third party
without written approval of the manufacturer is not permitted. Please contact MAERZ in
case of any questions.
INFORMATION
The contents, text, drawings, illustrations, and other presentations
contained in this manual are protected by copyright and subject to
additional commercial property rights. Any misuse is punishable by law.
Copying by use of any type and format even in excerpts as well as the
use and/or publication of the contents is not permitted without written
approval by MAERZ. Infringements are liable to damage compensation.
Additional claims are reserved.

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1.7

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Basic information

Transport, Packaging and Storage


INFORMATION
The installation and initial operation of the kiln must only be performed by
employees of the manufacturer or by persons authorized by him to perform
such tasks.
However, the installation and further use of the kiln may require that
employees of the operator be entrusted with the task of handling packing
units. When performing such tasks, make sure to observe the information
provided below:

1.7.1

Safety notes
WARNING
Danger of injury!
There is a danger of injury due to falling parts when lifting, swinging, and
lowering materials. The machine can be damaged or destroyed by
improper transport.
For this reason, basically observe the following safety notes:
Always use appropriate lifting tackle and slinging devices with sufficient
carrying capacity.
Only secure the machine on the fastening points provided; do not fasten at
projecting machine parts or eyelets of attached components. Make sure the
slinging device is secure!
Ropes and belts must be equipped with safety hooks. Do not use torn or
worn ropes. Do not lay ropes and belts on sharp edges and corners, do not
knot or twist. Pay attention to the centre of gravity of the equipment when
fastening the tackle.
Never lift, swing, or lower loads over people.
Always move the equipment with utmost care and attention.
WARNING
Risk of death!
Suspended loads can fall down and lead to severe injuries. Do not stand or
pass under suspended loads when transporting with lifting tackle!

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1.7.2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Basic information

Transport inspection
Check delivered goods immediately on receipt for completeness and transport
damage.
Do not accept the delivery or only accept under reserve if there is externally
recognizable transport damage. Note the scope of damage on the transport
documents/delivery note of the carrier. Start complaints procedure.
Register complaint about hidden deficiencies as soon as they are discovered, as
indemnity claims can only be asserted within the applicable time for complaints.

1.7.3

Packaging
INFORMATION
Keep environmental protection in mind!
Packaging materials are valuable raw materials and can continue to be
used in many cases, or can be suitably reconditioned and recycled.
If there is no return agreement for packaging, sort materials according to
type and size, and route them for further use or recycling.
NOTICE
Always dispose of packaging materials in an environmentally friendly
manner and in accordance with the applicable, local disposal guidelines. If
necessary, order a recycling company.

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1.8

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Basic information

Spare parts
Use only spare parts authorized by the manufacturer of the relevant equipment.
NOTICE
Wrong or faulty spare parts can lead to damage, malfunctions, or total
failure of the plant.
All claims for warranty, service, damage compensation, as well as liability
claims against the manufacturer or his representatives, dealers and agents
become void when unauthorized spare parts are used.

1.9

Storage
Keep packed goods in this state until installation, and store such items as specified by
the externally attached installation and storage information.
Store packing units only under the following conditions:
- Do not keep in the open air.
- Store in dry and dust-free environment.
- Do not subject to aggressive media.
- Protect against direct sunlight.
- Avoid mechanical vibration.
- Storage temperature: 15 to 25C
- Relative humidity: max. 60%
- For longer periods of storage (>3 months), check the general condition of all parts
and the packaging at regular intervals. If necessary touch up or renew conservation.
INFORMATION
Refractory magnesite stones may absorb moisture from the surrounding air
and chemically react with this moisture. If the stones are stored for more
than 3 months, this reaction may cause damage to the magnesite stones,
even if the storage information provided above is observed. It is therefore
recommended to store impregnated stones only.

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1.10

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Basic information

Disassembly
For disassembly, the plant must be cleaned and dismantled in strict compliance with
the applicable industrial safety regulations and accident prevention instructions.
WARNING
Danger of injury!
Stored residual energies, sharp edged components, pointed corners and
edges on and inside the plant or on the required tools can cause severe
injuries. Any disassembly work on the plant is therefore to be carried out by
skilled personnel only.

Before starting disassembly:


- Shut down the plant and secure it against restarting.
- Physically disconnect the complete energy supply from the plant, and properly
discharge stored residual energies.
- Dispose of fuels and lubricants as well as residual processing materials in an
environmentally acceptable manner.

1.11

Waste disposal
If no agreement concerning retrieval or waste disposal has been made, disassembled
components must be passed on for recycling after correct dismantling:
- Metal material residues must be scrapped
- Plastic elements must be forwarded for recycling of plastics
- Other components must be sorted by material properties
NOTICE
Electric scrap, electronic components, lubricants and other auxiliary
materials must be treated as hazardous waste and must only be disposed
of by specially approved waste disposal companies!

Remove operating materials like greases, oils, preservation agents and detergents
from the plant, separate by type, and dispose of in an environmentally responsible
manner. In this process, use collection and storage containers that are suitable and
approved for the respective operating materials.
Clearly mark containers; provide information about contents, filling level and date, store
until final disposal so that improper use is impossible.

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Safety

Safety
This section provides an overview of all important safety aspects for optimal protection
of personnel against any danger and ensures safe and trouble-free operation of the
plant.
In addition, specific notes on safety to avert danger are provided and marked with
symbols in the individual chapters.
All pictograms, signs, and labels on the plant are to be strictly observed and kept
legible at all times.

2.1

General
The plant has been manufactured according to generally accepted engineering
standards applicable at the time of its development, and production and is considered
operationally safe. However, the plant may entail dangers, if not used properly or
according to its intended purpose by professionally trained personnel. Therefore, any
person commissioned to work on or with the plant must have read and understood the
Instruction Manual before commencing work. It is recommended that the company
operating the plant should request concrete proof that the personnel have taken full
knowledge of the instruction manual's contents.
Modifications of any type as well as attachments or changes to the plant without written
authorization by Maerz are prohibited.
All safety, warning and operating notes affixed to the plant or any of its components
must always be kept legible. Damaged signs or stickers are to be replaced without
delay.
Specified settings or ranges of operating parameters must be observed by all means.

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2.2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Responsibility of the plant operator


- Store the instruction manual in the direct vicinity of the kiln and keep it readily
available for the erection, operating, maintenance and cleaning personnel at all
times.
- Do not operate the lime kiln plant unless it is in proper technical condition and
operationally safe.
- Keep safety devices accessible at all times and check proper functioning on a
regular basis.
All information regarding safety at work refers to the guidelines issued by the European
Union applicable at the time the kiln was manufactured. The plant operator is
responsible for ensuring that while the kiln is in operation, the specified work safety
regulations comply with the latest updates of all applicable current and future
regulations. Outside the territory of the European Union, the plant operator must
comply with all work safety laws as well as with all regional laws and regulations
applicable at the place of operation.
In addition to the information regarding safety at work specified in this instruction
manual, the plant operator must also follow and comply with all regulations regarding
general safety, accident prevention, and protection of the environment applicable at the
place of operation.
The plant operator and any personnel authorized by him are responsible for the
trouble-free operation of the kiln as well as for assigning unambiguous responsibilities
with regard to the installation, operation, maintenance and cleaning of the kiln.
The information provided in this instruction manual must be followed in full and without
limitation.
The plant operator has the obligation to attach signs limiting access to the kiln to
trained and authorized personnel. In accordance with this instruction manual, the plant
operator must also attach warning signs or plates at all access points to the kiln,
informing of the dangers involved with working at and with the kiln.
The plant operator must provide a sufficient number of fire-fighting equipment inside
the kiln area.
The plant operator must equip the personnel working at the kiln with sufficient and
suitable first-aid equipment. The personnel must be trained in handling first-aid
equipment.
The plant operator must familiarize his personnel with the recommendations provided
by the "International Chemical Safety Cards" for handling calcium oxide, fuels, and
other dangerous materials, and the personnel must adhere to these recommendations.

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2.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Intended use
Safety and reliability of the equipment is only guaranteed if it used as intended in
accordance with the information provided in the instruction manual.
The intended use of the lime kiln is the production of quicklime in accordance with
specifications. The kiln may only be operated with the fuel specified in the chapter
Technical Data.
NOTICE
Any use of the system, beyond or different from the intended one, is
prohibited and considered not as intended.
Claims of any kind against the manufacturer and/or his authorized
representatives resulting from damage caused by use of the kiln not as
intended are excluded.
The customer/plant operator is solely liable for any damage caused by a
use other than intended.
Intended use also includes correct adherence to erection, operating, maintenance and
cleaning instructions.

2.4

Workers' safety
Follow the safety instructions to prevent persons and property from becoming injured or
damaged during the operation of the kiln. Failure to observe this information represents
a serious risk of injury to the personnel and may cause damage to or the destruction of
the kiln, especially if the kiln is operated in an explosive environment.
The manufacturer or his agents shall not be liable for any defects caused by failure to
observe these safety instructions.

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2.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Personal safety equipment (PSE)


Operation, maintenance, troubleshooting/fault elimination/repairs and cleaning work
require wearing a personal protective outfit.
The plant operator must make sure that all persons involved in work with or at the kiln
have the required protective equipment at their disposal and wear it for work.
Operating persons and expert personnel occupied with work at the kiln are obliged to
wear their personal safety equipment before and during work.
In principle, the following items are to be worn when working on or with the
plant:
Tight-fitting work clothing
minimal tear strength, no wide sleeves, no rings or other jewellery, etc.
Safety goggles
to protect the eyes against liquids and particles flying about
Face screen
to protect the eyes and the face against flames, sparks, or embers as well
as hot particles or emissions
Breathing mask
to protect against inhaling particles or emissions
Safety shoes
to protect against heavy parts being dropped, and slipping on slippery
surfaces
Safety gloves
to protect the skin against friction, excoriation, pricking and deeper injuries
on the hands and against contact with health affecting substances
Safety helmet
to protect against objects and materials falling down or flying around
Ear defenders
to protect against hearing damage

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2.6

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Possible dangers at the plant


The plant has been subjected to risk assessment. The resulting construction and
design of the plant correspond to the state of the art. Nonetheless, some risks remain.
The plant works with high pressure hydraulic oil
Any damage to the hydraulic system may result in a strong stream of liquid.
WARNING
Risk of injury
Danger caused by liquids spurting out under high pressure. Wear personal
safety equipment when working at the kiln.
The plant works with electrical voltage
DANGER OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
Electrical power can cause severe injuries. There is imminent danger to life
and health caused by electrical current if the insulation or individual
components are damaged.
- Disconnect the main switch, and secure against switching on again
before maintenance, cleaning, or repair work.
- Switch off the power supply before starting work in the electrical system
and make sure that the system is dead.
- Do not remove any safety features or do not modify such installations in
a way that would affect their function.
The plant works with movable components
WARNING
Risk of injury
Rotating and/or linearly moving components can cause severe injuries. Do
not reach with your hands into or touch moving parts during operation. Do
not open covers and maintenance flaps.
- Allow components to run out after switching off the plant.
- Before starting cleaning, repair, maintenance, or any other work, wait
until all components have stopped, switch off the plant and reliably
secure against being switched on again.
- After cleaning, repair, maintenance, or any other work, close and lock all
covers, maintenance flaps, etc.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

The plant comprises pneumatic components


WARNING
Risk of injury
Pneumatic energies can cause severe injuries. In case of damage to
individual components, operating media can escape under high pressure
and cause injuries and material damage.
Therefore:
- Always relieve the system from any pressure before starting work on
pneumatic equipment.
- Do not remove or inhibit any safety facilities.
- Do not adjust pressure levels beyond the limits specified in the
instruction manual.
The plant has sharp edges and corners
CAUTION
Risk of injury
Sharp-edged housing parts and sharp corners can cause grazes on the
skin. Wear protective gloves when working at the plant.
The kiln works with powerful fans
WARNING
Risk of injury
The fast-running impeller installed inside the blower may cause serious
injuries such as cutting or severing of body parts. Therefore:
- Do not operate the blowers, unless the impeller cage, protection caps,
and maintenance covers are closed.
- Prior to performing any work at the blower, shut down the unit, secure it
against re-starting, and keep it closed until all running components have
come to a complete stop.
- Do not open the impeller cage, protection caps, and maintenance covers
until the impeller has come to a complete stop. Afterwards, secure all
moving components against uncontrolled movements by appropriate
means such as clamping.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Operation of the kiln may release highly flammable materials


WARNING
Risk of injury
Highly flammable materials, liquids, and/or gases might catch fire and
cause serious injuries.
- Smoking, handling open light, fire, and/or sources of ignition of all kinds
in the vicinity of the kiln and within a distance of 5 m or less is strictly
prohibited.
- Locate any suspicious materials, liquids and gases, and notify your
superior without delay.
- Stop working immediately. Leave the danger zone, until the all-clear is
given.
The kiln works with CaO (quicklime)
WARNING
Risk of chemical burns caused by CaO
There is a risk of sustaining chemical burns in places labeled accordingly.
Any person working inside these areas must proceed with great caution
when handling caustic materials.
In addition to the danger of damaging one's clothing, there is also the risk of
burning one's eyes, skin and possibly one's mucous membranes. Burning
ones eyes may cause irreparable visual impairment.
When handling caustic materials, wear personal safety equipment as
required by the Chemical Safety Datasheet.
The plant operator must keep available at all times rinsing liquids for
cleaning eyes.
When burnt lime is mixed with water it reacts by generating a lot of heat and
thus becoming leach.
The kiln works under high pressure
WARNING
Risk of injury
The kiln is operated under pressure. Flames or hot gases may spurt out
when any access or inspection doors are opened. The high pressure inside
the kiln may cause the kiln doors to fly open with great force.
Do not open the kiln doors until the pressure difference between the inside
and the outside of the kiln is zero.

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2.7

Emergency process stop

2.7.1

Staff and kiln protection

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

To protect the kiln and the staff working at it, the kiln is equipped with an emergency
process stop system comprising emergency process stop buttons and safety locks.
The emergency process stop system is a category 1 system with one-channel
disconnection. The emergency process stop and safety features of the kiln control
system are fully integrated into this emergency system, which is equipped with its own
controller.
The operating, cleaning, service and maintenance personnel must be instructed about
the location and the functionality of the safety devices on a regular basis. Proof of such
instruction must be provided upon request.
2.7.2

Emergency process stop system


The entire emergency process stop system consists of an emergency process stop
sequence. This means that as soon as the emergency process stop button has been
pushed or the safety lock has been engaged, the entire kiln will immediately be set to a
safe operating mode.
The safe operating mode is either achieved by immediately interrupting the power
supply to the drives, by shutting down the drives until they have come to a complete
stop, or by moving them into a safe position until the power is cut off with a delay.
For kilns with suspended cylinders
NOTICE
The operating process requires the cooling system of the suspended
cylinders to continue to run, even if the emergency process stop function
has been activated.
Do not turn off the cooling system of the suspended cylinders as otherwise
the suspended cylinders, and consequently the kiln, may become heavily
damaged.
In the event of a failure of the cooling system of the suspended cylinders,
activate the emergency cooling system without delay.
If the operation of the cooling system for the suspended cylinders poses a danger to
the kiln operating person, immediately shut down the kiln by pushing the emergency
process stop button. However, make sure to manually activate the emergency cooling
system directly after shutting down the kiln.

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2.7.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Emergency stop switch reset


WARNING
Risk of injury
Any uncontrolled re-starting of the kiln may cause serious personal
damage.
Prior to re-starting the kiln or any of its components, check whether the
cause of the emergency process stop has been eliminated, and make
sure that all safety devices have been re-installed and are properly
functioning.
After having successfully reset the triggered contact (e.g. by rotating and unlocking the
emergency process stop button), proceed by acknowledging the emergency process
stop.

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2.8

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Operating personnel
The kiln may only be operated and maintained by authorized, qualified and instructed
personnel. These personnel must have received special instructions regarding any
dangers that may occur.
Instructed personnel have been taught about the tasks entrusted to them and the
possible dangers resulting from improper actions, and if necessary, have been
instructed practically in this respect. Moreover, the personnel have been informed of
the required protective features and protective measures.
Qualified personnel are persons who can assess the work entrusted to them and
recognize potential dangers based on their special training, expertise, and experience
as well as on their knowledge of appropriate conditions.
If staff members do not have the necessary knowledge, they are to be trained
accordingly.
Responsibilities for operation and maintenance must be clearly determined and
adhered to so that there is no unclear division of competence with regard to safety.
The kiln may only be operated and maintained by persons who can be expected to
carry out their work reliably. This means that any mode of operation that affects the
safety of persons, of the environment or the kiln is to be avoided.
Persons who are under the influence of drugs, alcohol, or medication that affects their
responsiveness may under no circumstances carry out work on or with the kiln plant.
When selecting personnel, attention must be paid to the regulations protecting young
workers in the relevant country regarding the minimum age and, if necessary, to the
job-related instructions based on this.
The operating company must ensure fully that only authorized persons work on or with
the kiln plant.
All non-authorized persons, such as visitors etc., must at any time be kept at an
appropriate safety distance to the kiln and any of its ancillary equipment.
The operating personnel are obliged to immediately report to the plant operator or his
representative any safety-relevant incidents in kiln operation.

2.9

Conduct in dangerous situations and in case of accidents


Always be prepared for accidents or fire.
In a dangerous situation or in case of an accident, stop the kiln by immediately
activating the EMERGENCY PROCESS STOP SWITCH.
The EMERGENCY PROCESS STOP SWITCH may only be operated in emergency
situations and must not be used for normal kiln stops.
Keep first-aid equipment (first-aid kit, eye rinsing bottle, etc.) and fire extinguisher close
to hand.
Personnel must be acquainted with the location and handling of safety equipment,
accident reporting facilities, first-aid and rescue equipment. This will enable them to
avert dangers and provide the best possible help in case of accidents.

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2.10

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Danger areas

Fig. 1

Danger areas (typical)

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Safety

Item

Description

Reversal flap (filter / direct chimney)

Reversal flap (combustion air / waste gas)

Shaft closing flap

Thermal radiation and heat on kiln shaft

Access doors and inspection openings to kiln

Lime belt conveyor

Lime vibrating feeder

Lime discharge hopper

Discharge flap

10

Discharge table

11

Air blast unit (not shown)

12

Poking hole

13

Emergency venting for suspended cylinder cooling system

14

Relief flap combustion air (not shown)

15

Stone distribution flap

16

Rotating bucket

17

Reversible belt conveyor

18

Limestone vibrating feeder

Additional danger areas (not shown)


Hydraulic unit and hydraulic system
Blowers and ventilators
Limestone belt conveyor
Waste gas filter
All stairs and platforms

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2.11

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Safety

Noisy areas

Fig. 2

Noisy areas (typical)

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Safety

Item

Description

~LAeq [dBA]

Chimney exit

80

Reversal flap

70

Relief flap combustion air (not shown)

105

Relief flap cooling air (not shown)

95

Lime vibrating feeder

90

Discharge flap and hopper

90

Discharge table

85

Emergency fan for suspended cylinder

100

Air blast unit (not shown)

95

10

Emergency venting suspended cylinder cooling system

100

11

Kiln charging

95

12

Rotating bucket

105

13

Limestone feeder

95

14

Stone hopper

105

Additional noisy areas (not shown)


Description

~LAeq [dBA]

Hydraulic unit

90

Blower house internal

110

Blower house external

75

Transport system for limestone and lime

105

Waste gas filter

85

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Technological Principle

3.1

Useful literature

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

- Boynton, R.S., "Chemistry and Technology of Lime and Limestone"


John Wiley &. Sons, 1980, ISBN 0-471-02771-5.
- Oates, J.A.H., "Lime and Limestone"
Wiley-VCH, 1998, ISBN 3-527-29527-5
- European Commission, "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC)" Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement and Lime
Manufacturing Industries (adopted Dec 2001)
- Schiele, E., Berens L.W., "Kalk Herstellung, Eigenschaften, Verwendung"
(in German), Stahleisen m.b.H., 1972, ISBN 3-514-00115-4

3.2

Calcination of limestone and dolomite

3.2.1

Limestone
Limestone is found widely throughout the world and is an essential raw material for
many industries.

3.2.2

Formation of limestone
Limestone is one of the most widely distributed sedimentary rocks throughout the
world. Commercially used limestone is mainly of organic origin. Deposits were formed
by the building-up of fossiliferous marine sediments in oceans consisting of shells and
skeletons of plants and animals. Some of these sediments were deposited by natural
chemical reaction. Calcium bicarbonate was produced by the extremely slow
dissolution of calcium carbonate fossils through the solvent action of carbon dioxide,
which was subsequently re-precipitated in carbonate form. Layer by layer of these
deposits form massive beds of limestone.

3.2.3

Mineralogical composition
Limestone and dolomite can be composed of the following four minerals, characterized
by the following physical data:
Chemical
formula

Molecular
weight

Specific gravity
3
[g/cm ]

Hardness
[Mohs Scale]

Crystal
system

Calcite

CaCO3

100.1

2.71

3.0

rhombohedral

Aragonite

CaCO3

100.1

2.94

3.5-4.0

orthorhombic

Dolomite

CaMg(CO3)2

92.2

2.84

3.4-4.0

rhombohedral

Magnesite

MgCO3

84.3

3.00

5.0-4.5

rhombohedral

Dolomite and calcite play the main role as industrial minerals.


- Pure limestone (calcite and aragonite) is 100% calcium carbonate.
- Pure dolomite contains 54.3% CaCO3 and 45.7% MgCO3 (30.4% CaO, 21.8% MgO,
and 47.8% CO2).

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Technological Principle

INFORMATION
Limestone and dolomite used for industrial purposes include:
- Pure calcite with 9799% CaCO3
- Pure dolomite with 4043% MgCO3 and 5760% CaCO3
Impurities in these limestone and dolomite rocks are usually between 1 and
3%.
3.2.4

Impurities
Impurities in limestone are classified as homogeneous and heterogeneous.
Silica and alumina
- Homogeneous impurities such as clay, silt, sand, and other forms of silica like quartz
are well dispersed throughout the formation.
- Heterogeneous impurities, which are found, for example, as siliceous pieces or
nodules of sand, chert or flint are loosely embedded in the limestone.
Iron
- The third major impurity is homogeneously distributed after the limestone has
started to form iron carbonate by chemically replacing calcium with iron. This
frequently occurs in oolitic limestone.
- It is heterogeneously distributed as iron sulphide or iron oxide in minerals like pyrite,
limonite, and hematite.
Phosphorous and sulphur
- They usually occur only in small quantities.
Manganese, copper, titanium
- These and further impurities are virtually negligible and considered as trace
elements in the pure stone.

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3.2.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Mineral structure and grain size


Limestone is crystalline. The grain size (to be distinguished from particle size)
increases with the amount of re-crystallization that has occurred during the formation of
the deposit.
The crystalline structure varies greatly in density and hardness.
Micro

<4 10-6 m

Fine

4 50 10-6 m

Medium

50 250 10-6 m

Coarse

>250 10-6 m (up to about 1000 10-6 m)

The particle shape depends partly on the microstructure of the grain, but also on the
crushing characteristics of the crushing machine.
NOTE
Cubic or spherical shapes of limestone particles are usually preferred for
lime kilns.
Avoid processing layered or flat limestone particles whenever possible.
3.2.6

Porosity and density


The porosity of limestone particles varies considerably depending on the degree of
compaction and structure of the limestone. It is defined as the ratio of the void volume
Vv and the total volume Vtot. The void volume Vv comprises both accessible and
inaccessible pores. The figure below illustrates different kinds of pores.

Fig. 3

Different kinds of pores (typical)

Item

Description

solid pore

inaccessible pore

accessible pore

Density is defined as the ratio of mass m and volume V of a particular particle.


The solid or specific density (D) considers the volume of the pure solid without any void
volume.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

The apparent density (Ds) considers the volume of the solid with the inaccessible
space.
The apparent porosity (Ps) describes the accessible volume as the difference of that
part of the specific density minus the apparent density with the amount of inaccessible
space.

D
Ps 1 s 100
D

Ps = Apparent porosity [%]


Ds = Apparent density
D = Specific density
Some data regarding apparent porosities and apparent densities of commonly used
types of limestone is provided in the table below.
Industrial limestone shows a wide range of apparent porosities (0.1 to 40%) and
densities (1.50 to 2.90 g/cm3) caused by the different forming conditions and levels of
re-crystallization.

3.2.7

Apparent porosity [%]

Apparent density [g/cm ] dried at 110 C

Dense limestone

0.1 to 3.0

up to 2.7

Marble

0.1 to 2.0

2.7 to 2.8

Chalk

15 to >40

1.5 to 2.3

Bulk density and particle size


Bulk density is the mass per unit volume of a solid, including the voids in a bulk sample
of the material.
Bulk density depends largely on the apparent density of the limestone, its particle size
distribution, and on the particle shape.
Crushed, screened limestone with a size ratio of 2:1 generally has a bulk density of 1.3
to 1.6 g / cm3.
Crushed, unscreened limestone has a bulk density of 1.6 to 1.75 g / cm3.

3.2.8

Thermal dissociation of carbonate


Thermal dissociation is the most important characteristic of limestone.
All carbonate rocks dissociate at high temperatures, forming oxides and CO2 gas.
For example:
CaCO3 + heat = CaO + CO2
The dissociation temperature of commercially attractive limestone ranges between 896
and 910C (at a partial CO2 pressure of 100 kPa).
The dissociation heat of calcium carbonate is about 3180 kJ/kg of CaO at 25C. This
value is mainly influenced by the purity of the lime and the impurities affecting the
quality of the lime. The dissociation temperature varies considerably with the chemical
composition.

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Technological Principle

The dissociation temperature may be reduced by several hundred degrees due to


higher amounts of impurities, such as SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 in the limestone. The
effect of SiO2 (silica) is shown in the following figure.

3.2.9

Fig. 4

p,t diagram of the CaO-SiO2 system (typical)

Curve

Element

Temperature range

CaCO3 + SiO2

400590 C

CaCO3 + 2CaOSiO2

400750 C

CaCO3

650890 C

Mechanical strength and abrasion resistance


Pore volume and pore distribution give the limestone a specific structure, which results
in different apparent densities. They have a direct influence on the mechanical
properties of the limestone.
Mechanical strength and abrasion resistance of the limestone must be sufficiently high
to avoid breakage. Breakage of limestone particles during handling or passage through
the kiln causes the generation of fine lime and compresses the stone packing in the
kiln. The gas flow and heat transfer may thus be adversely affected causing
downgrading of the quality of the quicklime (also see Influence of feed size on the
retention time in this chapter).
The compressive strength varies from 10 MPa for some types of marl and chalk to
200 MPa for some types of marble.
INFORMATION
The compressive strength of limestone to be burnt in a Maerz lime kiln
should generally not be lower than 30 MPa.

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3.2.10

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Data and properties of limestone


The following table lists some fundamental data and properties of limestone.
Properties

Data

Expansion coefficient

5 x 10-6 K-1 at 20C. Total expansion of limestone during heating up from


20 to 800C is approx. 2-2.5%.

Thermal conductivity

Limestone at 130 C
Dolomitic limestone at 123 C

1.6341 W / mK
1.4246 W / mK

Integrated specific heat

CaCO3
at 100C
at 800C
CaO
at 100C
at 800C

[kJ / Kg C]
0.874
1.104

[kcal/kg C]
0.209
0.264

0.786
0.887

0.188
0.212

Strength

Compressive strength:
Shear strength:
Tensile strength:

10 200 MPa
5 20 MPa
2 7 MPa

Chemical properties

Limestone and dolomite are unaffected by CO2-free water. Decomposition


can only occur at very high temperatures or by reaction with strong acids.

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3.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Calcination of limestone
Carbonate rocks decompose at high temperatures releasing gaseous CO2 and convert
into calcium oxide and/or magnesium oxide. Depending on the process temperature, a
range of products from soft-burnt to hard-burnt lime can be produced.
The Maerz lime kiln is designed to primarily produce soft-burnt lime. Therefore, this
manual focuses on the production of soft-burnt lime obtained from high-purity
limestone.
By appropriately adapting kiln design and operating mode, the Maerz lime kiln is also
suitable for burning dolomite.

3.3.1

Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate


The thermal decomposition of CaCO3 into CaO and CO2 is an endothermic reaction.
CaCO3 + heat = CaO + CO2
It starts at about 810C with surface calcination and is completed at about 900C at a
partial CO2 pressure of 100 kPa.
In order to produce 1 kg of CaO, approximately 3180 kJ of energy are required.

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3.3.2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Physical-chemical phenomena during calcination


During heating-up, the limestone passes several stages of physical-chemical and
thermo-mechanical phenomena.
The chemical reaction of calcination starts at the surface of the limestone particle and
moves into the core with the progress of reaction. Mechanisms of mass and heat
transport take place in parallel during this process.
The physical-chemical phenomena may be described, in principle, by the 5 steps
represented in the figure below.

Fig. 5

Processes during calcination (typical)

Item

Description

Heat transfer by convection and radiation from the surrounding area to the surface of the
limestone particle.

Heat transfer through the already calcined lime zone.

The heat is absorbed by the chemical reaction at the lime-limestone interface on the way into
the core. The limestone decomposes into lime and CO2.

The generated CO2 diffuses from the centre to the surface of the particle.

The CO2 is released from the particle surface into the surrounding atmosphere.

The diameter and density of the particles have a strong influence on the speed for
these mechanisms.

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Technological Principle

With increasing process temperature, the physical properties (especially the volume of
the limestone crystals) change through the different stages of calcination. The figure
below visualizes these steps by means of a cubical sample.

Fig. 6

Stages of limestone decomposing to lime during calcination (typical)

Item

Description

1
2

When heating up from room temperature to calcining temperature the limestone expands.

After surface calcination has begun, the pore volume of the surface zone increases while the
volume of the sample remains more or less constant.

After calcination is completed, the sample has reached the maximum porosity, but the volume
of the sample remains unchanged.

When temperature and calcining time are further increased, the lime crystals will start to sinter.
The pore volume and the sample volume will decrease.

The strong decrease of the pore and sample volume at high temperatures is caused by
crystal growth. Fig. 5 below shows different apparent densities of quicklime which was
calcined at different temperatures and over periods ranging from about 3 to 30 hours.

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Technological Principle

Fig. 7

Apparent density of quicklime varying with temperature and time, produced from dense, high-calcium
limestone (typical)

Item

Description

1400C

1300C

1200C

1200C

1000C

In Fig. 6 below, structures of quicklime with different apparent densities are shown in
three scanning electron micrographs.

Fig. 8

Scanning electron micrographs of quicklime (typical)

Item

Density

1.5 g / cm

1.9 g / cm

2.3 g / cm

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3.3.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Reactivity of quicklime
The reduction in pore volume notably reduces the specific surface area of the quicklime
and causes a strong decrease in reactivity.
Quicklime with many pores has a high affinity to water. The reaction with water is
exothermal, causing the release of hydration heat, which may be measured as an
indicator for the reactivity of quicklime. Other test methods are mentioned in the
following figure. The reference values given in Fig. 7 below only apply to the specific
limestone examined and may differ from values applicable to different types of
limestone.

Fig. 9

Relationship between reactivity testing methods used for quicklime (typical)

Item

Description

BS 6463 [C] after 2 min.

EN 459-2 t60 [min] - time to reach 60C

EN 459-2 tu [min] - time for 80% slaking

ASTM C110 [C] - temperature rise after 30 s

ASTM C110 [C] - maximum temperature rise

ASTM C110 [min] - time to maximum temperature

Acid titration [ml] after 3 min.

Acid titration [ml] after 5 min.

Acid titration [ml] after 10 min.

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Fig. 10

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Relationship between reactivity (BS 6463) and apparent density of quicklime (typical)

Due to the influence of the pore volume, the reactivity of quicklime is indirectly
proportional to the apparent density.
3.3.4

Influence of feed size on retention time


The size of particles fed to the kiln influences the retention time required for the
calcining process.
Fig. 9 below shows that bigger particle sizes need more retention time in the kiln than
smaller ones at a given process temperature.
INFORMATION
The figure may be used as a guideline for adjusting the burning time to the
particle size of the stone.

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Fig. 11

Calcining times for spheres of dense limestone (typical)

Item

Description

15 cm

12.5 cm

10 cm

7.5 cm

5 cm

2.5 cm

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

The influence of particle size and temperature on the calcining and sintering
mechanisms leads to the important issue of heat distribution in the kiln. The distribution
of open voids in the limestone package must be optimized to allow for uniform gas flow
and efficient heat transfer.
A lime shaft kiln has to be designed in such a way that the heat is evenly distributed
over the whole shaft cross-section. Areas with a high ratio of fine particles can cause
heat stagnation, which will result in local overheating. The particles in this area will be
overheated, which may lead to an inappropriately high apparent density and possibly
even to sintering and/or fusion.
The right particle size distribution of the limestone feed, the kiln type, and the kiln
operation procedure are closely related, and only an optimized concept will result in
optimal quicklime quality.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Summary
Heat distribution, temperature, and retention time influence the properties of the
produced quicklime.
Three categories of particle types may be discharged from the kiln:
- not fully calcined
- just fully calcined
These two categories of particles have a low apparent density and a high reactivity with
water.
- different grades of calcining/sintering
In this case, the particles have an increased apparent density and a reduced reactivity
with water.
3.3.5

Lime to limestone factor


Calculation based on dry limestone:

CaO MgO R2 O3
Lime
100

A
Limestone 100 CO2 (1.785 CaO) (2.092 MgO) R2 O3
CO2

[%]

Residual CO2 content in burnt lime

CaO

[%]

CaO content in burnt lime

MgO

[%]

MgO content in burnt lime

R2O3

[%]

Impurities in burnt lime

Calculation based on wet limestone:

Lime
A (100 - moisture)

Limestone
100
Moisture [%]

Water content of limestone related to dry limestone

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3.4

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Fuel
Different heating systems burning solid, liquid or gaseous fuels are available for the
lime kiln. Quality and type of fuel have a considerable impact on the quality of the
quicklime produced. In limestone calcination, fuel is more than just a heat source. The
fuel interacts with the process and the combustion products, which in turn react with
the quicklime.
In the kiln, fuels such as coal, lignite, petcoke, light and heavy fuel oils, low calorific
fuels, lean gas, natural gas, as well as combinations of these fuels are used. The
selection of the right fuel requires experience and the consideration of numerous
parameters.
The most important parameters are listed in the following table.
Properties

Remarks

Costs

Fuel costs represent 40 to 70% of the production cost.

Calorific value

The calorific value is linked to the costs of fuel per unit.

Moisture

Solid fuels have to be dried to prevent them from sticking together during dosing and
transport to the lances.

Sulphur

About 70% of the fuel sulphur is absorbed by the quicklime forming calcium sulphate.
The sulphur retained in the quicklime may affect the quality of the product.

Particle size

The particle size of solid fuels influences combustion time and thus production time.

Volatile
components

The combustion properties of solid fuels vary with the amount of volatile components
and moisture. Consequently, the calorific value and the shape of the flame may
change. Volatile components lead to the release of energy, whereas moisture
consumes extra energy for vaporization.

Ash

Ash generally contaminates the lime to some degree with silica, alumina, and iron
oxide. This may cause the lime lumps to stick together. The pressure on the lime
lumps in the charge may enhance this bridging effect. The mixture of ash, lime dust
and/or alkali (sodium and potassium) form low-melting mineral stages at the surface
of the limestone particles. High amounts of ash may increase the danger of clogging
caused by the effects of sintering (bridging) and the formation of low-melting stages.

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3.4.1

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Definition of calorific values


Lower calorific value (LCV)
The lower calorific value is the heat available after complete combustion of 1 kg or
1 m3n of fuel and cooling down of the combustion products to start-up temperature.
The LCV is defined by excluding the latent heat produced by the condensation of water
in the waste gas.
Higher calorific value (HHV)
This value is the lower calorific value plus the latent heat produced by the condensation
of water in the waste gas. Since the water in the waste gas is usually in the steam
phase, the vaporization heat cannot be regained.
Fuel

3.4.2

Lower calorific value [LCV]

Higher calorific value [HCV]

[MJ/kg] or
3
[MJ/m n]

[kcal/kg] or
3
[kcal/ m n]

[MJ/kg] or
3
[MJ/m n]

[kcal/kg] or
3
[kcal/ m n]

Hard coal,
anthracite, coke

28 33

6500 8400

28 35.5

6760 8500

Dry wood dust

18

4300

19.3

4600

Fuel oil class S

40.5

9680

43.1

10290

LPG
(~30% propane
~70% butane)

92.9

22190

101.2

24181

Natural gas

35.9

8570

39.8

9510

Lean gas

17.9

4275

20.1

4800

Combustion air volume (vol)


The lime kiln burns fuels using combustion air. The required combustion air volume
(see tables under 1.3.5) considering any excess or deficiency factor must be
entered into the combustion calculation program of the lime kiln.

3.4.3

Wobbe index
For gaseous fuels, e.g. coke oven gas, containing tar or other impurities, the
installation of an orifice plate to measure the gas flow is required. In order to
compensate for varying gas densities, the Wobbe index is added to the formula used
for calculating the heat flow.
Analogously to the calorific value, the Wobbe index is expressed as W s and W i.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

The Wobbe index considers the ratio between the calorific value and the relative
density of the gas.

3.4.4

Gas / Air

Wobbe index

Calorific value

Gas

Gas density

Air

Air density

Heat flow
The heat flow is calculated as follows:
Heat flow [kJ / h] = gas volume [m3 / h] Wobbe index [kJ / m3]

3.4.5

Fuel data
Solid fuels
Fuel

Average composition
(% by weight)
C

Vola- Lower
tiles calorific value
N

H2O

Required
combustion air
vol

LCV
[%]

[kcal/kg] [MJ/kg] [m3n/Mcal] [m3n/MJ]

Wood

50.4

6.2

43.3

0.1

11

75

4300

18.02 1.09

0.2603

Lignite (Rheinbraun)

58.5

4.3

21.0

0.7

11

0.35

46

5278

22.1

0.2606

Bright burning coal

84.0

5.5

1.5

11

1.0

35

8100

33.94 1.08

0.258

Hard coal

88.0

5.0

4.5

1.5

11

1.0

25

8350

34.99 1.09

0.2603

Forge coal

90.0

4.5

3.0

1.5

11

1.0

15

8450

35.41 1.09

0.2603

Anthracite

91.5

3.8

2.2

1.5

11

1.0

10

8425

35.30 1.08

0.258

Coke

96.7

0.6

0.6

1.1

11

1.0

7870

32.98 1.12

0.2675

Petcoke

89.7

3.6

0.6

0.6

11

5.5

10.7

8240

34.5

0.2627

1.09

1.10

Liquid fuels
(Table valid for sulphur contents up to 2.5%)
C/H Number

Density

Lower calorific value

Required combustion air

LCV

vol

[g/cm3]

[kcal/kg]

[MJ/kg]

[m3n/Mcal]

[m3n/MJ]

Fuel oil L (light)

6.7

0.86

10150

43

1.099

0.2625

Fuel oil S (heavy)

7.8

0.96

9680

40.5

1.103

0.2634

6.5

0.843

10052

42

1.096

0.2618

0.889

9906

41.5

1.098

0.2623

7.5

0.935

9760

41

1.102

0.2623

0.981

9614

40

1.108

0.2646

8.5

1.026

9468

39.6

1.114

0.2661

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Technological Principle

Gaseous fuels
Fuel

Lower calorific value

Average composition (% by volume)

LCV

CO

H2

CH4

CnHm

CO2

Required
combustion air
N2

O2

HHC* vol

[MJ/m3n]

[%]

[m3n/
Mcal]

[m3n/MJ]

Carbon
3021
monoxide CO

12.64

100

0.79

0.1887

Hydrogen H2

2572

10.76

0.93

0.2221

Methane CH4

8556

35.80

1.12

0.2675

Ethane C2H6

15370

64.31

100

1.09

0.2603

Propane C3H8 22363

93.57

100

1.07

0.2556

Butane C4H10

122.51

100

1.06

0.2532

Liquefied
petroleum
27366
gas (LPG)
~30% propane
~70% butane

114.5

100

1.06

0.2532

Russian
natural gas

8915

37.30

93.3

4.9

1.1

0.8

1.109

0.2649

Groningen
natural gas
(NL)

7552

31.6

81.4

3.2

0.8

14.1

1.109

0.2649

Blast furnace
gas

750951

3.143.98 2430 12

0.8

0.1911

Coke oven
gas

4275

17.9

1.027

0.2453

[kcal/m3n]

29280

100
100

8.6

51.4

1921 5657
25.9

2.7

8.1

0.3

3.0

HHC* = Heavy Hydrocarbons

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Design and Functioning (Type FS)


Mandatory reference material
This chapter contains general and typical information. For details, dimensions as well
as to determine and locate a specific component, reference to diagrams and drawings
is mandatory. The complete reference list is included in the Appendix.
Items required with this chapter
- 010

Steel binding - assembly

- 059

Poking door with measuring point

- 154

Protection tubes for measuring points

- 178

Stone distributor

- 192195

Installation of limit switches

- 500

Hydraulic scheme + 502 list of material

- 510

Firing system: Liquid fuel (if applicable)

- 520

Firing system: Natural gas (if applicable)

- 530

Firing system: Lean gas (if applicable)

- 540

Firing system: Solid fuel (if applicable)

- 550

Compressed air scheme

- 600

PI Diagram

- 603

Configuration control system

- 611

Installation: Electrical equipment

- 612

Installation: Measuring equipment

- 640

Instrument list

- 641

Motor list

- Electrical documentation / Manufactures documentation


- Instruction Manual Book-02, Specific Data & Component Description
Technical data
Important benchmark figures and performance data can also be found in chapter
Technical Data at the beginning of this of Book-02.

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4.1

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Design

Fig. 12

Overview

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Item

Description

Reversal flap filter / direct chimney

Reversal flap combustion air / waste gas

Reversible conveyor belt

Rotating bucket

Shaft closing flap

Lance cooling air duct

Combustion air duct

Kiln door

Discharge hopper

10

Lime vibration feeder

11

Discharge flap

12

Cooling air duct

13

Discharge table

14

Crossover channel

15

Suspended cylinder

16

Ring channel

17

Kiln shaft

18

Burner lances

19

Level indicator

20

Stone distributor

21

Stone distributor - swivel-mounted

22

Limestone vibration feeder

23

Kiln hopper

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Design and Functioning (Type FS)

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4.2

Design

4.2.1

Parallel-flow firing system

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

The parallel-flow firing system yields ideal burning conditions.


The flame moves in the same direction as the charge, providing the maximum
temperature difference at the beginning of calcination in the burning zone.
The flame pattern ensures a minimum temperature at the end of the calcination
process in order to protect the smaller particles in the charge from over burning.
4.2.2

Preheating the combustion air


The regenerative preheating of the combustion air provides a thermodynamic
advantage. The stone preheating zone acts as a regenerator for preheating the
combustion air produced by the excess heat of the waste gas. The limestone itself
temporarily stores the heat. This regenerative process is completely insensitive to dustladen or corroding gases while providing excellent heat transfer characteristics.
Regenerative preheating of combustion air makes the kiln virtually independent of the
excess combustion air factor. This considerably simplifies setting the correct length of
the flame, as a large volume of excess air produces a shorter flame while a smaller
volume of excess air produces a longer flame.

4.2.3

Two-shaft kiln
The regenerative system and the parallel-flow firing system demand a kiln with two
shafts (1 and 2). The two shafts alternate their firing and regenerative functions at
intervals. The connecting channel between the shafts is located near the bottom end of
the burning zone. At this point, the kiln gases flow from the combustion shaft to the
regenerative shaft.

Fig. 13

Top view: definition of shaft number

Item

Description

Kiln shaft

Combustion air pipe

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4.2.4

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Burner lances
Fuel is fed from a main system through a number of steel lances and is evenly
distributed over the cross-section of the burning shaft. The lances enter the shafts at
the upper, cooler part of the preheating zone and are freely suspended into the
vertically descending charge.
In addition to housing them, the regenerative shaft also flushes air through the lances
to cool and protect them from dust.
The amount of fuel entering the lances of the firing shaft is regulated by means of a
valve system that ensures even distribution to all lances.

4.2.5

Reversing devices
Periodically switching from the burning to the non-burning shaft (regenerative shaft)
requires reversing devices for fuel, combustion air, and waste gas. All reversal
processes are controlled automatically.
The reversal processes are steered automatically.
The supply of the combustion air, alternatively the waste gas, is steered by a hydraulic
cylinder.
Positions of the reversal flap
Regenerative shaft (secondary shaft) waste gas pipe is open
Burning shaft (primary shaft) combustion air pipe is open

Fig. 14

Combustion air / waste gas reversal (typical)

Item

Description

Regenerative shaft

Burning shaft

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4.2.6

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Charging device
The constant and accurate throughput required by a kiln of such great thermal
efficiency is provided by the charging and discharging device. With each charging
sequence, a scaled quantity of limestone is released into the shaft. This cold stone will
absorb the excess heat from the waste gas. The number of charges per hour and the
duration of the heating period are adjusted according to the corresponding production
parameters. Charging starts with the kiln hopper (1) above the charging platform. From
here a vibration feeder (2) serves the limestone onto a reversible conveyor belt (3). The
conveyor will now fill one of the rotating buckets (4) alternately. These buckets will
charge the kiln shaft, distributing the stone appropriate and evenly via the stone
distributor (5). The filling level of the shaft itself is observed and maintained by the
signal of the level indicator.

Fig. 15

Charging device (typical)

Item

Description

Item

Description

Kiln hopper

Rotating bucket

Vibration feeder

Stone distributor

Reversible conveyor belt

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4.2.7

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Discharge device
Calcined lime is continuously discharged from the shafts by means of hydraulically
operated discharge tables (1). The rate of discharge is automatically controlled by the
kiln control system according to the level of stone measured in the preheating zone.
The moving discharge tables (1) are located under the cooling zone of each shaft. The
tables feed a hopper, located below and collecting the calcined lime discharged during
each burning period. The cooling air enters through this receptacle and flows to the
shaft via the lime embankments on the discharge tables. Because of the high pressure
inside the kiln, the area is sealed off by airtight, hydraulically operated discharge
flaps (2). During each reversing period, the discharge flaps will open to allow the lime
to drop into a pressure-free discharge hopper (3) equipped with a vibrating feeder (4)
for final discharge.

Fig. 16

Discharge device (typical)

Item

Description

Item

Description

Discharge table

Discharge hopper

Discharge flap

Vibrating feeder

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4.2.8

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Hydraulic system
Most flaps inside the air supply pipes, the reverse flaps, and the charging and
discharging devices are all operated hydraulically. A hydraulic system is provided
because it can generate great force by means of small components. It is also safe and
requires only minimum servicing.

4.2.9

Kiln refractory lining


The preheating and cooling zones are lined with abrasion-resistant fire bricks. Due to
combustion with preheated air and the high cross-section output, the burning zone
must be lined with magnesite. After a certain period of time, a thin crust of dust will
cover the lining, which considerably contributes to the protection of the brickwork.
Permanent lining consisting of different insulating stones, mats, or plates is arranged
behind this chamotte or magnesite lining.

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4.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Functional description
The Maerz Lime Kiln allows for thermally efficient production of high-quality soft-burnt
lime.
To reach a high degree of thermal efficiency, the Maerz Lime Kiln is equipped with
special features to provide ideal calcination conditions for the production of quick lime.
A brief summary of the calcination of limestone with regard to necessary kiln features
illustrates the requirements the Maerz Lime Kiln has to meet. For details about
limestone calcination, please refer to chapter Basic Technological Principles.

4.3.1

Special requirements of limestone calcination


The carbonate in the limestone decomposes under specific thermal and heat flow
conditions.
- The decomposition or calcination temperature depends upon the partial pressure of
carbon dioxide. In order to enable decomposition of the stone, the necessary
dissociation heat must penetrate the surface of the stone through an insulating shell
of calcined lime. This requires that the stone surface be preheated.
Since an enormous amount of this heat may be transmitted into the stone, the
admissible heat flow rate is considerably less towards the end of the calcination
process.
- The kiln charge comprises a range of small and large particle sizes.
As smaller particles absorb heat more readily, the admissible heat flow for these
particles will drop to the minimum value after a short firing period.
Longer particles require a longer period of heat exposure to complete calcination. As
the kiln charge moves towards the end of the calcination zone, the calcination process
requires less heat.

4.3.2

Process description
The two key operating principles are:
The stone-laden preheating zone (C) in each shaft acts as a regenerative heat
exchanger, while the charge has the function of a heat accumulator.
During the first stage, the excess heat produced by the waste gas (8) is transferred to
the stone in shaft 2 (3). During the second stage, the heat is transferred from the stone
to the combustion air (1). As a result, the combustion air is preheated to about 700C.
The net heat consumption of the kiln lies between 3'500 and 3'700 kJ/kg of quick lime.
The calcination of the quick lime is completed at the level of the crossover channel (7)
at a moderate temperature of about 1'050 C. This favourably affects the production of
highly reactive quick lime, which can, if required, be produced with a low CaCO 3
content.
During the burning period, cooling air (5) flows evenly and continuously into the bottom
end of the shafts. Prior to reversal, pressure relief flaps vent both combustion air (1)
and cooling air (5) to the outside.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

The figure shows the basic operating principle of the PFR Lime Kiln and illustrates the
two operating stages. The two shafts are alternately charged with limestone while lime
is discharged continuously from the bottom of the shafts.

Fig. 17

Operating principle

Item

Description

Combustion air

Burning shaft

Regenerative shaft

Burner lance

Cooling air

Heating gas ring channel

Crossover channel

Waste gas

Cooling zone

Burning zone

Preheating zone

First stage
During the first stage, fuel is injected through lances (4) into shaft 1 (2) and burns down
in this shaft using combustion air (1). The heat is released and partially absorbed by
the calcination of limestone. Through the base of each shaft, cooling air (5) is blown
upwards to cool the lime. The cooling air (5) in shaft 1, together with the waste gas (8)
and the carbon dioxide from calcination, passes through the interconnecting overflow
channels into shaft 2 (3) at about 1'000C. In shaft 2 (3), the gases from shaft 1 (2) mix
with the cooling air (5) blown upwards from the base of the shaft. These gases heat up
the stone in the preheating zone (C) of the regenerative shaft (3).

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Second stage
The second stage will start after 8 to 15 minutes. The fuel and air flow to shaft 1 (2) is
stopped, while reversal is initiated. After shaft 1 (2) has been charged with limestone,
the same amounts of fuel and combustion air (1) are injected into shaft 2 (3). The
waste gas (8), the carbon dioxide produced during calcination, and the cooling air (5)
flow upwards through shaft 1 (2) and heat up the charge in the preheating zone (C) of
this shaft. Waste gas is vented through the top of shaft 1 (2).
Reversal
During each reversal cycle, the shaft has first to be de-pressurized. Afterwards, the
burnt lime is discharged. Finally, the shaft is charged and re-pressurized.
Another possible operating mode is to charge the regenerative shaft while the burning
process is still in progress.

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4.4

Characteristic data

4.4.1

Grain size of charged limestone

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

The Maerz Lime Kiln is designed to process different limestone grain sizes.
Fine lime kiln type
For grain sizes between 15 to 40mm or 40 to 80mm (exceptionally, 10 to 90mm).
Standard lime kiln type
For grain sizes between 30 to 70mm or 60 to 120mm (exceptionally, 25 to 140mm).
INFORMATION
For the exact specifications of this particular lime kiln, refer to chapter
Technical Data.

4.4.2

Operating cycles
The duration of one operating cycle per shaft ranges from 8 to 15 minutes at nominal
output.
INFORMATION
For the exact specifications of this particular lime kiln, refer to chapter
Operation.

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4.4.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Heat and mass flow

Fig. 18

Heat and mass flow (typical)

The figure above illustrates the heat and mass flow based on 1 kg of quick lime
produced inside the Maerz Lime Kiln.
(The limestone used for this example is of average quality).

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4.4.4

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Temperature profile

Fig. 19

Typical temperature profile of a Maerz lime kiln as witnessed by a passenger observer.

Item

Description

Material flow

Gas flow

Heat input (fuel)

Preheating zone

Burning zone

Cooling zone

Air

Waste gas

Product

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4.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Kiln control system


The kiln control system comprises the following main components:
- Programmable logic controller PLC with local I/O stations
- Data bus system
- Visualization system
INFORMATION
Detailed information can be found in the documents listed under
Mandatory reference material at the beginning of this chapter.
The PLC cabinet is usually housed in the same room as the MCC room above the
blower house. To reduce the number and length of cables used, the local I/O stations
(ET200S family) have been installed in various positions at the kiln.
The data bus system (Simatic Profibus) connects the PLC with the local I/O stations.
The visualization system is located inside the control room and runs usually on
"Siemens WinCC" or the PCS7 software.
INFORMATION
For the operation of the visualization system, see chapter Operation.

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4.6

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Electric switchboard
INFORMATION
The following section provides an overview on the switchboard. Detailed
Information can be found in the documents listed under Mandatory
reference material at the beginning of this chapter.

4.6.1

Main components
The electric switchboard is equipped with the following main components:
Low-voltage main distribution (LVMD)

Fig. 20

LVMD (typical)

Main switch with phase failure/low-voltage protection relay

Fig. 21

Main switch (typical)

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

KWh meter, ammeter, voltmeter in front of power distribution system

Fig. 22

Meters (typical)

Protection devices

Fig. 23

Protection devices (typical)

Motor contactors

Fig. 24

Motor contactors (typical)

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Auxiliary relays for each motor exit

Fig. 25

Auxiliary relays (typical)

Emergency process stop switch

Fig. 26

Emergency process stop (typical)

Frequency converters

Fig. 27

Frequency converters (typical)

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4.6.2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Safety information
- Operation and maintenance must be restricted to well-trained and authorized
certified electricians.
- During normal operation, the door to the MCC room must be closed.
- All switch cabinet doors must be closed.
- After the electric switchboard has been put into operation, all main switches and the
motor protection switch are turned on.
- During normal kiln operation, all motors are automatically started and stopped by the
kiln control system.
- For maintenance purposes, most motors can be controlled from the local control
panel installed close to the respective motor.
NOTICE
While the motors are controlled locally, all safety and process locks are put
out of operation. Only the motor protection switch remains in operation.
Whenever a motor is switched off for inspection, maintenance or repair
purposes, the local isolator must be turned off and secured with a padlock.
Make sure there is only one key to this padlock and appoint a person who
will be solely responsible for this key.
- The conditions 'operating', 'ready-to-operate', and 'electrical malfunction' are
reported to the PLC and displayed at the visualization system.
- The current power consumption is recorded by the report system.

4.6.3

Additional documents
This information can be found in the documents listed under Mandatory reference
material at the beginning of this chapter.

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4.7

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Local operation panel


INFORMATION
The following section provides an overview on the electric panel. Detailed
Information can be found in the documents listed under Mandatory
reference material at the beginning of this chapter

4.7.1

Main components
In general, all motors should have a local operation panel or electrical disconnector
according to the local regulation and the client's/ Maerz standards.

Fig. 28

Local operation panel (typical)

Item

Description

Local operation panel for direct started motor


- STOP pushbutton (red)
- START pushbutton (black)
- selector switch (AUTO / 0 / LOCAL)

Local operation panel for VVVF-controlled motor


- STOP pushbutton (red)
- START pushbutton (black)
- selector switch (AUTO / 0 / LOCAL)
- speed switch (INCREASE / 0/ DECREASE)

Local operation panel for skip motor


- STOP pushbutton (red)
- START pushbutton (black)
- selector switch (AUTO / 0 / LOCAL)
- speed switch (INCREASE / 0/ DECREASE)
- UP pushbutton (black)
- DOWN pushbutton (black)
- RESET pushbutton

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Local operation panel for process stop


- STOP pushbutton (red)

Local operation panel for discharge table


- illuminated pushbutton

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

NOTE
All stop pushbuttons are mechanically locking and must be released by
authorized operating personnel.

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4.8

Instrumentation

4.8.1

General description

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

The lime kiln is equipped with different instruments for the following purposes:
- Process visualization and monitoring
- Automatic and remote control operation
- Recording current and historical process data
- Recording process data for protocols
Detailed Information can be found in the documents listed under Mandatory reference
material at the beginning of this chapter.
4.8.2

Arrangement of instruments
This information can be found in the documents listed under Mandatory reference
material at the beginning of this chapter.

4.8.3

Wiring diagrams
This information can be found in the documents listed under Mandatory reference
material at the beginning of this chapter.

4.8.4

Purpose of the most important measuring instruments

Name

Description

Optical pyrometer
(channel temperature)

The optical pyrometer is installed at the connecting channel and can


be used to estimate the exact length of the flame in the burning
zone. This is the most important instrument used in combination with
the kiln.
Measuring range is 600 to 1'200 C. Limit values are set at the
visualization system. If a process value exceeds the limits, fuel feed
is automatically interrupted and an alarm is triggered. The optical
pyrometer measures the temperature on the refractory lining
surface.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Name

Description

Thermocouples
(kiln temperature)

In addition to the optical pyrometer, the kiln channel is also equipped


with thermocouples. Since the channel temperature represents the
most important process value, the thermocouples are used to back
up readings of the pyrometer.
Measuring range is 0 to 1'200 C, and limits are also set at the
visualization system. If a process value exceeds the limits, fuel feed
is automatically interrupted and an alarm is triggered.
Please note that the reaction time of the thermocouples is longer
than that of the optical pyrometer and that they may, therefore, not
be used to determine flame length. On the other hand, the optical
pyrometer is not capable of measuring the temperature as precisely
as the thermocouples.
The thermocouples measure the temperature of the hot gas flowing
through the connecting channel.

Resistance thermometers
(lime discharge
temperature)

Resistance thermometers have been installed above the discharge


tables of each shaft.
Limits are set at the visualization system. If a process value exceeds
the set values, an alarm will be triggered. However, kiln operation
can continue.
The instruments measure the lime discharge temperature and are
influenced by cooling air. In this case, the current temperature of the
lime is higher than the process temperature. The difference can be
verified by shutting down the kiln for 20 minutes.

Resistance thermometers
(waste gas temperature)

Resistance thermometers measure the waste gas temperature


directly behind the combustion air relief flaps and in front of the filter
inlet.
Limits are set at the visualization system. If a process value exceeds
the set values, an alarm will be triggered. However, kiln operation
can continue.
To prevent the filter from overheating the automatic control system is
programmed to perform two steps. During the first step, the quench
air flap opens and fresh air is mixed with waste gas reduce the
temperature. Should the waste gas temperature still be too high, the
waste gas is derived directly to the chimney, and the kiln is stopped.

INFORMATION
The waste gas temperature varies with kiln reversals.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Name

Description

Thermocouples
(temperature at the lance
tips (Option))

Thermocouples are installed in each shaft at lance tip level.


Limits are set at the visualization system. If a process value exceeds
a set value, an alarm will be triggered. However, kiln operation can
continue.
The measured temperatures are an indication of how much the
lances have burnt down.

Thermometer
(combustion air
temperature)

The combustion air temperature is measured inside the main supply


pipe. The measured value is used to convert the air volume to
normal conditions.

Resistance thermometer
(hydraulic oil temperature)

The hydraulic oil temperature is measured inside the oil tank of the
hydraulic unit by means of a resistance thermometer. The kiln
control system reads the value and controls the heating and cooling
of the hydraulic oil. If the temperature rises too high, an alarm is
triggered, and the hydraulic pumps are shut down for safety
reasons.

Thermometer
(gas temperature)

The gas temperature is measured in the main gas supply pipe and is
used by the kiln control system to convert the gas volume to normal
conditions.

Pressure gauge
(gas pressure)

The gas pressure is measured in the main gas supply pipe and is
used by the kiln control system to convert the gas volume to normal
conditions. If values are higher or lower than set limits, the kiln is
automatically shut down.

Flow meter
(gas flow)

The gas flow is measured in the main gas supply pipe and is used
by the kiln control system to convert the gas volume to normal
conditions. If values are higher or lower than set limits, the kiln is
automatically shut down.

Room thermometer
The temperature inside the blower house is measured with a room
(blower house temperature) thermometer having a measuring range of -30 to +60 C.
The measured value is required for calculating the air to be supplied
by the blowers.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Name

Description

Pressure gauge
(kiln, combustion, and
cooling air pressure)

The combustion and cooling air pressures are measured in the main
supply pipes leading to the kiln. The kiln pressure is measured
inside the connecting channel.
Limits are set at the visualization system. If values are higher or
lower than set limits, the kiln is automatically shut down, and an
alarm is triggered.
The minimum pressure must be 30 mbar below the current operating
pressure used to achieve the kiln production rate. The operating
pressure varies with the kiln production rate and the grain size of the
limestone used. The upper limit must be 50 mbar above the normal
operating pressure.

Pressure gauge
The pressure of the lance cooling air is measured in the pipes
(lance cooling air pressure) leading to the kiln.
The limits are set at the visualization system. If values are higher or
lower than set limits, the kiln is automatically shut down, and an
alarm is triggered.
Pressure gauge
(compressed air pressure)

The compressed air pressure is measured in the main air supply


pipe. Limits are set at the visualization system. If values are higher
or lower than set limits, an alarm will be triggered. The kiln is
automatically shut down due to a lack of compressed air.

Slope switch
(lime level in discharge
hoppers, overload
message)

To prevent the lime discharge hoppers from overfilling, transversal


slope switches have been installed to monitor the maximum level.

Flame detector
(presence of flame)

The flame detector (UV sensor) monitors the flame of the start-up
burner while the kiln is being preheated.

If a switch engages, an alarm is triggered, and the kiln is shut down


automatically.

If no flame is detected, the flame detector automatically closes the


gas valve and triggers an alarm. The kiln must be re-started after
flushing.
Level indicator
(stone level measuring)

On top of each shaft a mechanical measuring device is installed,


which register the filling level.
Detailed information can be found in the specific chapter.

Ultrasound meter
(combustion air flow)

The combustion air flow is measured by means of an ultrasound


meter.
The kiln control system uses the actual and nominal air flow to
adjust the air factor of the fuel burnt in the kiln.
If the excess air flow is too low, fuel feed is stopped automatically.

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Name

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Design and Functioning (Type FS)

Description

Weighing cell
The kiln charging hopper scale is mounted on multiple weighing cells
(kiln charging hopper scale) (load cells). These weighing cells are connected to a measuring
amplifier.
The empty weight of the hopper (tare) is set to 0 kg at the measuring
amplifier. The weighing unit is set to maximum capacity according to
the size of the kiln.
The analog output signal of the measuring amplifier is used by the
kiln control system to regulate the charging system.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

Commissioning
Mandatory reference material
This chapter contains general and typical information. For details, dimensions as well
as to determine and locate a specific component, reference to diagrams and drawings
is mandatory. The complete reference list is included in the Appendix.
Items required with this chapter
- 056

Expansion joint sheet

- 057

Rupture sheet

- 580

Lubricating chart

Technical data
Important benchmark figures and performance data can also be found in chapter
Technical Data at the beginning of this of Book-02.

5.1

General information / Definition


The customer is responsible for the installation of the delivered equipment, if the
installation is not in Maerz scope of supply. The installation has to be done according to
Maerz engineering documents and instructions and in good workmanship with
professional personnel.
It is the customer's responsibility to ensure the quality of the installation. Maerz can be
ordered to supervise the installation work.
Maerz incorporated the manufacturer's technical information and instruction into Maerz
engineering of the equipment within Maerz scope of supply. The operator can then use
the plant in accordance with the instructions in the instruction manual.
Local regulations possibly need to be complied with and corresponding tests run.
INFORMATION
The "requirements for cold commissioning" are in the site manager's
responsibility. They correspond to the end of the construction work.
Commissioning is divided as follows:
- Cold commissioning
- Testing of the single components and the sub-systems
- Hot commissioning
- Ignition and start-up of the kiln
- Conversion to lance firing
- Stabilisation of the process
- Conclusion and handing over of the plant of the operator.

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5.2

Requirements for cold commissioning

5.2.1

Consumables

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

Available in the required quality and quantity, including reserves


In the interests of continuous charging, limestone must be available in
sufficient quantities. Sufficient fine material must also be available in order
to protect the refractory brick lining of the kiln upon initial charging against
damage
Fuel for all the installed firing systems
Fuel for the start-up system
Electrical power supply, (grid stability under load?)
- Emergency power supply tested (where applicable)
(battery loaded, diesel tank full, start as specified...)
Compressed air
Inert gas
Additional fuels available, for example:
Steam (where applicable)
Water for gas booster (where applicable)
5.2.2

Lubricating points
All lubricating points have to be lubricated in accordance with the
instructions.

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5.2.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

Shaft construction
The mechanical equipment must be complete mounted
Unscrew the bursting plate's needle-screw before the pressure test is
performed.
Test for leakage in the kiln
WARNING
Risk of injuries!
Machines and drives may start automatically.
Keep a sufficient distance from all moving parts.
Switch off the machines and secure against restarting.
WARNING
Risk of squeezing!
There is a risk of being squeezed when working at the machine or its
components. Be particularly careful under these circumstances!
Part one:
- Set the reversal flap combustion air / waste gas in the vertical position,
(see graph 1).
- Close the relief valve (combustion air) and switch on the combustion air
blower briefly, on the minimum rotational speed.
- Check the tightness through the manhole at the reversal flap.

Fig. 29

Vertical position of the reversal flap / waste gas

Item

Description

Item

Description

Combustion air

Waste gas

Reversal flap

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

Part two:
- Set the reversal flap combustion air / waste gas in the horizontal position
(see figure 2).
- Close the relief valve (combustion air)
- Pressurise the kiln using variable combustion blowers or cooling air
blowers
- Check the tightness through the manhole at the filter / direct chimney
- The reversal flap must be completely tight in both positions, (vertical /
horizontal).

Fig. 30

Horizontal position reversal flap / waste gas

Item

Description

Item

Description

Combustion air

Waste gas

Reversal flap

Kiln Pressure Test (Leakage Test)


- Pressurize the kiln using a variable air blower.
- Test conditions for empty kiln (without stone filling):
p Start
350 mbar
+ duration
10 min
= p End
at least 250 mbar
- Check for leakage: Entire kiln steel body and air system
- If required release pressure and repair the leakages
- Repeat, until the loss is within acceptable range
- Rupture sheet (drawing 057): At 400 mbar pressure, screw the needlebolt to 5 mm clearance and counter lock
Only with kiln pressure test successfully completed the welding and the kiln
erection as such is completed. A test protocol shall be established to
release the erecting contractor.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

If need be, test the fuel system, (including the start-up burners), all the
respective valves and instruments; including a pressure test in accordance
with the relevant regulations.
Start-up burner and flame monitor ready for operation
5.2.4

Refractory
Refractory lining complete
Dried out, where necessary (see erection instructions)

5.2.5

Kiln systems
Hydraulic pipings have been purged, the hydraulic system has been
checked and is ready for operation.
All blowers (combustion air and cooling air) have been checked and are
ready for operation.
Compressed air pipings have been purged, the compressed air system has
been checked and is ready for operation.
The limestone feeding system and the lime discharge system have been
checked and are ready for operation.
All kiln flaps have been checked and are ready for operation.
The start-up burner must be connected, checked and ready for operation.
All drive units have been checked and are ready for operation.
All pipes, valves and flaps have been checked for leaks, cleanliness and
proper functioning, and are ready for operation.

5.2.6

Electrical installations / instrumentation


All limit switches have been checked and are ready for operation.
All drive units have been checked and are ready for operation.
All wirings are complete and tested
All sensors and signals are adjusted and ready for operation
All the instruments installed and connected

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5.2.7

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

Firing system
The fuel systems are certified and ready for operation
The fuel pipes have been checked for leaks, cleanliness and proper
functioning, and are ready for operation (report).
The gas rack has been checked and is ready for operation (where
applicable).
The trace heating has been checked and is ready for operation (where
applicable).
The official operating is approved

5.2.8

Waste gas filter


The waste gas filter has been Installed, tested and is ready for operation
The cleaning system has been tested and is ready for operation
The control system has been tested and is ready for operation

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5.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

Cold commissioning
The components are now switched on and tested.

5.3.1

Suspended cylinder (if existent)


All emergency power supply systems as well as all cooling systems and
emergency cooling systems for the suspended cylinders must be checked
and ready for operation.
The suspended cylinder has passed the pressure and flow test and is ready
for operation.

5.3.2

Components
Setting the flap speed
I/O test of the master control system (Signal test from the transmitter to the
HMI)
Master control system = HMI (level 2 & PLC)
I/O test of the sub control system (The entire switching circuit, signal
transmitter to the local PLC)
Testing the direction of rotation of the electric motors
Testing the settings of the frequency converter
Setting the sensors (limit switch, load cells, stone level indicators,...)
Test blowers, all flaps and associated instruments

5.3.3

Software
Provision and configuration of the server systems

5.3.4

Integration test
Objective: To test the interaction of all the hardware and software
Software test in start-up and production modes
Caution: actuators are now set in motion.

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5.3.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

Charging the kiln with limestone:


The first 3 meters are filled with a small fraction, from ~20 40 mm
(to protect the discharge table)
To avoid blockage, the discharge table must be moved hourly
Ensure that the expansion joint and the topmost section of the lining are
filled with insulating material and that the expansion joint sheet (drawing
056) has been installed.
NOTICE
Thermal expansion of the brick lining
When heated up, the brick lining expands. If the expansion joint is not filled
with insulating material, limestone may enter and obstruct the expansion.
Stop charging approximately 1 meter below the lances:
- Check the supply of cooling air to each lance
- Check the transport air supply of the individual lances (if installed)
- Check the gas flow of the individual lances (if installed)
- Check the alignment of the lances and adjust if necessary

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5.4

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Commissioning

Hot commissioning
- Heat up with start-up burners, in accordance with the start-up curve
see the chapter "operation"
NOTICE
The (moist) waste gas is not to pass through the filter. It must flow directly
through the exhaust stack.
- Change over to lance firing and fuel according to the heating curve
see the chapter "operation"
INFORMATION
Inertia when start-up
After changing over to lance firing, part of the supplied heat is initially not
supplied to the process, but goes for example to the brickwork instead. This
phase stabilises after about 5 days. Only now can one begin with the
process adjustments.
- Changeover from waste gas stream to normal filter operation once a waste gas
temperature of at least 110C has been reached.
INFORMATION
Process inertia
Changing the kiln parameters and its impact can only be finally assessed
after 1 to 2 days.

5.4.1

Process adjustments
The kiln should reach the output requested by the customer under the given local
conditions.
- After about 5 days, the first sellable lime will be produced.
- Increasing the kiln capacity to the nominal production capacity will take
approximately another 4 days.
- The guarantee test run, as per the contract, can begin once the adjustments have
been successful.

5.5

Conclusion of the commissioning


Compilation and handing over of the commissioning documentation
The plant is handed over to the customer

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Operation

6.1

General

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

The following sections provide general information on how to operate the plant in order
to ensure optimum performance and trouble-free operation of the kiln.
INFORMATION
For detailed descriptions of each individual component, refer to: Book-02,
Specific Data & Component Description.
If a malfunction cannot be resolved by performing the steps described below, notify the
manufacturer immediately.

6.2

Safety
INFORMATION
For detailed safety information, refer to chapter Safety.
WARNING
Risk of injury!
Improper operation may cause damage to persons and/or property. The
kiln must only be operated by authorized and trained personnel following
the safety instructions.
The kiln must only be operated by persons meeting the following conditions:
- at least 18 years old
- trained to operate the kiln
- certified for kiln operation
- authorized in writing by the kiln attendant or the person in charge to operate the kiln.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

In addition, when performing operations that require manual intervention, please


observe the following:
CAUTION
High temperatures!
During kiln operation, high temperatures are prevailing inside the kiln and
on many of its components. Do not touch any hot kiln components until
they have cooled down to ambient temperature.
Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):
Tight fitting work clothing
with minimal tear strength, no wide sleeves, no rings nor other jewelry, etc.
Safety goggles
to protect the eyes against liquids and parts flying about
Dust mask
to protect of inhaling particles or emissions.
Face screen
to protect the eyes and the face against flames, sparks, or embers as well
as hot particles or emissions.
Safety shoes
to protect against heavy parts being dropped, and slipping on slippery
surfaces
Safety gloves
to protect the skin against friction, excoriation, pricking and deeper injuries
on the hands and against contact with health affecting substances.
Safety hat
to protect against objects and materials falling down or flying around
Ear defenders
to protect against hearing damage

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

The kiln works with overpressure (max. 400 mbar).


WARNING
The kiln is operated with overpressure. Flames or hot gases may spurt out
when the kiln doors are opened. Overpressure may cause the kiln doors to
fly open with great force.
Do not open the kiln doors until the pressure difference between the inside
and the outside of the kiln is zero.
The plant works with CaO.
CAUTION
Risk of chemical burns caused by CaO!
There is a risk of sustaining chemical burns in places labeled accordingly.
Any person working inside these rooms must proceed with great caution
when handling caustic materials.
In addition to the danger of damages to clothing, there is also a risk of
burning eyes, skin, and possibly mucous membranes. Burning ones eyes
may cause irreparable visual impairment.
When handling caustic materials, personal safety equipment is to be worn
as required by the Chemical Safety Datasheet.
The plant operator must at all times keep rinsing liquids available for eye
cleaning.
WARNING
Danger of life!
Entering the kiln area involves considerable risk. Access to the kiln area is
limited to persons informed of dangers and instructed about the appropriate
behavior inside the kiln area. These persons must also be authorized by
the plant operator to access the kiln area.
WARNING
Danger of life caused by CO and CO2!
During calcination, CO2 and CO are produced. The calcination process
continues after the kiln has been shut down.
The inhalation of CO2 and CO can lead to poisoning, damage to the
respiratory system and death.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

When inside the kiln area during kiln operation make sure:
- to notify the kiln attendant prior to entering the kiln area
- not to enter secured danger zones
Prior to performing any work inside the kiln area, make sure:
- to notify the kiln attendant
- to shut down the kiln and secure it against re-starting
Prior to beginning working at the kiln, also secure any kiln components to be operated
against re-starting, e.g. by pushing the emergency stop button, disconnecting safety
fuses or switching off and locking the main switch.
Record the time and reason for shutdown, as well as the name of the staff working
inside the kiln area, and the time of re-starting in the operating persons log. Prior to restarting the kiln, have staff members sign off as they leave the kiln area (see example).

Fig. 31

Time

Date

Example of an Operators log entry:


Incident
(failure, reason for
shutdown, re-start,
etc.)

Name of the staff


member working
inside the kiln area

Signature of the staff


member having left
Time of leaving the
the kiln area and
kiln area
prior to re-starting
the kiln

Example of an Operators log entry

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6.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Visualization system
The kiln is remote controlled and operated via the visualization system. However,
manual control during normal operation is possible as well.

Fig. 32

Screen (typical)

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6.3.1

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Screen layout
The screen is composed of two areas:
- Overview area
- Working area

Item

Description

Overview area
Area with general information and operating
functions. This area does not change in comparison
with the working area.

Working area
Area with specific pictures, tables, and messages for
kiln operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance.
Schematic display of plant areas and their
components. (process picture).
Buttons can be used to call up additional process
pictures.
Each process picture contains the current
parameters. The settings can be changed.

Overview area
Item

Description

1.1

Picture buttons
See detailed description

1.2

Alarm rows
Show the last two alarm messages.

1.3

Alarm acknowledge
Alarm acknowledge button

1.4

Burning time counter


Shows the actually remaining burning time.

1.5

Date / Time
Shows current date and time.
Operator level
Shows current operator level.

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1.6

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

General buttons
Use the buttons to access different pop-up menus.

Function
Pop-up picture:
Login
Opens the login window necessary to log into the
system as OPERATOR, ENGINEER, or
ADMINISTRATOR.
The corresponding passwords are defined during the
initial operation of the kiln.
See detailed description
Example of pop-up picture:
Language selection
To choose between English and the customer's
language.
Controlling user level: Operator

Print Screen
To print out the current screen.

Acknowledge horn
Turns off the signal horn for the current alarm
message without acknowledging.
Controlling user level: Operator

Windows Explorer
Switches off WinCC Runtime, so that work can be
carried out in the file system of the computer. Not
necessary during normal operation.
Controlled user level: Engineering

Shutdown
Closes the visual display application and shuts down
the computer.
Controlling user level: Operator

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Operation

NOTICE
A computer running the visualization system must be switched ON for
monitoring the process during normal operation.
Working area
In addition to the pictures shown, pop-up menus are available for some items. Use the
pop-up menus to further adjust settings. If a pop-up menu is available, the mouse
pointer will turn green when the mouse is moved over the corresponding item.
The working area includes the following operating elements.
Element

Function
Picture button
To change the process pictures directly from the
working area.
This is the same function as via picture buttons.
Operation/selection button and status display
To switch a plant function ON/OFF.
To select different plant functions.
Including the status indication of the button.
Kiln operation
Kiln mode
Air cannons
Flame control
Burning timer
etc.

Example of pop-up picture:

ON/OFF button
To switch a device of the plant ON/OFF.
Motor start / stop
Valve open / close
etc.

Example of pop-up picture:

Selection buttons
Example of pop-up picture:
To select one or more subassemblies from a list
of buttons.
Selection of a replacement motor
Loading options
etc.

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Element

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Function
Check box
For the selection of an individual subassembly
from a list
Hydraulic pumps
etc.

Example of pop-up picture:

WARNING
Risk of injury from running motors!
Running the motors using the pop-up menus is only allowed during manual
operation and when the kiln has been shut down or is being pre-heated.
Running motors may cause personal injury or death. Before you turn on the
motors, make sure nobody is in danger.

6.3.2

Color definitions

Element

Function
Picture button
Overview area:
Grey for passive
Light green for active
Working area:
Grey with shadows for OUT/IN position

Example:

Output field
Display of current value
White background
Black writing
Output field
Display of nominal value
White background
Green writing
Input field
Display of set value
Green background
White writing
System motor
Display of motor status
Grey for STOP
Purple for ISOLATED
Yellow for PRE SELECTED
Light green for RUNNING
Red flashing for ALARM

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Element

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Function
System valve
Display of valve status
Grey for CLOSED
Yellow for PRE-SELECTED
Light green for OPEN
Red flashing for ALARM

Example:

System pipe
Display of pipe status
Grey for NO FLOW
Green for hydraulic FLOW
Yellow for gas FLOW
Blue for air FLOW
Brown for coal/wood/oil FLOW
Tag
Display of the flag status
White for NORMAL
Flashing red light for ALARM

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6.3.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

User level
All users of the visualization system must log into the system. Different login levels
keep the system safe from unauthorized operation and modifications.
The login levels are separated into three different categories:
- OPERATOR
Ordinary user not authorized to change all kiln parameters
- ENGINEERING
Superior user authorized to change all kiln parameters
- ADMINISTRATOR
Only for special staff
The following table provides a general overview of the user rights assigned to the
different login levels:
OPERATOR

ENGINEERING

ADMINISTRATOR

Changing process parameters

Yes

Yes

Yes

Changing special parameters

Yes

Yes

Yes

Changing alarm settings

Yes

Yes

Yes

Changing parameters of controller settings

No

Yes

Yes

Modifying the visual display system

No

No

Yes

These rights can be changed if required.


NOTICE
It is the responsibility of the kiln operator to decide which rights to assign to
which person. Passwords must be handled with care and kept safe from
unauthorized access. Passwords must not be passed on to unauthorized
persons. The manufacturer cannot assume any liability for damage caused
by unauthorized or improper operation due to a wrongful assignment of
rights.

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6.3.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Parameter tables
All of the parameters entered by the operator are used in the PLC system as the basis
for the calculation of process setpoints. The calculated process setpoints such as:
- Fuel quantity per cycle
- Fuel flow
- Combustion air flow
- Cooling air flow
are fed to the governors / control loops.
The computational procedure is described in the chapter Operation Calculation of the
Process Parameters.
Process parameters

Fig. 33

Parameter table Process parameter (typical)

Use this screen to change the process parameters of the kiln.

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Operation

Special parameters

Fig. 34

Parameter table Special parameters, screen 1 (typical)

Use this screen to adjust additional parameters for other kiln components.

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Operation

Discharge parameters

Fig. 35

Parameter table Discharge parameters (typical)

Use this screen to adjust discharge parameters, settings and alarms.

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6.3.6

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Process pictures
Kiln

Fig. 36

Process picture "Kiln" (typical)

This plant diagram provides a general overview of the kiln and its components, such as
the hydraulic system, cooling air and combustion air blowers as well as suspended
cylinders (optional), including their most important operating parameters.
The graphical user interface consists of dynamic (active) areas.
When the mouse pointer is moved over these areas, a button or check box is opened
with a left mouse click.
On this page, the process parameters of the kiln can be adjusted and individual
components can be started and controlled.
All individual systems can be started and controlled from the left-hand side of the
graphical interface.
Hydraulic unit
Each pump can be started individually. A second one might be preselected to support
the operation of the hydraulic flap system.
The oil temperature is controlled automatically by means of special parameters.
Combustion and cooling air blowers
When set to automatic mode, the kiln and the blowers are started automatically.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

When set to manual mode, each blower can be stopped individually. The lance cooling
air blowers only run in manual mode and cannot be switched to automatic mode.
Suspended cylinders (option)
The kiln monitoring device must adjust the cooling air volumes for the suspended
cylinders in such a way that the temperature of the escaping cooling air remains within
the stipulated range.
Kiln charging
Kiln charging via conveyor-reversal belts can be run in automatic mode. The amount
and direction of kiln charging is determined by the kiln parameters.
WARNING
Injury from contusions!
Running the drives on the kiln valves using the pop-up menus is only
allowed during manual operation and when the kiln has been shut down or
is being pre-heated.
Moving the kiln valves may cause squeezing or personal injury. Before
adjusting the kiln valves, it has to be ensured that nobody is nearby.
Hot gases from the kiln can cause burns.
Toxic gases from the kiln can cause poisoning.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Firing system: Natural gas

Fig. 37

Process picture "Gas firing system" (typical)

This diagram explains the natural gas firing system.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Firing system: natural gas

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Firing system: Lean gas

Fig. 38

Process picture "Firing system: Lean gas" (typical)

This diagram explains the lean gas firing system.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Firing system: Lean gas

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Operation

Firing system: Lean gas (Gas booster)

Fig. 39

Process picture "Gas booster" (typical)

This diagram explains the gas booster system for the lean gas system.
The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Firing system: Lean gas

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Firing system: Lean gas (Wobbe meter)

Fig. 40

Process picture "Wobbe meter" (typical)

This diagram explains the wobbe meter system for the lean gas system.
The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Firing system: Lean gas

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Firing system: Solid fuel (classic)

Fig. 41

Process picture "Firing system: Solid fuel (classic)" (typical)

This diagram explains the solid fuel (classic) firing system.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Firing system: Solid fuel
(classic).

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Firing system: Solid fuel (static)

Fig. 42

Process picture "Firing system: Solid fuel (static)" (typical)

This diagram explains the solid fuel (static) firing system.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Firing system: solid fuel (static)

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Fig. 43

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Process picture " Firing system: solid fuel (static) " (typical)

This diagram explains the classic coal / wood dust firing dosing system.
The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Firing system: Liquid fuel

Fig. 44

Process picture " Firing system: Liquid fuel " (typical)

This diagram explains the liquid fuel firing supply system.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Firing system: Liquid fuel

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Fig. 45

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Process picture " Firing system: Liquid fuel " (typical)

This diagram explains the liquid fuel firing dosing system.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Firing system: Liquid fuel

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Waste gas filter

Fig. 46

Process picture Waste gas filter (typical)

This diagram explains the waste gas filter.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
The kiln works with two modes of operation:
- Charging during the reversal time
- Charging during the burning time
If the kiln is also charged during the reversal time, the filter is operated at a constant
negative pressure. If the kiln is charged during the burning time, the negative pressure
level is automatically increased in order to ensure that no toxic gases enter the kiln
house during charging.
Once charging has been completed, the negative pressure level is again reduced to
the original value.
The filter can be operated both in automatic mode and in manual mode.
INFORMATION
For further information, refer to the chapter Waste gas filter.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Kiln temperatures (optional)

Fig. 47

Process picture Kiln temperatures (typical)

This diagram explains the kiln temperatures (supended cylinder temperatures,


discharge table temperatures, centre cone temperatures).

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Limestone transport system (optional)

Fig. 48

Process picture Limestone transport system (typical)

This diagram explains the limestone transport system.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Lime transport system (optional)

Fig. 49

Process picture Lime transport system (typical)

This diagram explains the lime transport system.


The graphical user interface is composed of dynamic areas. When moving the mouse
pointer over these areas, clicking the left mouse button will open a switch or check box.
Lime transport progresses in automatic mode (time controlled) or in manual mode, if
required.

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6.3.7

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Alarms
Alarms are classified into 3 groups:
- Kiln alarms (red background)
- Lime discharge (green background)
- Limestone alarms (orange background)
Depending on the type of alarm, automatic sequencing is either stopped, or merely an
alarm will be triggered. In any event, the kiln attendant must localize and solve the
problem before acknowledging the alarm and continuing kiln operation either
automatically or manually.
INFORMATION
The Software Documentation contains a list of all possible alarms.
Kiln alarms

Fig. 50

Parameter table Kiln alarms (typical)

Use this screen to set the limits for kiln alarms.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Fuel alarms

Fig. 51

Parameter table Fuel alarms (typical)

Use this screen to set the limits for fuel alarms.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Gas booster alarms

Fig. 52

Parameter table Gas booster alarms (typical)

Use this screen to set the limits for gas booster alarms.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Alarm screen

Fig. 53

Alarm screen (typical)

This page shows all active alarms to be checked and processed. The alarm archive
lists and stores all alarms that have already been acknowledged.
NOTICE
Danger caused by unjustified acknowledgment.
Take alarm messages seriously at all times. They may highlight dangerous
situations. Never acknowledge an alarm message without having removed
its cause.
The manufacturer cannot assume any liability for damage or processing
errors caused by failure to acknowledge alarm messages.

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6.3.8

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Tuning screens

Fig. 54

Parameter table Tuning screens (typical)

Use this screen to adjust the controller parameters


Tuning screens are provided for:
- Fuel controller
- Filter pressure controller
- Filter temperature controller
- Stone level, SH 1+2
- Lance cooling air controller (optional)
- Centre cooling air controller (optional)
- Coal dust transport air controller (optional)

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6.3.9

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Trend messages

Fig. 55

Trend messages (typical)

The trend messages provide an overview as well as a graphical illustration of individual


process values.
Trend messages are provided for:
- Kiln temperature
- Kiln pressures
- Waste gas filter
- Stone level, SH 1+2
- Air volume
- Lime temperatures
- Fuel system
- Kiln parameters
- Suspended cylinder temperature (optional)

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

6.4

Theoretical Basis of Lime Kiln Operation

6.4.1

Modes of operation
There follows a graphical representation and a description of the processes that occur
in the various modes of operation.
The following descriptions always refer to a kiln cycle that runs from left to right.
The plant operator must select the respective operating mode in accordance with the
following requirements.

6.4.2

Filling mode
This mode of operation is used to fill the kiln.
Time in minutes

10

Cycle time
Burning time (no fuel)
Reversal time
Charging burning shaft
Charging regenerative shaft
Lime discharge (shaft 1 + 2)
Filling the rotating bucket (shaft 1 +2)

S1

S2

To select this operating mode:


- Select CHARGING DURING THE REVERSAL TIME
- CHARGING on
- Start KILN

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6.4.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Heating mode
This operating mode is used to heat up the kiln.
Time in minutes

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

Cycle time
Fuel dosing time start-up burner
Reversal time
Charging regenerative shaft (RS)
Lime discharge (shaft 1 + 2)
Filling the rotating bucket (burning shaft BS)

BS

To select this operating mode:


- Select HEAT UP
- COMBUSTION AIR BLOWER on
- FLAME DETECTOR on
- CHARGING on
- DISCHARGE on
6.4.4

Production mode charging during reversal time


This mode of operation is selected for continuous operation.
Time in minutes

10 11 12 13 14

Cycle time
Burning time
Fuel dosing time
Burn-out time
Reversal time
Charging burning shaft
Charging regenerative shaft
Lime discharge (shaft 1 + 2)
Filling the rotating bucket (shaft 1 + 2)

S1

S2

To select this operating mode:


- FIRING SYSTEM on
- Select PRODUCTION
- Select CHARGING DURING THE REVERSAL TIME
- DISCHARGE on

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6.4.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Production mode charging during burning time


This mode of operation is selected for continuous operation. With charging during the
burning time it is possible to reduce the reversal time. This reduces pressure drops and
the production volume can be increased.
Time in minutes

10 11 12 13 14

Cycle time
Burning time
Fuel dosing time
Burn-out time
Reversal time
Charging regenerative shaft
Lime discharge (shaft 1 + 2)
Filling the rotating bucket regenerative
shaft

To select this operating mode:


- FIRING SYSTEM on
- Select PRODUCTION
- Select CHARGING DURING THE BURNING TIME
- DISCHARGE on

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6.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Reversal and charging sequences


The following diagrams describe the automatic processes which are performed by the
kiln control and material feed system, depending on the selected production mode.
In the description of the reversing sequences, the term "burning shaft (BS)" is used for
the kiln shaft which is currently being fired. The letters (RS) are therefore used to
designate the shaft which was the regenerative shaft (RS). The reversal time always
follows the burning time.

6.5.1

Production mode charging during the reversal time


Reversal sequence, including charging and discharging
Components

Action; effect

Reversal time (~ 57 s)
0s

Pre-relief flap
(IF APPLICABLE)

Open

Relief flap
Cooling air

Open
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Delay time

Relief flap
combustion air

Open
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Release kiln pressure

Kiln completely depressurised

Pre-relief flap
(IF APPLICABLE)

Close

Reversal flap (BS)


BS RS

Close combustion air side


Waste gas side is opened
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Discharge flap (BS)

Open
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Discharge flap (RS)

Open
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Discharge lime into the hopper

Delay time

Discharge flap (BS)

Close
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Discharge flap (RS)

Close
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Shaft closing flap (BS)


(type sideways)

Lift, open kiln shaft


(Extend hyd. cyl.)

10 s

20 s

30 s

40 s

50 s

60 s

Move sideways
(Extend hyd. cyl.)
Shaft closing flap (RS)
(type sideways)

Lift, open kiln shaft


(Extend hyd. cyl.)
Move sideways
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Shaft closing flap (BS)


(type inwards)

Open kiln shaft


(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Shaft closing flap (RS)


(type inwards)

Open kiln shaft


(Extend hyd. cyl.)

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Rotating bucket (BS)

Lower
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Rotating bucket (RS)

Lower
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Charge kiln with stone

Delay time

Rotating bucket (BS)

Lift skip
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Rotating bucket (RS)

Lift skip
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Shaft closing flap (BS)


(type sideways)

Shaft closing flap (RS)


(type sideways)

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Move to the centre


(Retract hyd. cyl.)
Set down, close kiln shaft
(Retract hyd. cyl.)
Move to the centre
(Retract hyd. cyl.)
Set down, close kiln shaft
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Shaft closing flap (BS)


(type inwards)

Close kiln shaft


(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Shaft closing flap (RS)


(type inwards)

Close kiln shaft


(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Reversal flap (RS)


RS BS

Open combustion air side


Waste gas side is closed
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Relief flap
combustion air

Close
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Relief flap
cooling air

Close
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Build up kiln pressure

Delay time

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Fig. 56

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Production mode charging

Item

Description

Item

Description

Combustion air

Pre-relief flap

Cooling air

Waste gas

Air to atmosphere

Shaft closing flap

Relief flap: cooling air

Discharge flap

Relief flap: combustion air

Reversal flap: Filter / Direct chimney

Reversal flap: Combustion air / Waste gas

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6.5.2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Production mode Charging during burning time


Reversal sequence, including discharge
Components

Reversal time
(~ 25 s)

Action; effect
0s

Pre-relief flap
(IF APPLICABLE)

Open

Relief flap
cooling air

Open
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Delay time

Relief flap
combustion air

Open
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Release kiln pressure

Kiln completely depressurised

Pre-relief flap
(IF APPLICABLE)

Close

Reversal flap (BS)

Close combustion air side


Waste gas side is opened
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Reversal flap (RS)

Open combustion air side


Waste gas side is closed
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Discharge flap (BS)

Open
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Discharge flap (RS)

Open
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Discharge lime into the hopper

Delay time

Discharge flap (BS)

Close
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Discharge flap (RS)

Close
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Relief flap
combustion air

Close
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Relief flap
cooling air

Close
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Build up kiln pressure

Delay time

AK685_971.01_0

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20 s

30 s

40 s

50 s

60 s

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Charging sequence during the burning time


Charging time
(~ 25 s)

Components

Action; effect

Waste gas fan

Increased speed; Maintain waste


gas sub-pressure

0s

10 s 20 s 30 s 40 s 50 s 60 s

Lift, open kiln shaft


Shaft closing flap (RS) (Extend hyd. cyl.)
(type sideways)
Move sideways
(Extend hyd. cyl.)
Shaft closing flap (RS) Open kiln shaft
(type inwards)
(Extend hyd. cyl.)
Rotating bucket (RS)

Move downwards
(Retract hyd. cyl.)

Charge kiln with stone

Delay time

Rotating bucket (RS)

Lift skip
(Extend hyd. cyl.)

Move to the centre


Shaft closing flap (RS) (Retract hyd. cyl.)
(type sideways)
Set down, close kiln shaft
(Retract hyd. cyl.)
Shaft closing flap (RS) Close kiln shaft
(type inwards)
(Retract hyd. cyl.)
Waste gas fan

Reduce speed back to normal


operation

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6.6

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Calculation of the process parameters (sample)


Designation

Unit

Abbreviation Formula

Example Signal

Production

tpd

PR

400

Input

Factor lime / limestone

FLS

0.565

Input

Amount of stones per cycle

kg

SC

7080

Input

Reversal time

RTn

25

Input

Burn-out time for solid or liquid


fuel

BOTns

60

Input

Burn-out time for gaseous fuel

BOTng

10

Input

Specific heat input

kJ/kg
lime

HI

3300

Input

Heat input through solid or


liquid fuel

HIS

Input

Lower calorific value Hu, solid or


kJ/kg
liquid fuel

CVns

Input

Stoichiometric combustion air


volume, solid or liquid fuel

Nm /MJ

MA1s

0.2606

Input

Calorific value Hu, gaseous fuel

kJ/Nm

CVng

33473

Input

Stoichiometric combustion air


volume, gaseous fuel

Nm /MJ

MA1g

0.2675

Input

Air excess

EAF

1.10

Input

Cooling air factor (lime cooling)

Nm /kg
lime

CAF

0.70

Input

Number of burner lances per


shaft

NL

33

Input

Lance cooling air + transport air


3
Nm /h
(per burner lance)

LCABSL

140

Input

Lime quantity per cycle

kg

LC

= FLS SC

4000

no signal

Number of kiln cycles per day

= PR 1000 / LC

100

Output

Cycle time

CT

= 86400 / N

864

no signal

Burning time

BT

= CT - RTn

839

Output

Fuel dosing time, solid fuel

FFTs

= BT - BOTns

779

no signal

Fuel dosing time, gaseous fuel

FFTg

= BT - BOTng

829

no signal

Mass flow lime relative to


burning time

kg / h

MFLBT

= LC 3600 / BT

17163

no signal

Mass flow lime relative to fuel


dosing time, solid fuel

kg / h

MFLFFTs

= LC 3600 / FFTs

18485

no signal

Mass flow lime relative to fuel


dosing time, gaseous fuel

kg / h

MFLFFTg

= LC 3600 / FFTg

17370

no signal

Heat quantity per cycle

MJ

HC

= LC HI / 1000

13200

Output

Fuel quantity per cycle, solid


fuel

kg

FCs

= HIS / 100 HC
1000 / CVns

Output

Fuel quantity per cycle,


gaseous fuel

Nm

FCg

= (100 - HIS) / 100


HC 1000 / CVng

394

Output

Fuel flow, set point, solid fuel

kg / h

FFns

= FCs 3600 / FFTs

Output

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Designation

Unit
3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Abbreviation Formula

Example Signal

Fuel flow,set point, gaseous fuel Nm /h

FFng

= FCg 3600 / FFTg 1712

Output

Heat capacity, solid fuel

kW

HFns

= FFns / 3600
CVns

Output

Heat capacity, gaseous fuel

kW

HFng

= FFng / 3600
CVng

15923

Output

Combustion air stream nominal


value

Nm /h

CombAFn

= 3.6 (HFns
MA1s EAF + HFng
MA + g EAF)

16867

Output

Combustion air stream through


burner lances

Nm /h

LCABS

= NL LCABLS

4620

Output

Combustion air from main fans,


including suspended cylinder

Nm /h

CuAFnM

= CombAFn - LCABF 12247

Output

Cooling air flow, set point

Nm /h

CoolAFn

= MFLBT CAF

12014

Output

All input data can be entered in the visualisation system. The corresponding output
data is displayed immediately. For a better understanding of the process, all of the
other calculated results which do not appear in the visualisation system can be
calculated according to the above table.
All output data calculated by the PLC is used automatically by it as nominal values for
controlling the kiln process.
INFORMATION
An EXCEL worksheet "Kiln Parameter Calculation" with the same design as
the above table can be found on the attached CD-ROM. With this, you can
check the calculations performed by the PLC.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

6.7

Description of the Operational Procedures

6.7.1

Limestone charging
The limestone charging is divided into two areas:
- Filling the kiln hopper or weighing hopper
- Filling the rotating bucket
Filling the kiln hopper or weighing hopper
The filling system for the kiln or weighing hopper is controlled by a separate sequence
and can be set by means of a button in the "limestone charging" screen view to OFF or
AUTO.
If the sequence is switched to AUTO, limestone is automatically topped up. All of the
necessary limestone charging conveyors, belt conveyors and screens are automatically
started or stopped by the PLC. The charging and belt conveyors are stopped
immediately as soon as the weight of the stones in the kiln or weighing hopper has
reached the nominal value.
INFORMATION
Local operation is only intended for testing purposes and should not be
used during normal operation.
Before the local start-up of a charging or belt conveyor, it must be ensured
that the downstream conveying systems and containers cannot be
overfilled.
Filling the rotating bucket
The filling of the rotating bucket is controlled by means of an individual PLC sequence
and can be set to OFF or AUTO by a button in the "KILN" screen view.
With the AUTO setting, limestone is automatically topped up from the kiln or weighing
hopper via the reverse conveyor into the rotating buckets after these have been
emptied and reached their upper position.

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6.7.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Filling the kiln


Ensure that no emergency stop button is activated.
Set the following kiln parameters:
Kiln capacity

Maximum

Factor lime / limestone

0.575

Adjust the quantity of limestone per cycle such that the following
number of cycles is set.

100 to 120
cycles/day

Reversal time, nominal

60 - 90

Turn all key-operated switches on the local controls to AUTO operation.


Select "HEATING-UP" kiln operation mode
Turn stone charging of the silo to AUTO sequence.
Set kiln charging to AUTO.
Turn filling of the rotating bucket to AUTO.
Turn lime discharge system to AUTO.
Start hydraulic pumps 1 and 2.
Start kiln.
NOTE
The discharge tables may become jammed as a result of the friction of
the compressed limestone when the kiln is being filled!
The discharge tables work automatically only when the nominal stone level
is reached.
In order to prevent the limestone becoming compressed in the shafts, the
discharge tables must be moved every hour while the kiln is being filled.
NOTE
The refractory lining may be damaged!
Heat up of the kiln as soon as the shafts are filled with limestone. The
moisture in the limestone can damage the refractory lining of the kiln.

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6.7.4

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Start-up process
NOTE
Risks at first commissioning!
Start-up of the kiln and the first normal kiln operation must be monitored by
a specialist engineer of the manufacturer. This specialist engineer is also
responsible for the training of the kiln operating personnel. For all technical
issues regarding the kiln operation, please contact the manufacturer.
Prerequisites
Adjust the suspended cylinder cooling air flaps so that the hot air is
discharged into the atmosphere (optional).
Close the suspended cylinder cooling air flap to the combustion air.
Open venting flap.
Open the evaporation openings before firing up the start-up burner.
Round kilns: poke hole platform and burner lance platform
Rectangular kilns: above the connecting channel around the kiln.
All key-operated switches at the local operating units must be set to
"AUTO".
Round kilns: fill approx. 100kg of dry wood into the connecting channel.
Rectangular kilns: fill approx. 50kg of dry wood into the connecting
channel.
A torch must be prepared for the manual firing up of the wood within the
connecting channel.

Fig. 57

Firing-up process

Item

Description

Item

Description

Connecting channel

Wood

Start-up burner

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Start-up the kiln


NOTE
The kiln may be damaged by temperature fluctuations!
The start-up process must not be interrupted. Upon completion of the startup process, the kiln must be fired via the burner lances. Any temperature
drop during the start-up phase must be avoided.
Set the following kiln parameters:
Kiln capacity

20 t

Factor lime / limestone

0.575

Amount of stones per cycle

See start-up table

Reversal time, nominal

60 s

Cycle time

See start-up table

Stone quantity

See start-up table

Start cooling air system for suspended cylinders (option). Do not route the
waste air into the combustion air duct.
Select kiln-operating mode START UP.
Set blower to operating mode MANUAL.
Set kiln feed system to CHARGE DURING REVERSAL TIME.
Set stone handling sequence to AUTO.
Set discharge system to AUTO.
Start hydraulic pumps.
Set reversal flap filter/ direct chimney [K] to direct chimney.
Open the start-up valve for the combustion air [F].
Close the start-up valve for the fuel [E].
Partially close start-up flap combustion air [C].
Start combustion air blower at minimum speed.
Start kiln.
Use push button within the visualisation system to bridge the flame monitor.
Ignite wood in the connecting channel.
Use push button within the visualisation system to start the firing system.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Open fuel shut-off valve.


Carefully open the start-up valve for the fuel [E]. Use the inspection glass to
check if the flame has been kindled.
NOTE
As long as the flame monitor has not been activated, monitor the flame
permanently. If the flame goes out, interrupt the fuel supply to the start-up
burner immediately by closing the start-up valve. Vent the kiln by means of
combustion air and cooling air.
Set flaps for the combustion air and fuel so the flame is yellow.
Close poke holes and monitor the flame regularly.
If the flame is stable, activate the flame monitor via the push button within
the visualisation system
Set the suspended cylinder cooling air to minimum speed (option).
Set kiln operation so that the correct temperature increase is achieved
according to the start-up diagram. Refer to the following table for the
recommended values for the start-up process. These are to be considered
the guide value to achieve the curve from the start-up diagram. If 2 start-up
burners have been installed (rectangular kilns with two connecting
channels), 50% of the recommended values must be set at each burner.
The fuel distribution must be set so that both channel temperatures are
identical.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Fig. 58

Heating-up the kiln

Item

Description

Item

Description

Combustion air from the blower house

Combustion air start-up valve

Fuel

Start-up burner

Relief flap

Reversal flap: Combustion air / Waste gas

Start-up flap of combustion air

Combustion air in the kiln

Fuel start-up valve

Reversal flap: Filter / Direct chimney

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Start-up diagram

Fig. 59

Start-up diagram

Start-up table
Time after
start [h]

Temperature
[C]

Heat flow
[MJ/h]

Combustion air
[Nm/h]

Cooling air
[Nm/h]

Cycle
time [s]

Stone quantity
[kg/cycle]

Kiln type E2, E3


0-2

1800

300 - 500

0 / min.

3600

1600

2 -24

0 - 600

2500

1000 - 5000

0 / min.

1800

800

24 - 48

600

2300

3000 - 7000

0 / min.

1800

800

48 - 72

600 - 900

4000

5000 - 10000

0 / min.

1800

800

Kiln type E4, E5, E6, R1P, R2P, R3P, R3S, F1P, F2P, F3P, F2S, F3S
0-2

2900

500 - 1000

0 / min.

3600

1600

2 -24

0 - 600

4000

2000 - 7000

0 / min.

1800

800

24 - 48

600

3600

6000 - 10000

0 / min.

1800

800

48 to 72

600 - 900

5000

6000 - 15000

0 / min.

1800

800

Kiln type R4P, R4S and R5S


0-2

3600

750 - 1300

0 / min.

3600

1600

2 -24

0 - 600

5000

2500 - 10000

0 / min.

1800

800

24 - 48

600

4700

9000 - 13000

0 / min.

1800

800

48 to 72

600 - 900

6800

9000 - 20000

0 / min.

1800

800

- Increase the air and the fuel supply rates step by step. In doing so, watch the flame
of the start-up burner. If the flame becomes unstable, adjust the fuel supply rate.
- In particular when using pillar kilns, preheating has to be carried out without cooling
air, as otherwise the pillars are not sufficiently warmed. Regular checks must be
performed in the blower house in order to ensure that no flue gases are flowing back
through the cooling air blowers. If necessary, switch on one of the cooling air
blowers at minimum speed.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

- The start-up burner is in continuous operation.


- Upon start-up of the kiln, the start-up burner is removed and replaced by the
pyrometer.

NOTE
Any local overheating within the connecting channel must be avoided
without fail. If necessary, the temperature curve can be adjusted after
consulting Maerz.
INFORMATION
In order to reach the required temperature increase within the kiln, the
values of the start-up table may be changed slightly.

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6.7.5

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Production operation
NOTE
The start-up process must be completed before the kiln is changed over to
normal operation and the firing system with burner lance is started.
Preconditions for production mode
- The temperature in the connecting channel or annular channel must be at least
900C.
- The evaporation openings must be closed before starting the lance operation, since
otherwise the insulation may suffer damage.
- The following table shows the temperature required for the spontaneous ignition of
certain fuels. The specific ignition temperatures must be specified by the fuel
supplier.
Fuel

Ignition temperature

Natural gas

550 to 600 C

Fuel oil

210 to 260 C

Coal

230 to 500 C

Lean gas

300 to 600 C

NOTE
For solid and liquid fuels, the minimum ignition temperatures must be
reached at the lance tips before you may switch over to lance operation.
If the ignition temperature at the lance tips is not reached, start-up by
means of the start-up burner must be continued. In doing so, the channel
temperature must be held at 900C. The temperature on the lance tips can
be raised by increasing the quantity of combustion air volume and fuel.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Production operation
The kiln parameters are to be set in accordance with the EXCEL worksheet "Kiln
Parameter Calculation" on the enclosed CD-ROM.
Open the start-up flap in the combustion air duct.
Close the start-up valve for the combustion air.
Close the start-up valve for the fuel in the direction of the start-up burner
Hydraulic pumps to AUTO
Blowers to AUTO.
Select kiln-operating mode PRODUCTION.
Set the kiln feed system to CHARGING DURING REVERSAL TIME or to
CHARGING REGENERATIVE SHAFT.
Set to rotating bucket sequence to AUTO.
Set stone handling to AUTO.
Set discharge system to AUTO.
Set firing system to AUTO.
Start lance cooling air blower.
Set air blast units to ACTIVATE.
Leave reversal flap filter / chimney in chimney position.
INFORMATION
The kiln must be monitored by the operating personnel at all times.
Check in regular intervals whether all systems are running and whether the
firing is functioning properly via the burner lances.
Perform regular inspection tours.
Monitor the process continuously and change the parameters if necessary.
The setting of the process parameters influences the quality of the lime
produced.
NOTE
Danger if the parameters are outside the permitted capacity limits.
The parameters must be set in accordance with the limits stated in the
chapter Technical Data.

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6.8

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Preconditions for production operation


The following sections contain instructions for the correct operation of the kiln and the
production of high-quality lime.

6.8.1

Basic recommendations
- Only use raw materials and fuel which meet the specifications in the chapter
Technical Data. Raw material and fuels which do not meet the specifications always
produce results which are not desirable.
- A laboratory with appropriate instruments and trained personnel has been set up for
analysing the quality of the lime.
- Keep the connecting channel and ring channels clean at all times and remove any
dust and lime deposits.
- Check the scales for limestone and solid fuel regularly so that the charging of the
kiln with the specified quantities is ensured.
- The following measurements also must to be checked regularly: quantity of fuel,
quantity of combustion air volume, etc.
- Have the fuel and raw materials analysed at regular intervals.
- Start kiln: Start the stone handling first so that all stone hoppers are filled.
- Stopping the kiln: Stop the kiln shortly before the end of the burning time, e.g. 5 to
10 seconds. By doing so, it is ensured that any changes to the parameters are taken
over and the cycle can be completed properly.

6.8.2

Key factors for the lime burning process in the lime kiln
General information
- Operate the kiln continuously and with as few interruptions as possible.
- Take lime samples every 8 hours; these must be a mixture from the two shafts. The
sample quantity must not be less than 50 kg.
Divide and crush the total quantity in order to obtain a representative sample for the
laboratory. Have the average CO2 content and the reactivity of the lime analysed in
the laboratory.
- If the average quality is not in line with specifications, or in the case of abnormal
temperature or pressure developments or other faulty kiln operations, the quality of
the lime should be subjected to a visual inspection at the discharge table.
Sampling must be carried out quickly and should result in kiln stoppages of not more
than 15 minutes.

6.8.3

Adjustment of the cooling air


- The distribution of the cooling air should be adjusted in such a way that the total air
flow is as low as possible. Normally, a lime cooling air factor of 0.64 Nm3 / kg lime is
set. In the case of fine lime kilns a cooling air factor of 0.70 Nm3 / kg lime is usually
set.
- The cooling air distribution must be set in such a way that the lime temperature at
each of the two discharge tables is equal.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

- Set the cooling air distribution so that 50% of the volume is delivered to the burning
shaft and the other 50% to the regenerative shaft.
- An increase in the cooling air flow rate increases the waste gas temperature and the
specific energy consumption.
- If there is too much cooling air, the burnt lime may re-carbonise or hydrate in the
cooling zone. This may result in worse lime quality.
6.8.4

Setting the Heat Input


- The heat input must be adjusted in such a way that the desired CO2 content in the
lime is reached.
- The heat input depends on the selected production output of the kiln.
As the heat loss on the kiln shell remains the same for different kiln capacities, the
heat input at 50% kiln capacity is approximately 50 kCal / kg (approx. 200 kJ / kg)
higher than for a production output of 100%.
- The heat input depends on the chemical composition and moisture. A higher
proportion of CaCO3 requires a higher input of energy.
INFORMATION
The burnt lime should be analysed at least every 8 hours.
The kiln operator must have access to the quality statistics from the
laboratory tests at all times in order to adjust the kiln parameters if
necessary.
Depending on the production output, the effects of parameter changes on
the quality of the lime only become visible after 24 hours (dwell time of a
particle in the kiln).
INFORMATION
The heat input does not have to be continually adjusted owing to fluctuating
moisture values of the raw material. The evaporation energy of water is
more or less the same as the reaction energy of CaCO3.
- The required heat input and the waste gas temperature depend on the cooling air
flow rate.
- The required heat input also depends on the size of the raw material. Larger raw
material results in greater heat input.

6.8.5

Adjusting the Air Excess Factor


- Set the air excess factor such that the flames do not pass through the gas channels.
- The temperatures in the entire burning zone are approximately 950 C.
- Too much excess air results in an excess temperature in the upper section of the
burning zone. This can cause malfunctions to kiln operation.
- Too little excess air causes an excessive temperature in the channel and a higher
CO content in the waste gas.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

NOTE
Damage to the refractory lining of the crossover channel!
Set the air excess in such a way that the temperatures remain below the
maximum permitted value for the refractory lining.
WARNING
Danger of explosion in the waste gas duct and filter!
Set the excess air in such a way that an excess CO content in the waste
gas is avoided.
The correct level of excess air is determined while the kiln is starting up. To
this purpose, the temperature is carefully monitored with the optical
pyrometer, which is installed on the connecting channel. Temperature
monitoring should always be carried out if the setting of the excess air has
been changed.
- A flat temperature curve indicates too much excess air.
- A temperature curve with fluctuations of more than 50C indicates that the excess
air is too small.
- An increase in the production outputs or large limestone results in higher channel
temperatures.

Fig. 60

Ideal temperature curve for different kiln production outputs (typical solid fuel)

Item

Description

Item

Description

FFT

Fuel dosing time

RT

Reversal time

BOT

Burn-out time

Fig. 61

Temperature curve for kiln production output (typical gas)

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6.8.6

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Setting the Fuel Parameters


The fuel parameters include the following:
- lower calorific value (LCV)
- stoichiometric combustion air volume (Nm3 air / MJ fuel)
The fuel parameters correspond to the laboratory results of the specifications of the
fuel supplier.
INFORMATION
The lower calorific value is of major importance and has to be checked
every 24 hours.
If the required stoichiometric combustion air volume is not known, this can be
calculated according to the chemical composition of the fuel.

6.8.7

Setting the Reversal Time


- The reversal time is entered manually. During cold commissioning - and later during
operation - the minimum reversal time is measured. The input value should be equal
to or higher than the measured time.
- The reversal time depends on the type of charging. With CHARGING DURING THE
REVERSAL TIME, the reversal time is higher than in the case of CHARGING
DURING THE BURNING TIME.
INFORMATION
A changeover between CHARGING DURING THE REVERSAL TIME OFF
to CHARGING DURING THE BURNING TIME ON means that the reversal
time has to be adjusted.

6.8.8

Setting the Nominal Burn-out Time


- Set the nominal burn-out time according to the following table:
Fuel

Nominal burn-out time

Fuel oil

20 to 50 s

Coal

60 to 90 s

Natural gas

15 s

Lean gas

20 s

- Whenever the actual burn-out time is too short or too long, an alarm is triggered.
- If the burn-out time is too short, the fuel supply is inadequate. If the burn-out time is
too long, the fuel supply is too high.
- When the smallest possible burn-out time is set, this must not be below the values in
the above table.

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Operation

INFORMATION
Adjust the actual burn-out time if the nominal burn-out time deviates from
the actual burn-out time by more than + / -5 seconds.
In order to determine the shortest burn-out time, please proceed as follows:
Fuel

Nominal burn-out time

Liquid fuels

Set 50 s
Check the CO concentration in the kiln waste gas
Check the fuel pipes of the lances after the burnout time has
expired.
The burn-out time can be reduced to the minimum as long as
the fuel pipes remain clean and the CO concentrations in the
waste gas do not exceed the specified limit values.

Solid fuels

Set 90 s
Check the CO concentration in the kiln waste gas
Check the fuel concentration in the filter dust.
The burn-out time can be reduced to the minimum as long as
the CO concentrations in the waste gas and the fuel
concentration in the filter dust do not exceed the specified
limit values.

Natural gas

Set 15 s
No further action required.

Lean gas

Set 20 s
No further action required.

6.8.9

Setting the discharge tables


Set the discharge tables in such a way that the lime discharge in the respective burning
shaft is somewhat higher than in the regenerative shaft.

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6.9

Kiln stoppage and restarting

6.9.1

Kiln stoppage

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Select kiln stoppage in the visualisation system in order to stop the kiln. The kiln control
system automatically carries out the following steps:
- The fuel supply is immediately interrupted.
- The burn-out time begins immediately, the kiln is flushed with combustion air,
cooling air and lance cooling air for the duration of the burn-out time.
- The kiln is depressurised using the relief flaps for combustion air and cooling air.
- The blowers for combustion air, cooling air and transport air (option) are stopped.
- The lance cooling air is switched off after 15 minutes.
- The combustion air / waste gas reversal flaps are moved to the position waste gas
to the chimney.
- The filter / direct chimney reversal flap is moved to the direct chimney position.
INFORMATION
If the kiln is stopped, all systems remain in AUTO mode. This means:
All containers continue to be filled with limestone until they are full.
The lime discharge system continues to discharge lime.
The hydraulic system continues working.
NOTE
During long stops the lime may form clumps!
Discharge lime manually from time to time in order to prevent clumping in
the shafts. The following table shows the maximum quantities which can be
discharged during a kiln stoppage:
- Day 1:

6 tonnes

- Day 2:

2 tonnes

- Day 3:

1 tonne

- Day 4:

1 tonne

- Day 5:

0 tonnes

With some kilns this manual discharge is not necessary, as they work even
better without it. However, you have to test this yourself for your kiln.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

NOTE
The following has to be borne in mind in the case of kilns with
suspended cylinders!
As the temperatures in the kiln remain at 1000C for a long time after a
stoppage, the cooling system of the suspended cylinders has to continue
running.
Do not switch off the cooling system of the suspended cylinders. Otherwise,
the suspended cylinders can be damaged.
If the cooling system of the suspended cylinders fails, the emergency
cooling system is automatically switched on (via PLC). In any case the kiln
operator must check locally whether the emergency cooling system has
switched on.
6.9.2

Restarting
Select kiln start in the visualisation system in order to start up the kiln again after a
stoppage. The start-up is carried out as described in the following:
Ensure that everyone is back in the control cabin and nobody is located in
the vicinity of the kiln.
Check whether all systems work perfectly.
NOTE
Ensure that the temperature in the connecting channel is over 750C.
For solid and liquid fuels: Ensure that the lance temperature is 50C above
the ignition temperature.
Set all systems that have previously been switched to OFF to AUTO.
If lime was discharged during the stoppage, replenish the shafts with
limestone until the filling level is normal again.
INFORMATION
The energy loss through the kiln shell during the stoppage has a negative
effect on the quality of the lime.
The loss through the shell cannot be compensated for by a short-term
increase in the heat input.

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6.9.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Kiln stoppage by an alarm


In a dangerous situation the kiln is always stopped automatically. This can be caused
by process limit values being exceeded.
NOTE
Avoid kiln stoppages by an alarm!
The initial setting of the limit values must be carried out in the presence of a
specialist engineer commissioned by the manufacturer. All subsequent
changes to the settings by the personnel operating the kiln require a high
level of professional knowledge. In cases of doubt the manufacturer should
be consulted.
INFORMATION
As soon as the problem which led to the kiln being switched off has been
rectified, the kiln operator must restart all systems in accordance with the
above instructions.

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6.9.4

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Kiln stoppage in the case of a power cut


In the case of a power cut, all systems are stopped, with the exception of the PLC and
visualisation system. The PLC and the visualisation system have a UPS
(uninterruptible power supply) and remain in operation for at least 10 minutes.
A dangerous situation in the mechanical system cannot occur.
- Where necessary, flaps (in particular the discharge flaps) are closed by means of
counterweights and without any hydraulic pressure.
- Certain types of kiln (depending on the fuel used) require an emergency power
generator which is started automatically within one minute.
The following systems are switched on by such an emergency power generator:
- The kiln control system
- One of the hydraulic pumps.
Suspended cylinders (if applicable)
NOTE
As the temperatures in the kiln remain at 1000C for a long time after a
stoppage, the cooling system of the suspended cylinders has to continue
running after a power cut. Otherwise, the suspended cylinders can be
damaged.
In the case of a power cut, the emergency cooling system is automatically
switched on (via PLC). In all cases the kiln controller must check locally:
- whether the emergency cooling system has switched on.
- whether all of the flaps are in the right position.
INFORMATION
As soon as the main current is available again, the kiln operator must put
the system back into operation as soon as possible in accordance with the
recommendations contained in the above sections.

6.9.5

Emptying the kiln


NOTE
Emptying the kiln reduces the lifetime of the refractory brick lining!
Complete emptying of the kiln reduces the lifetime of the refractory brick
lining significantly. The kiln should never be emptied completely unless this
is absolutely necessary. When the kiln is switched off in order to carry out
repairs, it is often possible to empty the kiln only partially.
It takes approximately 2 days to empty the kiln.
Ensure that all emergency-off pushbuttons are set to ON.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Set the kiln to PRODUCTION MODE.


Set the kiln operation to OFF
Set stone handling to ON
Set the filling process for the rotating bucket to AUTO
Set the kiln discharge system to AUTO.
Start hydraulic pump 1 and / or 2
Switch the reversal flaps to chimney (kiln to stop)
Open the doors of the discharge table (in order to create natural ventilation
in the kiln). Close the doors in the case of waste gas temperatures > 200C
and charge with cold lime
Manual discharging by means of the manual key
Open the discharge flaps for the lime discharge from time to time in order to
discharge the lime
- In the case of a discharge temperature of more than 200C -> stop manual
discharging.
- If all discharge temperatures are below 200C -> start manual discharging.
NOTE
High waste gas temperatures may damage the seals of the reversal
flaps
For waste gas temperatures of more than 195C -> close the doors of the
discharge table in order to stop the ventilation.
If all waste gas temperatures are below 180C -> open the doors of the
discharge table in order to restart the natural ventilation.

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6.10

Fine Lime Charging

6.10.1

Effect on lime quality

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Heat distribution
Uniform product quality requires an even heat distribution over the cross-section of the
shaft. This effect is not only influenced by uniform fuel distribution through the lances,
but also by the dispersion of the flames in the burning zone and the gas flow in the kiln
shafts, which in turn are primarily determined by the distribution of the different
fractions of the kiln charge over the shaft cross-section.
It is therefore essential to control the distribution of the limestone to achieve the desired
uniformity of flame dispersion and gas flow.
Segregation by stone
Segregation by stone size is caused by discharge of limestone from a belt, skip hoist or
similar device. The larger the shaft cross-section, the greater the problem.
The figure below shows a vertical section of a kiln shaft without any device for regular
stone distribution. It is obvious that coarse particles are concentrating on one side of
the shaft and fine particle fractions on the other.
The gas flow pattern in the kiln shafts depends on the specific resistance of the
material column, i.e. areas with small fractions have a higher resistance and therefore
a lower gas flow than areas with larger fractions. With a poorly distributed kiln charge,
the temperature differences over the shaft cross-section definitely have a detrimental
effect on the product quality and on the operating behaviour of the lime kiln.

Fig. 62

Stone size segregation without distribution device (typical)

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6.10.2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Distribution system
For kilns with a small stone size fraction up to 1:1.5, it is possible to distribute the kiln
charge with sufficient uniformity by installing comparatively simple charging guides.
However, a more sophisticated rotary hopper stone distribution system is necessary for
larger stone size fractions of up to 1:2 according to the picture below.

6.10.3

Item

Description

Kiln hopper

Vibration feeder

Reversible conveyor belt

Rotating bucket

Stone distributor

Kiln charging method


There are 3 different charging methods to improve stone distribution:
- Sandwich method
- Fine lime method
- Sandwich and fine lime method

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Sandwich method
In most cases, it is advantageous for lime producers to use as much as possible of the
quarried limestone to feed the lime kilns.
By applying the sandwich method it is possible to use limestone with a very high ratio
of the largest to the smallest limestone particles: The raw material is separated into two
fractions and alternately charged to the lime kiln with a defined number of layers
containing the large fraction to be followed by a defined number of layers containing
the small fraction.
Requirements
Two bins with different stone sizes must be available to charge the kiln with a
controlled quantity of each grain size.
Functional description
The following example demonstrates the effect of the void space in the packed material
bed in the kiln shaft on the pressure drop:

Fig. 63

Different pressure drops using different charging methods (typical)

Example 1

Example 2

Limestone distribution

mixed and well distributed

divided into 2 fractions

Pressure drop p

200 mbar

150 mbar

Void space

38%

42%

Energy consumption

more

less

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Advantages
- Optimal yield from quarried limestone
- Less pressure drop in the kiln
- Lower electric energy consumption
- Less segregation of the limestone during the charging process
- Improved heat distribution over the cross-section of the kiln shafts
Application
In practical kiln operation it is also possible to make use of this technique to
significantly lower the electric energy consumption of the kiln.
Two different limestone fractions are charged in layers of reasonable height. The
number of layers with small stone and the number of layers with large stone can be
selected by the kiln operating person.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Fine lime method


To optimize regular stone size distribution over the cross-section of the kiln, additionally
to the rotary hopper, a pivotable stone distribution flap is installed in the fine lime kiln.
By changing the position after each discharge from of a rotary hopper stone is
discharged alternately to the center of the shaft and to the outside. This feature
improves linear stone distribution between inside and outside of the shaft.
Also the quality of burnt lime can be improved by adjusting different stone sizes
between center and outside of the shaft.

Fig. 64

Stone distribution flap (typical)

Item

Description

Stone distributor (swivel-mounted)

Requirements
Two bins with different stone sizes must be available to charge the kiln with a
controlled quantity of each grain size.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

2-fraction stone charging

Fig. 65

2-fraction stone charging (typical)

Item

Description

Stone fraction 1 (for example 2740 mm)

Stone fraction 2 (for expample 1527 mm)

1 layer = 2 rotary hoppers (1 inside, 1 outside)

3 to 4 layers = 6 to 8 rotary hoppers (each layer 1 inside, 1 outside)

Fig. 66

Typical visualization picture of charging with 2 fractions

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Sandwich and fine lime method


Larger ranges of grain size, for example 15 to 80 mm must be screened into 3 fractions
and charged accordingly.
Requirements
3 bins with different stone sizes must be available to charge the kiln with a controlled
quantity of each grain size.
3-fraction stone charging
Best results regarding quantity of layers and grain sizes must be determined by trial.
The diagram below shows an example:

Fig. 67

3-fraction stone charging (typical)

Item

Description

Stone fraction 1, for example 27-40 mm

Stone fraction 2, for example 15-27 mm

Stone fraction 3, for example 40-80 mm

1 layer = 2 rotary hoppers (1 inside, 1 outside)

3 to 4 layers = 6 to 8 rotary hoppers (each layer 1 inside, 1 outside)

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Fig. 68

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Operation

Typical visualization picture of charging with 3 fractions

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Malfunction

Malfunction
Malfunctions of electrical appliances may only be eliminated by qualified technicians.
The same applies to malfunctions in the fields of mechanics, pneumatics, and
hydraulics.
Inform the manufacturer about malfunctions which cannot be removed by the
measures described.

7.1

Safety
WARNING
Danger of injury!
Improper troubleshooting may lead to severe injury or even death and/or
property damage. Therefore, troubleshooting is to be carried out
exclusively by trained and authorised technical staff complying with safety
instructions!
When performing maintenance, make sure to observe the following:
- Shut down the kiln and lock against restarting
- Do not perform any work unless the kiln has been shut down.
- Securely lock moving parts.
- Attach a well-visible sign warning of work in progress to the main switch and the
access areas of the kiln (see figure).

Fig. 69

Sign warning of work in progress (typical)

WARNING
Danger of injury!
An accidental start of the machine during maintenance or repairs may
cause serious injuries, permanent bodily impairment or death! Therefore:
Remove the key from the key switch and keep it out of reach of third
parties by storing it in your pocket, until all work has been completed.
Secure the main switch with a padlock to prevent the machine from
restarting, remove the key and keep it.
Inform the machine operator as well as the supervisor about the expected
scope and duration of the maintenance work.

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7.2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Malfunction

Steps to be taken in the event of a failure


In general
In the event of a failure implying immediate danger to persons, property
and / or operational safety, immediately stop the kiln using the emergency
process stop function.
In the event of failures not implying such type of danger, shut down the kiln
using the operator, disconnect it from the power supply, and lock against
restarting.
Immediately notify the local person in charge of the failure.
Trained and authorized staff must determine the type and scope of the
failure as well as its cause and eliminate the failure.
INFORMATION
For detailed descriptions of the necessary tasks to be performed for each
individual component, refer to Instruction manual II Description of
Components.
For information on the visualization system and the alarm messages,
please refer to the Software Documentation.

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7.3

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Malfunction

Alarm systems
The kiln is equipped with the following alarm systems:
- Alarm system of the process visualization system
- Signal horn in the control room and in the discharge table area (optionally)

Fig. 70

Example of an alarm page (typical)

This page shows all active alarms to be checked and processed. The alarm archive
lists and stores all alarms that have already been acknowledged.
NOTICE
Danger caused by unjustified acknowledgment!
Take alarm messages seriously at all times. They may highlight
dangerous situations. Never acknowledge an alarm message without
having removed its cause.
The manufacturer cannot assume any liability for damage or processing
errors caused by failure to acknowledge alarm messages.

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Malfunction

Alarms are divided into 3 different groups:


- Kiln alarms (red background)
- Lime discharge (green background)
- Limestone alarms (orange background)
Depending on the type of alarm, automatic sequencing is either stopped, or merely an
alarm will be triggered. In any event, the kiln attendant must localize and solve the
problem before acknowledging the alarm and continuing kiln operation either
automatically or manually
INFORMATION
The Software Documentation contains a list of all alarms.

7.3.1

Failure of machine components


INFORMATION
For the steps necessary to remove a failure of individual machine
components, please refer to the applicable Operating Instructions and
Documentation of the components involved.

7.3.2

Failure of the machine's control system


In the event of an error or failure of the machine's control system (hardware defect,
software error), shut down the machine immediately by pushing the emergency
process stop button. If necessary, shut down the machine manually.

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7.4

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Malfunction

Restart after failure


WARNING
Risk of injury!
An accidental start of the machine after a failure has been removed may
lead to serious personal injury. Before restarting the machine, check:
- whether the failure and its cause have been removed completely,
- all safety devices have been properly installed and are in correct
technical and functional condition,
- that nobody is inside the machine's danger zone.
After resolving a failure:
Acknowledge the failure on the process screen of the PC terminal and, if
applicable, acknowledge the emergency process stop of the respective
machine component.
Make sure that nobody is inside the kiln area.
Start up the machine (see chapter Operation).

7.5

Steps for troubleshooting


In addition to the failures indicated by the visualization system, process errors may
occur that may have a negative impact on the finished product.
The following list contains possible process errors and their probable causes as well as
effective countermeasures.
INFORMATION
As the processes performed by the lime kiln are extremely complex, the
following list can only contain the most common process errors. It is
impossible to list all possible errors and their combinations.
In case of problems or doubts when operating the lime kiln, ask the
manufacturer for assistance.
NOTICE
It is the sole responsibility of the kiln operating person to decide whether
to act by him or herself or to request technical advice and assistance from
the manufacturer.
In the event of an erroneous decision in this respect, the manufacturer
cannot be held liable for any accidents or damage thus caused.

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Issue

Possible cause

Concentrations of residual
Insufficient heat input
CO2 in lime of both shafts too
high

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Malfunction

Countermeasure
Before increasing the heat input,
make sure there is no other
cause for this problem

Too much cooling air

Reduce cooling air

Wrong cooling air distribution

Set correct amount of cooling air


to be supplied to the centre of
the shafts

Waste gas temperature too high Increase stone level in shafts,


reduce cooling air
Limestone not to specification

Provide limestone according to


specifications

Non-uniform burning
temperature throughout burning
zone

Adjust excess air correctly

Non-uniform burning
temperature over shaft crosssection

Check fuel distribution

Wrong portions or wrong


distribution of small and large
stone fractions (fine lime kilns)

Adjust stone distribution

Concentrations of residual
Too much heat input
CO2 in lime of both shafts too
low
Concentrations of residual
CO2 in lime of one shaft too
high

Reduce heat input

Different amounts of limestone in Correct stone weighing system


shaft 1 & 2
Different amounts of fuel in shaft Check for clogged burner lances
1&2
or fuel supply lines
Correct fuel dosing system
Different amounts of combustion Replace silicone rubber gaskets
air in shaft 1 & 2
on reverse flaps
Check air supply system for
leaks
Wrong cooling air distribution

AK685_971.01_0

Set cooling air to the correct


value

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Malfunction

Issue

Possible cause

Countermeasure

Non-uniform lime quality at


the discharge tables

Non-uniform burning
temperature over shaft crosssection

Check for clogged burner lances


and fuel supply lines
Check fuel supply in each shaft

Material in burning zone sticking Check for over-burnt lumps of


together
lime, and reduce heat input if
necessary.

Insufficient kiln production


rate

Wrong cooling air distribution

Set correct amount of cooling air


to be supplied to the centre of
the shafts

Wrong stone distribution

Adjust stone distribution

Channels partially clogged

Clean connecting and ring


channels

Operating pressure too high

Reduce heat input, if possible


Reduce air volume, if possible
Reduce reversal time
Reduce burn-out time, if
possible
Provide limestone according to
specifications

Burning temperature too high Heat input too high

Reduce heat input

Wrong excess air setting

Set correct excess air value

Lumps of lime sticking together

Reduce heat input

Stone size too large

Provide limestone according to


specifications

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Issue

Possible cause

Burning temperature too low Heat input too low

Operating pressure too high

Operating pressures too low

Different waste gas


temperatures in shaft 1 & 2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Malfunction

Countermeasure
Check whether excess air is
adjusted correctly. If necessary,
increase heat input. But first
ensure that there is no other
cause for this problem.

Wrong excess air setting

Set correct excess air value.

Air volume too large

Reduce air volume if possible

Heat input too high

Reduce heat input if possible

Burn-out time too long

Reduce burn-out time if possible

Reversal time too long

Reduce reversal time


(hydraulics)

Limestone not to specification

Provide limestone according to


specifications

Channels partially clogged

Clean connecting and ring


channels

Leakage in air, hot gas, or waste Check systems for leaks


gas lines
Not all blowers operating, or
failure of one blower

Check all blowers and all


connected devices such as nonreturn valves, pressure relief
valves, and flexible connections

Wrong cooling air distribution

Set cooling air distribution to the


correct value

Different amounts of limestone


supplied to the shafts

Correct stone weighing and


charging system

Different amounts of fuel


supplied to the shafts

Check the lances for


obstructions
Correct fuel dosing system

Different amounts of combustion Replace silicone rubber gaskets


air supplied to the shafts
on reverse flaps
Check air supply system for
leaks
Material in burning zone sticking Reduce heat input and notify the
or clogging together
manufacturer

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Issue

Possible cause

Lime temperatures in shaft 1 Wrong cooling air distribution


& 2 different or too high
Different lime qualities

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Malfunction

Countermeasure
Set cooling air distribution to the
correct value
See similar items in this table

Material in burning zone sticking Reduce heat input and notify the
or clogging together
manufacturer
Different operating pressures Wrong cooling air distribution
in shaft 1 & 2

Set cooling air distribution to


correct value

Different amounts of limestone


supplied to the shafts

Correct stone weighing and


charging system

Different amounts of fuels


supplied to the shafts

Check the lances for


obstructions
Correct fuel dosing system

Different amounts of combustion Replace silicone rubber gaskets


air supplied to the shafts
on reverse flaps
Check air supply system for
leaks
Material in burning zone sticking Reduce heat input and notify the
or clogging together
manufacturer
Material inside the shafts not Burning temperature in upper
Adjust excess air correctly
moving downwards
part of the burning zone too high
No lime discharged after kiln
shut down

Build up and release pressure


inside the kiln

Material in burning zone sticking Reduce heat input and notify the
or clogging together
manufacturer
Discharge system not set to
optimum values

Adjust discharge system such


that extended idle times at the
discharge tables can be
avoided.
Adjust the discharge system
such that a slightly higher
amount of lime is discharged
from the firing shaft

Clogged burner lances

Temperature in upper part of the Adjust excess air correctly.


burning zone too high

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Maintenance

8.1

In general

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

The following provides basic information on how to do maintenance work essential to


ensure optimum performance and trouble-free operation of the lime kiln.
Detailed descriptions of the necessary maintenance work for each individual
component can be found in Instruction Manual Book-2 Specific Data & Component
Description.
Maintenance intervals
The listed maintenance intervals have been determined for the intended performance
of the kiln as well as for the intended work and operating conditions. They are based on
long-term experience and our first hand inspections at various plants.
If regular inspection of the lime kiln show an increased level of wear, the operating
person must adjust intervals as required by the actual constraints on the lime kiln and
the indications of wear.
If an irregularity cannot be removed by performing the steps described below, the
manufacturer is to be notified immediately.

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8.2

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Safety
WARNING
Improperly performed maintenance work can lead to severe physical injury
or damage to property. Any work related to upkeep and maintenance is to
be carried out exclusively by qualified and authorized expert personnel.

When performing maintenance, make sure to observe the following:


- Shut down the kiln and lock against restarting
- Do not perform any work unless the kiln has been shut down.
- Lock moving parts to prevent further motion.
- Attach a well-visible sign warning of work in progress to the main switch and the
access areas of the kiln (see figure).

Fig. 71

Sign warning of work in progress (typical)

WARNING
Danger of injury!
Any accidental start of the machine during maintenance or repairs may
cause serious injury, permanent bodily impairment or death!
Therefore:
- Remove the key from the key switch and keep it out of reach of third
parties by storing it in your own pocket until work has been completed.
- Lock the main switch with a padlock to prevent the machine from
restarting. Remove the key and keep it with you.
- Inform the machine operator as well as the supervisor about the
expected scope and duration of the maintenance work.

8.3

Lubricating instruction
This information can be found in the documents listed under Mandatory reference
material at the beginning of this chapter.

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8.4

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Maintenance schedule
NOTICE
Adhere to the following inspection schedule to keep the kiln operational. If
the employee entrusted with the inspection is incapable of performing the
necessary inspection tasks, contact the manufacturer immediately and
ask for training or have the inspection performed by the service staff of
the manufacturer.

=
=
=
=

Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Weekly

Section
Component: Procedure

Monthly

Check list

Annually

8.4.1

ENTRY
Note

Kiln housing & platforms


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Emergency exit

First aid place

Skip hoist
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Visual inspection

Breaks

Rails and wheels

Limit switches: function & position


Ropes

Winch motor

Lubricate the lubricating points


Visual inspection of the platform Kiln hopper (any stones on the
platform?)

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Kiln hopper (type of kiln: RxP, RxS, FxP, FxS)


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Visual inspection
Load cell (if applicable)

Vibration feeder (type of kiln: RxP, RxS, FxP, FxS)


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Charge guiding: lost stones

Visual inspection

Suspension: visual inspection

Reversible belt conveyor (type of kiln: RxP, RxS, FxP, FxS)


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Visual inspection
Charge guiding: lost stones, fallen off the belt

Belt position:
change of position in bidirectional operation

Scrapers: condition

Motor

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Rotating bucket (type of kiln: RxP, RxS, FxP, FxS)


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Hydraulic system: tightness

Limit switches: function & position

Hydraulic cylinder: correct speed

Throttle valve & directional valve


Rotating bucket: rotation

Lowering brake valves

Lubricate the lubricating points

Motor

Load cell (if applicable)

Visual inspection of the load cell (if applicable)


Stone distributor (type of kiln: FxP, FxS)
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Hydraulic system: tightness

Hydraulic cylinder: correct speed

Throttle valve & directional valve


Limit switches: function & position

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Kiln shaft & Connecting channel


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Surface temperature: measure and record

Tightness

Kiln doors: gaskets

Poking holes: gaskets

Ring channel: Clean (type of kiln: RxP, RxS, FxP, FxS)

Connecting channel: Clean

Shaft closing flap (type of kiln: RxP, RxS, FxP, FxS)


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Hydraulic system: tightness

Hydraulic cylinder: correct speed

Throttle valve & directional valve

Limit switches: function & position

Gaskets

Lubricate the lubricating points

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=
=
=
=

Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Weekly

Section
Component: Procedure

Monthly

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Level indicator
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Hydraulic system: tightness

Hydraulic cylinder: correct speed

Throttle valve & directional valve

Limit switches: function & position

Gaskets
Rotating measuring transducer: signal test

Chain und Chain

Refractory lining
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Kiln shell: search for hot spots

Refractory bricks in discharged lime

Kiln channels
Burning-, pre-heating- & cooling zone: Condition

Suspended cylinder (type of kiln: RxS, FxS)


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Blower house: Accessibility & emergency lighting


Visual inspection

Diesel-emergency blower: Fuel level in diesel tank, Antifreeze liquid

Batteries

Lubricate the lubricating points

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Discharge table
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Hydraulic system: tightness


Hydraulic cylinder: correct speed

Throttle valve & directional valve

Limit switches: function & position


Gaskets

Lubricate the lubricating points

Discharge flap
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Hydraulic system: tightness


Hydraulic cylinder: correct speed

Throttle valve & directional valve

Limit switches: function & position


Gaskets

Lubricate the lubricating points

Start-up burner
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Gauges: operating pressure

Free flow of combustion air

Free flow of steam

Flame control

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Blowers
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Blower: Condition & function

Blower: Oil level

Motors

Filter

Sound absorbers

Safety valve - & Check valve

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Firing system: Solid fuel


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Leak test
Dosing pump & fuel pump

Y- tube switch: Condition & function

Y-Splitter: Condition & function

Feeding shoe

Filter

Dome valves

Injector

Explosion door

Load cell (if applicable)


Rotary dosing valve

Inert gas system

Valves: Condition & function

Limit switches: Function & position

Inertgassystem
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Manometer: Operating pressure

Thermometer: Operating temperature

Free flow

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Burner lances
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Length of lances

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Waste gas temperature: modification (different lance length)


Scaling and combustion of burner lances

Corrosion of lance protection boxes

Free flow of lance cooling air

Free flow of fuel

Reversal flap
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Visual inspection

Hydraulic system: tightness


Limit switches: function & position

Hydraulic cylinder: correct speed

Throttle valve & directional valve


Lubricate the lubricating points

Gaskets

Relief flap
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Hydraulic system: tightness


Limit switches: function & position

Hydraulic cylinder: correct speed

Throttle valve & directional valve


Lubricate the lubricating points

Gaskets

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Hydraulic system
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Hydraulic unit
Hydraulic oil: analysis

Hydraulic oil

Oil filter

Valve rack
Hydraulic cylinder

Motor

Hydraulic: valve racks


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Throttle valve & directional valve


Air blast unit
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Visual inspection

Performance check
(check for deposits in connecting channel)

Operational check
(listen for pressure relief of the kiln)

Waste gas filter


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Visual inspection

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Limited check (visual, sound, )


Full check: verify, measure, adjust
Replace if required
Replace: exchange, renew, overhaul

Shift tour

=
=
=
=

Weekly

A-Check
B-Check
C-Check
D-Check

Monthly

Section
Component: Procedure

GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Maintenance

Annually

IM

ENTRY
Note

Fire protection
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Inert gas circuit: gas storage (residual pressure)
Readiness

Complete test run


Trace heating system
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer
Operating temperature
Sensors & instrumentation
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Optical pyrometer

Optical pyrometer: Glass, cleaning

Optical pyrometer: Channel, cleaning

Thermocouples

Thermometer

Pressure gauge

Weighing devices

Volume readings

E = 0.90

Electric control cabinet, MCC


>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

Log data backup (Process history)

Emergency power supply: test run

Visual inspection
Kiln operator, visual display
>>> refer to instructions from supplier / manufacturer

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Maintenance

NOTICE
Changing the lances requires a great deal of experience. Contact the
manufacturer for assistance when replacing the lances for the first time.

8.5

After maintenance
After maintenance work, the following steps are to be carried out while adhere to safety
regulations:
- Check tightening of all screwed connections previously loosened.
- Check that all previously removed safety devices, covers, and container lids have
been re-installed properly.
- Make sure that all tools, material, and other equipment used during maintenance
have been removed from the working area.
- Clean the working area and remove substances, such as liquids, process material,
and the like, which may have escaped from the kiln.
- Make sure that all safety measures of the plant are perfectly operational again.

WARNING
Risk of personal injury during restart!
Before re-operating the kiln, make sure that nobody is left inside the
danger zone. There is a risk of death due to high temperatures and
moving parts.

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GENERAL INSTRUCTION & OPERATION


Index

Index

Hydraulic system ........................................62

Accidents....................................................30

ADMINISTRATOR, user level................... 101

Impurities....................................................38

Inbetriebnahme ..........................................81

Basic Technological Principles ...................37

Instrumentation...........................................76

Bulk density ................................................40

Intended use ..............................................23

Burner lances .............................................59

Kiln Pressure Test ......................................84

Calcination ........................................... 37, 43

Calorific values ...........................................52

Leakage Test .............................................84

Charging device .........................................60

Limestone...................................................37

Control system ...........................................69

Liquid fuels .................................................53

literature .....................................................37

Danger areas .............................................32

Local operation panel .................................74

Dangers .....................................................25

Lubricating instruction...............................176

Density .......................................................39

Design ........................................................56

Maintenance .............................................175

Maintenance schedule..............................177

Electric switchboard ...................................70

Malfunction ...............................................165

Emergency process stop ............................28

Mass flow ...................................................67

ENGINEERING, user level ....................... 101

Mechanical strength ...................................41

Mineral structure.........................................39

Failure ...................................................... 166

Mineralogical composition ..........................37

Filling ........................................................ 138

Modes of operation ...................................127

Formation of limestone ...............................37

Fuel ............................................................51

Noisy areas ................................................34

Functioning.................................................55

Operation ...................................................91

Gaseous fuels ............................................54

Operational procedures ............................137

Grain size ............................................. 39, 66

OPERATOR, user level ............................101

Operators log .............................................94

Heat flow ....................................................67

Overview area ............................................96

Heating-up................................................ 140

Heating-up process .................................. 139

Packaging ..................................................18

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Index

Parameter ................................................102

Segregation ..............................................157

Parameter calculation ...............................135

Solid fuels.................................................. 53

Particle size ................................................40

Stop ..........................................................152

Personal safety equipment .........................24

Storage...................................................... 19

Porosity ......................................................39

Process pictures .......................................105

Temperature profile ................................... 68

Thermal decomposition ............................. 43

Reactivity....................................................47

Thermal dissociation.................................. 40

Refractory lining .........................................62

Transport ................................................... 17

Restart after failure ...................................169

Troubleshooting ........................................169

Restarting .................................................152

Two-shaft kiln ............................................ 58

Retention time ............................................48

Reversing and task sequences .................130

User level .................................................101

Safety ................................... 21, 91, 165, 176

Visualization system .................................. 95

Sandwich-method.....................................159

Screen layout .............................................96

Working area ............................................. 98

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