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Icebergs

MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES, HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
ENG11-A11

The Causes and Effects of Iceberg Formation and Deformation


A Research Presented to
Prof. Aida Alfaro
Mapa Institute of Technology

In partial fulfillment
Of the requirements in
English for Academic Purposes 2
(ENG11)

By FOURSOME
Cristine Joyce D. Baas
Abe Christian T. Galang
Jefferson L. Chua
Ian Dominic P. Cruz

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to yield information for the readers with regards to the
causes and effects of iceberg formation and deformation that may pose threats and bring about
damages to both marine environment and human life. Specifically, it aims to know the hazards of
unnatural quick iceberg melting induced by climate change in which leads to ecological
imbalance.
Although icebergs do not exist in the regions of the Philippines, various research
materials such as books, online versions of newspapers and reports, and electronic books made
the research possible. To answer the questions offered by the research, a personal interview was
conducted with Prof. Sinclaire Carvajal, a professor in MIT Intramuros and currently taking up
her masterals degree in B.S. Chemistry. Also, a short online interaction with an expert, Richard
E. Barrans Jr., Ph.D., the assistant director of PG Research Foundation was conducted.
With the use of this limited research materials and conducted interviews, we have ended
our findings that these formations of icebergs have its benefits to marine and human life.
Examples of this is that, it is a main source of fresh water for those men who were living in
Arctic areas and it helps arctic animals and coral reefs to survive the high temperature during
summer. Consequently, it also has its bad effects, specifically for man, because it is a risk for a
ship whenever it has encountered an iceberg. But, modern technology withdraws the danger by
tracking the location of these blocks of ice. Moreover, iceberg deformation also has its effects for
human and nautical beings. Particularly about ecological imbalance that explains the sudden
change in temperature seasonally, this will result into animal habitat loss and tsunamis.
Icebergs

To sum up, this research urges people to avoid practicing custom activities that contribute
to global warming. Global warming is the main reason why the icebergs are melting days even
weeks earlier than usual every year. Icebergs can supply freshwater for drought areas but experts
will not be able to tow icebergs to the places where it is needed the most due to the heat. Also,
avoid burning fossil fuels. It produces a lot of carbon dioxide which increases the temperature of
the earth's atmosphere. Moreover, we should avoid cutting and burning trees because trees that
are burned each year results in 25% of carbon dioxide release to the atmosphere.

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Introduction

The mission and vision of Mapa Institute of Technology state that the institute shall be an
international center of excellence in technology education by engaging in cutting-edge research
and shall advance and preserve knowledge by undertaking research and reporting on the results
of such inquiries. Moreover, the SLHS creed emphasizes the ability of every student to
distinguish what is true and what is good from the abundance of information, ideas, and thoughts
that current day technology makes accessible to him. And, having done so, the student becomes
disposed towards the intelligent use of his freedom. This research is conducted to live up with the
mission and vision of Mapa and the SLHS creed, to encourage the students to cope up with the
challenges being prepared by the institute and to make use of the researchers ability and
knowledge.
This research also aims to present the specific causes and effects that may pose and bring
about damages and threats on both marine and human life by the formation and deformation of
icebergs that are mostly found in Antarctica drifting to the North Atlantic Ocean.

What is an iceberg? Icebergs are huge masses of ice may break off the lower end of a glacier and
fall into the sea (Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia). They come in different shapes, sizes, and
colors based on its life span.
Icebergs could greatly affect not just the planet but also human life. People must be
aware of the burdens they might encounter when the nature takes for its revenge.

Icebergs

This research would be beneficial to humans. Through this research, they will be able to
know the things they should do and avoid to prevent the melting of icebergs which could greatly
affect marine and human life.
This research aims to answer the following questions:
1. What are the effects of the melting of icebergs to marine and human life?
2. What's the life expectancy of B-15, the largest iceberg to have formed?
3. What are the new technologies to keep the track of the icebergs?
4. How does mountain-like iceberg float?
5. What are the causes and effects of fresh-water freezing or iceberg formation?
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Body
Icebergs Characteristics and Composition

An iceberg is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf
and is floating freely in open water. It may subsequently become frozen into pack ice (one form
of sea ice). As it drifts into shallower waters, it may come into contact with the seabed, a process
referred to as seabed gouging by ice. (Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge)
Why does snow appear white? As water freezes into snow, it crystallizes. A close-up view of a
snowflake reveals its many facets, not unlike a cut diamond. These facets, or surfaces, reflect
light. As snow accumulates, the snowflakes trap a great deal of air. If you fill a glass to the top
with snow and then bring it inside and allow it to melt, you will see that most of what you
thought was frozen water was actually air. Because snow contains a lot of trapped air, light
hitting it is able to reflect off the many internal surfaces. You see this light as white in color.
Snow looks white, and if you fill a clear glass with water, it looks colorless. So how come when
you look at the ocean, the water looks blue? The answer has to do with light wavelengths. Visible
light is actually a combination of many different wavelengths of light. Each of these wavelengths
has a different amount of energy associated with it. If light is refracted through a prism, all the
colors of the spectrum can be seen as a rainbow. The colors always appear in the same order: red,
orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. (www.plantseed.com)
The ice in glaciers has been under enormous pressure for eons. The compression
eliminates air and reflective surfaces within the ice. Some glaciers are very old, while some are
younger. Icebergs that come from young glaciers have not undergone as much compression.
Icebergs

Therefore, there is still a great deal of air and reflective surfaces within the iceberg. The iceberg
reflects back much of the light that hits it as white light.(www.planetseed.com)

Icebergs from older glaciers have little internal air or reflective surfaces. So when light
hits the iceberg, it no longer bounces off. Instead, the light is absorbed. As in water, the longer
(red or green) visible wavelengths of light are absorbed, so the light leaving the ice will be blue
or blue-green. This is what makes an iceberg blue. It is simply capturing the suns emitted light
and allowing only the high-energy blue wavelengths to escape.
In addition, icebergs are blue because of refraction. Refraction of light occurs when light
rays enter a medium whose speed of light transmission differs. Think of what happens when you
submerge part of a straight object, such as a pencil, in water, the object appears to bend at the
surface. Although there is refraction in glaciers, but its effect is negligible, and does not cause
color in icebergs. . Most icebergs are blue, but after a while they turn white. Some rare icebergs
in Antarctica are green.
Icebergs do come in different shapes, sizes and colors. Not only that they have names,
too. The smallest icebergs are about the size of a car, maybe a little bit smaller. They are called
growlers. Next comes a bergy bit -- that's its real, official name. These bergy bits can be the size
of a house, but not a very big one. The rest of the sizes don't have such cool names; they are just
called small, medium, large and very large. A very large iceberg can be as big as an island, or
even bigger. These large icebergs are even called ice islands. The icebergs can have many
different shapes, and they can change their shape as they melt. Some are like big flat sheets of ice
Icebergs
and they are called tabular icebergs. (www.plantseed.com)
Icebergs can be found on Antarctica drifting to North Atlantic Ocean

(Ima
ge appears courtesy of the United States Coast Guard.)
Most icebergs in the Northern Hemisphere break off from glaciers in Greenland.
Sometimes they drift south with currents into the North Atlantic Ocean. Icebergs also calve from
glaciers in Alaska. Yet, in the Southern Hemisphere, almost all icebergs calve from the continent
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of Antarctica. However, despite improvements in detection methods and more accurate ship
positions, as well as trending warmer seas melting the icebergs faster, ships continue to have
close encounters with these frozen, floating objects (Dunn, 2012).

According to the BBC, between 1980 and 2005 there have been 57 incidents with vessels
involving icebergs. Because the icebergs lower part is very sharp that can punch a big hole on
those ships. There is a particular part of the North Atlantic that has a high number of icebergs;
this is called the Iceberg Alley. It is located 250 miles east and southeast of Newfoundland,
Canada. In addition, During the past 10 years, the downhill flow rate of the Greenland glaciers
has doubled in speed and is contributing to a larger number of icebergs being calved and there
are more icebergs now than the past years.(Wadhams, 2012)
One particular example of this tragedy is the sinking of the RMS Titanic in the year 1912.
RMS Titanic is a British ocean liner that struck an iceberg on the Iceberg Alley while it travel on
its way to New York. It took the life of more than 1500 people. (Dunn, 2012)
The Causes and Effects of the Formation of Icebergs
How are iceberg formed? Although icebergs float on the salt water, they are made from the
fresh water. The strong waves and tides striking through the glaciers produce cracks or fractures
on it. When the waves continuously strike on it, this causes the part of a glacier to be departed
and merge into the salt water. In short, icebergs are the parts of a glacier that has been broken off
and drift into the other part of the salt water. The process is called calving (Bruneau, 2004).
Icebergs play a role in the ecosystem of the marine environment but because of global
climate change these icebergs tend to shrink and split apart, yielding thousand of free-drifting
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icebergs. These free-floating ices are hotspots for ocean denizens. Scientific observations
suggest that icebergs are hotspots for ocean life (Reisenbichler, 2007).

The big players in the oceans food chain which are the marine plants, shrimplike crustaceans,
phytoplankton and sea birds, gather on and below the iceberg. These species are the same that

are in the surrounding waters, its just a concentration of them around the iceberg because its an
enriched area, said the author Kenneth Smith, a senior scientist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium
Research Institute (Roach, 2007).
According to Shaw (2007), The Southern Ocean lacks a major source of terrestrial material due
to the absence of major rivers. The icebergs constitute a moving estuary, distributing terrestrial
derived nutrients that are typically supplied by rivers in other areas of the oceans. The said
terrestrial nutrients greatly helps in the blooming of the tiny marine plants called phytoplankton
which is consumed by the shrimplike crustaceans called krill, while these krills are flocked by
the sea birds.
The increase in biological activity is caused by the increase in the number of icebergs. This rise
in activity may play a role in soaking up the carbon dioxide causing the Earths temperature to
rise. This carbon is stored in the thriving food chain that surrounds the icebergs. (Roach, 2007) It
simply says that icebergs could also be an important source of carbon dioxide drawdown from
the atmosphere. The overall estimate made by the scientist for the raising of the biological
productivity in the icebergs is nearly 40 percent. (http://www.nsf.gov.ph , June 2007)
Icebergs have a lot of good effects into the ecosystem of the marine environment
although some claims that it is harmful for the marine species. It is found that Connecticut-sized
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icebergs reduced activity of marine life by 70 percent. (Roach, 2007) Connecticut is a state in
the northeastern US, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean's Long Island Sound, one of the six New
England states, which is about 14,360 km. That was catastrophically bad for the ecosystem,
Arrigo (2002) on his part, agreed that icebergs biological activity may have some effect on the
global carbon budget, but said it amounts only a blip, thus, doesnt have an effect into the
marine environment.
The B-15

Iceberg B-15 is the world's largest recorded iceberg. It measures around 295 km long and
37 km wide (183-23 mi), with a surface area of 11,000 km (6,835 mi)larger than the island of
Jamaica. The mass was estimated around three billion tons. (World Book Encyclopedia) After
almost a decade, parts of B-15 still have not melted. This Connecticut-sized iceberg broke from
Antarcticas massive Ross Ice Shelf in March 2000. (www.scienceagogo.com). The Ross Ice
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Shelf is the largest ice shelf of Antarctica (an area of roughly 487,000 square kilometers
(188,000 sq mi) and about 800 kilometers (500 mi) across: about the size of France). It is several
hundred meters thick. The nearly vertical ice front to the open sea is more than 600 kilometers
(370 mi) long, and between 15 and 50 meters (50 and 160 ft) high above the water surface.
Ninety percent of the floating ice, however, is below the water surface. (World Book
Encyclopedia) After a few months, B-15 broke off into smaller icebergs that formed dams along
the coast. As a result, it blocked the drifting of the other icebergs out of the Ross Sea. Large
portion of the open ocean were covered with ice. This was in November 2000 until March 2001.
During the spring and summer months, the phytoplankton undergo reproductive blooms.

Phytoplankton need open water to reproduce, but because of the smaller bergs that was broke off
from the B-15, it became hard for them to reproduce that is why the productivity of
phytoplankton declined by 40 percent. (www.scienceagogo.com)
Moreover, Arrigo (2002) said: Sea ice is very effective at blocking light, so the phytoplankton
couldnt grow- there was just too much ice around.
There are many harmful effects when glaciers melt like farmlands will get destroyed by
flood and lakes will burst due to high pressure on the boundaries. Melting glaciers will cause the
bodies of water to overflow and cause flood. One of the good effects is that icebergs are the ones
who are supplying freshwater through lakes and rivers. Many countries around the world suffer
from fresh water shortage like Saudi Arabia and other countries on the African continent. Almost
70% of the Earth's freshwater is frozen in icebergs an iceberg that is measured 3000x1500x600
feet contains around twenty billion of freshwater to supply of the needs of 1 million people for
more than five years.
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(http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/oceanography/icebergs-as-water.htm)
So how can you know that iceberg is made up of freshwater? It is because ice that forms from
cold seawater freezes slowly enough to form ice which does not have space or room for salt
inclusions. Everyone can determine if an iceberg is made up of freshwater by conducting an
experiment. To start the experiment, put some saltwater in a pan or any container and place it in
your freezer. Remove the frozen ice and rinse it in cold freshwater. Then taste the ice cube and
compare it to the salt solution. With that experiment, you will be able to determine whether an
iceberg is made up of freshwater or not. (Barrans, R. Jr., online interview, February 16, 2013)
Causes of Iceberg Deformation

Icebergs have always been melting for the same reason, and will always be. This
reason is that it melts every summer; they absorb the heat of the sun for the water below stay
cold that contributes for the survival of the marine life. But, the heat exchange between the water
and the iceberg causes the chunk of ice to warm, calve, breaks off, until it melts. As what Prof.
Carvajal said, The icebergs serves a protection from direct sunlight, icebergs deflects almost
50% of heat coming from the sun and 20% is absorbed. When the icebergs melt, the temperature
of sea water will increase which will affect the marine life and could bring change in the
environment. (S. Carvajal, personal communication, February 18, 2013).
With their large body, icebergs float on water but 90 percent of its surface field is in direct
contact with salt water. Furthermore, under definition, liquid water is warmer than this ice. The
fact that icebergs are deforming has nothing at all to do with global warming.

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Nevertheless, iceberg melting is getting worse every year. Due to this global warming,
summer every year is getting warmer. In addition to this, according to B. Hoares citation in his
book, Animal Migration: Remarkable Journeys in the Wild several years after, the melting of
iceberg is three weeks earlier in occurring than normal. Temperatures across the globe have gone
upward, helping the cause of ice glaciers melting faster than required. Hence, in spite climate
change, iceberg deformations greatly affect everything. It is sort of like a chain reaction in
nature, as geologists believed that it will lead to ecological imbalance. Everything is elaborated
more on this research. However, to give you example of these effects of iceberg deformation, as
Kevin Mathias cited on the website (buzzle.com), :there are: excessive flooding, sea-water will
raise, re-contamination of earth, marine life including coral reefs destruction and animal habitat

loss, shortage of fresh water and hydroelectric electricity, and reduced agricultural output.
Moreover, according to him, these reasons will make the earth more hazardous to live in.
Effects of Deformation of Icebergs on Marine Environment and Human Life
Some animals, birds and fishes habitat will be endangered because they are
dependent with the iceberg and glacier for survival and shelter. We have researched at least three
examples on our research. One case is the emperor penguins. This also came from B Hoares
book that, The grueling marches made by emperor penguins to and from their breeding colonies
on the Antarctic Ice shelf have come to symbolize the perilous nature on the Great White
Continent. They are usually long- distance migrants with the humpback whales during
summer. January to March, this is the period of summer in the Southern Ocean in which
penguins used to hunt for food and prepare for the water to freeze. When the water freezes and
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they did not found that much food, they tend to fail survival in their home land which is the ice
glaciers. But, a much more threat for them is global warming. As B. Hoare stated, during a
prolonged warm period in the late 1970s, penguins colony declined in size by 50 percent.
Another example of animal that are dependent to glacier are the whales. Ben Hoare
(2009) cited that, They are the mammals who are known for the longest migration, from
tropical waters to distant polar seas brimming with food, then back again. According to the
news report of BBC news, due to global warming, thousands of cetaceans (e.g. dolphins &
whales) are washed up on shores around the world every year.
The last example but certainly not the least is the polar bears. These bears are usually 10ft
tall and 770 kilograms in weight, they are this big and they own a large number of fat that cause
them to survive on low temperatures. Due to global warming, Arctic areas raised the temperature

of 4 Celsius, this means that their habitat is slowly disappearing that can lead them to be one of
those animals who are called endangered.
Also, another problematic scenario caused by global warming is what Bill Mouland
reported in February 2007 in the last 50 years of records, the ice starts to deform three week
earlier than normal. The polar bears are forced to come back on land as a final refuge when
icebergs recede even though they spent most of their time hunting for survival on the sea ice.
When they are on icebergs, they hunt seals for their food. But when summer comes, the ice tends
to melt and these bears are utilize on the Baffin Island of ice. They stay here to stay safe and wait
for the ice to come back in but still their chance of survival is lessen.

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"Swimming 100 miles is not a big deal for polar bears especially a fat one," said Dr Ian
Stirling of the Canadian Wildlife Service. They just kind of float along and kick; but, when
icebergs as their homeland starts to deform they incline to swim farther that costs them more
energy that reaches to be more vulnerable in dying.
For human life, Icebergs melt faster so there is expansion of sea water, leading to a rise
in sea water levels and shortage of fresh water (S. Carvajal, personal communication, February
18, 2013)
In addition, a rapidly decreasing of icebergs mass will lead to severe fresh water shortage
in the near future and excessive flooding. Furthermore, agricultural output will reduce.
Agriculture that depends solely on rain will be mostly unaffected by the effects of icebergs
melting. Such areas are very few worldwide and do not contribute to the major chunk of
farmland. Areas affected will be those that depend on water emanating from icebergs. During the

dry seasons there will be a shortage of fresh water from icebergs, making the land dry and
unsuitable for agriculture. Total agricultural output will reduce, leading to a shortage of food
grains. Moreover, it is too dangerous for a ship to encounter an iceberg. As we know the tragic
meeting of titanic and an iceberg, it could lead to thousand loss of mankind. Even though most
cruises won't come close to areas where ice is problematic, captains still have to be wary, G.
Wellmeier(2012) says. "They have to be on guard the same way that ships do that are crossing
the north Atlantic. You had icebergs back in 1912, and you still have icebergs in 2012."

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Technologies and Devices for Detecting the Icebergs


An iceberg can only survive for an average of two to three years, then after that, it will
start to melt. The iceberg that sank the Titanic is already gone and the sinking of the Titanic lead
to a number of changes in safety practices. The U.S. navy assigned the International Ice Patrol to
keep track of the icebergs in the North Atlantic so that accidents like the sinking of the Titanic
would be prevented. (Environmental News Network, October 29, 2012)
Today, an iceberg can be detected in the open sea by both radar and visually. Icebergs can also
be detected by sonar unlike the Titanic, which was ill-equipped to detect icebergs. An iceberg
produces sounds caused by mechanical stresses or cracking that can be detected underwater up to
2

kilometers

(http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/281212/iceberg/273743/Iceberg-detectiontracking-and-management)

away.

Icebergs can be detected using different kinds of sensors. Coarser-resolution sensors are
used to detect large tubular icebergs while Finer-resolution optical sensors are used to identify
smaller icebergs. Icebergs can also be detected by using satellite radar. A target will appear as a
bright or white spot on the radar image which means that the echo is strong. Targets that are
close and large will appear brightest in the image. When radar spots a target, it has no idea
whether that target is an iceberg or a ship. So to avoid any mistakes, many icebergs and ships are
being studied and examined so that the ones who are keeping track of icebergs will know if the
target is a ship or an iceberg. (http://www.icebergfinder.com/technology.aspx)

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Icebergs can be tracked by satellites but when an iceberg breaks up into smaller pieces,
the satellite will have a hard time tracking it down. Smaller pieces of icebergs are the problem
for the ships because small pieces icebergs can be hidden by rough seas but it is not just ships
that are threatened by icebergs, off-shore oil platforms are also in danger. Experts suggests that

you should not go anywhere near icebergs unless you really need to so that you can prevent any
accidents that might happen. (BBC News Magazine, July 19, 2012)
National Ice Center (NIC) monitors the icebergs worldwide. NIC uses remote sensing to
track ice in the polar and Antarctic regions. To monitor Antarctica's icebergs, they assign letters
valuing each iceberg based on the icebergs point of origin. A begins in the Bellingshausen and
Weddell Seas at longitude 0-90W. The letters end at D in the Eastern Weddell Sea at the Amery
Ice Shelf and a longitude of 0-90E. For example, Iceberg B-15 is called "B" because it
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originated in the eastern Ross Sea at a longitude of 90-180W.


(http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/icebergs.htm)
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Bibliography

Bruneau, S.E. (5th Edition) (2004). Icebergs of Newfoundland and Labrador. Flanker Press
Roach, J. (2007, June 21). Antarctic Icebergs Teeming With Life. National Geographic News
(Volume 10). (2009). World Book Encyclopedia. U.S.: Lexicon Publications
Reisenbichler, K. (2007, June 21). Antarctic Icebergs: Hotspots of Ocean. News and Information
from Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. page 3
Science A GoGo. (2002, April 24). Icebergs Impact On Antarctic Marine Life Devastating.
Retrieved
January
21,
2013,
from
http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/20020324215806data_trunc_sys.shtml
Dunn, Margery G. (Editor). (1989, 1993). "Exploring Your World: The Adventure of
Geography." Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
(R. E. Barrans Jr., online communication, February 19, 2013)
How Stuff Works. What if people wanted to use icebergs as a source of fresh water? Retrieved
February
09,
2013,
from
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/oceanography/icebergs-as-water.htm

Hebblethwaite, Cordelia. (2012, July 19). Who, What, Why : How do you track an iceberg? BBC
News Magazine pp. 5-6
Soos, Andy. (2012, October 29). Iceberg Breakup. Environmental News Network pp. 3
Iceberg
Finder.
Technology.
Retrieved
http://www.icebergfinder.com/technology.aspx

February

10,

2013,

from

About.com Geography. An Overview of Icebergs : The Formation, Movement, Tracking, and


Termination
of
Icebergs.
Retrieved
February
12,
2013,
from
http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/icebergs.htm
Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development. The Iceberg Blues : Does Anyone Know
What Gives Icebergs Their Colors? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from
http://www.planetseed.com/science/articles/people-in-motion/The-Iceberg-Blues/Does-AnyoneKnow-What-Gives-Icebergs-Their-Colors
Mail Online (2007, February 1). Global warming sees polar bears stranded on melting ice.
Retrieved February 03, 2013, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-433170/Globalwarming-sees-polar-bears-stranded-melting-ice.html
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Buzzle. The Effects Of Melting Ice Glaciers. Retrieved February 05, 2013, from
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/the-effects-of-melting-ice-glaciers.html
Buzzle. Impact of Melting Glaciers. Retrieved February
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/impact-of-melting-glaciers.html

06,

2013,

from

Everitt, Lauren. (2012, March 20). Titanic threat : Why do ships still hit icebergs? BBC News
Magazine pp. 7
Hoare, B. (2009). Animal Migration : Remarkable Journeys In the Wild. Berkeley and Los
Angeles, California. University of California Press.
(Prof. S. Carvajal, personal communication, February 18, 2013)
(International Edition), (2002), Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowldege, US: Grolier Incorporated
(Home Edition), (2002), Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia, US: Lexicon Publications
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References

Bruneau, S.E. (5th Edition) (2004). Icebergs of Newfoundland and Labrador. Flanker Press
Roach, J. (2007, June 21). Antarctic Icebergs Teeming With Life. National Geographic News
(Volume 10). (2009). World Book Encyclopedia. U.S.: Lexicon Publications

Reisenbichler, K. (2007, June 21). Antarctic Icebergs: Hotspots of Ocean. News and Information
from Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. page 3
Science A GoGo. (2002, April 24). Icebergs Impact On Antarctic Marine Life Devastating.
Retrieved
January
21,
2013,
from
http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/20020324215806data_trunc_sys.shtml
Dunn, Margery G. (Editor). (1989, 1993). "Exploring Your World: The Adventure of
Geography." Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
(R. E. Barrans Jr., online communication, February 19, 2013)
How Stuff Works. What if people wanted to use icebergs as a source of fresh water? Retrieved
February
09,
2013,
from
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/oceanography/icebergs-as-water.htm
Hebblethwaite, Cordelia. (2012, July 19). Who, What, Why : How do you track an iceberg? BBC
News Magazine pp. 5-8
Soos, Andy. (2012, October 29). Iceberg Breakup. Environmental News Network pp. 3-4
Iceberg
Finder.
Technology.
Retrieved
http://www.icebergfinder.com/technology.aspx

February

10,

2013,

from

About.com Geography. An Overview of Icebergs : The Formation, Movement, Tracking, and


Termination
of
Icebergs.
Retrieved
February
12,
2013,
from
http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/icebergs.htm
Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development. The Iceberg Blues : Does Anyone Know
What Gives Icebergs Their Colors? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from
http://www.planetseed.com/science/articles/people-in-motion/The-Iceberg-Blues/Does-AnyoneKnow-What-Gives-Icebergs-Their-Colors
Mail Online (2007, February 1). Global warming sees polar bears stranded on melting ice.
Retrieved February 03, 2013, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-433170/Globalwarming-sees-polar-bears-stranded-melting-ice.html
Icebergs

24

Buzzle. The Effects Of Melting Ice Glaciers. Retrieved February 05, 2013, from
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/the-effects-of-melting-ice-glaciers.html
Buzzle. Impact of Melting Glaciers. Retrieved February
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/impact-of-melting-glaciers.html

06,

2013,

from

Everitt, Lauren. (2012, March 20). Titanic threat : Why do ships still hit icebergs? BBC News
Magazine pp. 7

Hoare, B. (2009). Animal Migration : Remarkable Journeys In the Wild. Berkeley and Los
Angeles, California. University of California Press.
(Prof. S. Carvajal, personal communication, February 18, 2013)