You are on page 1of 2

Verb + infinitive

Afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, begin, can't bear, can't stand, care, cease,
choose, claim, consent, continue, decide, demand, deserve, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate,
help, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, manage, mean, need, neglect, offer, plan, prefer,
prepare, pretend, promise, propose, refuse, regret, remember, request, seem, start, stop, struggle,
swear, tend, threaten, try, volunteer, wait, want, wish, would like.
Verb + gerund
Cease, can't stand, can't help, can't bear, begin, avoid, appreciate, anticipate, allow, advise, admit,
fancy, finish, forbid, forget, forgive, give up, go, go on, hate, imagine, intend, involve, keep (on),
like, love, mean, mention, mind, miss, need, permit, postpone, practice, prefer, propose, put off,
quit, recall, recollect, recommend, regret, remember, resent, resist, resume, risk, start, stop,
suggest, tolerate, try.
Notes: Verb + infinitive or Verb + gerund
(a) There is little or no difference in meaning between infinitives and gerunds after "begin, start,
continue, like, love, hate, prefer, can't bear, can't stand".
She started to cry. She started crying.
(b) There is noticeable difference in meaning between infinitives and gerunds after "forget, remember,
regret, stop, try".
I will not forget to call him. I will never forget talking with him on that day.
I remembered to switch off the heater before leaving. I can remember visiting them when I was a
I regret to tell you that you have failed your examination. I regret telling them about my plans.
She stopped in order to say hello to them. / She stopped to say hello to them. She stopped saying
hello to them.
(c Sometimes a gerund is used after "attempt, neglect, plan" with the same meaning as that of the
infinitive: Have you ever attempted climbing this mountain? Don't neglect writing to her once in a
while. I planned visiting Rome.
(d Sometimes an infinitive is used after "dread", with the same meaning as that of the gerund: She
dreads to think that they may come back.
(e The verb "intend" is usually followed by an infinitive but sometimes may be followed by a gerund
with no change in meaning: We intend to visit them tomorrow. We intend visiting them tomorrow.
(f ) The verbs "mean, propose" in the meaning "intend" are followed by an infinitive; the verb "mean"
in the meaning "denote, imply" is followed by a gerund; the verb "propose" in the meaning "suggest" is
followed by a gerund.
I didn't mean to hurt you. She means to go there. If I asked him for help, it would mean telling him
I propose to stay there for about a week. I propose staying here.
(g) The verb "need" is usually followed by an infinitive: We need to talk. He needs to buy a new car.
The verb "need" is followed by a gerund in the phrase "to need doing", usually about cleaning,
repairing, improving something: Your jacket needs cleaning. These doors need painting.
Passive infinitives can also be used in such situations: Your jacket needs to be cleaned.
Note: Particle "to"
Infinitive is used without the particle "to" after "let, make, have, hear, see, watch, observe, notice,
feel": Let him (make him; have him) do it. I heard (saw, watched, observed, noticed, felt) him do it.
Infinitive is used with "to" if the verb is in the passive: He was made to do it. He was heard to shout at
them. He was seen to enter the house. He was noticed to hesitate.
The infinitive is used without "to" in set expressions "let go; make believe; make do": Let go of my
hand. They made believe that it was true. We made do with what we had.
Note: Participle
In constructions like "I heard (saw, watched, observed, noticed, felt) him doing something", the ingform is a present participle showing the action in progress.
1. Don't forget
To buy

some bread. We don't have any left.

Having bought
2. My doctor recommends
Having gone
To go

to a mountain resort.

3. I regret
her about it. She told everyone.
To have told
To tell
To be telling
4. He seemed
Having liked
To like

his job. Why did he quit?

5. I didn't mean
To hurt
To have hurt

you. Please forgive me.

6. He couldn't help
To laugh
To be laughing

at their suggestion.

7. You were supposed

the dishes.
To have washed
8. Their house looks a little shabby. I think it needs
Having painted
To paint
9. Allow me
To help
10. He avoided
To answer


their questions.

Related Interests