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Chapter l9

CHARACTERTSTICSOF HIGH.SULFIDATION EPITHERMAL


DEPOSITS,AND THEIR RELATTONTO MAGMATIC FLUID
Antonio Arribas Jr.
Mineral ResourcesDepartment, Geological Survey of Japan,
l-l-3 Higashi, Tsukuba305, Japan

[NTRODUCTIoN

includingsilica sinter-depositing
hot springsand
steam-heated
acid-sulfatealteration.
A consequenceof the increasedexplorationfor
The main objective of this review is to
gold depositsduring the Iate 1970s and early summarize the characteristicsof HS minerali1980s was tlre revision of the classificationof
zation formed primarily within the epithermal
epithermaldeposits in order to account for the
environment,tlroughrecognizingthe potentialfor
variationsobservedin stylesof mineralizationand
HS conditionsto occur at greaterdepths.Earlier
inferred genetic environments. Among the
studies have argued for a magmatic fluid
numerousclassificationsthat followed, one group
componentin HS deposits(e.g., Sillitoe 1983,
of deposits clearly showed a common set of
1989, 1991a;Hayba et al. 1985; Henley t99t
features,this deposittype is characterized
by the
White 1991;Rye 1993;Hedenquistet al. 1994a),
presence of minerals diagnostic of highand the identificationand characterization
of HS
sulfidationstates(e.g.,enargiteand luzonite)and
depositshas contributedto a re-evaluationof the
acidic hydrothermal conditions (e.g., alunite, role of magmatic fluids in other types of
kaolinite, pyrophyllite). The terms enargite-gold hydrothermalsystems(Hedenquist& Lowenstern
(Ashley 1982),Goldfield-type(Bethke 1984,after
1994; Simmons this volume; de Ronde this
(Bonham
Ransome 1909), high-sulfur
1984, volume). In this context, particular aftention is
1986), quartz-aluniteAu (Berger 1986), acid- given to the characteristicsthat are helpful in
sulfate (Heald et crl. 1987), and alunite-kaolinite determiningthe nature of the magmatic contri(Berger & Henley 1989) were applied to this
bution to the hydrothermalsystem through time
group in referenceto someof its mineralogicalor
and space.This review considersfeaturesof many
inferred geoclremicalattributes.The term highof the depositslisted in Table l, with locations
sulfidation(HS) (Hedenquist1987)is now widely
shown in Figure 1, but is basedon a selectionof
used;the term was proposedoriginally to refer to
fourteendepositsfor which the resultsof detailed
a fundamental genetic aspect, the relatively geologicaland geochemicalstudiesare available
oxidized state of sulfur contained in the
(Tables 2, and 3). For simplification,bibliohydrothermalsystem(i.e., initially SO2-rich).This
graphic referencesare not given in the text for
aspectis significantbecauseit links HS deposits generaldeposit features;these referencesmay be
with one of the two main types of terrestrial found in Table 1. For regional studies of HS
magma-relatedhydrothermalsystems(Henley &
deposits,particularlywith respectto othertypesof
Ellis 1983), those associatedwith andesitic magmatic-hydrothermal
base-and precious-metal
volcanoeswhose surface manifestationincludes deposits,the reader is referred to reviews by
high-temperaturefumaroles and acid sulfate- Heald et ul. (1987), Bonham (1989), Sillitoe
chloridehot springsand crater lakes.By contrast, (1989, l99la), Berger& Bonham(1990),Camus
Iow-sulfidation deposits form from neutral-pH, (1990),White & Hedenquisr(1990),Mitchell &
reduced(H2S-rich)hydrothermalfluids similar to
Leach (1991), Mitchell (1992), and White et al.
thoseencounteredin geothermalsystems(Henley ( I 99s).
& Ellis 1983), with surface manifestation

7-

A. Arribas../r.
Table l. Principal high-sulfidation deposits or documcnted prospects ordered geographically
N'in
t;ig. I
I

2
3
1
5
6
1
d

9
l0
ll

t2
l-)

l4
l-5
l6
t1
l8
la

20
2l
22
L-)

24
26
21
28
29
30
3l
.1.')

34
3-5
36
38
39
40
4l
42
43
44
A<

46
41
48
49
50

420

Deposit

References

Asia & Australasia


W h i t e e t a l .( 1 9 9 - 5 )
Dobroyde,Australia
R a e t z& P a n i n g t o n( 1 9 8 8 )
RhyoliteCreek,Australia
Thompsonet ul. (1986)
Temora,Australia
, a r b o n( 1 9 8 8 ) M
, a s t e r m a (n1 9 9 4 )
C o r d e r y( 1 9 8 6 ) H
P e a kH i l l , A u s t r a l i a
Turner( 1986)
M t . K a s i ,F i j i
, r c e ge t u l . ( 1 9 9 1 )
I - e a c h& E r c e g( 1 9 9 0 ) E
Wafi River,PapuaNew Guinea
, a l le r a l ( 1 9 9 0 )
A s a m i & B r i t t e n( 1 9 8 0 )H
Nena,PapuaNew Guinea
P e r e l l 6( 1 9 9 4 )
Motomboto,Indonesia
S i l l i t o ee t u l . ( 1 9 9 0 )
N a l e s b i t i uP
r ,h i l i p p i n e s
, a r c i a( 1 9 9 1 )A
, r r i b a se r a / . ( 1 9 9 - 5 b )
Lepanto,Philippines
G o n z a l e z( l 9 - 5 9 )C
(
1
9
5
.
5
)
,
(
1 9 8 2 )T
, rn etul. (1993)
H
u
a
n
g
H
w
a
n
g
M
e
y
e
r
&
Chinkuashih,Taiwan
Zhang er ul. (1991)
Zi.jinshan,China
Y o o n( 1 9 9 4 )
SouthKorea
Seongsan
& Ogmaesan,
Izawa& Cunningham( 1989),Hedenquistet ul. (l994tt)
Nansatsu(lwato, Akeshi& Kasuga),Japan
Yui&Matsueda(19921)
Yoji, Japan
-feine,
Ito(1969)
Japan
A k a m a t s u& Y u i ( 1 9 9 2 ) ,A k a m a r s u( 1 9 9 3 )
Akaiwa, Japan
Aoki & Watanabe(1995)
Japan
Mitsumori-Nukeishi,
North & CentralAmerica
Panteleyev& Koyanagi(1994)
NorthwestemVancouverIsland,Canada
, y e( 1 9 9 3 )
S t e v e n& R a t t 6( 1 9 6 0 ) ,S t o f f r e g e (n1 9 8 7 ) R
Colorado
Summitville,
, y e( 1 9 9 3 )
B o v e e / c 1 .( 1 9 9 0 ) R
Red Mtn-LakeCity, Colorado
Burbank(1941),FisherandLeedy(1973)
Red Mtn-Sil verton,Coloradcr
, s h l e y( 1 9 1 1 ) ,V i k r e ( 1 9 8 9 )
R a n s o m e( 1 9 0 7 ,1 9 0 9 ) A
Goldfield, Nevada
(
1
9
9
1
)
,
e
r
u
l
.
S
i
l
l
i
t
o e& L o r s o n( 1 9 9 4 )
Nevada
J
o
h
n
ParadisePeak,
Munteanet ul. (1990),Russell& Kesler( l99l )
PuebloViejo, DominicanRepublic
Staude(1994)
M u l a t o s ,M e x i c o
SouthAmerica
, e e n( 1 9 9 0 ) R
, ye(1993)
P e t e r s eenr u l . ( 1 9 1 1 ) D
Julcani,Peru
(
1
9
8
8
)
V
i
d
a
l
&
C
e
d
i
l
l
o
Castrovirreyna,Peru
Vidal er a1.( 1989)
Ccarhuarso,Peru
V i d a l & C e d i l l o( 1 9 8 8 )
SanJuande Lucanas,Peru
, i n a u d (i 1 9 1 1 )
G r a t o n& B o w d i t c h( 1 9 3 6 ) E
Cerro de Pasco,Peru
Vidal et ri1.( 1984)
Colquijirca,Peru
V i d a l & C e d i l l o( 1 9 8 8 )
Sucuitambo,Peru
Murillo et al. (1993)
Laurani,Bolivia
Gri'ipperet ul. (1991)
Choquelimpie,Chile
P u i g e t a / . ( 1 9 8 8 ) ,C u i t i f l oe t a i . ( 1 9 8 8 )
Guanaco,Chile
S i l l i t o e( 1 9 9 1 a )
E l H u e s o ,C h i l e
, u i t i f r oe t u l . ( 1 9 9 4 )
, o s c o s oe t a l . ( 1 9 9 3 )C
V i l a ( 1 9 9 1 )M
Esperanza,Chile
Oviedoet ul. (1991),Cecioni& Dick (1992)
La Coipa,Chile
Siddeley& Araneda(1990)
Nevada& Sancarr6n,Chile
Siddeley& Araneda(1986),Jannaser ul. (1990)
El Indio-Tambo,Chile
& McPhail ( 1994)
Famatina,
Argentina
Losada-Calderon
del
La Mejicana-Nevados
Europe
Oepenera1.(1989),Arribaset ul. (l995tr)
Szinger-von
Rodalquilar,Sparn
Ruggieri( l993a,b)
Furtei-Serrenti.Sardinia
Velinov er al. (1990)
Spahievo,Bulgaria
B o g d a n o v( 1 9 8 2 ,1 9 8 6 )
Chelopech,Bulgaria
Bogdanov(1982),Velinov & Kanazirski( 1990)
WestemSrednogorieregion,Bulgaria
Bor, Yugoslavia
Jankovicet ul. (1980),Jankovic( 1982)
B a k s a( 1 9 7 5 ,1 9 8 6 )F, i r s t( 1 9 9 3 )
Lah6ca,Hungary
Hallberg (1994)
Enisen. Sweden

H igh-sulfidation Epithermal Deposits

q9.:Balkans
\
,--<+s-+s

prospects.The main highFigure l. Worldwide distributionof high-sulfidationdepositsand principaldocumented


references.
and
selected
suifidationmetallogenicprovincesare indicated.SeeTable I for depositnames

advanced argillic zones that commonly cap


porphyrycoppersystems(e.g.,Sillitoe 1973;Corrt
1975; Gustafson& Hunt 1975; Koukharsky &
severalof the
Mirre 1976;Wallace1979).lndeed,
Basedon detailedresearchof the Summiwille
Au-Cu-Ag deposit, Stoffregen (1987) demon- depositsconsideredin this review are underlainby
porphyry-type mineralization (Table 2). Tliis
strated that a nearly ubiquitous feature of HS
rock
advancedargillic assemblageis also typical of
deposits, fracture-controlledvuggy silica
with acidic crater lakesatop active
(intensely leached volcanic rock consisting that associated
of
product
the
is
& Wood 1993;Delmelle
2)
(Christenson
Fig.
quartz;
volcanoes
dominantly of
"C)
:
-250
<2
that
at T
& Bernard 1994; Rowe 1994; Hedenquistthis
very acidic conditions(pH
volume).
occur within a sulfate-rich hydrothermal fluid
In
vapor'
magmatic
of
The implicationsof a geneticrelationbetween
formed by absorption
H2SOa,
to
porphyryand epithermalmineralization,e.g', with
addition to SOz disproportionation
respectto the origin of metalsor the natureof the
significant concentration of HCI from the
fluid inclusions in HS deposits, are discussed
magmatic vapor contributes to the acidic
soluble,
to
be
alumina
below. The observationmade here is that an
conditions necessaryfor
e/
alunite-enargiteassemblagerecords a similar
leading to vuggy silica alteration(Hedenquist
al. 1994a,b).Neutralizationof the acidic solution geochemicalenvironment,whether forming arl
by reactionwith the wallrock resultsin a sequence epithermal deposit or as part of the alteration
zoning of an orebody formed at greater depths.
alteration zones, oufward from the
of
High-sulfidation deposits forrn in a position
hydrothermal conduit, which is indicative of
presence
the
by
is
defined
and
intermediatebetween intrusions and the surface;
decreasingacidity
+
therefore,they may be locatedclose to a porphyry
of alunite,kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite
copperdepositor in a near-surfaceenvironment,
chlorite(Steven& Ratte 19601'Fig.2).
the
without
sequence'
suchas the rootsofan acid craterlake.
This same alteration
ores,
Comprehensive genetic models for HS
vuggy silica zone but with enargite-bearing
was documentedin the Butte polymetallicdeposit depositshave been proposedonly recently (e.8.'
Berger& Henley1989;Sillitoe1989;White l99l;
(Meyer et al. 1968) and in the roots of the
REMARKSON GENETIC
OPSNTNC
ENVIRONMENT

421

A. Arribas, Jr.

Table 2. Main geologicalcharacteristicsof l4 selectedhigh-sulfidationepithermal deposits


Deposit/disrict.
location
Motomboto.
Indonesia
Nalesbitin.
P h i ii p p i n c s
Lcpanto.
P hi l i p p i n c s
C h i nk u a s h i h .
kiwu
Ziiinshan.
China

Age
{Ma)

1.9

Metals.
( t o n n e s I)

Local volcanic
setting

C u .A u . A g
Central-vcnt
6 0 , 0 0 0 t C u . 4 t volcanir
Au. t80r Ag (c)

S u n r n r i nl l l c .
Color:rdo

22..5

Time
betwecn host
rock & deposit

Hbx . vcins.dis in
VS

Small cenralvent volcano

Ands pyr + llows

None observed

N/A

Hbx. vcinlcts

Diatreme
complex

Ands/dac vol.
Mioccnc + older
volx + metavol

Qtz{iorite
porphyry

<analyl.error
( 1 0 . 1m . y . )

Dac volc
Mioccnc sed

Dacite domes
md llows

Vcrtical brcccilrs,
vcins. slralab0urd
replacenrnls
"letl{cs
Vcins or
.
hhx,dis and stk
sunounding veins

Jurassicgranite.
Cretaceous dac
porpyhry +pyr

Not reported

7 . 0r n . y .l ()
(PoorlYrJatul)

Vcins. hbx. stk

Ands pyr. llows +


v o lx

Horblende :rrds
(Middlc Volcs)

<0.5 nry

Qtz-latite porphyry

Qtz-monzonite
porphyry

<analyl.error
(10.-5 m.y.)

Dis in stratatrountl
VS/MS bodies.
v c i n s .h b x
''hdgcs"
with
v c i n s .h b x + d i s
in VS

Au (Ag. Cu)
Domes along
l -10t Au. t 4.1 Ag. preexisting ring
-17.000 Cu (p)
fracrue

Miocene andesitc

Andesitc

<analyl. crror
(t0.,1 m.y.)

<analyt. crror
(+1.0n).y.)

Snrall volcanos

l t l r A u ( p ) + l 8 r in a c:rldrra'i
Au reserves
Au, Cu.Ag
Dome along
1 7t A u
preexrstlnS
c:ildera margin

Goldlicld.
Ncvadir

2l

Dcposit li)rm

< 1 . 0n r . y .

1 . . 1 - 1 . 0 A u . C u .A g
Dome complex
9 2 t A u . 1 8 3r A g
120.000r Cu (p)
-94
Cu. Au
Domc akrng
>t0 r Au (c)
caldcra m:trgin'l
5-J.-s

Genetically
rclated rtxks

Dac donr, zrnds/dac/rhy Dioritic. qtzl-1ows.pyr and volx


dioritic stocks

Pliocene Au
l5 t Au(c)
I . 5 -I . 2
C u .A u .A g
900.(100
r Cu.
1 2 0r A u ( c )

Nansatsu,
Japiur

Principal host
roc Ks

"[.cdges"

with
v e i n s .h h x + d i s
in MS

ParatliscPcak.
Nevai:r

lg-lti

Au, Ag. Hg
47 t Au, 12-55Ag
457 r Hg (p)

Within or close
to a central-vcnt
volcano

Compositc welded tulf.


volx + ands f'lows

And/dac vol

P u eb l o V i e j o .
D o n r i n i c a nR c p .

-l-l(.)

Au. Ag
>600 I Au (p;
Sillitoe. 199.1)

Mzurdiatreme
complex

Mau sed + basaltic


vol (spilitc )

CA bimodal
N/A
(Rhy + basalr)
volcanic suite

Mushrtxrnrshapcd
bodics with stk +
dls

Julcani,
Peru

g.lt

Ag. Cu. Pb. Au.


W, Bi. Zn

Dome complcx
around a cenual
dlareme

Dac to rhyodacitic
domes and tuft.s

Dac/rhyulacitic
porphyry

<analyr.crror
(+0. I m.y.)

Vcins

El Indio,
Chile

ll-tt

Au. Ag. Cu
-140 t Au.
-1.100r Ag (c)

Stratovolcano('?) Dac. rhy pyr;


in cirlier caldera
dac + ands vol

CA vol

N/A

Veins + stk

La Mejicana & Ne4.0 -1.6


v a d o sd e l F a n i a t i n a .
Argcntlna

Cu. Au, Ag
>lll5
t Au (c)

Dome complex( l)

Paleozoic seds +
granitcs. Pliocene
illtrusivc dacite

Dac/rhyrxlactic
porphyry
stocks

<1.2 nr.y.

Veins;alsohbx at
N. dcl Famtina

RrxJ:rJtluilu.
Spain

Au
10 t Au (p)

Caldera margin

Ands to rhy pyr flows.


collapse bxs + domes

Ands flows
+ dykes

<analyt. error
(+0.7 m.y.)

Vcins.hbx. dis in
VS

I l-10

Stratabourrrl
btxlics
commonly with
hbx

Abbrcviations used: CA : calc-alkaline, MS - massive silica, VS : vuggy silica, ands : andesitic, bre : breccias, dac - dacitic, dis =
disseminations,hbx = hydrothermalvein breccia or brecciapipes, pyr - pyroclastics,qtz = quartz,rhy : rhyolitic, sed: sedimentaryrock, stk
- stockwork, vol : volcanic rock (unspecifled),volx : volcaniclastics
2
I
Approximate number, quoted from paper or estimatedfiom ligures: 150 nr lbr Paradisc
1p; : produced, (c) : estimaled total contained
P e a ki s f b r i n d i v i d u a lo r e b o d i e s

Giggenbach1992a;Rye 1993; Hedenquistet al.


1994a).However,the basicgeneticcontrols,as we
understandthem now, were formulated almost
ninety yearsago by Ransome(1907)following his
classicstudy of the Goldfield Au-Ag-Cu deposit.
"the
In his own words
[ore depositingJsolutions
were essentially emanations from ct solidifuing
"
"
body rf dacitic magma and . . the initially acid
emonqtionswould be neutralizedand modified in
.by the
their ctscent through fissured rock.
distance emd kind o.f rock traversed, the quantiQ
and characler of admixed surface-derived waters,

422

and the pressure and temperature gradients". This


"direct
concept formed the basis for Ransome's
volcanic hypothesis", though it was quickly
"simultaneous
solfatarism
abandonedin favor of a
and oxidation" model (Ransome 1909). The
change in genetic interpretationhas more than
anecdotalvalue becauseit illustratesthe sourceof
a not-uncommonmisconceptionon the environment of mineralizationof epithermaldeposits.
The crucial aspect is identification of the
origin of alunite or acid-sulfatealteration,which
can be generatedby differentmechanismsin three

H igh-sulfidalion Epithermal Deposits

Table 2 (continued)
Dcposit/district
locatlon

Control on mineralization

Vertical extent of epiri.


ore (m)2

Relation to
porphyry systen)

Relerences

Motomhoto.
lndurcsia

Contact bctwcen dome and


volcmic Krk. steep lault

250

Porphyry Cu-Au
prospectsnearby. age
within 1.0 m.y.

Pcrcll6 ( I 994)

Nalcshitan.
Phi lippi nes

Stecp strike-slip lault

150

hoposcd,
none lo)owr)

Sillitoe ?r a/. ( I 990)

Lcpanto.
Phi li ppi ncs

Major steep + minor faults.


diatrcn)econtact.unc0mlor
mrty, permeable layers

500

Above + adjaccnt
samc age porynyry
Cu-Au dcposit

Garcia ( l99l ),
Anihas et a/. ( I 995b)

C h i n l u a s hi h ,
Taiw;rrr

Stecp normal laults +


thcir intcrscctions,
bedding plancs

800

Nonc k-nown

H u a n g( 1 9 5 5 ) ,
Tan et al. (1993)

Ziiinshan.
China

Steep srike-slip fault


zones + contact 0f
volcztntcvent

60()(')

None known

Rcn er a/. ( 1992),


Zhang et ul. (1994)

Nansatsu.
Japiut

Stecp lractures+ permeable


pyroclastic layers

<150

None known

Izawa & Cunningham ( I 9fl9).


Hedentluist et al. \1991a)

Sunrmrtville.
Colorado

Steep rldial fracturcs+


dtxnc contact

250

Inrusion-ccncred
scricitic, low grade
stk mineralization

S t e v e n& R a t t i ( 1 9 6 0 ) .M e n h c r l
et al. (19'73). Stoffregen ( I 987 ).
Rye (199,j)Gray& Coolbaugh
( 1994)

Goldlrcld.
Nevalir

Modcratcly + shallow
dipping faults & fissures

400

Nonc lnown

R a n s o m c( 1 9 0 9 ) ,A s h l e y ( 1 9 7 4 ) .
A s h l c y & S i l b e r m a n( 1 9 7 6 ) .
V i k c ( 1 9 8 9 .w r i t t e nc o n r m u n .
I 995)

ParadiscPcak.
Nev:da

Stccp Iaults antl permeable


pyroclastic layers

< 150

Sericitic. stk Au
minerahzation (East
Zone)

J o h n ? / a / . ( 1 9 9 1) .
Sillitoe& Lorson (1994)

P u c h l oV i e . j o .
D o n ) i n i c a nR c p .

Diatreme rinq fault +


permcablelayers

4UXt)

Ntne l*rown

R u s s e l l& K e s l e r ( 1 9 9 1) .
Muntean et a1.( I990)

Julcani.
Pcru

Steep liactures

600

None klown

PeterseneI al. (19'11\.


N o h l e & S i l b e r m a n( 1 9 8 , + ) .
Dccn ( I 990)

El lndio.
Chile

Stccp normal faults

Porphyry Cu-Mo
mineralization
nearby

Siddcley & Araneda( 1986).


Jannasel a1. ( 1990)

La Me.jic:na & Nevadosdcl Fantatina


AJScntlna

LOcal I aults

HS ore il Nevado del


Famatina is a pirt of a
porphyry Cu prospect

Losurda-Calder(xr
& McPhail
( I 994). Losada-Caldcr6nel a/.
{ I 994)

Rrxllrit1uiIar.
Spaitr

Caldera ring faults +


nornral local faults

Nrne Lrown

Anibas e/ d/. ( I 995a)

>l(x)

<150

principal geologic environments(Bethke 1984;


of
Rye el al. 1992):(l ) by the disproportionation
following
magmatic SOz to H2SO4 and HzS
groundwater (magmaticabsorption by
hydrothermal),(2) by atmosphericoxidation of
H2S in the vadose zone over the water table,
associatedwith fumarolic discharge of vapor
releasedby deeperboiling fluids (steam-heated),
and (3) by atmospheric oxidation of sulfides
during weathering (supergene). Magmaticsuchas
hydrothermalaluniteoccurswith mir-rerals
d
i
c
k
i
t
e ,a n d
k
a
o
l
i
n
i
t
e
,
p
y
r
o
p
h
y
l
l
i
t
e
,
diaspore,

zunyite,which are typical of hypogene(T : 200350 "C) acidic conditions (advanced argillic
Meyer & Hemley 1961).This type of
assemblage;
of HS deposits,but it may
aluniteis characteristic
also appearin areasof advancedargillic alteration
void of ore mineralization(e.g., Iwao 1962; Flall
1978). Alunite in steam-heatedenvironments
forms with kaolinite and interlayered illitesmectiteat about 100 to 160 'C where fumarolic
vapor condensesabove the boiling zone of
neutral-pH,H2S-richfluid, typical of geothermal
s y s t e m st h a t f o r m l o w - s u l f i d a t i o nd e p o s i t s .

423

A. Arribcts,,Ir.

Propylitic

Argillic + Adv. argillic

Leached
silicic

Quartz alunite

, I
rock

rock

rock

Kaolinitic
rock

Mineralizedvuggy
quartz rocl(

'100
m

Figure 2. Cross-sectionof alteration zones characteristicof high-sulfidationdeposits,as observed at the


Summitville Au-Cu deposit,Colorado.Diagram at left (simplifiedfrom Steven& Ratte 1960) shows schematic
outwardzonationfrom a subverticalmineralizedbody, shownat right (from Stoffregren1987).

Becauseof the relatively shallow and dynamic Proterozoic EnAsenAu deposit located in the
environment of mineralization, overprinting Baltic shield of central Sweden; Fig. I ). The
(<1.6 Ma) and
among the three types of acid-sulfatealteration youngestdepositsare Pleistocene
is possible;however,the
occur in the central western Pacific (Kelly,
(including sLrpergene)
Lepanto,and Chinkuashih).The concentrationof
spatial relation of each type of alunite to ore is
different, and correct identificationis important depositsin young volcanic areas is mainly a
reflectionof the fact that older HS depositsare
for exploration (Rye et al. 1992:. White &.
more likely to be eroded.
H e d e n q u i s1t9 9 5 ) .
Gold. copper,and variablearnountsof silver
AGE ANDECONOI\{IC
are the main productsof HS deposits(Table 2).
DISTRIBUTION,
Rodalquilar),
occasionally
with
Gold (Nalesbitan,
StcNInrcaNcB
silica by-product(Nansatsu),is the only economic
other magmatic- metal in the smaller deposits.No copper is
In
common with
lrydrothermal deposits (e.g., porphyry copper produced at Paradise Peak and Pueblo Viejo.
Mercury is producedat ParadisePeak, and the
deposits),HS depositscoincideworldwide with
plutonic-volcanicarcs. This associationis best Julcanidistrict has beena sourceof a remarkable
consistirrg
of Ag, Cu, Pb,
observedin the Cenozoicdepositsof the Circurn- polymetallicassemblage
Europe Au, W, Bi, and Zn (Table 2). The six largest
Pacificand the Balkanbelt of southeastern
deposits or districts (Chinkuashih,El Indio,
(F-ig I ). These deposits occur in two main
settings:in islandarcs and at continentalmargins. Goldfield, La Coipa, Lepanto,arrd Pueblo Viejo)
eachcontainsmore than about 100tonnesof gold.
The tectonic regime during formation of the
deposits seems to be dominantly extensional The economic potential of this type of
(Sillitoe 1993). Some deposits(e.g., Goldfield, mineralizationis clear in regions such as the
C h i l e a nA n d e s( S i l l i t o e1 9 9 1 a ) .
Rodalquilar, Summitville) formed in intracontinentalregionsduring periodsof extensiotl
VoLCANIcSITTTnCANDASSOCIATED
that followed regional compression and subROCKS
IGNEOUS
m.y.
ductiorrby several
Tertiary HS depositspredominate,and only a
The high-sulfidationdeposits consideredin
few deposits are Mesozoic (e.g., Pueblo Viejo,
Table 2 occur within intennediate-composition
Zijinshan),Paleozoic(e.g., Temora and othersin
volcanic rock sequenceshaving ages broadly
Australia),or PreCambrian(the early
southeastern

H ig h-sulfi dat ion Ep i t her ma I Deposi ts

Figure 3. K2O versusSiO, variationdiagram


for rocks thoughtto be geneticallyrelatedto
high-sulfidationdeposits.The samplesfrom
12 depositsor districts (r : 140) define a
small compositionalfield, which contrasts
sharply with the large field defined by
volcanic rocks associated rvith lowsulfidationor intrusion-related
Au deposits
\
( > 1 0 0 s a m p l e sf r o m l 6 d i s t r i c t s ;S i l l i t o e
/t '
ca\c.,^
3\Katt"
1 9 9 1 b ,1 9 9 3 ;M r i l l e r & G r o v e s 1 9 9 3 ) .T h e
degreeof alterationof the rock samplesand
precisionof the analyticaldata are Iargely
unknown; however, according to the
individualdata sources,most of the samples
are unalteredor very weakly altered.Circles
indicate average values for each high*t"'""
sulfidation deposit or district: Ch
50
60
70
C h i n k u a s h i h ,C q = C h o q u e l i m p i e ,G o SiO2 (wt"/")
G o l d f i e l d ,I n : E l I n d i o .J u : J u l c a n i .L a
L a u r a n i ,L e : L e p a n t o ,M o - M o t o m b o t o ,
Na - Nansatsu,PP : ParadisePeak,Ro : Rodalquilar,Su - Summitville.Compositionalfields afrerKeith et al.
( 199l). SeeAppendixfbr references
and informationon dataplotted.

similarto that of mineralization.


Whereabundant
radiometricagesare available,the age of the host
rocks and the age of mineralizationare within
analytical precision: where a difference is
indicated,
it is typicallylessthan-1.0 m.y. (Table
2). A comrnon spatial associationexists between
the depositsand shallow. typically porphyritic
intrusions.Theseintrusionsare interpreted
to be
the roots of volcanic domes or the feeders of
central-ventvolcanoes or maar-diatrernecomplexes,the three rnain volcanic settingsfor HS
deposits(1'able 2). Some depositsare hosted
entirelywithin a single dome (Summitville),or
within a dornecomplex (Julcani).In most cases
tfre mineralizationextendsfrorn the subvolcanic
intrusion into country rocks, such as the Main
Vein Cu-ALr-Agdeposit and associatedbreccia
depositsin the Penshanarea of the Chinkuashih
district.Somedeposits,however,do not showany
(known) spatial associationwith subvolcanic
intrusionsthought to be geneticallyrelatedto
(e.g.,Nalesbitan.
mineralization
Nansatsu).
In the
Rodalquilar Au deposit, dykes and small
intrusions of hornblende andesite which are
interpreted to be temporally related to the
mineralizationreprcsentonly a fraction of the
altered and mineralized area exposed at the
presentdepthof erosion;a largerintrusivebody is

tlroughtto exist at depth (Arrrbas et al. 1995a).


The main controlon locationof mineralization
at
Rodalquilaris the structuralrnarginof two nested,
resurgent calderas. With the exception of
Rodalquilar,the role of calderasin the formation
of HS depositsseemsto be lirnitedto facilitating
the emplacementof late intrusive magrna along
preexistingcaldera ring-fractures(Rytuba cl rzl.
1990).
The magmasthoughtto be geneticallyrelated
to HS deposits have a remarkably limited
compositionalvariation.The rangesof wt.% K2O
and SiO2 for twelve depositsoverlap greatly and
show a dominanceof calc-alkalineandesiticand
dacitic compositions,with subordinaterhyolite
(Fig. 3). Intermediatecalcic volcanic rocks are
limited to porphyritic intrusionsin the Lepanto
and Motomboto Cu-Au-Ag districts, and
intermediate-to-felsicalkali-calcic rocks are
characteristicof the Summitville and Laurani
districts(Fig. 3). Interestingly,
no depositshave
been discoveredin associationwith alkaline or
mafic magmas,eventhoughthesemagmascan be
genetically related to low-sulfidation and
intrusion-related
Au deposits (Sillitoe 1991b,
1993; Miiller &. Groves 1993; Richards this
volume). The data shown in Figure 3 suggesta
relation exists betweenInagma cornpositionand

A Arribas, Jr.

Table 3. Main alteration and mineralizationcharacteristicsof 14 selectedhigh-sutfidation


epithermal deposits

Dcposit

Lateralalterationzoning
(outwardfrom nrinemlizcd txxlies)

Vertical altcration
zonin-9
(shallow t() dccp)

Pnncialore nrinerals

( )re
mineralization
rn:
Ag/Au

Motonlboto

VS ,qr-alu |qt7-kao )
k a o - s m cr i l l - c h l

VS,MS rqtz-alurqtzkao rill-kao lchl

Py. ena-luz,mzu.sph.gal. tcnlct. ars.cpy. arg. nat.Au.tcll

Silicacorc

35--15

Nalcsbitan

SilicificdHbx rqtz-kaoalu rill-sme-chl-cal

SilicificdHbx )qL.-kx>
alu rill-sme-cbl-cal

Py. chalc.qtz, cco. hor. cov.


ena. tell

Silicacorc

Vcry
Io* As

Lcpanto

VS/MS , tz-alu-kaor
kao-qtz-illrchl-ill

MS/VS rAA ISER r


( K-silicatein subiacent
FSEporphyrycopper)

Ena-luz, py. ten-tet. cpy. p_v-..


e lc.
sph. gal. nrar. sele. tell. Snbearing sull'

Silic:r corc

Chinkuashih

VS,MS rtltz-alu-kaor
ill-chl-kao

py. ena-luz. f :rm. tcn-tet. nal.Au.


elc. hu. nat.Hg. tcll. splr.grl.
cpv. geo. hou

Silica corc

Zijrnshar

VSA4S tqtz-dic-alut9?dic-\er rqtz-Scr

VSA4S rqu-dic-alu r90dic_Sor)qU_ser

py. dig. ena.cov. nrol. nat.Au


cpy. hor. tet-ten. gal. sph

Silicacorc

N/A

N:ursaLsu

VSA4S ralu-dic-pyo'
ill-kao-smct
PRO
V S ( M S ) t q t z - a i u -t
qu-kao 'kao-ill I
snrc-chl
M S ( V S ) r q r z - : r l u - k aro
ill-smc I
PRO
Vertical(dueto deF)sit
s t y l c )M
: S ( V S )|
q?-alu-kaorsme-chl

VS/h4Sralu 'dic-serp Y ) s e r - c h lt P R o

e n a - l u z .p 1 ' .c l c . n a t . A u . a r g .
plr. cpy. bor. sph. gal. cas. stir
n)()1. can

S i l i c uc o r e

<2

vs(MS) ,qrz_kao_
x l u r q t z - k a or S E R

py. cna-luz. c()v. mar. nat.S.


nat.Au. sph. gal. bar. cpy. ten

Silicaeorc

2-10

MS>VS .qr1__alukao |q?-klolpyo

py. lam. ten-tet. bls. gol,


nat.Au. cna-luz. bru. tell. sph.
cov

Siliclrcore

<|

M S ( V S )) q l z - a l u - k ( )
(SERin laulted.deeper('l)
EastZonedeposit)
Early:Kao-py-qu r
du-py<ltz
L a r e :M S r p y o _ d i a

bar. stb. his. nat.Au. nrnr. pl.


nat.S. cin, sph. gal, cpy. ars.
tet. arg, cov. f:ul

S i l i c uc u r e

Sunrnritville

Goltllicld

Pu'irdiscPeak

P u e h l oV r e j o

Conrplex+ overprinted

Julcuri

pre<rrc:VS/MS)qtz_alukart rqtz-kao:Syn<rre:
qtz-pyo-pyrqu- kao-py+
q?-siir-py lq(Z-kao-smc

py. wol. c:rs. nat.Au. ena. lur.


tel tcn. cpy. gal. sph. biu. sid.
Pb- Bi- Ag-bearing sull'

Vcins

El Indrr

Cu stageveins rkao-aluscr-qU:Au stagc


vcins rser-kao-pyrt-q?

Ena. py. tel, nat.Au. ten. cp-y.


gal. sph. hue. hor. dig. cnrp.
cco. nlar. Dar.

Vcins

pV. cna. cpy. Splr, ten-lct. cov.


cco. lam, luz. nat.Au. gal. nlol
ele. tell, col. Sn-Bi-Ph-Ag-sull

S i l i c uc o r e

Py, nat.Au. cna. tell. cas. col.


cov, dig. bor, gal. sph. Bi- sult

Silicacore

La Mcjicaua.
Nevrdrx drl
Fiunatina
Rulalquilar

VS,MS rqtz-aiu-kaor
qtz-kao-ill r ill-sme-chl

Alu-kto rqu-scr )(K-sil


icatc in N. del Farnatina
porphyrycopper)
VSMS rqtz-alu-kaor
qtz-kao-sel qt !-ser-py

py. sph. cna. nal.Au. nal.S. b2rr.


tcn-tet. fan. gal. bar. stb. cle.
selc, tcll, Bi- Pb- Ag- sull'

InAA+
MS zoncs

10-30

.170

10-10

<I

A b b r e v i a t i o n su s c d :A A : a d v a n c e da r g i l l i c ,H b x - h y d r o t h e r m abl r c c c i a ,M S : m a s s i v es i l i c a , P R O - P r o p y l i t i c .S I J I { :
s e r i c i t i c ,V S - v u g g y s i l i c a , V S ( M S ) = v u g g y s i l i c a d o m i n a n t ,a l u - a l u n i t e , a r s : a r s e n o y r i t eb, a r - b a r i t c . b i s :
b i s m u t h i n i t eb
, o r = b o r n i t e ,b o u - b o u r n o n i t ec, a l : c a l c i t e .c c o = c h a l c o c i t ec, h a l . q t z: c h a l c e d o n yo r c h a l c e d o n i cq u a r t z ,
c h l : c h l o r i t e ,c i n = c i n n a b a r ,c a n : c a n f i e l d i t ec, a s : c a s s i t e r i t ec,o l - c o l u s i t e ,c o v : c o v e l l i t e ,c p y - c h a l c o p y r i t ed, i c :
d i c k i t e ,d i g : d i g e n i t e ,e l e : e l e c t r u m ,e m p : e m p l e c t i t e f, a m - f a m a t i n i t e( s t i b i o l u z o n i t e )g,a l : g a l c n a ,g c o - g e o c r o n i t r ,
, o l : m o l y b d c n i t c ,n a t . A u:
gol : goldfielditeh
, u e - h i i b n e r i t ,e i l l : i l l i t e , k a o : k a o l i n i t e ,l u z : l u z o n i t e ,m a r : m a r c a s i t cm
n a t i v e g o l d , n a t . S: n a t i v e s u l f u r ,n a t . T e: n a t i v et e l l u r i u m ,o r o = o r p i m e n t ,p y - p y r i t e .p y o : p y r o p h y l l i t c ,q t z : q u a r t z ,
rea=realgar,sele:selenides,ser=sericite,sid-siderite,sme:smectite,sph:sphalerite,sta=stannite.stb:stibnitc,
, u : t o u r m a l i n ew
, ol : wolfiamite
s u l f - s u l f i d e so r s u l f b s a l t st,e l l : t e l l u r i d e st,e n : t e n n a n t i t et,e t : t e t r a h e d r i t et o
I
B a s e do n f l u i d - i n c l u s i o n( f l i n c ) o r g e o l o g i c a (l g e o l )e v i d e n c e b; l a n k r v h e r en o t s p e c i f l e d .
'Boiling
( H b x ) - b o i l i n g d u e t o a b r u p tp r e s s u r cr e d u c t i o na - s s o c i a t ewdi t h h y d r o t h e r m abl r e c c i a t i o n

A. Arribus,Jr.
The depositis 3 km long and consistsof a tnain
is difficult, but useful for discussion of the
zone of breccia and replacementmineralization
of
design
differences among deposits and
alongthe LepantoFault(Fig. 4A). Multiple veins
exploration strategies.In this context, White
associatedwith smaller diagonal faults branch
three end-memberstylesof
(1991) distinguished
from the rnain zone and extend into both the
the
Circumof
deposits
HS deposits,namedafter
Pacific:Temora,El Indio, and Nansatsu.Irregular hanging wall and foot'ivall (Garcia l99l). The
cross-sectionof
characteristicmushroom-shaped
silicifiedoresdominatein
bodiesof disseminated,
many of the orebodiesat Lepantois relatedto the
the Temora-style. Cavity-filling veins with
intersectionof the steeplydipping Lepanto fault
of
sericiticand clay-rich haloesare characteristic
and branch veins with the unconfonnity at the
El Indio-style ALr deposits. A large group of
depositsfalls into White's(1991)Nansatsu-style, base of Imbanguiladacite (Fig. aB). Lithologic
which is characterizedby wallrock-alteratiort variations in the host rocks also played an
importantrole in the fonnation of the deposit.as
zoning similar to that shown in Figure2, and by
shown by lenses of stratiform enargite-luzotrite
ores within a
the occurrenceof enargite-bearing
which resultedfrom replacernentof detrital
ore
silica
massive
silica core consistingof vuggy or
ntary
layers within volcaniclastic and sedirne
rock (Table 3). Mineralization in this style of
units(Garcial99l ).
deposit forms irregular strataboundbodies (e.g., basement
vein-like
Nansatsu, Lepanto) or subvertical
"ledges"(e.g.,Chinkuashih,
AITEN.ITIONMINERALOGYANDZONING
Goldfield,
massesor
Lepanto, Rodalquilar, Summitville). These
As mentioned above, the lateral alteration
depositscontainbrecciabodies,veins,stockworks
oresthat replace zoning that is characteristicof HS deposits
of small veins.and disseminated
reflects the reaction and neutralizationof highor irnpregnate intensely altered country rock'
temperature acidic fluids with wallrock. The
two
Ericksen& Cunningham(1993)distinguished
innermost zone of vuggy or tnassive silica
Agstylesof HS depositsin the Andeanprovince:
alterationcommonly has sharpboundarieswith a
and Au-rich polymetallic base-metalveins' and
low-gradevuggy silica and breccias;the two types zone that may contaitrquartz, alurrite,kaolinite,
dickite,pyrophyllite,diaspore,and zunvite'.l'his
are broadly comparable with El Indio- and
gradesinto a second
advancedargillic assemblage
resPectivelY.
Nansatsu-styles,
envelope of argillic alteration, composed of
l,ocal subverticalfaults and fracturesare the
mineralssuch as quartz,kaolinite,illite, sericite,
dominant control on HS mineralizationand they
and smectite,and an outermosthalo of propylitic
are present in rnost deposits (Table 2). Other
examplesof structuralcontrolsobservedin some alteration,with chlorite. illite, smectite. and
districts arnong the foufteen selected include: carbonate(Fig. 2, Table 3). The width o1' eacl.t
rnoderatelyto shallow-dippingfaults (Goldfield)' zonevarieswidely; for example,vuggy silicaand
advancedargillically altered rock fonn narrow
caldera ring and radial faults (Rodalquilar),the
dilationaljog of a strike-slipfault (Nalesbitan), (<70 cm) vein selvagesat Julcatri(Deen 1990)'
but form wide (>50 m) rock bodiesat Sumrnitville
diatremering-faults(Lepanto,Pueblo Viejo), the
or Lepanto (Figs. 2 and 4). Late-stage',cavitycontactbetweena dome or volcanic conduit and
country rock (Motomboto, the Missionary filling planarveins at Julcaniand E,l Indio may
ln the
orebody at Summitville), and a lithologic extendoutsidethe zoneof alunite-kaolinite'
ore
of
the
most
however,
deposits,
majority of HS
unconfbrmity(PuebloViejo, Lepanto).In threeof
is containedwithin the silica core, inside the
the fburteen deposits, the principal control is
argillicenvelope('Iable3).
advanced
at PuebloViejo, and
lithological(maarsediments
interbeddedpyroclastic layers at ParadisePeak
and Nansatsu;Table 2).
A unique cornbinationof the structuraland
lithologicalcontrolscharacteristicof HS deposits
is exhibitedby the LepantoCu-Au-Ag deposit.

lln
Russian and eastern IJuropcan tcrrninology lhcse rtlcks are
'metasomatic quartzites" with nrorc specilic
conrmonly termcd
names such as porous quartzites, diasporc quartzitcs' alunite
q u a r t z i t e sa, n d d i c k i t eq u a r t z i t e s( e . g . .V c l i n o v e t u l . 1 9 9 0 ) r '

High-sulfidation Epithermal Deposits

@
NW

Figure 4. Longitudinal(A) and transverse


(B) cross-sections
of the Lepanto-FSECu-Au-Ag deposits(phitippines),
showingstructuraland lithologic controlson formationof the high-sulfidationand porphyry-typeores (simplified
from Garcia l99l ). Potassium-argon
datingof countryrocksand alterationmineralsassociated
with the porphyryand
high-sulfidation
depositsindicatesthat hydrothermalCu-Au mineralizationtook placein the middle of a plioceneto
Pleistocene
event of dacitic-andesitic
magmatism(Arribas et al. 1995b).Note the overall spatial overlap of the
magmaticand hydrothermal"plumbing" systems(i.e., volcanic vents of Pliocenedacite,quartz diorite intrusions.
porphyrydeposit,and deeperpartsof epithermalmineralization).

The zonesof alterationwith increasingdepth


typically grade from a shallow silicic zone
through advanced argillic, argillic, argillic/
sericitic, into a sericitic or phyllic zone with
quartz, sericite, and pyrite. This alteration
sequenceoccurs over a vertical interval that
rangesfrom a few hundredmetersto more than
1000 m, and has been best documentedby deep
drillholesin the depositsof smallersize,in which
the vertical span of rnineralizationis less than
about300 m (e.9.,Rodalquilar,Summitville;Fig.
5B). At Lepanto,sericitic alterationat depthsof
400 to 500 m below the epithermaldepositgives
way, laterally towards the south, to K-silicate
alteration of the FSE porphyry Cu-Au deposit.
Porphyry-type stockwork mineralization at
ParadisePeakis containedwithin the sericiticores
of the East Zone deposit which, according to
Sillitoe & Lorson (1994), formed underneaththe
main HS orebodiesirr the area.A quartz-sericitepyrite zonewith traceamountsof chalcopyriteand
molybdenitesurroundsan intrusionof monzonite
porphyry >300 m below the HS deposit at
Summitville(Grav& Coolbaush1994\.

The lateral and vertical alteration zones


described above correspond to a generalized
model. They are useful in exploration because
they help in understandingthe genetic environment of a depositand provide spatial "markers"
within the extinct hydrothermal system.
Experimental data on the relative stability of
rnineralssuch as alunite, kaolinite, pyropliyllite,
and diaspore(Hemley et al. 1969, 1980),coupled
with the temperaturerangesnoted for these and
other related acid minerals in active systems
(Reyes 1990; Reyes et al. 1993), also provide
informationthat contributesto definition of the
paleoconduits
in extinctsystems.
If studied in detailed, several superimposed
and crosscuttingstagesof pervasiveas well as
fracture (conduit)-relatedmineralizationmay be
recognizedin the majority of deposits.Theseare
the expectedresultofvariations,during the course
of mineralization,in temperature,pressure,and
compositionof the hydrothermalfluid and the
degreeof wallrock interaction.Detailedfield and
petrographicstudiesat the Monte Negro orebody
in the Pueblo Vieio deposit have resulted in

A. Arribas, .Jr.

IKM

I
ffi

l ^ ^ a
f-'-^l

tl

m
@

Vuggysilica
Advancedargillic
Argillic
Sricitic
Propylitic
Inlensesupergeneacij-sulfateovsrprint
Au-(Cu-Te-Sn) htghsulfidation deposits

-100
Elsvation(m)

500m

(B) of the Rodalquilar


Figure 5. Generalizedsurfacealterationmap (A) and cross-section
(fiom Arribas e/
Spain
southeastern
calderas,
Lomilla
and
Rodalquilar
HS depositin the
gradational.
and
irregular
are
zones
alteration
between
shown
at. 1995a).The boundaries

particularfeaturesof the depositslisted in Table


3. Pyrite and enargite (and its low-temperature
dimorph luzonite)are the dominantsulfidesin HS
deposits;pyrite is abundantbut the amount of
enargite and luzonite is variable. Common ore
minerals, listed by decreasingabundancefrom
variable to very minor, include tennantitetetrahedrite,covellite, native gold and argentian
gold (electrum), marcasite,chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena.Famatiniteis locally abundant
in somedeposits(Goldfield,La Mejicana).Sparse
ore mineralsincludebornite,cassiterite,ctnnabar,
molybdenite, orpiment, realgar, stibnite, and
wolframite (the last locally importantat Julcani).
Other minerals present in minor amounts in
Ono aNu GANGUEMINERAL0GY'AND
severaldepositsinclude Pb-, Ag-Pb, Bi- and SnTIMINGOFMINERALIZATION
bearingsulfbsalts(Table3).
Fine-grainedquartzis the dominantganguein
White et ul. (1995)and White & Hedenquist
on various HS deposits.Other comrnon but minor gangue
(1995) presenteddetaileddiscussions
on the
minerals include barite, kaolinite, alunite,
gold
mineralization
aspectsof epithermal
pyrophyllite,diaspore,and Ca-,Sr-,Pb- and REEbasis of observationsfrom a large number of
with
bearing phosphate-sulfatemineral(s) such as
depositsaroundthe Pacific;theirconclusions
or crandallite (Stoffsvanbergite-woodhouseite
respect to ore and gangue mineralogy in HS
For
example,high-grade
1987).
to
the
Alpers
&
regen
deposits are included here, in addition

identification of two stages of mineralization,


interpretedto correspondto two distinctmagmatic
pulses (Muntean et al. 1990). During the first
stage (responsiblefor -600/o of the Au in the
and deep
deposit),shallow kaolinite-quartz-pyrite
dewere
zones
alunite-quartz-pyrite-quartz
in
association
veloped,with gold mineralization
with disseminatedpyrite in the wallrock; during
the secondstage(responsiblefor about40% ofthe
Au), an extensivezoneof silicificationwith pyrite
+ sphalerite+ errargiteveins formed at shallow
levels. above a zone of pyrophyllite-diaspore
alteration(Munteanet al. 1990).

High-suffidationEpithermalDeposits

I
I

vein specimensfrom Chinkuashih,Goldfield,and


La Mejicanahave spectacularintergrowthsof ore
mineralswith kaolinite, alunite, or pyrophyllite.
This observation implies that ore formation
occurred under moderately acidic to acidic
conditions,which are inconsistentwith transport
of Au as a bisulfide complex (Seward 1973).
Recent studies of Au solubility in highacid sulfide solutionshaveresultedin
temperature
identificationof AuHS" as one of the principal
(Bening&
gold complexesin HS mineralization
AuCl2
possibility
being
the
other
1994),
Seward
(e.g.,Hedenquiste/ al. 1994a).
The number and order of mineralizingevents
providecritical informationfor reconstructionof
the hydrothermal system that results in HS
mineralization.A minimum of two stagesof
has been recognizedin
alteration/mineralization
most deposits on the basis of crosscutting
relations(Table 3). The most common evolution
is from an early leachingand alterationstageto a
laterore-formingstage.Vuggy silica rock and the
advancedargillic assemblagewith disseminated
pyrite form typically early-stageacidic alteration,
and are followed by Cu + Au + Ag deposition.
Detailedstudiesin some districts(e.g.,El Indio,
Lepanto),however,have resultedin identification
of two metal stages,an early Cu-rich, Au-poor
and a late
stage,dominatedby enargite-luzonite,
Au-rich, Cu-poor stage, associated with
sulfides such as
intermediate-sulfidation-state
tennantite-tetrahedriteand chalcopyrite, and
tellurides. The transition from quartz-alunitepyrite alterationto enargite-pyriteand finally to
the last typically without
tennantite-tetrahedrite,
sulfate (alunite) but with quartz-sericitegangue
and wallrock alteration, indicates a fluid
progressivelymore reduced and less acid. At
Summitvilleand Chinkuashih(also Tambo and
Furtei-Serrenti;Table l), a late stage of baritegold hasbeendocumented.

of these data with geologicaland mineralogical


observationsmentionedabove allows the nature
of the altering and ore-forming fluids to be
determined.The framework for the interpretation
has benefited from information on the composition and fluxes of volcanicdischargesand active
systems (Hedenquist&
magmatic-hydrothermal
Lowenstern 1994; Giggenbach this volume;
Hedenquistthis volume).
F I uid-in cI usion Ev idence
Suitablehosts for fluid-inclusion studiesare
scarcein HS deposits,as the ganguemineralsare
typically fine-grainedand even millimeter-size
hydrothermalquartzcrystalsare usually late stage
and vug-filling. Satisfactoryresults are obtained
on secondaryfluid-inclusionsin igneous quartz
phenocrysts from altered wallrocks; although
lacking temporal information, these inclusions
cross-sectionof
seemto provide a representative
the fluids involved.The most reliabledata on the
ore-formingfluids are obtainedthrough infrared
microscopy directly on ore minerals, such as
enargite (Deen 1990; Mancano & Campbell

1ee5).

The temperaturesand salinitiesestimatedfor


HS depositsdefinea wide range,from 90o to 480
oC and <l to 45 equiv.wt.% NaCl, respectively
(Table 4). There is no systematicdifference in
salinity among Au-, and Ag- or base-metal-rich
deposits, in contrast to that noted for lowsulfidationAu versusAg deposits(Hedenquist&
Henley 1985). Large variations in both
temperatureand salinityalso occur within a single
deposit; these reflect the dynamic environment,
with high- and low-temperatureand high- and
low-salinityfluids interactingduring the courseof
mineralization. Four broad groups of hydrothermalfluids are recognizedhere on the basisof
the estimated temperaturesand interpretations
given by most workers. The temperature
boundaries chosen for each group are only
indicative,as significant variations exist among
CsaRactnRISTICS ANDSoURCESoF
and within deposits; each group, however,
HvuRorsnRMAL FI-utos
providesrelevantinformationon various genetic
aspects.
Resultsof recentdetailedfluid-inclusionand
"C)
Group 1. Higher temperature(e.g., >300
the
much
about
reveal
studies
stable-isotopic
fluids of variable salinity, which have been
composition, temperature and sources of
hydrothermalfluids in HS deposits"Combination documentedin severaldepositsand are generally
431

A. Arribas, Jr.

Table 4. Summary of fluid-inclusionmicrothermometricdata for high-sulfidationdeposits

Deposit
Mrxoniboto, Indoncsia
N a l c s b i t a n ,P h i l i p p i n e s
L c p a n t o ,P h i l i p p i n e s

C h i n k u a s h i h ,T a i w a n
Z i . l i n s h a n .C h i n a

Host-mineral
studicd
Barite
Quartz
Enargitc

Quartz, baritc.
alunite
Qu:rtz (no dctails
rcfx)rtcd)

N a n s a t s uJ, a p a n

Quartz

Akaiwa, Japan
Mitsumori-Nukeishi, Japan

DiasJnre
Quartz. ba-ritc,
quanz pnen(x
Quartz phcnoc

S u n i m i t v i l l e ,C o l o r a d o

Baritc
Coldlielcl,Nevada

Quartz-phenoc
Quartz, baritc

Pradise Peak, Nevada

Quartz, barite
Quartz

Julclni, Peru

Ccarhuaraso, Peru
Colqui.jirca,Peru
Can-Can (La Coipa),
Chilc
El Indio, Chile

La Mejicana (LM) and


Ncvados Famatina(NF),
Argentina

Quartz phenrr
Quartz phenoc
Wol, ena, quartz
Sidcritc
Quartz phenoc
Qufiz phcnoc

Sphalcritc. quartz
hiibnerite
Quartz phenoc
N/A

Tcmpcrature
("C)t

Asstriatcd
Salinity
(cquivwt.%NaCl) altcration

150-180
22(J-260
t](\-290

<l
0.24.5

I8{).330

o.2-t2

Atusil
AA/sil
AA/sil

a 1 a

I 6(f-3(X)
220 380
l 0(I- 160
(300-+20)
13(l250
-210
25F310
I 9(I-240
2I(I 330

3 ,t 9
0-5
(3-2(
))
<l
up to 30

Scr

sir
AA/sil
AA/sil
Scr
AAisil

0.5-1.1

l8(}_280

2-18

(300-390)

(upto 9)

230-480+
2I (),280
(37(H10)
r80-2I0
300,380
(upto 4-50)
I 60-280
36045t)
230-330
220,250
330-380
23(f,260
l7(I 350

5 1 8
0.2-8

AAisil
AAisil

<3

AA/sil
Ser

920
6-9
7 18
.+-ll
< l-40

I 90-280
i4(}-l80
(>3(n)
2(XI'+60
l6(i-340
230-480

0 .l 4
0.t-2.1
(upto 27)
t 3 l
0 . 3 , 12
341

- t(x)

3[r35
\ ) 4
38,46

AA/sil

AAisil

AA/sil
AA-/sil
AA/sil
donrinant
AA"/Ser

AA + scr
Scr

Rrxlalquilar,Spain

Quartz, quartz
phcnm

17F300
22(}.450

230
245

AA/sil
Ser

Furtei-Serrenti,ltaly

Quartz,barite,
quartzphentr

I 9(),320
9(I 140
(390-5m)

0.4-23
0.4-I .6
(32 45)

AA/sil

Ahbreviations used: AA = advanccdargillic, ena = enargite,phenoc = phenocrysts,ser =


sericitic, sil = silicicl wol = wolfiamite: see Tablc J for rraleoderrthestimations
I r e m ; ^ * r a t u r c , a r c r ( ) u n d e d l ( ) t i c n c i r c s tl t ) " : h r a e k c i s u s c d t o i n d r c a t c t u g h - t c n r p c r a t u r r .
inclusions typically interpretedis having formcd early or being anomalous

"anomalous"or unrelatedto ore and


interpretedas
are associated with early stages of alteration.
Two-phase entrapment may explain some of the
(4),
unusuallyhigh homogenizationtemperatures
particularly considering the shallow mineralization depth inferred for many of the deposits
(Table 3). However,most workersagreethat such

432

entrapment cannot account for all the high 17,


values.The consistentpresenceof thesefluids in
several deposits indicates a high temperature
gradient,and implies the presenceof a shallowdepth intrusion,and possibly lithostaticconfining
pressures.
On the basisof fluid-inclusion,as well
as isotopic (634Srrrrut.-rurna")
temperatures(see

H igh-sulfdation Epithermal Deposits

Table 4. (continued)

Dcposit

Commcnls

Rcl'crcnccs

Percll6( I 99:l)
Sillitm el rr1.(1990)
(1995),
Mancano
& Campbell
Garcia(1991)

Rcconnaisanccsrudy in latc-stagcbarite
Reconnaissancc
studyi liquid CO2 observcd
Samplcd intcrval 3 knl long by 0.5 kn hieh t ctnling tluitls
awav fionr subjaccntporphyry Cu-Au degrsit, whcrc
Th >.150'C & salinity up to 5.1eq wt.rl NaCl
P r x r r l y - d o c u m e n t esda m p l e sa l o n g a ' 1 5 ( l n r v e r t i c a li n t c r v a l :
the highcr Ths in sanples lt -7,50 m dcpth: CO2 ohserved
Asstrciatcdwith main stagc Cu
Dorrpaltcration zonc (>6(X) nr depth)
Associatcd with late. shallow silica-Au
Assrriated with carly silica and quartz-dickite
Late, vug-lilling quirtz
Qtz in brcccia. salrneliquid and krw-salimty vapor cmxist
Vein quartz -4(X) m helow Kasuga deposit
Coarsc-grainedclilsgrre
Not (known) Au or Cu mincralization, but high salinity
lluids
L i c l u i t l - r i c h :s a l i n i t y > 6 e q w l . 7 N a C l o n l y i n v u g g y s i l i c a
associatedwith Cu mineralization: CO2 obscrvcd
Lrquid- and vapor-rich inclusions: also polyphaseinclusions
Latc barite-Au assemblagc
Truc T5 is interpretedto be 25(1290"C
Hydrostatic and ncar-lithostaticprcssuressuggested

Bruha& Noblc( 1983),R.


Stoflicgcn(written
c o m m u n .1, 9 9 4 )
(1985)
Cunningham
Bruha& Noble(1983)
Vikre( 1989)

PiiraclisePcrk, Ncvatla

Latc, vug-lilling crystals in hydrothermal brcccia:


Frorn stockwork Au East Zonc dcoosit: COr observed

J o h ne t a 1 (. 1 9 9 1 )
Sillitoe& Lorson(l99tl)

J u l c a n i ,P c r u

Quaru-alunitetpyrite
Pro-oretourmalinc brcccia dykes, lithostatic pressureslikely.
Main-stagc orc fluicls, also inner veins, liquid-rich inclusions
Latc-stageore fluids, also in outcr vcinsl P correction applied
Quartz-alunitctpyrite
Quartz-al u ni tetpyrite
Two generationsidcntillcdl both may be very salinc. Evidcncc
firr P abovc hydrostatic and higher salinities at dcplh
Coppcr and gold stages
Late stage
Interprctcd as carly, with vapor-rich inclusions,CO2 observetl
LM & NF. includes liquid-, vapxrr-richand potyphasc inclusions
NF: complctc transiLionliom porphyry-type fluids in Ksilicatc stage (30(),6(X)+"C, up to 67 eq wtq, NaCl)
through sercitic to epithcrmal f'luids in HS (AA) stage;
vapor-rich inclusions typically less saline
Vcrtical temperature and salinity gradient: high-lcmperature
brines coexist with low -;Llinity vapor inclusions:
hydrostatic and near-lithostatic pressuressuggested
Includes hi-eh+ low-salinity fluids (22-23, <6 eq wt% NaCl)
Latc stagc

Bruha&Noble(198.1)
Shclnutt& Noble(1985)
Dccn ( 1990)
Deen( 1990)
Bruha&Noble(l9ti3)
Bruha& Nohlc(198.1)
Townley( 1991)

M ( ) t o r n b o t o I, n d o n c s i a
n * a l c s b i l a nP. h i l i p p i n c s
L c p a n t o ,P h i l i p p r n c s

C h i n k u a s h i h .T a i w a n
Z i . j i n s h a nC
, hina

N a n s a t s uJ, l p a n

A k a i w a ,J a p a n
M i t s u m o r i- N u k e : i s h iJ, a p a n
S ur n m i t v il l c . C o l o r a t i o

ColtlliekI, Ncvatla

Ccrrhuaraso, Pcru
C o l c l u i l i r c aP
, cru
C a n - C a n( L a C o i p a ) .
Chile
El Indiu, Chilc

La Mc.jicana(LM) and
Ncvacirs Famatina(NF),
Argcntina

Rrxlalquilu, Spain

Furtci-Scrrcnti, Italy

below), pressuresabove hydrostatichave been


suggestedfor severaldeposits,including Julcani
(Shelnutt& Noble 1985),Goldfield(Vikre 1989),
(Arribas
Summitville(Rye 1993),and Rodalquilar
et al. 1995a).
fluids
Group 2. Intermediate-temperature
(e.g.. 180-330"C), with salinitiesvariablefrom

Folinsbee
et trl.(.1912).Ycn
( 1976),Tanet uL.(.1991)
Zhanger al. (1991)

Hcdcnquist
et ul. (1991.t)
Akamatsu
& Yui (1992)
(199-5)
Aoki & Watanabc

Jannaser a/. ( I 99(l)


Losada-Calder6n
& McPhail
( l 994)

Sdnger-von
Oepenat a/. ( I 989),
Arribis et al. (1995a)
Ruggieri( I 993b)

<1 to -18 equiv. wt.% NaCl. With the possible


exceptionof depositsfor which only the late-stage
mineralshavebeenstudied,thesetypically liquidrich inclusionsare found in all deposits.Mainstageore fluids are containedwithin this group.
The temperatures
measuredin fluid inclusionsin
enargiteat Lepanto(Mancano& Campbell 1955)

433

A. Arribas,Jr.

Temperature("C)
and Julcani (Deen 1990) are broadly similar, but
their salinitiesare distinctly different (0.2-4.5
200
400
300
equiv.wt.% NaCl versus8-18 equiv.wt.% NaCl,
H2O+5wf/.NaCl
respectively),providing constraintson the role of
a saline magmatic liquid (versus Iow-salinity
vapor) in the generationof HS deposits.
Group 3. Lower temperature(e.g., 90-180
"C), dilute (typically <5 equiv. wt.yo NaCl)
o
liquids; these have been documentedin a few
0)
deposits associatedwith late-stage(e.9., Audno 6
barite)mineralization.The late-stageore fluids at
oC;
Deen 1990) and
Julcani are hotter (220-250
o
(s
slightlymore saline(6-9 equiv.wt.% NaCl), than
3
theseaverages,but no correlationamong the late
stagesin differentdepositsis attemptedhere.
A
;
- -n' n o
"Sericitic" fluids. As mentioned
Group ./.
a,
E
above,sericitic(quartz-sericite-pyrite)
is the most
q)
common alteration assemblageobserved below
o
the ore zone in some HS deposits.Although
detailed documentation is lacking for many
deposits,higher temperaturesand higher salinity
fluid-inclusionsseemto characterizethe sericitic
zone with respect to the shallower zones of
alteration(Table 4). For example,at Rodalquilar
Figure 6. Elevation versus temperature diagram
(Arribas et al. 1995a), documentation of temshowing the range (horizontal line) and average
perature and salinity along a >600-m vertical
(vertical line) of fluid-inclusion homogenization
interval(extending500 m below the ore zone;Fig.
temperatures
measuredin the RodalquilarAu deposit,
6) shows a gradient which correlateswith the
Spain.Also shown are the temperatures
calculated,on
change in dominant alteration,from silicic and
the basis of 63aSsurfide-surrare
for four coexisting aluniteadvancedargillicQ : 170-300oC,salinity:2-15
pyrite samples(large filled circles),referenceboilingequiv. wt.% NaCl at the elevationof the orebody) point curves,and vertical spansof the alterationzones
mentioned in the text. Estimated salinities of fluid
to sericitic(T: 220-450oC,salinity:2-45 equiv.
inclusionsin the shallowadvancedargillic/siliciczone
wt.% NaCl) assemblages.
and
deep sericiticzone range between2 to 30 equiv.
The transition from advancedargillic alteration,
wt.%
NaCl and 2 to 45 equiv.wt.% NaCl, respectively
through quartz-sericite-pyrite, to K-silicate
(modified from Arribas et al. 1995a).
alteration and typical porphyry-type hightemperature(600+ "C) and high-salinity(up to 67
equiv. wt.% NaCl) fluids of magmaticorigin is
rich hypersalineinclusions(i.e., with Groups 1
displayed,among the examplesreviewed,at the
del
and 4, above).Thesefluids may be the result of
Lepanto-FSE and La Mejicana-Nevados
liquid, or they may
Famatina epithermal-porphyrycopper systems. boiling of a high-temperature
reflect immiscible vapor and hypersalineliquid
The cooler and less saline inclusion fluids
derived directly from shallow-emplacedmagma
documentedin the ore zoneof the HS depositsare
(Rye 1993; Hedenquist & Lowenstern 1994
interpretedto reflect mixing of magmatic and
this volume).
Shinohara1994;Hedenquist
meteoricfluids in an environmentshallowerthan
that of porphyry mineralization.Furthermore,in
Sulfur-is otope Ev iden ce
common with porphyry-type deposits, highThe abundanceof coexisting hydrothermal
temperature, vapor-rich. low-salinity fluid
liquidsulfidesand sulfates,in additionto the possibility
inclusionscoexist with high-temperature,
q)

-'

(g

q)

434

rt

H igh-sulfidation Epithermal Depos its

-Sultides -

t
It

F
I

Lepanto

--F

Sulfates^

V& V= 634515

p0 - 420

Chinkuashih

- t vI

Summitville

--.--*

Goldfield
PuebloViejo
Julcani

200- 390

I
@

I
I

180- 260

ry

200- 350

Y
-

200 - 240

l r f f i
t

! v

2-6

20 -270

'1-

Nansatsu

aSSHzs-sor
Temp.("C)' H2S/SO4

210- 270

i
:.
a

El Indio
Rodalquilar

-;

r
t - ' l
t

@"f"
l

I
I

220- 330
'(minerat

pairs)

10
20
6345(%",CDT)
!-igure 7. Range of 63o5(per mil) values for sulfidesand sulfatesfrom nine highsulfidationdeposits.Also shown are the valuescalculatedfor 5'oS for total sulfur in the
hydrothermal system (triangles), H2S/SO4.and the range of temperaturesdetermined
from sulfide-sulfate mineral pairs. Solid triangles indicatedepositsin which 6toS* was
calculated on the basis of isotopic analysesof samples of unaltered whole rock
genetically related to mineralization. See Appendix for referencesand information on
dataplotted.

'oS/"S
in host rock and genetically
of measuring
(Sasaki
et al. 1919),allows
related igneousrock
sulfur-isotopestudiesto provide information on
the composition,temperature,and sulfur sources
of the hydrothermalfluids. The resultsof detailed
studies in nine HS districts show a remarkable
consistency (Fig. 7). In agreement with the
observations in active volcanic-hydrothermal
systems(e.g.,Kiyosu & Kurahashi1983),sulfide
and sulfate minerals are mainly in isotopic
'oS/1'S
equilibrium, and, therefore,their overall
depends.onthe temperatureof mineralizationand
'"S/"S
of total sulfur in the hydrothermal
the
system. Only the data for alunite from the
Campanavein in El Indio (Fig. 7) are different.If
the measuredEl Indio alunites are not steamheatedor supergene(unlikely as they containfinegrainedpyrite; Jannaset al. 1990),the most likely
"magmatic-steam"(Rye et al.
explanation is a
1992)origin, in which the 63aSof aluniteis close
to the compositionof total sulfur in the system
(e.g.,Alunite Ridge in Marysvale;Cunninghamel
al. 1984: Rve el al. 1992\ . Combined with the

63aSvaluesof pyrite and enargitefrom the same


vein, these values indicate drastic changes in
H2S/SO4during the course of mineralization
(similar to those for the Red Mountain alunite
deposit;Bove et al. 1990;Rye 1993).
The main conclusionsof the sulfur-isotope
studies in HS deposits are: ( I ) sulfur in the
depositsis magmatic,but the magmatic sulfur is
overall heavierthan mantlevalues(from 63aS: 2
+ 2 o l o o aS
t u m m i f v i l l et o
, 9 + 2 o / n o a tR o d a l q u i l a r ;
Fig. 7). This is not surprising given the most
common geological setting of the deposits;
isotopicallyheavy igneoussulfur is common in
volcanic arc environments(e.g., Ueda & Sakai
1984). (2) A simple mass-balance
calculation
3oS/"S
done in severaldepositsusing the
values
'oS/"S
of the igneous rocks and the average
values of sulfides and sulfates indicates that
H2S/SO4in the hydrothermalfluids was generally
about4 * 2 (Fig. 7; Rye et al. 1992;Hedenquistel
ctl. 1994a; Arribas et al. 1995a). This is a
minimum value for ore-formingfluids becauseit
appliesmainly to the early stageof hydrothermal

43s

./r.
.4..4rrihns.

lack of post-depositional
effectsthat disturbthe
and (4) the availability
stable-isotope
systematics.
of detailed information on the isotopic
compositionof fluids in active geothermaland
systems. which allows
volcanic-hvdrothermal
fluids estimatedin HS depositsto be compared
with thosein theiractiveequivalents.
'fhese
rnay be
Some limitationsstill exist.
rndependent
of obviousfactorssuch as sampling
procedures(fundamental
or mineral-preparation
for achievingrepresentativc
and reliableresults).
analyticalimprecision.and naturalvariations,as
observedin activesystems(c.g.,Aoki 1991,1992,
Rowe 1994).Importantlimitationsthat rnust be
taken into accourrtfor optimum use of the stableisotope data are related to ( l ) the choice of
temperatureof mineral formatiott fbr calculation
of the lluid isotopiccomposition.(2) thc lack of
mineral-water lractionation factors for some
minerals (e.g, pyrophyllite), and (3) the
disagreement among fractionation constants
proposedlbr evencommonmineralssuchas illite
(see Dilles er a/. 1992, for a discussion)and
kaolinite. For examole.at 200 oC there is a
difference of -20" lno between tlte D/lI fiactionationconstantsfor kaolinite - water as given
by Marumo et al. (1980) on the basisof samples
Oxygen- and Hydrogen-isotope Evidence
In terms of oxygett and hydrogen isotopic of mineralsand rvaterfrom activesystems,and by
t,iu & Epstein(1984)on the basisof experimental
composition,the fluids that form HS depositsare
results. For these reasons.discussionof the
arguably some of the better documentedand
understoodin ore-depositstudies.This situation sourcesof water during acidic alteratiorrin the
depositsconsideredhere is basedon the average
contrastssharply witli that of a decadeago, at
which time no data were availableto corroborate of the data collected for alunite, for which
the affinity suggestedbetween fluids in active fractionationfactors are well-known (Stoffregen
alunite
volcanic-hydrothermalsystemsand HS deposits et al. 1994).The magmatic-hydrothermal
(e.g.,Healdet al. 1987;Hedenquist1987).Stable- typical of HS depositsgives good resultsbecause
(post-mineralD-H
isotope studies of HS deposits are particularly it is relatively coarse-grained
problem;
Stoffregen
et al. 1994)
is
not
a
exchange
illuminatingbecauseof: (l) the abundanceand
with
associated
ore, thus
minerals and commonlyis closely
variety of oxygen-and hydrogen-bearing
(e.g.,alunite,illite, kaolinite),(2) the development recordingequilibriurnconditionsof a f-luidcloser
of analytical procedures for complete stable- in compositionto the ascendingmirreralizing
solution than the kaolinite or illite from outer
isotopeanalysisof alunite,including6l8orooand
alterationzones.
6'tOu' that help to distinguishthe varioustypes
Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions
of alunite and associatedacid-sulfatealteration
water
in HS depositsare clearlyconsistentwith
of
(Rye et al. 1992; Wassermanet ctl. 1992), (3)
mixing between a high-temperaturemagmatic
fewer limitations on the interpretationof the
ond
f
l u i d o f 6 1 8 0 : 9 + 1 o / naon d6 D : - 3 0 + 2 0 " / o a
isotopic data becauseof the relativelyyoung age
part
(Fig.
because
of
groundwaters
8). In
of mineralizationof most HS depositsand general meteoric

bv a sulfate-rich
alteration.which is characterized
(3)
lsotopic
equilibassemblage
alunite-pyrite
rium between sulfide and sr-rlfate in the
hydrothermal
solutionsresults,in a nrajorityof the
calculated
on the
deposits.in reliabletemperatures
(Fig 7). Pyrite-alunite
basis on A3aSrr:s-so+
rnineral pairs were used most commonly, and
rvheresamplingrvith depth is available,thev shorv
oC over200-m
a thermalgradient:e.g.,220to 330
clevationat Rodalquilar(Arribas et al. 1995a).
200 to 390 "C over .--900m at S'.tmmitville(R1'e
1993)1220 to 420 'C over 500 m at l-epanto
(Hedenquistand Carcia 1990: J \\r. Hedenquist.
unpr-rb.data). Other mineral prirs used with
consistent results include p1'rite-barite(Vikre
(Venncmann
1989: Deen 1990),sphalerite-barite
(Vikre
1989).The
plrite-g1'psurn
et al. 1993),and
is consistentlvith
rangeof isotopictemperalures
and
temperaturesestimatedfrom fluid inerlusions
(e.g.,
et
ul.
1980;
Flemley'
alterationmineralogy
Reyes 1990;Rey'eset ul. 1993).l-he rangeis also
consistent with formation of altrnite at
belorv-400 "C, rvhenSO2gas starts
temperatures
to dispropottionatein the h1'drothermalsolution
(Sakai& Matsubaya1911;,
Bethke1984).

F
H igh-su(idation Epithermal Depos its

Alunite
alteration
stg.
mineralization
Ore
stg.
Q
Alteration/
O
.
^?y,
n

Subduction-related
volcanrcvapor

-40

3
>
a

-ou

t9 -eo
o
ta

-100
-tzv

-140

6180(%",sMow)
compositionof hydrothermal
Figure 8. Summary diagram showing variation in oxygen- and hydrogen-isotope
fluids in high-sulfidationdeposits.The averageisotopic compositionfor the main stagesof acidic alteration
(circles)fluids are shown. Where possible,only alunite data were used for the
(squares)and ore-mineralization
alterationstage(6D and 6r8O5eo);
6'tOo, is not usedbecausehydroxyl oxygenrequilibrateswith the hydrothermal
fluid during cooling (Rye et al. 1992),Tie-lines befweendata points connectsamplesfrom the same deposit.Inset
shows the isotopic composition of fields defined by waters from active geothermalsystemsand high-temperature
in subduction-related
andesiticvolcanoes(from Giggenbach1992b).Go: Goldfield, Ju:
fumarolecondensates
Julcani,Le- Lepanto,Nansatsudistrict: Ka - Kasuga,Iw : Iwato, NF : Nevadosdel Famatina,PV : Pueblo
Veijo, Ro : Rodalquilar,RM : Red Mountain, Lake City, Colorado, Su : Summitville. The approximate
compositionsof groundwaterssuggestedfor severaldepositsare indicatedby the intials parallel to the meteoric
water line. SeeAppendix for referencesand information on dataplotted.
the very light isotopic composition of local
meteoric water, this meteoric-magmatic watermixing trend is displayed particularly well by the
three stages of alterationlmineralization at Julcani
(Deen 1990; Rye 1993): from a magmatic-waterdominated early stage of (alunite) acid-sulfate
alteration (Ju, Fig. 8), through main ore-stage
fluid-inclusion waters (Ju1 and Ju2), to meteoricwater-dominated late ore-stage fluid-inclusion

relations are identical to those of volcanichydrothermal and geothermal systems associated


with subduction-related volcanism (Giggenbach
1992b; Fig. 8, inset). The similarity is even closer
between the composition of acidic alteration fluids
(large shaded field, Fig. 8) and the vapor
condensates from high-temperature fumaroles of
andesitic volcanoes (dark shaded field, Fig. 8,
inset), such as Nevado del Ruiz, Satsuma

Iwojima, or White Island,the last documentedto


havea geochemicalenvironmentsimilar to that of
HS mineralization(Hedenquistet al. 1993).
The origin of the D-enrichedmagmatic(end6180 valuesthan those of acidic alterationfluids,
(Fig.
groundwater
member)
fluid of HS depositshasbeeninterpreted
greater
by
dilution
indicating
8). The extent of an O-shift in the groundwater in two ways. Most workers conclude that the
acidic fluid in HS deposits is derived from
component due to water-rock interaction, as
typically seen in some neutral-pH geothermal absorptionof magmatic vapors outgassingfrom
arc volcanoesor felsic magmasin crustalsettings
systems,is not known, but such a shift is not
(e.g.,Hedenquist& Aoki 1991;Matsuhisa1992;
indicatedby the Julcanidata.
The overall oxygen- and hydrogen-isotope Giggenbach 1992q' Vennemann et al. 1993;
waters(Ju3).In addition to Julcani,the ore fluids
at Summitville (Rye et al. 1990:'Rye 1993) and
Rodalquilar(Arribaset al. 1995a)also have lower

437

A. Arribas, Jr.

ALTERATION

Mixing with
shallow
meteoric water
Absorptionof
high P vapor

uagmatic-'j
brine

Heated
oroundwater
cell
\ Ionvective

Metal-bearing
hypersaline /
liquid
l-

Heated
groundwatet

ll

Figure 9. Model showing the two main stagesof evolutionof HS deposits.A: Early stageof advancedargillic
alterationdominatedby magmatic vapor. B, and Bt: Two genetic hypothesesproposedfor the stage of ore
vapor by entrainmentin meteoricwater cell at depth to explain lowformation.B, - absorptionof high-pressure
salinity, mixed magmatic-meteoricore fluid (Hedenquistthis volume). B, - ascendingmetal-bearingmagmatic
brine with shallow cooler meteoricwatersto explain high-salinity,mixed magmatic-meteoricore fluid (White
I 99 I ; Rye I 993; Hedenquistet al. 1994a).

metals strongly partitionedinto the high-density


liquid (Hemley et al. 1992; Hedenquistthis
volume).
At this early intrusivestage,severalmodesof
magmadegassingmay occur which will lead to
magmatic-hydrothermal
different styles of
mineralization
systemswith or without associated
(Giggenbach 1992a). To form the styles of
alterationand the spatialdistributionof alteration
zones characteristicof HS deposits, degassing
must be very efficient, with oxidized hightemperature magmatic vapor reaching shallow
depthswith little reactionwith rock or dilution by
groundwatersat greaterdepths(Fig. 9A). Dilution
with groundwatersis unlikely becausethe high
temperatures surrounding the cooling magma
cause meteoric water cells to be displacedfrom
the magma core (Fig. 9A). In addition to the
relativelylow pressureat the depth of intrusion,
effective degassing will be favored by the
structural factors characteristicof HS deposits,
such as fractured volcanic domes or roots of
domes,calderaor diatremefaults,volcanicvent
contacts. and active faults with a dilational
comporrent.
As thc high-temperatureInagmatic vapor

440

reachesshallowdepthsof lessthan a kilometer,it


may be absorbedby groundwaterif it does not
discliarge as a fumarole. The acidity of this
groundwater-absorbed
vapor condensateincreases
as the liquid cools, first at temperaturesbelow
-400 "C by disproportionationof SO2 to form
H2SO4and H2S (Day & Allen 1925; Sakai &
Matsubaya 1971), then by progressive dissociation of H2SOaand HCI at lower temperatures
(<300 oC). Reactionof the increasinglyacidic
liquid with wallrock results in the upward
alteration sequence of sericite-+kaolinite*+
alunite+vuggy silica (Fig. 9,A'), the residual
vuggy silica rock resultsfrorn completeleaching
of the rock components,except silica, by a
hydrothermal solution with a pH <2 and
probably<250'C (Stoffregen1987).
temperatures
The extremelyacidic conditionsmay even leadto
forrnationof dissolutioncavitiesin which the only
remnantof the host rock is a basal sedimentary
layer of quartz phenocrysts(e.g., Rodalquilar;
Arribas et ctl. 1995a).
For the quartz-alunite-pyriteassemblageof
the advanced argillic zone, the stable-isotope
evidenceis consistentwith magmaticvapor being
absorbed by meteoric waters, with tlre latter

r
$
i

l { igh-.su I/idat ion Epit hermctl Depos its

constituting
a relativelvsmall part of the rnixturc-l'he
(gcnerally <113, ltig. 8).
fluid-inclusiorr
evidence,by contrast.is inconclusivebecauseof
Nevertheless,
the lack of ternporal infonr-ration.
high-salinity inclusion fluids
high-temperature,
have been interpretedto form early in most I{S
deposits(e.g., Bruha & Noble 1983: Ruggieri
l993bl Arribaset ul. 1995a).TheseflLridsrnal'be
restrictedto greater depths. as demonstratedat
Rodalquilarand in other depositswlrere highrviththe deep
fluid is associated
salinityinclr-rsion
(Table
4).
This
latter obsersericiticalteration
vationsuggests
an episodicasccntof high-salinity
magmaticliquid fiom the greaterdepthsof the
system,rvherethe hypersaline
liquid
hydrothermal
of its high density(Fig. 9A).
tendsto staybecause
These nragmaticbrines rnay be rnore closely
relatedto the K-silicatealteration(and,in places.
porphyry m ineralization) that envelopes the
( F i g .9 A ; S i l l i t o c1 9 8 9 ) .
intrusion
The conditionsduring the rnain stageof ore
fbrmationare not yet as lvell-understood,and this
reflects the much rrore variable geochemical
environmentin cornparisonwith that associated
with acidic alteration.During the ore stage,the
hydrothennalliquid may bc lessdominatedby a
"sulfurmagnraticvapor phasearrd its associated
'fhe
presenceolgas bufibr" (Giggenbach1987).
this SO2-H2Sbufltr is the reasorrthat the early
stageof alterationis so oxidized,as reflectedby
the alunite-pyriteassernblage(Whitney 1988;
Giggenbach1992a).Instead,conditionsduringthe
ore stage f'luctuate within a range of redox
potential that is reflectcd by enargite-pyrite+
assoaluniteand enargite-tennantite-chalcopyrite
ciations,which are relativclyhigh to intermediate
sulfidation-stateassemblages,respectively (see
this volurne).tn the Lepanto
Fig. 3 in Hedenquist,
(Claveria & l'ledenquist1994) and El Indio
(Jannas et al. 1990) deposits, these two
are relatedto CLr-richand Au-rich
assemblages
with the latterbeing
respectively,
mineralization,
of later stage in both cases.The more reduced
of increased
corrditionsare a likely consequeltce
water-rock interaction, and, to some extent,
fluid
dilution of the oxidizedrnagrnatic
increased
by meteoricwater; this trcnd is also consistent
with the isotopic compositionof waters in tlre
main ore stageof variousdeposits(Fig. 8). No

discrimination.hou'ever.can be made betweena


meteoric-rvater
componeutthat is incorporatedat
deep or shallorvlevels rvithin the hydrothermal
system.lmportantly.salinitiesduringthe main ore
stagecan be low (c.g.,Lepantoand El lndio. <4
equiv.rvt.oZNaCl: T'able4; or moderateto high
( J u l c a n ru,p t o l B e q u i v .w t . % N a C l ;Z i j i n s h a nu. p
'lable
t o 2 2 e q L r i vw. t . % N a C l :
4).
Assessmento.f a |lfodel
No single model adequatelyexplainsall oi
tltesevariousobservations.
and severalhypotheses
have beenpropcsed.eachrellectingan emphasis
on individualdepositsor dil-ferentinterpretations
of the 1'luid-inclusion
and stable-isotope
data. A
basic urrderstandirrg
o{' this ore-forming eur,,ironrnentmay be gainedby consideringthe principal
end-rnembertluid componentsand ore-forming
processes. The spectrum of characteristics
displayedby HS depositsmay be then analyzedin
the contextof sucha geneticframer,vork.
Four lluid regimeshave been iderrtifiedin the
[{S environrnent;
evidencefor all is presentin the
early stageof IIS alteration,and threeof them are
critical to fbnnation of porphyry systerns(c.g.,
'Ihese
Henley & IvlcNabb1978; Sillitoe 1989).
end-membersare: (l) a metal-rich hypersalinc
rnagmaticliquid which tends to remain in the
vicinity of the intrusion,but mav ascend(or be
driven) to shallorve
r depths if the ambient
ternperatureis low enough (<400 "Cl) for the
mechanical strength of the rock to increase
to resultin brittle fiacturing(F'ournier
sLrfficiently
1992),(2) a lou'-salinity'magmatic vapor whose
metal-transporting
capacitydecreases
sharplywith
(lJedenquist
pressure
decreasing
this volume),(3)
heated meteoric or connate water in deep
conveclion cells that collapse inward and
downward as the intrusive stock progressively
solidifiesand cools, and (4) shallow and cool
meteoricgroundwater.
Two
nrain end-member ore-forming
"volatile
hypothesesare considered.In the
transport"hypothesis(Fig. 981), the magmatic
hypersaline
liquidmay remainat depththroughout
the evolutionof the hydrotherrnalsystem,and the
for mineralilow-salinityvaporsare responsible
zation (Sillitoe 1989; Vennemannet al. 1993);
deepmeteoricwater entrainmentof high-pressure

441

A. Arrihas,Jr.

vapor is required for transport of sufficient


amounts of metals (Hedenquistthis volume;
Sillitoe this volume). These conditions are
consistentwith the low salinityof the Lepantoand
El Indio fluid-inclusiondata.Mineral deposition
in this casemay be causedby mixing with cooler
groundwateror by boiling, possiblyresultingfrom
the abrupt pressure reduction associatedwith
hydrothermalbrecciation.
In the "hypersaline liquid transporl"
hypothesis(Fig. 9B2), following waning of the
rnagmatic vapor plume responsible for early
alteration,the lithostatic-pressured
system fractures and the metal-bearinghypersalineliquid
ascendsinto the porousleachedzone (Deen 1990;
White l99l; Rye 1993;Hedenquiste/ al. 1994a).
The dominantore-formingmechanismin this case
is rnixing of the metal-bearing
hypersalineliquid
with cooler groundwatersat the site of deposition,
not at depthin the meteoricwaterconvectioncell.
This hypothesishas been proposedto explain the
high salinitiesrecordedby inclusion fluids in
severaldeposits(e.g.,Julcani).
A part of the ore-fbrming componentsmay
originate frorn leaching of wallrock, but both
hypotheses agree on a dominantly magmatic
sourcefbr metals,with an increasein the meteoric
water component with time. The principal
differencebetweenthe two hypothesesis in the
nature of the magmatic phase responsiblefor
transporting the metals into the epithermal
environment.and in the site of meteoric water
dilution. A potentialcontributorto ore fbrmation
in HS deposits involves remobilizationof the
metals by a meteoric-water-dominated
hydrothermal system fiom a subjacent K-silicate
assemblageand porphyry-typeprotore, such as
that which may have formed closeto the intrusion
(e.g.,Brimhall 1980).This mechanism,however,
has not been suggestedas the main ore-fbrming
processin any of the depositsreviewed in this
study.
The three models for formation of HS ores.
assimilated here from the literature, are not
mutually exclusive; on the contrary, they may
occur in the same HS deposit as the magmatichydrothermalsystem evolves, with complexities
arising from multiple intrusions, variations in
depth of emplacement,and changesin the local

442

tectonicand hydrodynamicenvironment.None of
the threernodelssatisfiesthe overall evidence.For
example,if metalswere suppliedonly by a dense,
high-salinityliquid, a relationwould be expected
among estimated salinities, metal associations,
and ore gradeor metal abundances
of the various
deposits.Suchseemsrrotto be the case.Similarly,
if alterationand mineralizationwere solely the
result of interaction between groundwater and
low- and high-pressurevapor, respectively.high
salinitiesshouldnot be as comtnonas they
unlessthey areexplainedby localboilingof dilute
to moderately saline meteoric or seawaterdominatedfluids.
SYNTHESIS
Gold, Cu, and Ag (and in a few exceptional
casesalso Hg, W, Bi, Pb, and Zn) are produced
from HS deposits.As a sourceof Au, and because
their mode of occurrenceand the potential to
overlie porphyry-typernineralizationhave been
widely recognizedonly within the past 10 to l5
years, HS deposits represent a valuable
exploration target that has been overlooked in
someregions.Most known HS depositsare young
in age, Tertiary and even Quaternary. Highsulfldation deposits fbrm dominantly in
subduction-related plutonic-volcanic
arcs,
'fhe
commonlyduring crustalextension.
deposits
form at a depth intermediatebetweenthe surface
and shallow (few kilometersdepth) intermediatecomposition
intrusions.
The intimaterelationship
amongHS deposits,
volcanic host rocks, and oxidized magrnaticfluid
derivedfrom a degassing
intrusionis supported
by
(l) the volcanicrocks
the followingobservations:
hosting HS deposits were erupted immediately
prior to mineralization, (2) the ore-fbrming
hydrothermalsystemcommonly follows the same
plumbing as that of the magmaticsystem(i.e.,
rnineralizationspatiallyassociatedwith domesor
volcanicconduits),(3) the isotopiccompositionof
hypogenesulfides(e.g., enargiteand pyrite) and
sulfates(e.g.,alunitegnd.barite)
commonlycan be
'oS/"S
modelledfrom the
of sull'ur in rgneous
rocks thought to be genetically related, by
equilibriumfractionationbetweenH2Sand SOain
solutionat T -200-400 oC, and (4) on the basisof

High-sulfidationEpithermalDeposits

oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios, the waters


involvedin formationof HS depositsare identical
to waters in active volcanic-hydrothermalsystems, in which the same HS geochemical
environmenthas beendocumented.
Ore formation in some HS deposits may
accompanyacidic alteration,and recentstudiesof
the hydrothermal geochemistryof Au provide
preliminary evidence that this element may be
transportedin HS and low-sulfidationsystemsas
different hydrosulfide complexes (AuHS" and
Au(HS)2, respectively;Bening & Seward 1994;
Seward1913).On the other hand,the presenceof
moderateto high salinitiesin many HS deposits.
the intimate associationwith porphyry coppertype deposits,and the assumptionsof the most
recentgeneticmodels(transportof Au and Cu by
either hypersalineliquid or high-pressurevapor)
indicate that chloride complexes must also be
consideredfor metaltransport.
Most HS depositsevolve from an early period
of acidic wallrock alterationto a late period of
precious- and base-metalrnineralization.Acidic
alteration is characterizedby advancedargillic
and porous (leached)rock, and the
assemblages
hydrothermalfluid responsiblefor this alteration
magmaticvapor
is dominatedby high-temperature
containingSO2,H2S, and HCl. Less reactiveand
oxidized fluids are typically responsiblefor ore
mineralization.Factorssuchas multiple intrusions
and opening or closing of fractures (conduits)
result in variations in the temperature,pressure,
and composition of the ascendingsolutions.
Combined with the shallow environment of
mineralization,theseconditionslead to a variety
breccias,
of deposit styles (mainly replacements,
and veins) that usually occupy a limited vertical
spanof <300 to 500 m (exceptfor >800 m at the
giant Chinkuashih deposit). The geological,
mineralogical, and geochemical evidence,
particularlythe associationbetweenthe orebodies
and the lateral and vertical zones of alteration,
illustrates the basic genetic condition of HS
deposits,that a magmaticfluid interactsextensive
ly with country rock and groundwaterson its
relativelyshortpathto the earth'ssurface.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Valuableinsight on variousaspectsrelatedto
this excitingore-formingenvironmentwas gained
and field work with M. Aoki,
throughdiscussions
J. Hedenquist.
A. ArribasSr.,C. G. Cunningham,
W.C. Kelly, R. O. Rye, J. J. Rytuba,andT. A.
Steven. Earlier versions of this manuscript
benefited from constructive reviews by Phil
Bethke,Andrew Campbell,Anne Thompson,John
Thompson, Peter Vikre, Noel White, and Jeff
Hedenquist, who also provided abundant
on HS depositsworldwide.
documentation
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APPENDIXI
Summary of data and references used to compile
Figures 3, 7, and 8.
Figure 3
K2O versusSiO2variationdiagram.The name
of lithologic units analyzed,number of sarnples
(n), and data sources are given: Chinkuashih,
daciten : 18 (Chen & Huh 1982);Choquelimpie,
Choquelimpie
volcaniccomplex(5 units).n - 20
(Gropper et al. 1991: chemical data fbr the
feldspar porphyries genetically related to
mineralization are not available); Goldfield.
rhyodaciten : 6 (Ransome1909;Ashley, unpub.
analysesin Sillitoe 1993);El Indio, Cerro de las
TortolasFormation,n: 15 (Maksaevet al. 1984
in Sillitoe 1993);Julcani,daciteand rhyodacite,
n
: 10 (Petersenet al. 1917); Laurani, Laurani
vofcanicand intrusiverocks, n : 10 (Jimenezet
al. 1993); Lepanto, Imbanguila dacite and least
alteredquartzdiorite porphyry,n : 4 (A. Arribas.
unpub. data); Motomboto, porphyritic intnrsions,
n: 10 (Perell61994, and written comm. 1995):
Nansatsu, Upper Formation and hornblende
andesitein Middle Volcanicrock, n :2 (E lzawa,
written comm. 1995); ParadisePeak, averageof
Younger andesites,
n : 3l (John et al. l99l);
Rodalquilar,hornblendeandesite,dacitetuff, and
rhyolite domes, n : 7 (Arribas et al. 1995a);
Summitville,Fisher quartzlatite,n: 7 (Steven&
Rattd i 960).
Figure 7
values.Giverr below are
Rangeof 63aS1o/oo)
for sulfides (nrirs),
the number of measurements
sulfates (nso+), sulfide-sulfate mineral pairs
(rA'oS), and references:Lepanto,flr2s: 52, n.no
:38 (Hedenquist
&
& Garcia1990;J. Hedenquist
M. Aoki, unpub. data); Chinkuashih,nvzs : 4,
^
3
4
trsoo : 2, ,L"S : 2 (Folinsbee et al. 1972);
Nansatsu,nszs: 6, n soq: 9 (Hedenquistet al.
1994a);Summitville,flLts : >11, n ssa : 17,
, A t o s : 7 ( R y ee t a l . l e e b ; :c o t a n e l d .n l 1 r s : 1 6 ,
n so+:16, n63ag: 7 (Jensenet al. 1911;Vikre
1989);PuebloViejo, ngzs: 19,n s174:7,ny3aS:
4 (Vennemannet al. 1993); Julcani,n11rs: 183,

453

A. Arribas,Jr.

r?so+:55, n6345:7 (Deen 1990);El lndio, ns2s_


11, n5sa: 3 (Jannaset ol. 1990), Rodalquilar,
r , g z s : 4 4 , n s s a : l l , , A 3 a S: 4 ( A r r i b a se t a l .
1995a). Temperatures for Chinkuashih were
'oS/"S
datafrom Folinsbeee/
calculatedusingthe
al. (1912)and more recentfractionationequations.
Sulfide-sulfatemineral temperatureshigher than
350 oC were documented only at depth at
Summitville (T : 390 oc, -900 m below the
presentsurface;Rye e/ al.1990) and Lepanto(I:
420 "C at the 700-m level, immediatelyabovethe
FSE porphyry copper deposit; Hedenquist &
Garcia 1990).On the basisof phaseequilibria,the
sulfide/sulfatevaluesfor the PuebloViejo stageI
and stage 2 mineralization were estimated by
Muntean et al. (1990) to be about 3 and 35,
respectively.
Figure 8
variation diagram.
versus 6'80
6D
:
Explanation:Go Goldfield, hypogenealunite,n
: I (Rye et al. 1992);Ju: Julcani,alunite(n:6),
average of main-stage ore fluids in
Jui
wolframite,enargite,tetrahedrite,and galenafluid
inclusions,Ju2: averageof main-stageore fluids
ore
in sphaleriteand chalcopyrite,Ju3: late-stage
(Deen
pyrite
fluids in barite,siderite,and botroidal
1990);Le : Lepanto,alunite,n : 2 (Y. Matsuhisa
& J. Hedenquist,unpub. data);Nansatsudistrict:
Ka : Kasuga,aluniteft: 7,lw : Iwato,aluniter
2, 6r80 values of residual vuggy silica
associatedwith ore in both depositsfallbefween
K a a n d 1 w ( H e d e n q u i s te / a l . 1 9 9 4 a ) ;N F :

Nevadosdel Famatina,stageV alunite-kaolinite,


n
I (Losada-Calderon& McPhail 1994); the
average5D and 5l80 valuesfor La Mejicana(n :
9) are similar to NF; K-silicateand quartz-sericite
at Nevadosdel Famatinahave6180between4 and
10o/oo,reflecting a larger magmatic component
(Losada-Calderon
& McPhail 1994);PV : Pueblo
:
Viejo: PVI stageI aluniteand kaolinite,PV2 :
stage 2 pyrophyllite (Fig. 9 in Vennemann et al.
Rodalquilar, alunite,
10,
1993); Ro
(Arribas
et al. 1995a);RM
chalcedonicore,n:6
: Red Mountain,Lake City, Colorado,alunite,n :
12 (Bove et al. 1990; Rye 1993); Su
Summitville,alunite,averageof n - l0 (6D) and n
: 16 (6'80) (Rye er at. 1992),ore fluids from Rye
(1993). The main ore stageat Rodalquilar(stage
2) is basedon SltO of chalcedonicquartz;6D are
not available for this stage but present-day
groundwaters,
alunite,kaolinite,and illite fluids in
the depositshave a limited range of 6D values,
suggesting significant variations are unlikely
(Arrlbas et al. 1995a). Stage 2 (pyrophyllite)
fluids for Pueblo Viejo involve several
assumptions with respect to the choice of
fractionation factors for oxygen and hydrogen.
The data for stage 2 at Rodalquilar and Pueblo
Viejo shouldbe viewed as approximate.Data for a
single alunite for Goldfield (Rye et al. 1992)
suggest that mixing of a the 6D- and 6180enriched magmatic fluid with isotop^icallylight
'oO-depleted
waters may result in D- and
hydrothermalacid-sulfatefluids (see also Vikre
1989).