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The word who connects or relates the subject, student, to the verb (studies).

That is why they are called


relative pronouns.
Choosing correctly between which and that and between who and whom leads to what are probably the
most Frequently Asked Questions about English grammar.
Generally, we use which to introduce clauses that are parenthetical in nature (i.e., that can be removed from
the sentence without changing the essential meaning of the sentence). For that reason, a which clause is
often set off with a comma or a pair of commas. That clauses, on the other hand, are usually deemed
indispensable for the meaning of a sentence and are not set off with commas. The pronoun which refers to
things; who (and its forms) refers to people; that usually refers to things, but it can also refer to people in a
general kind of way. With this preamble let us look at the usage concerns about who, that, and which.
who, which, or that?
Who refers to people. That and which refer to groups or things.
Roy is the professor who teaches us quant.
She belongs to an organization that specializes in information systems.
That introduces essential clauses while which introduces nonessential clauses.
I do not like Hindi movies that are copies of English movies.
We would not know which Hindi movies are being discussed without the clause (copies of English
movies). It would be gross injustice to say that the speaker does not like Hindi movies. He dislikes only the
copies. That clauses are hence essential clauses.
To understand the use of which, clearly read the above sentence with which and work out the meaning.
I do not like Hindi movies, which are copies of English movies.
That the speaker does not like Hindi movies at all is what the sentence suggests. It is as if the reason for his
dislike is that they are copies of English movies. Besides, which clause can also be separated from the
other clause by a comma. The comma is not possible with the that clause.
If that has already been used in the sentence, use which to introduce the essential clause that follows.
Correct: That is a decision which you must live with for the rest of your life.
Incorrect: That is a decision that you must live with for the rest of your life.
If the essential clause starts with this, that, these, or those, use which to connect.
Correct: Those ideas which were discussed on Tuesday will be put in the minutes of the meeting.
Incorrect: Those ideas that were discussed on Tuesday will be put in the minutes of the meeting.
However, if you have an option which begins, The ideas discussed on Tuesday.. choose it for your
answer.
whoever and whomever
The expanded form of the relative pronouns whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever are known as
indefinite relative pronouns. Read these examples to understand why they are called indefinite.
Correct: The IIMs select whomever they like.
Correct: The teacher seemed to say whatever came to mind.
Correct: Whoever crosses this line first will win the race.

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