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This chapter starts with the definition of a truss and briefly explains various types

of plane truss. The determinacy and stability of a truss also will be discussed. The

procedures of analyzing statically determinate plane trusses will be developed by

using the method of joints and the method of sections.

6.1

Analyse the trusses members using related methods.

Introduction

o A truss is defined as an assemblage of straight members connected at their end

by flexible connections to form a rigid configuration.

o If all the members of a truss and the applied loads lie in a single plane, the truss

is called a plane truss.

o Because of their light weight and high strength, plane trusses are widely used,

and their applications range from supporting decks of bridges and roofs of

buildings.

o Modern trusses are constructed by connecting members, which usually consist of

structural steel or aluminum shapes or wood struts, to gusset plates by bolted or

welded connections.

6.2

o Typical framing systems for a roof supported by plane trusses are as shown in

Figure 6.1.

o In this case, two or more trusses are connected at their joints by beams, termed

as purlins, to form a three-dimensional framework.

135

o The roof is attached to the purlins, which transmit the roof load (weight of the roof

plus any other load) as well as their own weight to the supporting trusses at the

joints.

o Because of this applied loading acts on each truss in its own plane, the trusses

can be treated as plane trusses.

o Some of the common configurations of roof and bridge trusses are shown in Fig.

6.2 and Fig. 6.3, respectively.

136

Fig. 7.3 Common types of bridge trusses

Fig. 7.3 Common types of bridge trusses

Fig. 7.3 Common types of bridge trusses

6.3

The analysis of trusses is usually based on following assumptions:

6.4

a.

plane trusses.

b.

All loads and support reactions are applied only at the joints.

c.

The centroidal axis of each member coincides with the line connecting the

centers of the adjacent joints.

Simple Trusses

o The basic element of a plane truss is the triangle. Three bars joined by pins at

their ends as shown in Fig. 6.4(a), constitute a rigid frame. The term rigid is used

to mean non-collapsible and also to mean that deformation of the members due

to induced internal strains is negligible.

o The basic truss element can be enlarged by attaching two new members BD and

CD as in Fig. 6.4 (b). Four or more bars pin-jointed to form a polygon of as many

sides constitute a non-rigid frame.

o The truss also can be extend by adding additional units of two end-connected

bars, such as DE and CE or AF and DF, as in Fig.6.4 (c), which are pinned to

two fixed joints. In this way the entire structure will remain rigid.

137

o Each member of a truss is normally a straight link joining the two points of

application of force.

o The two forces are applied at the ends of the member and are necessarily equal,

opposite, and collinear for equilibrium.

o The member may be in tension or compression, as shown in Fig. 6.5.

138

C acting on the cut section is the same for all sections.

6.5

o Internal Stability number and arrangement of members is such that the truss

does not change its shape when detached from the supports.

o External Instability instability due to insufficient number or arrangement of

external supports.

o m < 2j 3

truss is internally unstable

o m 2j 3

truss is internally stable provided it is geometrically stable

where:

m total number of members

j total number of joints

139

properly arranged.

o Statically Determinate Truss - if all the forces in all its members as well as all

the external reactions can be determined by using the equations of equilibrium.

o Statically Indeterminate Truss - if all the forces in all its members as well as all

the external reactions cannot be determined by using the equations of

equilibrium.

o External Indeterminacy - excess number of support reactions

o Internal Indeterminacy excess number of members

o Redundants excess members or reactions

Number of redundants defines the degree of static indeterminacy

m + r <2j

statically unstable truss

m + r = 2j

statically determinate truss

m + r 2j

statically indeterminate truss

o A truss can be unstable if it is statically determinate or statically indeterminate.

o A truss is externally unstable if all of its reaction is concurrent or parallel.

External Unstable

Unstable-parallel reactions

Unstable-concurrent reactions

140

Internal Unstable

Example 6.1

Determine the determinancy criteria for the truss as shown below:

(a)

r=4

m = 18

j = 11

m + r = 2j statically determinate truss

(b)

r=4

m = 10

j=7

m+r=2j statically determinate truss

141

(c)

r=4

j=7

m=10

m+r=2j statically determinate truss

(d)

r=4

m = 14

j=8

m + r >2j statically indeterminate truss

(e)

r=3

m = 21

j=10

m+r>2j statically indeterminate truss

142

6.6

Method of Joints

o Method of Joints-the axial forces in the members of a statically

determinate truss are determined by considering the equilibrium of its

joints.

o Tensile(T) axial member forceis indicated on the joint by an arrow pulling

away from the joint.

o Compressive(C) axial member forceis indicated by an arrow pushing toward

the joint.

o When analyzing plane trusses by the method of joints, only two of the three

equilibrium equations are needed due to the procedures involve concurrent

forces at each joint.

Example 6.2

Calculate all member forces by using method of joints.

42 kN

28 kN

C

20 m

15 m

Solution

Determine the support reactions:

Fx= 0

HA 28 = 0

HA = 28 kN

Mc= 0

-RA (35) + 28(20) + 42(15) = 0

RA = 34 kN

143

FY= 0

34-42 + RC =0

Rc = 8 kN

Joint A

FY= 0

34 + 2 FAD = 0

FAD = -48.08 kN (C)

34

Fx= 0

28 - 2(48.08) + FAB = 0

FAB = 6 kN (T)

Joint B

D

Fx= 0

-6 + FBC = 0

FBC= 6 kN (T)

FY= 0

-FBD = 0

144

Joint C

D

C

B

8

Fx= 0

-6 + FCD = 0

FCD = 10 kN (T)

Exercise 6.1

1)

Answer:

AB = 3000 N T, AC = 4240 N C, CD = 4240 N T

AD = 3000 N C, BC = 6000 N T

145

2)

Answer:

AB = 5.63 kN C, AF = 3.38 kN T

BC = 4.13 kN C, BE = 0.901 kN T

BF = 4 kN T, CD = 6.88 kN C

CE = 5.50 kN T, DE = 4.13 kN T

EF = 3.38 kN T

6.6.1 Zero Force Members

(a) If only two noncollinear members are connected to a joint that has no

external loads or reactions applied to it, then the force in both members is

zero. (Fig. 6.6.1 (a))

(b) If three members, two of which are collinear, are connected to a joint that has

no external loads or reactions applied to it, then the force in the member that is not

collinear is zero.

FAB

FAC

y

A

Fig. 6.6.1 (a)

146

FAB

FAC

FAD

6.6.1.1

Figure 6.6.1(a):

Fy = 0 = FAB cos

FAB = 0

FAC = 0

Figure 6.6.1(b):

Fy = 0 = FAC cos

FAC = 0

6.7

Method of Sections

o This method involves cutting the truss into two portions (free body diagrams,

FBD) by passing an imaginary section through the members whose forces are

desired.

o Desired member forces are determined by considering equilibrium of one of the

two FBD of the truss.

o This method can be used to determine three unknown member forces per FBD

since all three equilibrium equations can be used.

147

Example 6.3

Determine the forces of member GH, DG and CD by using method of section.

30 kN

E

30 kN

30 kN

15 kN

I

4 @ 16 m = 64 m

Solution:

o Calculate the support reaction if it is required.

o Cut the section of the truss through the members where forces are to be

determined.

o Choose one section either left or right section.

148

30 kN

15 kN

FGH

FDG

FCD

12 m

D

16 m

MD = 0

-15(16) + FGH(12) =0

FGH = 20 kN (T)

Fy = 0

-30-15+ FDG=0

FDG = 75 kN (T)

Fx = 0

-20-(75) FCD = 0

FCD = -80 kN

Exercise 6.2

1) Determine the forces in members CG and GH.

149

Answer:

CG = 0, GH = 27 kN T

2) Calculate the forces in members BC, CD, and CG of the loaded truss composed

of equilateral triangles, each of side length 8 m.

Answer:

BC = 1.155 kN T, CD = 5.20 kN T

CG = 4.04 kN C

6.8

o An alternative method can be applied to determine the member forces.

o The purpose is to reduce the time for calculation.

Example 6.4

42 kN

28 kN

C

B

150

Solution:

The calculation can be started at joint A or B.

42 kN

28 kN

D2

nd

8/20 = x/15

x=6

1st

28 kN

C

B

Opposite Direction

34 kN

8 kN

FCD = 62 + 82

= - 10 kN

42 kN

28 kN

3rd

A

C

B

34/AB = x/BD

34/20 = x/20

x = 34

FAD = 342 + 342

FAD = - 48.08 kN

151

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