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company

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15 TOPICUNITSfocusingon
currentbusiness
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and
everydayskills

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5 SPEAKINGSKILLSUNITS
focusingon functional
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i t 1 5 L A N G U A G E I I N K S c o n s o l i d a t i n gg r a m m a r a n d
e x t e n d i n g v o c a b u l a r yf r o m t h e T o p i c U n i t s

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b PhraseBankfor summarvand revision
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5 CASESTUDIESreflecting
real-lifebusiness
scenarios

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BACK-OF-BOOK
MATERIAL:
3

CaseStudiesGlossary

&

Listening
Scripts
with usefulphrases
from the
LanguageLinksPhraseBanksin bold

:_ Additionalmaterialfor communicative
activities

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SELF.STUDY
CD.ROM:
* Extralisteningactivities
* Interactiveg rammar and vocabulary activities
* Interactiveglossary
Downloadable
Student's
Bookaudio
* Downloadable
Student's
BookPhrase
Banks
6

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WEBSITE:
materialavailableat: www.businessenglishonline.net
Courseupdates,regulare-lessons
and supplementary

Unit

Communication skills

Reading and listening texts

Language links

Reading
Description
of Facebook
F a c e b o opka g e
Listening
Introductions
at a trainingcourse
Companp
y rofile

yourwork,
VocabularyDescribing

p6

M a k i n ga p r e s e n t a t i oanb o u ty o u r s e l f
A s k i n gt o r p e r s o n ai nl f o r m a t i o n
Discussing
socialnetworkingsites
Discussing
ideasfor start-ups

p13

D i s c u s s i nbgl o g s
A s k i n ga b o u tw o r k r o u t r n e s
r rfee x e r L . e
C o - p l e t r n ag q u e s t i o r n a o
Discussrng
exercise
and waysto relax

Reading
Blogdescription
of a typicalday
Articleaboutexercise
and lrfestyle
Listening
Conversatio
an
b o u ts o m e o n e n' se wj o b

V o c a b u l a r yD i s c u s s i nagn d
e x p r e s s i nogp i n i o n ,
Jobs
GrammarExpressing
frequency
Phrasebank Discussing
ideas

U s i n gt e l e p h o nsek i l l s
Discussing
teiephonefrusirations
Telephoning
for information

Reading
A f t i c l ea b o u tt e i e p h o n sek i l { s
Listening
Diiferentwaysof sayingnumbers
A p o l o g i s i nogn t h e p h o n e
Conversatio
an
b o u ta n o r d e r

VocabularyTelephone
language,
Numbers
Grammar Indirectquestrons
Phrasebank Telephoning

Makingconversation
with new people
T a l k i n ag b o u to t h e rp e o p l e

Listening
Conversations
with new people

D i s c u s s i npgo i c r e fso r l n t e r n eut s ea t w o r k

Reading
A r t r c l ea b o u tI n t e r n eut s ea t w o r k
Listening
E x p l a n a t i oonf c o m p a n y I' sn t e r n eut s ep o l i c y

p30

C o m p l e t l nag q u i za b o u tt h e hj s t o r yo f t h e
lnternet
personalexperience
Discussrng
oi lnternet
M a k i n ga p r e s e n t a t i oanb o u ta c o m p a n y s
Ars[o.y

Reading
T i m e l i nd
e e s c r i b i nhgi s t o r yo { N i n t e n d o
A r t i c l ea b o u t h e b i r t ho f t h e l n t e r n e t
Listening
Documentary
on the historyof the lnternet

VocabularyTimeexpressions,
Business
verbs
G r a m m a rP a sS
t imple
Phrasebank Talkingaboutthe past

^?7

D i s c u s s i nt hge i m p o r t a n coef g r a m m a r
Makrngon-the-spotdecislons
Grving
a n d r e c e i v i ndge t a i l a
s b o u ta n i m p o r t a n t
order
C o m p l a i n i nagb o u te r r o r si n a n o r d e r

Reading
A r t i c l ea b o u tg r a m m alrn b u s i n e s s
corresponoence
E - m a i lasb o u ta n o r d e r
Listening
e e p l o n ec o n v e ' s a l r oalb o u ra " m p o L a n r
order

VocabularyBusiness
communrcatton,
P u n c t u a t i oann ds p e l l i n g
Grammarwrlifor unpianned
decisions
Phrasebank Dealingwith
correspondence

p44

M a k i n ga r d ' e s o o n dr g t o s p e ( i arle q u e \ t s
Discussing
hotelrooms
M a k i n gc o r n p a r i s o n s
Discussing
the prosand consof differentoffice
locatrons

Reading
C o m m e n tasb o u th o t e l s
ArticleaboutYotels
Listening
Conversation
at arrportcheck-tn
Conversation
at hotelreception

VocabularyTraveland
accommooatl0n
G r a m m a rC o m p a r a t i v ae ns d
superlatives
Phrasebank Traveland
accomodation

Tellingan anecdote
Usingdid for emphasrs

Listening
An anecdoteabouta journey

Discussrn
hq
o n t o d e a lw i ' f a m a l o -p . o b l e m

Reading
A r t i c l et b o u t a c o m p a n yt' sr o u b l e s
Listening
Intervew with con'lpany
representatives

Describing
changein a countryof company
Completinga repoftabouta company
E x c h a n g i ni ngf o r m a t i oanb o u ta c o m p a n y

Reading
A r t r c l easb o r t t w o s u c e
c s s ' uc, o r p a r i e 5
B u s i n e sBsn e f i n gI:n d i t e x
Listening
Radioprogrammeaboutentrepreneurs

VocabularyBusiness
achievements,
Language
to describe
change
Grammar PresentPerfect
Phrasebank Talkingabout business
achrevements

l-)i<rL,<<inn tho

Reading
Articleaboutstressat work
Listening
Peopletalkingaboutstressat work

VocabularyStressat work, Health


Grammar haye to / don't have to,
should/ shouldn't
Phrasebank Talkingaboutyour
health

Reading
Timelinedescribing
historyof Nokra
Repodaboutsomeone's
career
Listening
Documentary
aboutthe founderso{ YouTube
P h o n ec a l lf r o ma h e a d h u n t e r

VocabularyMoney,
Compann
y ews
GrammarPresentPerfectfor
unfinishedpast,for and snce
Phrasebank N,4oney
and company
background

p19

'..

f nmn rtpr<:nd lha ln+arnal

GrammarPresentSimple,
P r e s e nCt o n t i n u o u s
yourwork
Phrasebank Describing

t*1,-..ra

p28

p54

p5b

p53

.r,

,(a(

^f

<i.a<<

Companngdifierentlobs
Askingaboutsomeones responsibilitres
and
dutresat work
Writinga consultantsreporton a company
Findino
g u t m o r ei n f o r m a t i oanb o u ts o m e o n e
Writinga report

p70

ommunication skills

Reading and listening texts

Language links

yourselfand startinga conversation Reading


Introducing
A r t i c ' ea b o u tc o r v e r s a L rsolrr a l e g i e s
Choosingsafetopicsof conversalion
Fndina
2 annvarqiii^n
Listening
Pd^^|6

D e c i d i nw
g h a t s t a f fa p p r a r s sacl h e m e
to
rmplement
p80

:
p8Z

mAA+i.^

h,, rhrnro

Reading
B l o g sd i s c u s s i nsgt a f fa p p r a i s a l
Listening
Explanatron
of staffappraisal
scheme

Discussing
travel Reading
the dos and don'tsof business
Articleaboutcomfortableair travel
Negotiatingskills
Articleaboutcut-pricebusiness
travel
Listening
Conversations
at check-in

VocabularyNegotiating,
Air travel
G r a m m a rC o n d i t i o n awl si t h w i l
Phrasebank Air travel

Discussing
when sackingis justified
Writinga letterof application
Askingfor clarification
Discussing
labourlawsand industrialaciion

V o c a b u l a r yA s k i n gt 6 ' c l a r i f i c a t i o r ,
Procedures
GrammarThe passive
Phrasebank Askingfor clarific;tion

Reading
Articleaboutsomeonebeingfired
CV
Listening
Peopletalkingabout applyingfor a newjob
Job interview

Reading
D i s c u s s i nt igm em a n a g e m e n t
A s k i n ga n da n s w e r i nagb o u tt i m em a n a g e m e n l Articleaboutworkrngwithout clocks
Listening
tecnnrques
A conversation
about a delayedpro.iect
T a l k i n ag b o u td e c i s i o nasn dp l a n s
A talk on time management

p95

Askingfor favours
'no'tactfully
Saying
I l-i^^ ^^li+^ l^^^,,-^^
u),, ,9 PU'rL< 'ar '9ud9e

VocabularyTimecollocations,
W o r k i n gc o n d i t i o n s
Grammar going to, going tovswll
P h r a s eb a n k P , e s e ^ t a t i o er asl,k i n g
abouttrme

Listening
with a refusedrequest
A conversation
promiseand
to persuade,
Conversations
threaten
Peoplemakingspecialrequests

Discussing
how to restructure
a company

Reading
Articleaboutcompanystructure

Reportinggossip
Discussing
the prosand consof gossipat work
D i s c u s s i rogf f i c ep o l i c ya b o . - g
r to s s ' p

Reading
A n i c ' ea b o " t a c o m p a n yb a n r ' n gg o s s i p
Postson a forum about officegossip
Listening
Conversario
an
b o L Lc o m p a n g
yossip
RadioInterviewaboutthe importance
of gossip
at work

VocabularyOfficechat
Relationships
at woik
Grammar Reportedspeech,
say and tell
Phrasebank Socialchat

purchase
Discussing
decisions
Discussing
advantages
and disadvaniages
to the overDiscussing
marketinge-commerce
srxtres

Reading
Surveyaboutthe futureof the Internet
Listening
Radiointerviewaboutthe prosand consof
e-commerce

VocabularyDiscussing
advantages
and disadvantages,
S h o p p l nagn dt h e I n t e r n e t
Grammar will for f ururepredictions
and
Phrasebank Advantages
disadvantages

T a l k i n ag b o u rh y p o t h e t i csailt u a t i o . s
D i s c . r s s i rnhgea d v a n r a g easn d d . s a d v a r t a g e s
of teleworking
Discussing
companypolicyaboutteleworking

Reading
Articlqaboutthe riseof e-workers
Articleaboutworkingfrom home
Listening
Conversation
aboutworkingfrom home
People
talkingabouttherrexperiences
of telework

VocabularyTeleworking,
E x p l a i n i nt hgi n g s
G r a m m a rC o n d i t i o n a(lfsu t u r e
reference)
P h r a s eb a n k E x p l a i n i nt hgi n g s

Describing
food
Describing
differentrolesin a job
Usingthe correctbusiness
etiquette

Reading
Arlicleaboutbusiness
etiquettein lapan
Listening
Conversation
at a restaurant
Explanation
of job roles

D r s c u s s ia
nn
g de v a l u a t i ndgi f f e r e not p e r a t i n g
systems

Reading
A r t i c l ea b o u t S r e r n e n sa d o p t i n g a n e w O S

pl04

pto6

pl 13 ;.;1
t"jtttt'

,,,
p120:

pl 3O
: :

:, ,

t.:t:t,tr

i:"::

:_: .t :::.-

,t.ui:i.,'.1"..-t

;,1

,.':-,,pr+a;-,,,.':
l:"," .:
,,,11.,,;rgr:.:,
. ,.,:..,,i' .,:,.

coNrENrs

i.aialnEtl{rorkiriq
. , . f 1t:l r c l r : : 1 . : r 1 r
l : , n r n e e l l l - Ca l a
,: -rg to iecir i.
t inS \r

:.

t,:ll

: . .I

,l :-

''=-"'
" i i

'
:

i-

- ' =
: : ::::. : .

,
..:

.l:.:

l l , '
.l

l l

- ] t i

l l l

i :

r r l i t r

l i : : t

r l l - .

'.

3 Jean-Christopl-re
Marchal has a pageon Facebook.Look at his pageand ansrverthe questions
a What is Jean-Christophe
doing at the nornert?
b Is l-rerrarried?
c Wher-ris his birthdar?
d Where doeshe lir,e?
e What thingsdoeshe enjov doing?
f What are his interests?
g What are l-risfavouriteTV shous?
h What do his friendssar,abouthim?

Jean-Christophe Marchal
Search.

Photos

j e a n - C h r i s t o p hi se:
Networks:
RelationshipStatus:
Birthday:

Profile.

sleeping
None
Married
May 24, 1962

fi,otes
Groups

V lnformation

Events

ContactInfo

Posteditems

e-mail:
Skype:
Mobile:
L a n dP h o n e :
CurrentAddress:

jc_marshal@aqua
luxcom.fr
jc_marshal
674647487
156757575
7, RueRichard-Lenoir,
93100Montreuil-sous-Bois.

PersonalInfo
Activities:
Interests:
FavoriteMusic:
FavoriteTV Shows:

C y c l i n gw, r i t i n g ,r e a d i n ga n d s o c i a l i s i n g .
Video games,theatre,wineColdplay.
CSI,Nip Tuck,PrisonBreak

Eqystrg"
{91ry!r!
EducationInfo
College:
H i g hS c h o o l :
Work lnfa
Employer:
Time Period:
Location:

Universityof Ghent
E c o l eE u r o p 6 e n ndee B r u x e l l e s
Aqualux
January2008- Present
Paris,France

The Wall
. e e,Ail.
D i s p l a y i ntgh e o n l y 2 w a l l p o s t s S
[Write somethingon your own Wall . . . 1
Juiia Maguire(no network) wrote at 9:46pmon July 28th, 2007:
You'reputt:ng on weightl

Nou,aska partneror vour teacherthe sane questions.

What are wu doing at the moment?

Discussion
5 Work in groupsand talk about socialnehvorkingsites.Do \iou know of anv other socialnetworking
siteslike Facebook?
Hal'evou joinedanr'?Do vou think thesesitesare usefulfor peoplein business?
What problemsdo r,ou thilik there rnight be li.'ithusing thesesites?

-, rNrRoDUctoNs

CGMPAruYPRGFILE

Name of Company: Cobra Beer.

Listento an ertractfrom:r radioprogranrnrc.


1 S: :..-...:'=
Thc speakcris talking
Completethe detailsin the comp:rnrprofileon the left.
about a con']pan\'.

Founder: Karan Bilirnoria


Exports: To more than a)
countriesworldwide.

7" Listenagainand completethc phr:rse


s belou.

E s t a b l i s h e di n : 1 9 b ) . . . . . . . . .
Countries where Cobra is produced: the
U K ,c ) . . . .... . . .
Product: d)
level of e) ...

. . . .w. i t h a l o w e r
.,aimed at people
eating Indian food. lt has a premium strength
off)
. .
........%
Annual turnover: g) .....
Growth ratei h) ..........
...
Ien years.

j,

o/oin last

Retail outlets: Cobra Beer is stockedin


over i)
restaurantsand in
most major supermarketsand off-licence

a This rnonth,\\'e
:rt the retail foocltr:rde.
to nrorethan'15corlntiiesri'orldrride,:rnclnor' \\,ith
b Cobra
in Inclia,South.\frica and thc t.lS,....
sLrbsidiaries
C
.... it
a rnainstream,
globalbeerbrancl.
d Cobra Beer
a turnoverof !71 million ;t \,e:tr,...
e The conrpan]
rapidh, n ith a gron'tltrateof 47% in thc last
ten vears.
The cornpalr headquarters
in Fulharri, in solrth-n'est
L o i r d o r tb. r r fi t r r o u
subsicliaries
in hrdi:r,SouthAfric:rand
the US.
I
operationsto rncctthe clemandfor Cobra in the
- ....it
Europeananclri'orldri'icle
market.

N,latchthe sentcnccs{a - g) in 2 to the descriptions.

c h a i n si n t h e U K -l t i s a l s os o l d i n n e a r l y
p u b sa n d c l u b s .
t

PrescntSimpleto describea stablcsituation:b,d, f


PresentContinuousto clescribe
a currentsituationor :rctivih.:
PresentContinrtottsto describe:r sitr-r:rtiorr
of change:

L o c a t i o n : H e d d q u a r t e r isn F u l h a m ,
south-westk) . ....
. )

for thcseans\\'ers.
Write qr:estior-is

5 u b s i d i a r i eisn l ) . . . .

Cobra Beer.Wha'fr the cor^pany'9


narae?
KaranBilimoria.

DECI.

L
;
FL

It doesn'thar.easn-ruchgasasnormal beer anclgoesver\. n'ell ri ith lnclianfood.


e Yes,to over-1>countries.
f h-rFulham in south-nest London.
g L-; rrrillior.
h 12'/, oler thc lastten lcars.
5 Cornbine the verbsin A n ith the rrorclsin B to make as m:rnl different
aspossiblc.
conrl>inations
,\ erte nd l-ralc liire rnake rllrl set llP
B r c o r r p ; t r r r l r r i d e. t o p er . r t i orr. previons e\perience a profit staff
a tllrrover a \\'ebsitc
r^aLea profit

Collocations
6 Use the collocatioris in i to conrplete the scntencesbelon'. You lnav neecl to
c l u L r r g et l r e f o n r r o [ t ] r e r c r b .
a
b

a|e rrahrnl4 Ptaf't


Or-rr investors are happl because \\'e
\\'e
so that peoplc carr get inforrration :lbout our
procluctsonline.

T l r e r L r r er rr e c t ' t t i t i trttgg e t r c[ ro
C i o r r r r rB
r ii a r r t l r i
n hich his faniilr'omrs in
llilan.
He hasthe right qLralifications
for the job, brrt
, ' ' ,' ' ,h e
?

He
rr ork

for a ncs'bnsiness,
bLrtI don't think it r.r'ill

Choosethreecollocationsfronr 6 and nrite lour o\\'nerarriplescntences.

INTRODUCTIO"

Word building
S The riordsin brackcts:rrc111irnportlnt brrsiness
lorcls. L.lsethe correctlbrnr of eachto complctc
the sentcnces.
rt

H i ' t r c n l r t I ' r r 1 1r s i . . t $ r C l l l

. l s u c c c s s t i rt l

b \\''ehare good iclcas.but u'c nced to convinceour


(rn\estlnclrt)
c As the narket grons, thcr are increasing
(procluct)
d It's a le r\'
business.tprofitl
e E v c n ' c l a r] r e a dt h e
n e \ \ s p a p e r(sf.i n a n c e )
| \\1eare lookingfor nes
to proricleus uith the parts.(supplv)
(grou)
in s:rles.
h

if r orr u ant to sun ivc in the IT ntarket. ('innovatrorr;

lt's len important to

VOUR STAR'FUF

tr \\brk n ith a parhrcr. Discnsslour icleasfor lour ot'n start-np(a nen' cornpanr').It can be either
s c r i o u so r h t t n r o r o u sC. o m p l e t et h e ' r o u r s t a r f u p c o l L r n r n
i n t h e t a b l eb e l o n . ' l ' h e nc h a n g ep a r t n e ra n c l
'r
askqucstionsto conipletctltc our pzrrtne
r': rtirrt-up'colrrrrin.
Your start-up

Your partner's start-up

Itfame of company
Pioductorseryici

USP(UnigueSellingPoint)
Locaticin
Mark6

,,, ,'.''

,'

,,
'

CoFrptitie;

LJsethe frarnenork belcxlto u'ritea descriptionof r our neu partner'scolnpalt\'.


( n a n r co f c o n t p a n )r
is:r
(hpe of corlp:n\')
I l r er r l r i rrrr t l iirh o i l l r ec . r r r p . r r r. r
I t \ [ S Pi )
The companvrsbasedin
b r r ll r a :o f f i c c :i r r
Its m:rin marketsare
and its nain conipetitoris

INTRODUCTIONS

-,****&,i***

OT *NTRO$UCTI*N5

LANGUAGELINKS

the marketing

It's like the Internet but the pagesare only accessible


inside the company.
10 We pav them to include a . ................
........
to our
websrteon therr page.
l l How much do you pay for your Internet '
.. per month?
l 4 Our systemis infected by
l 6 I don't have much time to"
the Internet
at work.
Down
I I'll sendyou the document as an e-mail
Don't get so closeto the
. It's bad for
your eyes.
6 You can...
music and picturesfrom our
site.
8 NowadaysI buy all my CDs and books
...here for further information.
l2
t 7 I'm lookins for a web
with information
about shareprices.
It In order to
......... .. . the web in comfort you
need a good computer.
4

Vocabulary
Companies
& the Internet
Complete the sentencesusing the wordsin the box.

b
c

f
g
h

I
r

The company
.....over 2,000workersin
Europe, locatedin four differentfactories.
McDonaldshas . . . .
allovertheworld.
My departmentis ...... . . . . for marketingand
salesin EasternoEurope.
Our company
provides information
about our servicesand products,but we don't sell
anythingonline.
We need more................... to finance our expansion
in China.
The ...: . .. .. .......
. of Nestl6 are in Geneva.
He has an MBA but doeshe have any previous
.. in sales?
For the company to survive,our
. .. . needs
to grow by 2A7' this year.
In my opinion, the BBC has one of the bestwebsites
on the .
They make a
of$4.20 on eachbook
thev sell without anv discounts.
'll
he company is mainly
with food and
drink productsbut alsohas other lines.

Answerson page 132.

The lnternet& computers

Grammar

Complete the crossword

Present
Simple

Across
2 We are designinga new ...... . . , . .. ... at the
moment.
3 Pleaseadd our site to your
...........
of
favourites.
5 If you give me your address,I can sendyou an

7 A

with no caLrleis much more


comfortableto use.

Ci:\TRODUC=lOrls

Practice
1
Do
Don't

I
you
WC
they

Complete the sentencesusing the verbsin the box in the


correctform - PresentSirnple or PresentContinr,rous.Use
each verb twice.

work?

iii
Does
Doesnt

he
she

ir

You usethe PresentSimple to talk about


o routineactionsand habits.
I go to work by bus.
He works late on Tuesdays.
o or-rgoing
situationswe seeasstable.
We liye in London.
They employ oyer250 people.

PresentContinuous

l'm (am)
working

He's(is)
She's(is)
It's(is) '

A
m
Aren't

l'm not

You're(are)
We're (are)
They're(are)

You aren't
We arent
Theyaren't

working

He isn't
Sheisn't
It isnt

ls
lsn't

live

sell think

work

i
j

Normaliy, I am in the office ir-ithe afternoon,but this


month I
a course.
In the winter, the reps
more than in
the summer.
Our most ir-rportantmarket is the Far East.We
business
with severalcomoanies
there.
Our new productline
very well this
year.
r r*c' Jn r ' 'l "n, .' bo ,l '."^-r' ^r r" s'
Orir boss
H e .
of changir-rg
his job becausehe's
not verv h"ppy.
'What's
'l
your address?'
..inahotel
ur-rtilwe find a nice flat.'
T nJ u n e .t h e r v e a t h e r
hot there,so
take somecool clothes.
H e
h i s i o b i s r e a l l yi n t e r e s t i n g .
l t
hotter.We need to get someair
conditioning for this office.
At present,we
on new productsand
servicesfor the future.
in his citu flrt
D u r i n g t h e r v e e kh. e
and at the weekendhe goesto the country.

Practice
2
;;

workins?

tney
'1"
ho

<na
II

You use the Preser-rt


Continuous to talk about
r activitieshappeningat the r-nomentof speaking.
He's wearing a greysuit, a white shirt and a blue tie.
Don't interruptme,please.I'mtryingto concentrate:
'What
'I'm
are you doing?'
preparingthis month'ssales
pgures.
o activitiesor situationsyou seeas temporary.
We're using this officeuntil the new one is ready.
I'm workingfrom homefor a few daysso don't phone
me at the office.
r situationswhich are cl-ranging.
The economicsituation is getting better.
()ur contpanyshareprice is steadily improtting.
You often use the PresentContinuous with time
expressions:
at the moment,this weeklmonthlyearetc.
We are hat'ing a lot of problemswith our suppliersat the
moment.
I'm doing d coursethis month, but it'snot veryinteresting.

get

\/nr I

fl:".,

ao

work?

Write questionsabout the information which is missing.


a Tl-recompany makesrnonei,by ...
flpw dpet flheeprn?anyrn4l9 wrqngy?
b Or:r businessis expandingbecause...
Wh1
c They are settingup a br-rsiness
in ...
Where
d We are lookingfor $ ...
Hou rrruch
e He haspreviousexperiencein the ... business.
W l r a lk i n d
f Their unique sellingpoint is ...
What
g My companvemploys... people.
How many
h T h e m a n a g eor [ t h e c o n r p a n li s . . .
Who
i They are talking to ... about further investment.
Who

Thefailureof Fortune500companies
to add womento their corporateleadership
in the lastthreeyearshighlightsa startlinggap betweenrhetoricand reatitVCATALYST
AND TOPEARNERS
CENSUS
OF WOMENCORPORATE
OFFICERS
OFTHEFORTUNE
5OO

TOP EARNERS
1 Look at the quotation abole. \\lhat do r ou knon about Fortune 500?Whv is the ri'riter not happi,?
2 Corrplete the statistics
aboutthe USA usingthe numbersin the box.Comparevour anslvers
r.r,itha
Parrner.
"'

E-4o/o

16.40/o

46.4vo

1.6%

14.7%

of all u,orkersare\\'omen.
of corporateofficers in the Fortune 500 are \\,oinen.
c \Vornenrepresent
oftop earners.
d
of individualsserlingon Boardsof Directorsare\\'onen.
e Hou,errer, onl]
of CEOs in the Fortr,rne500 are \\.orrlen.
a

Fortune 5OO
:::r r t{rn farv
i-,rdred,/the 500.
a r g e s tc o m p a n i e si n
:ne U5
Board of Directors
:r:d :r' da'rektez/
.oun a group of
!ople who control
: company
GEO/ si: l: 'eu/ nburi
:n mo$ Senror
-anager in the
::.npany
::-

_-

: :i-::
::-

:_r irom Macm llan


l:Sronaryand

Discussion
'fhen

Look at page 172 to cl-recktl-restatisticsin 2.

discussthe questions.

a
b

Is the situationsir-nilar
in lour countrr.?
Do 1'outhink this sitr-ration
ri'ill changein the futurc?

Readthe blog of a leadingexecutiveon a corporaten'ebsiteand ansn,ertl-reqnestions.

a What time doesSallr,NliDernott startri'orkin the morning?


b What time doesshenormall, get to the office?
c Doessheeversr-noke?
d \Vhy doessher-rse
the phone so nuch?
e Hou, often doesshe har-eto n'ork at the n eekerd?

:_ anqlsh Drctonary

5 Hon'olcldo 1,outhink Salh N4cDerrnottis?Hon hpical is her life?

A d a yi n t h el i f eo f S a l l yM c D e r m o t t
Ue area majortelecomwith operationsin mostof Europeand in
Lrternational
0perations
Manager,
includes
SallyMcDermott,
London,
anda postwith BritisliTet.ror.Stt. speaksSpanish,
Frenchr

Ha5

: = : : ' e o f t e na s km e h o wI m a n a g e
to combinu
e r u a r a r r f r ct a r e ew
r i t hf a m i l
'*: muchsleeplFivehoursis usuallyenough.So by 5.30 I'm up and at my Iaptop,

is that I
onbusiness
th my hu

:,-: e-mailsfrom the previous


day.Socially,
my day beginswith breakfastat 8.00,i
Ir':r, and my.l5-year-old
daughter,
l(atie.
- go to work in a taxi whichpicksme up at 8.30 everyday.0n the way to work I
the daily
: : : : . s . I e n j o yh a v i n gt h i st i m e t o m y s e laf n ds w i t c ho f { m y m o b i l eI.t n o r m a l l tya k e su
20 minutesto
--r
When
;E: the office.I\4yoffice is a beautifulroom with fantasticviewson the top floor of our headquarters.
joinsme andwe go throughanycorrespondence
. :"ive, my secretary
and planthe day.I makedecisions
about
:r:cintmentsand organisemeetings.
I'm giving,up
smoking,but I find it difficult.By 9.30,I feel likea cigarettel
. - : v e r h a v e o n e oc fo u r s e , a s a p a r t f r o m a n y t h i n g e l s e , t h e s e d a y s s m o k i n g i n t h e o f i c e i s n o t a l l o w e d , e v e n f o r m e
, keepgoingby drinkinga lot of coffeeand mineralwater.I usuallyhavea workinglunchin a nearbyrestaurant.
- :-,. not to eat too muchand neverdrinkanyalcohol.Then
it's nearlyalwaysbacl<to the oflce
in the afteriibon,
: ' l . n o r e m e e t i n g s . W h Ie' n
m n o t i n a m e e t i n gI ',m c o n s t a n t loyn t h e p h o n eI. u s et h e p h o n ew h e n e v epro s s i b l e
: i : a l s e i t ' s n e a r l ya l w a y sq u i c k etrh a nu s i n ge - m a i l E
. v e ni f I ' m i n t h e o f f i c eI, p r e f e rt o u s em y m o b i l eI. d o n ' t
{ -:,! why,it's just a habit I suppose.
exceptto my daughter- it's just too
I hardlyeversendtext messages,
. -:-consuming.
' liketo pick l(atieup from schoolwhenI can,but mostdaysI work untilat least8.00 andthen
--e'e is sometimes
a business
dinnerto gc to. Weekends
are sacredand prettymuchreserved
for my
-='=-iiy.
:v.I don't oftenhaveto work but occasionally
occasionallv
somethinq
uo whichI just
iustcan't avoid.
something
comesup
' e all, it's hardworl<but I enjoymy job.Thatis just as well,because
at this stagein life,if
. : - e t h i n gi s n ' tf u n ,I d o n ' td o i t !

.
.

..

i::]WOMANATWORK

5 Ur-rderline
ali the phrasesin the blog u{rich sal'hou'oftensourethinghappens.The firstone has
been done for you.
7

Underlinethe correctoption.

a In rnostcases,Adverbsof Frequencr (.sometimes,


often,rLet,er,
etc.) go before/afterthe rnain verb.
b Adverbsof Frequenc,vgo before/afterthe verb /o be.

Expressing
frequency
I

Add a frequeno'expressiorr
to eachsentenceso that it is true for 1,'ou.
always everyday everyweek hardlyever never not often
often oncea month sometimes twicea year usually

a
b
c
d
e

I
I
I
I
I

go to li'orkb1,car.
get hon-relate.
rvork at tl'reu'eeker-rd.
l-ravea holidai'.
feel bored with rr1, job.

f
g
h
i
j

Ml bossgivesme a hard time.


M,vcornputercrashes.
l find time to relax anclenjoy rlyself.
I har,eargumentsn'itl-rpeople at work.
I read the financial papers.

'Action'
'You'
9 Complete the
and
columr-rsin the chart belon'.Tl-renaskquestionsto completethe
'Your
oartner'column.
You

Yourpartner

onceaweek

BLOGS
I

D i s c r r sl sl r e s eq r r e s t i o rrrisi t l r e p a r [ r r e r .

a What is a blog?What different\,pes of blogsare there?Do von everread them?


b How can blogsbe useful in business?Do you knol,r'anv fanor:s corporateblogs?
2

=.*= Listento hvo peopletalkingaboutblogs.Are their ideassirnilarto yoursin 1?

3 Listen again.As 1'ouiisten, number the phrasesbelou' i1 the order you hear them.
,
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

E Whrt do you think about ... ?


L--lFor example,fron'ia (business)point of vreu'...
Yes,you're probabli' right, br:t ...
L--.1
'
f] okav. but ...
I lMatbe.but ...
I Oo ),oureallt'think ... ?
L-JI'rn not sure about that.
mean?
L-l What do 1'611

Form hvo groups.

Group A: Think of argumer-rts


in favour of blogsand make notes.Look at page I 3J for ideas.
Group B: Thir-ikof argumentsagainstblogs.Look at page139for ideas.
5 Find a partner froln the other gror,rpin 4 and have a discussionrvhere,voudefend yollr arguments
for/against
blogs.Use eachphrasein 3 at leastonce.

. woMAN
ArvvoRK

to add womento their corporateleadership


Thefailureof Fortune500companies
in the lastthreeyearshighlightsa s_laflinggapbetweenrhetoricand reality5OO
AND TOPEARNERS
OFTHEFORTUNE
OFFICERS
CATALYST
CENSUS
OF WOMENCORPORATE

TOP EARNERS
1 Look at the quotation above.\\1hat do lou knot' about Fortrlne i00? Wht' is the u,riter not happv?
tlith a
2 Conplete the statisiics
aboutthe USA usingthe numbersin the box. Corrparet'our ansn'ers
Parrner.
:,1t,

6.qvt

16.40/o

46.40/o

1,60/o

14.7n/o

of all u,orkersare \\.omen.


of corporateofficersin the Fortune 500 are \\'onlen.
oftop earners.
\\bmen represent
C
d
of indiviclualsservingon Boardsof Directorsare \\iorlen
of CEOs in the Fortune500are \\romen.
e Hou'ever,onl),
a

Fortune 5OO
/ fa'r/r'\rfln

fqrrr

il\ndred,/the 500
l a r g e s tc o m p a n i e si n
the US
Board of Directors
/br:d ev de'rektez/
noun a group of
people who control
a company
CEOl,si: i: sul ioun
the most senior
m a n a g e ri n t h e
company
l:':.itions

ffom Macm llan

:::ertial Dictionary and


r.'..millan Engl sh D ct onary

Discussion
3

Look at page l J2 to check the statisticsir-r2. The n discussthe questior-is.

a
b

Is the sitr-ration
similar in r,our countrr'?
Do,vou think tl-rissituationri'ill changein tl-refuture?

Readthe blog of a leading executiveon a corporaten'ebsiteand ansrverthe qr-restions.

a What tin-redoesSalli MiDerrnott startu.ork in the rnorning?


b What tin-iedoesshenormalli'getto the office?
c Does she ever srroke?
so mrich?
d Whl,doessheusethe phor-re
to ri ork at the n.eekend?
e Hou, often doesshe l-rar.e
5 Holv old do l'ou think Sallt N{cDermottis?Hori'h'picalis her life?

A dayin thelifeof SallyMcDermott


Wearea majortelecomwith operations
in mostof Europeandin
includes
International
Manager,
SallyMcDermott,
0perations
French
London,
anda postwith BritishTelecom.
ShespeaksSpanish,

ilas

ia thai I
careerwith
Peopleoftenask me how I manageto combinea successful
onbusiness
r e e dm u c hs l e e p F
! i v eh o u r si s u s u a l l e
y n o u g hS. o b y 5 . 3 0 l ' m u p a n da t m y l a p t o p ,
my
my day beginswith breakfastat 8.00,
ande-mailsfrom the previous
day.Socially,
Derel<,
daughte4
l(atie.
and my 15-year-old
the daity
I go to worl<in a taxi which picksme up at 8.30 everyday.0n the way to work I
p a p e r sI .e n j o yh a v i n gt h i st i m et o m y s e laf n ds w i t c ho { f m y m o b i l eI.t n o r m a l l yt a k e s
2 0 m i n u t etso
When
getto the office.My officeis a beautifulroomwith fantasticviewson the top floor of our headquarters.
joinsme andwe go throughanycorrespondence
about
and planthe day.I makedecisions
I arrive,my secretary
appointments
and organisemeetings.
I'm givingup smoking,but I find it difficult.By 9.30,1feel likea cigarette!
I neverhaveoneof coursgas apartfrom anythingelse,thesedayssmokingin the officeis not allowed,evenfor mer
I keepgoingby drinkinga lot of coffeeand rineral water.I usuallyhavea workinglunchin a nearbyrestauranl.
it's nearlyalwaysbaclito the office
in the afternoon,
I try not to eat too muchand neverdrinl<any alcohol.Then
possible
on the phone.I usethe phonewhenever
WhenI'm not in a meeting,I'm constantly
and moremeetings.
because
it's nearlyalwaysquickerthanusinge-mail.Evenif l'm in the office,I preferto usemy mobile.I don't 4r
exceptto my daughter- it's just ioo
knowwhy,it's just a habit I suppose.
I hardlyeversendtext messages,
time-consuming.
I liketo pick l(atieup from schoolwhen I can,but mostdays] work until at least8.00 andthen
for my
are sacredand prettymuchreserved
thereis sometimes
a business
dinnerto go to. Weekends
comesup whichI just can't avoid.
family.I don't oftenhaveto work but occasionally
something
at this stagein life,if
All in all, it's hardworl<but I enjoymy job.Thatis just as well,because
s o m e t h i ni gs n ' tf u n ,I d o n ' td o i t !

G'

=.*

Ii,'WOMANATWORK

-1.:;;1,;.

WHAT'S IN A JOB?
1 e? .*e Two friends meet and
talk aboutsomeone's
new job. Listen
to their conversationand ansrverthe
questions.
a What is the relationshipbetween
E d d i et t h e m a n ) a n d F i o n ai t h e
personwith the neiv job)?
b How doesEddie feel about the new
loDt

2 C o m p l e t et h e d i a l o g u er r s i r r g
tlre
questionsin the box.

3:::ilH:ln
"n,
":??l;:i,'J,,,

{11iti{,;**5:'*',*'
r

A Hi, Eddie.How areyou?


B Oh hello, Jennie.I'm fine. And you?
A Fine, thanks.How's Fiona?
B Oh, she'sokay.She'sgot a neu, job.
A Realiy,tl-rat'sgood.
S W e l l .y e s .I s r r p p o sseo .b r r tI ' m
worried she'sworking too hard.
lc-nghevrs?
A Oh dear. a) E"es it tntle!:'lp
B Officially 40 hours,but she often workslate. We don't seeher at horne rnuch.
A b)
B It's the samecompany- you know - educationalsoftware- but she'sr-iowRegionalMarketing
Managerfor rvesternEurope.
A S o u n d si m p r e s s i v ec .l
B Apart from being in cl-rargeof the salesreps,she'salso involved in new product developrnentand the
whole marketingstrategyof the company.
B It seemsto. At leasta couple of trips a month.
A I see.
B I don't mind that. It's the weekendsthat causeoroblems.
A e )
B Not everyweekend,but we can never ma(e plans.
A Oh dear.f)
B lt's not bad. Three weeksa vear.But that'sa long way off.
A Y o u ' r eb e i n ga b i t n e g a t i v eg.)
B It's hard work, but I think she enjoysthe challenge.
A But you're not very happy.
B I'm happy for her. The money'sgood, and it's greatfor her career,br-rtthere is a downside.
A: Well, it's alwaysdifficult at the beginning.Anyway,give her my regards.Why don't we go for a drink
sometime?
B Okay, I will, and yes,I'd like that.
3 Work with partner.Ask questionsas in 2 to completeyour chart.
SpeakerA: Look ai the clrarton page I j5.
SpeakerB: Look at lhe charton page I 42.
4 Ask your partner similar questionsabout their job or the job of someonethey know.

*2WOMAN
O'*O*"

,r4--,,;.:*,

WHAT'S IN A JOB?
1 $ :"*+ Two friendsmeet and
new iob. Listen
talk aboutsomeone's
to their conversationand answerthe
questions.
a What is the relationshipbehveen
Eddie (the man) and Fiona (the
personwith the new job)?
b Horv doesEddie feel about the new
loDr
2 Complete the dialogueLrsingthe
questionsin the box.

,,

Doesit involvelonghours?

:;
.:: Doesit meana lot of travelling?

sheenjoyit?
5 Does
Doesshehaveto work weekends?

: Howmuchholidaydoessheget?
. : Whatdoesit involve?

t What'sshedoing?
A
B
A
B
A
r

A
B
A
B
A
B

Hi, Eddie.How areyou?


Oh hello, Jennie.I'n-rfine. And you?
Fine, thanks.How'sFiona?
Ol-r,she'sokay.She'sgot a neu, job.
Really,that'sgood.
W e l l .y e s .I s r r p p o sseo .b r r tI ' m
worried she'sworking too hard.
Oh dear.a)DoesiI inJp!:,telenghqvr<1
Officially 40 hours,but sl-reoften workslate. We don't seeher at home much.
b)
It's the samecompany- you knou,- educationalsoftware- but she'snow RegionalMarketing
Managerfor westernEurope.
S o r r u d ism p r e s s i v ec .)
Apart from being in chargeof the salesreps,she'salso involved in new product developrnentand the
whole marketingstrategyof the company.

B It seemsto. At leasta couple of trips a month.


A I see.
B I don't mind that. It's the rveekendsthat causeproblems.
A e )
B Not everyweekend,but we can never rna.feplans.
A Oh dear.f)
B It's not bad. Three weeksa year.But that'sa iong way off.
A Y o u ' r eb e i n ga b i t n e g a t i v eg.)
B It's hard work, but I think she enjoysthe challenge.
A But you're not very happy.
B I'm happy for her. The money'sgood, and it's greatfor her career,but there is a downside.
A: Well, it's alwaysdifficult at the beginning.Anyrvay,give her my regards.Why don't we go for a drink
sometirr-re?
B Okay,l will, and yes,I'd like that.
3 Work with partner.Ask questionsas in 2 to cornpleteyour chart.
S p e a k eA
r : L o o k a t t h e c h a r to r rp a g eI 3 5 .
S p e a k eB
r : L o o k a t t h e c l r a r to n p a g e1 4 2 .
4 Ask your partner simiiar questionsabout their job or the job of someonethey kr-row.

*: WOMAN
ATWORK

TAKINGTHINGSEASV
1 Do vou take reguiarexercise?
Do r or-rtfrink it's important?Work n.ith a partneranclconrpletethe
questionnaire
belos'.
a Taking
exercise
in thebestsolution
for stress.

: true

. false

SOort
isthekeyto a healthy
andlonglife.
!.
; People
whogetup earlysufferfromstress.

r true
'
true

,l false
: false

teoplewhohavea sleep
during
thedaylivelonger.

true

. false

People
intheir50sneedto save
theirenergy.

true

false

.!

Brisk
walksarethehealthiest
formof exercise.

, true

I false

Nou' readtlre articlebelori'to seeif vour ans\\'ers


are the sanleasthe author's.

Underlinetl.rreeerpressior-rs
in tl'rearticlerihich nean to relaxor to rest.

Choosethe besttitle for the article.

a All u'orkand no plar rnakesJacka dull bor


b Healtl-rrisksfor the over 50s
c Siestaor Nilarathon?
(rotrr ou'r'riclea)
d

Discussion
5 Discussthe folloriing questionswith other peoplein the c1ass.
a
b
c
cl

Do lorl :rgreeu'ith Professor,\t?


\\1hat do i'ou cloto relax?
Do lou fincl it easl to relar?
Do lotr do lrore or lessexercisethan vou n ould like to? Do vou do nore or lessexercisethan t ou
tl-rinkis good for vou?\\/hr'?

THEY SAY that a healthybody is a healthymind,but according


to a Germanexpert it is lazy peoplewho lead longerand healthier
lives.ProfessorPeterAxt recommendsavoidingstrenuousactivity
like aerobicsor working out in a gym.'Peoplewho preferto lazein
a hammockinsteadof runninga marathonor who take a midday
nap insteadof playingsquashhavea betterchanceof living into
old age,'saysthis scientist.Theyare also lessIikelyto sufferfrom
professiona
s tl r e s s .
He co-wrote0n the Joy of Lazinesswith his daughter;
who is
alsoradoctor.In the book he advisespeopleto'waste half your time.
Just enjoy lazingaround.'Those
who get up early in the morning
usuallyfeel stressedfor the rest of the day,so his aclviceis to take it
easy.
However,ProfessorAxt stressesthat lazinessin only one of the
keysto a longerlife. In fact, the subtitleof his book is How best to
use your energies.He arguesthat if you are too fat, you needmore
energyto maintainbodyfunctions,and is in favour of moderate
exerciselike 'meditative'joggingor brisk walks to'relax body and
s p i r i ta t L h es a m et i m e ' .
0n the other hand,any exertionis not recommended,
especially
for middle-agedpeoplewho shouldbe particularlycareful about
doingtoo much sport. ProfessorAxt believeswe haveonly a
limitedamountof energy,and peoplewho use up their supplymore
::quicklyIiveshorter lives.'Researchshowsthat peoplewho run long
distancesinto their 50s are usingup energythey needfor other
p ur p o S e s . /

- r w o M A N A rw o R K

j"1.f*siF k1fl1* ie,


*X :ti$-*rfeft

D o a sa n a u x i l i a r y

LANGUAGELINKS

Cornplete the conversationr-rsingdo, does,don't or doesrL't


A (")
vou do a lot ofexercise?
B Yes,I supposeI (b)
. Wh.v do you ask?
A Well, it's better if 1'ou(c)
, accordingto a
Cerman scientist.
B What (d)
he sayaboutit?
you
A He (e)
sat'that ererciseis bad f<-rr
exacth',but that if 1'oudo too much, ,vouuse r-rpall
vorlr energ\'.
B That (f)
make sense.Sportis goodfor
vou and rlakes 1'oufeel better.
A Yes,but accordingto hirli people lvho run a lot and
plai'squash(g)
. . usuallvlive to an old age.
B Well,I (h)
believeit. He probablylust
(i)
like sport.

PhraseBank: Discussingideas
.;l*W1l
what do vouthink about"' ?
,:lllilt:::l:t,:::::a::ri:::
pointof view...
Forexample,
from a (business)
lr.:r:llllr:l::.al.l.l::i..
I don'tthinkthat "
:i:::il::::i:::::::l:::l
"'iir:::::lal.:.:il
Yes,you'reprobablyright,but...
Dovou rearrv
think "' ?
..:tl:l::ill::]:l:l:::::,
r'm
not
sure
about
that'
,:]ati:::i:.::::::airt:.
what do Youmean?
,ri:ri1:i::::::::r.1::,
't:tttltt:ttlilllll::::

Vocabulary
Work& routines
Match the partsof the sentencesbelori'.

Jobs

ProfessorArt thinks that lazing ...


Doing aslittle aspossibleis better...
L 1i r r ga b o u ti s t l r ek e 1. . .
Thkea middaybreakinstead...
He's in favour...
Tiy to take ...
W e o r r l l h a r ea l i r r r i t e d. . .
l f l o u g e tu p e r r l l. y o u a r el i k e l l t o . . .

Reorganisethe lettersto forni rvordsrelatedto jobs.Then


complete the sentencesr,rsingthe rvords.
'" contacaunt denistrep driteer
-:.',nagream soipoint texecuvie

Phrasal
verbs

T : : q

Con'rbir-re
a verb from box A with a prepositionfrom box B
to con'rpleteeach sentencebelolv.

=.j=-=".=

::-:i:i::l,$;,-,-ti:uil=.i;i:i.*.='+,ii+;=.*+-,t:..

nacharim

a She'sthe chief
officer.
b He'sthe
of the board.
c He doesr-r't
u'ork, he's
d The CEO is the top
.. in the compan1,.
'r
i s i c ep r e s i d e r r t ' .
e Herinb
f It's hard to explain rvhatI do, but I gr,ress
I'rn a sort of
department
g The financial director is a qualified
'sounds
h The job title
more irnportant
'chairrlan'.
than

... around is goodfor you.


... of playingsquashor goingfor a mn.
... arnountof energy.
... it easl'this weekend.
. . . t h a ng o i n gt o t h e g r r r .
. . . t o a l o r r gl i f e .
... of rnoderateexerciselike walking.
... feel stressed
for the restofthe day.

b i c

litte

::::::i:.=-:-=-=

Write in the missing pairs of rvords belorv.

A
pick switch give go

charge+ hiring engineer+ degree


experience+ qualifications get + off
productive+ day
marketing+ women ratio + to

work

use

.t

B
'=a

a We only
half an hour
lunch.
b You should get sornepractical

asrvell as

She'sin
d Why do
e

. . andfiring
of
departmentshave more
than men?
If you want to be an
, you'll need a

The

throrgh

for

..

of men to rvomen is hvo


one rn my job.
g Nobodycan be
sixteenhours a

up

off

up

up

out

your rnobile
b
e
F
o
r
e
phones
t h e p r e s e r r t a t i obne g i n r .
b After a long da1'at the office. I iike to
. .... at the g,vn beforeI go hon-re.
c I n'ant to
srnokingbecauseI
knor'r'it's bad for nv health.
'l'he
d
taxi
I]le
rnorningat half pastnrne.
e I don't r,r'antto
all rnv energy
doing strenuousexercrse.
I She
. her correspondence
rvith her
s e c r e t a rer re r i r r r o n r i n g .
a

Pleasecan vou

::}:WOMAN
ATWORK

Grammar

Practice
1

frequency
Expressing

Reorganise the n'ords and phrases to rnake correct


scntences.

To sav hou,often sometl'ringhappens lotl Llse:


.

Adverbs offrequencv
not often

always hardly ever never


sometimes usually
often

The adverb comes before the main verb:

abroad

a on clepartmcnt
Nlonclar, rnorning

oftcrr

he

to

four

travel

vear

rne eting

alil'ays

\\'e

have

doesrr't go

Certtrtri

d ;;;;.;;;; ,1.; a"p;'.;,.t .',.,'ri''i1,".'

I
I

(don'Vdoesn'1.)
usually
(don'Vdoesn't)
often
sometimes
never

You
We
They
He
She

: : :

but after the verb


t
You
*,
I nev
ne
She

time s

: ,

on Friclav earlv
to work.
, drive(s)
: go(es)out for lunch

: :

, : : .

'to

: r

: : :

be'

'
am
r are
ts

e I ,',. ,r'l .;; ;;',;; ;;;.;i ;;;.;'l a'r," i


f

has the

on.,,

office canteen she aiu,ays ittnch


in,

tl'.t

h als'als \licrosoft

(not)usually
(not) often
sometimes
never

,,ork ,r"t''t
is the

in

trr.

ne\\'is in

l -+^

tired

Frequencvcxpressions
,even dal,lweek
t'earetc.
tinrcsa davl t,eeklmorLthl
onceltn*icelthree
'l'hese
come at the beginning or end of
cxpressiotts
the sentence.

rrri

ever

oftcrr to

",.r1
do

.I,.tlg.

,nobil. ,.r,

)'ou liave parties office?


I'ott grrr' ,u,'

r.lo g":

flt"

I );., i;,;; ;; ;; -.;;h i;;.;;t


Practice
2

lYOU
': We
They
, i l e
,: She

have(has)a break
qo (qoeston holiday
:

,1.::every day
::j: OnCe
,',, Twice
,,,1.Three times
o,'"t
,...,..
,t*r

a day
a week
a month
a year
':''l::-::i

. ,:-:'

'

everv dav.
once
twlce
three times
lour trmes

I
you
WC
they
he
she

a
a
a
a

qav.
weeK.
month.
vear.

Rervritethe questionusing questionlr'ordswhat, who,


ulrcn etc.
Do \ oLrgo to n.orkb-vcar?On foot?
*1ewd:qyeugple wqrl'?
b Do \.o11Lrsethe phone a lot? Ever?
a

c
have(has)a break.
go (goes)on holiday

Do l'ou get to rvorkat 8.30?9.00?

d ;;; i.; ;; il; h;.,';;;;il;;;


1

i . Litl'it?B;.;;;;

ne nas to.-

Do", l'. plrsq,,rrl.r.ti.r, d", l lu.r, t,f.l:

Does sl-rego to u'ork rvith her }rusband?A friend?

s D; ';,';";; ir'.'..."i"g;;ki;;;i;;ri H'i,'g


rneetings?

WOMAN AT WORK

I'

D ; r o r rr r o r ki 5 l r o , ' r r r , e " k : F o r t rh o , ' r r , * . " k ?

t o, r . r . j t h e t ' " * s p a f e r :
D o e si t t a k " r o ' , 2 0 r r r i r n L t e
Half an hor-rr?

Do vott u ork so hard becattseit's fun? BecauseI'ou


r-reedthe rnor-ier'?

A VodafoneUK surveyof more than 1,100businesspeople revealsthat the


telephoneis still the dominant networking tool (59 per cent),but phone usage
with clients has dropped by almost a third (30 per cent) in the spaceof a
generaJion,with e-ma]ltaking priorityHTTP:/AA/WW.COM
PUTING.CO.UK

TELEPHONE
NUMBERS
1 $ =..===-:.*=
I-ister-r
to the ertractsand ii'rite dou'n the phone nurrber.
a

O?VT

b
2

C
d

Lister-r
againand put the phrasesin the orderthat r.ouhearthem.

E Crtr I speakto Derek LaMotte,please?


"
b L--lYouhaveone nessagefrom 901586759at 18.30on April i.
c L--lRing no\\'on 902386980.I'11repeatthat for \,ou.If you knou'the ans\'ver,
phone us now on
9 0 23 8 6 9 8 0 .
d I Catr you gii,ene the number of BudgetCar Rental,please?
e L--lNo, I'n-rafraiclyort'r'egot the ri'rortgnr-tnber.
f L"l I'n sorn. Could vou sal that againa bit slou'er?
3

Underline phrasesin the sentencesir-r2 that r,ou think are useftrlto knon'.

Discussthe follor,r'ingqtrestionsu'ith a partner.

a Do you find it easl'toremerrbettelephonenumbers?Holv nran)'doyou knorvbl, menorv?


b Write clownfive random telephonenumbersand dictatethem to vour partner as fastas possible.

TNDTRECT
QUESTTONS

::ii i

*r***#

1 e =.* We useindirectquestionsto soundmore polite.Completethe dialoguebelow.Then listen


to seeifyou are correct.
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A

InterAir, can I help you?


Yes,please.I'd like some information about a flight arriving frorr Munich.
Yes.Do yorr
I'he flieht number?I'm not sure.I knou' it leavesMr-rnichat I710.
Oh, yes,that'sIA74>.
Y e s t, h a t ' si t . C o r r l d
getsin?
Yes,tl-rearrivaitine is 1910.
lql0. Do yorr
any delay?
N o . t h e f l i g h ti s r , r rl ri r r r e .
Right, tl-rankyou very much.
Yor-r're
welcome. Goodbye.

-=-==-

Look at the pronrptson page I 32 and practisethe conr.ersationli'ith a partner.

Look at the cl-rartbelou''Then rephrasethe cluestionsnsing Do you know "? or could votLtell me "'?
how long it takes?
wherethe airportis?
if shegot my message?
if you'llfinishthe orderon time?
::::::::::j:::::i::j.:::::-::-=:::':'::-::::-.i==::::'::::::::::.::=:::':'::::::::::==

\\11-rat
tinre doestlie flight leave?
Cctuldyou tell me what tin'Lethe flight leat'es?
NOT
Which terrninal cloesit leale froln?
C

Hos,f:rris the facton'fromthe airport?

H o r i l o r g i , t l r e' r r e . t i ' r g , r i t\ hl r F r r c r l t e ' l

is it?
Which car hire con-rpanv

i,r-'r.r"'
#;i; ;; ti.;,;;,.,,u'r,ili

I
D

Do I needan internationaldrir ing Iicence?

wh;;;;;;,;;.;,i;;'

ls lt a Dlce Placer

'

H o i r l a r i r t l r el ' r o f f r o n rl l r e, ' " " r . r t l o u r r l


"l

k Have tl-revbookeda rneeting roorn?


4

\Vork u'ith a partner.

SpeakerB: Look at page138.


SpeakerA: Read tl-reinstructionsbelou'.
You are trar,ellingon businessin the UK. When r.or-rfinisl-rthere,\'ou are going straightto another
countrv for a specialsalesconference.You expectedto receiveinforn'rationabout this trip fron 1'o1i1
office,but the hotel'sInternetconnectiorrdoesn'tn'ork,and l'ou dor-r'thar.'eaccessto I'our e-mail
in J. Make a note of all the
account. Ring t'our office to get the necessarlinformation.Ask the qi-restions
information.

-,TELEPH.NETALK

TELEPHONEFRUSTRATION
1 Cornplete the list of possibletelephonefrustrationsusing verbsin the box
call get (x4)
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

Tl-re1'
You
Peopleyou ca1l
They
You .........
Thel'
Thet'don't
You continuallr'
Peopleclon't
You
1

listen play

put

repeat return take

transfer

. irritating music u{ren lou're put or-rhold.


crlt off in the nriddleof vour call.
.
a lor-rgtime to ansn'er.
hold
and forgetabontvou.
on
),ou
an ans\\rer
phone.
to
\'ou to another personand i'ori l-ra'"'e
properll to s'hatvoLlare saling.
an engagedtone nfien lou
vorlr calls.
through to a voicerr-rail
slstem.

\,'our enqlllry
someone.

2 With a partner or vorlr teacher,decideu'hich of the problemsin I are the fir'e most fmstrating.Then
look on page 136 to seen'hat the fir'e rnostfrustratir-rg
problemsare accordingto a snn er'.
3 A r r s l e rl l r eq r r e s l i o rur si l l r a p a r t r r e r .
a Wrat percentageof all salesenquiriesclovou think begin on the telephone?

r ) z t % 2 ) 5 0 %7 ) 9 0 % ?
b
c

For rvl'rath'pe of cornpaniesrnight effectiveuse of the telephonebe especiallr,inportant?


Hour manl' calls do I'ou estimatean averagetelephonistans\versin a I'ear?

I) 30,0002) 100,000
3)3,000,000
d What kinds of thingsdo telephonereceptionists
need to be goodat?
4

Nou, read the text.According to the author, ri'hatare the ansvn.ers


to the questionsin 3?

'N{ore
5 Accordingto the article,
businessis lostthroughbad servicethan bt,poor product
performance.'
Do you agree?

r
r

-=--=--

6 g1 :.==--=.==Listento six extractsfrorn telephonecalls.Identifuwhich skill listedin paragraph2 of


Ringing in the Millions is bcing uscd.
onl,old
r placi"'lcalls
b
c . . . . ........ . .
d
F
7 Listenagainand completethe missingphrases.
305,please?
a A Car-rI har,e
. Will vou liold?
B I'rn afraid the line
can
? You need 50 unitsbv Fridav,anclMr Johansson
b A Couid I
contact vou on 943 69+726.
B Yes,that'scorrect.
:rssoon ashe's free.
A R i g l r tN. l r S r r r i l l lr' .l l
c A ... and it reallf i5ll'1gooder-rough.
the error.As
B Yes,N,{r\Vright. I understandn'hat vott'resaving:rnd
soonasMr Dou,nsis back,I'11askhim to get in contactn'ith vott
aboutthis.
A Right,thank vou. I realiseit'snot vour fault.
please?
A Could I har,ethe SalesDepartmer-rt,
tlo\v.
B One mornent, please.Just
A ShonaghClark speakir-rg.
. \'oLlrletterof l2th |une.
B Helio, I'm
A This is JorgenBode here.Cotrld I speakto JeanSimmons,please?
right nori. Can I askher
B Oh, I'm sorrt',N{i Bode,but Ms Sinrnons
if it'surgent
.
to call vou back?Or I can
I

Discussthe follou'ing questionsri'ith a partner.

Doesit providetraining?
a Doesyour companvhaveanl policieson phone r-rse?
lartdiine?
you
or
a
b Do
preferto trsea mobile
c What functions doesvour phor-rehar''e?Do vott knou'horv to use then-rall?

Telephonephrases
9

Match the follon'ing to n'iaketelephoneerpressions.


put
repeat
read
grve
take

leave
speaK
have
check
go

a message?
that?
that backto me?
me throughto (Accounts)?
me your name?

to Mr Wilson?
overthat again?
extension103, please?
that?
! a message?

=l==::::-=::======..:=-:::==

to
about
to
for
aboul

l:.-:::-:==-==:.-i:-::i{i=::j=i=fa

your advertisement.
an appointment.
someinformation.
confirmour meeting.
seeif you couldattenda meetingon the 20th.
i-na:.1::i:ii,::::-itiii.i-E5:L?l!ai5+

-=-=:=---

l'

- . :

SALES CONTACTS
1 e5 .=? The salesteam at ADH Graphicsusesthe form below to record the detailsof all phone
callswith ootential clients.Listen to the conversationand cornpletethe form.

F**gg**se* F***=

OO(D Graphics
**T:

t4 Mny
Wednesday

CALLlF{!fi&TEDEY: Client

*&*-:-F**S*LE: 9.Whi*e
CLEi$C bellstone&Sn ith
-,Clapharn
Rd, L"nd"n SWt{

&****$:

G)

**FiTAt*

lvlrClarks"n

F*$l?E**:

lleado{

(b)

T5-: (c)
E-l*AlL:
*A?**g

elarlson.bellstone@lineone.cpwt
SF $*t5:*gS=:

*#RF*SS *F *ALL:

flevator r,anufacturer

Want: estivhatetor Vrintin4a(d)

(e).

tstiwrate; also{or (1).


Size:o
**SSF*Ei{?*:

(f)
pages.
C-opies,
. . and(h).
....
.. ...copiet.
. . in blaekand whife.C-over
in colour.Wll suyplyrnalerialon disLor CD.

They ate u?de+ingall their vrranualE,


so could live v9 rv\orcworLil the price is rilht

A*Sg&ii*5*JEREF:Vi:it chentwith$)

sYlsi{***; 9. Whi+e
SA?Aff*T!#lE: (L)

May at lo arv'.

Role-play
2 Work with a partner and practisetelephoningfor information and taking r-rotes.
SpeakerA: Look at page135.
SpeakerB: Look at page133.

*3TELEPHONE'A'"

*:$ -T+Lf:iE*'E*#* F-i-*

A fust one moment.I'm sorry,but the line is


(d)
. Do yor-rwant to
(.)
?

LANGUAGELINKS

B All right.
A (f)
B H e l l ot.g t
rrralrdSLrr

ltow.
+L^ l^^.,+-^-+

-l--"^2
HrLaJLr

I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning.


th)
?
Y e sp
. l e a s e{.i )
. .. . George
Smith. Could l'6tl askhim to

t n t s t s . - -.
i The line is engaged.

(i)

Y o u ' v eg o t t h e w r o n g n u m b e r

C Yes,ofcourse.Coodbye.
B B,ve.

l ' m p h o n i n ga b o u t . . . .

Vocabulary

3 Match the partsof the sentencesbelow.

Numbers

a Tell her it'sMr Jenkins.I'rr returning...


b Typical!I got cut ...
c I hate it i,vl-ren
the,rrput you ...
d I keepgettingan engaged...
e Could yolr say...
f Can you readthat ...

Write the full fonn of the numbersand figures.


a
b
c
d
e
F

threehvndred4ndtyentyere
721
6q%
1,428
llrrr
$9.39
24.678,902

phrases
Telephone
1 Put-theconversatior-r
belorvin the correct order.
g.1lo,
ADH Graphics.
E
Y.r, please.Could you askhim to phone Johr-r
Clarksonfrom Bellstone& Smith? He has the phone
number.
I hrstone rloment ... I'm sorry,there'sno answer.
E Y.r, of course.Cor-rldI just check,vourname?John
'Clark frorn Bellstone& Srnith.
'l'hank
you. Gooclbye.
E
Oh,
dear.
I'rn phoning for some inforrnation.It's quite
I
turgent.Do you know u,hereI can contact him?
I Otr, good rnorr-ring.Could I speakto PeterWhite,
pleaser
I No, sorry,I'm afraid I don't. Can I take a message?
.'
I Xo, it's Clarksolr.He knor,vswhat it's about.
I Oh, sorry,Mr Clarkson.I'11tell hin-i as soon ashe's
available.
I

2 Complete the conversationusir.rgthe u,ordsand


phrasesin the box.
badline callme CanI takea message?
CouldI speakto dialledthe wrongnumber engaged
hold put methrough Thisis You'rethrough

A SalesDepartraent.Can I help you?


B O l r ! | n r t r sht a r e{ a )
C a r r i o r(rb r
Services,
please?
I ' r r rs o r r l ' i.t ' sa ( c )
Did you sayCustomerServices?
Yes,tl-rat'sright.

--TELEPH.NETALK

to Customer

I
2
3
-1

... on hold, and then forgetaboutyou.


... backto rne, just to check?
... tor-re.
Maybe his phone is off the hook.
. . .l i e r c a l l t l r i sr r o r n i n g .
5 ... that again,please?I didn't r-rnderstand.
6 ... offin the middle of the call.

- = " : b : c

l
e , : T

j.,,",= r
S.,...===,:,,,
t

:::' :::rt-:::ia:al-1i= :tii.:ia::ii,1i:iiji::i-

Maich the'nvordsto their definitions.

I
"
Il
I .
I a
I
"
L_-lI

telephonedirectorv
engaged
dialling tone
r e v e r s ceh a r g ec a l l
nationalcali
oll-peakcall

I g
Ih
I i
I i
I I
L__lI

wrong nurnber
switchboard
extensionnumber
cellplrorre
directoryenquiries
operator

1 A contimroussound that meansyou can dial the


number you want.
7 The equiprr-rent
r,vhichdistributescallsto the different
departmentsand officesin a company.
7 A phone nuirber you dial by rnistake.
4 Busy- someoneis r-rsingthe line you want.
5 The number of each differentphone in a company.
6 A call which is paid for by the personyou are calling.
7 Also calleda mobile phone.
8 A b o o ku ' i t l ra l i s to f t e l e p h o nner r n r b e r s .
9 A serviceyou phone if vou want io fir'rda number.
1 0 A call to a differertpart of the country.
1 l A personwl-rohelps you make a call.
I 2 A call rnadeir-rthe ever-ring
or at the weeker-rd
which
has a lolr'ercharge.

2
Practice

5 Rewritethe following conversationto make it sound more polite.


Galaxy Computers

Galaxy Computers. What do you want?

trhe-lp
yo-,E
G;laxyGr^tvter:.Aau,

Change the direct questionsinto


indirect questions.

I want to speakto Harris.


\{ichael fones
b
Galaxy Computers Who are you?
c
Ilichael

a What time doesthe meeting


begin?
Do you know .

|ones.ABC Industries.

fones

d
Galary Computers Who?What'syour name againT
e
lfichael

Michael Jones.
Galaxy Computers He's speakingto someoneon his line. Want to wait?
i
No. Tell him I called, right?
Ilichael fones

Ho.,v-".f. rt if-l. f,oteli


Could you tell me

Why is he angry?
Do you know

Is therf r r.t,r"trt,.rrtrain?
Can you tell me

fones

0
D

G"lrty Computers No problem.Bye.


h

on tt'.

e Where can I park the car?


Can youtellme

Grammar

f t; fh;;ifi.. ,,.r,,h; ;;; |'.",'f:

IndirectQuestions

Can you remember


Un"ot

-.,,

m"r"are$q;ffi

rirdi@olle.*it*s
caorouteg,*e,

Di*,el,eiii=l

'

Fbw is she?
Where are we
' t
meeting?
t /here do you Sve?
Flow much money+
doesheearn?

,
Does he li*e footbail?
Hashe got my
address?

, ,,.

where you are fromZ


how sFreis?

.
r

No do or does

where we'rc nreetrng?

ffin YeslAlo
questions

:ltf*

Wordorder

where yiru five?


how much monev he
".*tl
if he likesfootbalt?
if he hasgot my
address?

Practice1
Reorganisethe wordsto make indirect questionsor statements.
a

if

tell

b know
c

do

got
be

long

my

me

back will
know

could
do

when

takes you

. tr'il k;;;

Jo *hrt word ;;;

think h. ;,;i;

idea the

is time

you

it

;;; ti,rl ."" r.r".' y""

th; ;#

he

how

a ,.-.-fl'

f f;;;

she message

you

I've

;;;i

;;'

no

what

;";;;
t; ;;

03TELEPHONE'A'*

A gossiptalks about others,a bore talks about himself- and a brilliant


talks about you.
conversationalist
ANONYMOUS

1 ff : :::: Rick Van Lool and Florerlt Rorlclcletlleet in a


hotcl bar afterdinner. l,istento ConlersatiorlI atld
ans\\'erthe questions.
a What doesFlorent clo?
b \\,'hat docsRick do?
c Do thel kuori'eachother?
$ :.",.::Nori'listen to Conversation2 arlclalls\\'erthe questions
a \\1hereare tlie speakers?
'Does
this beiongto lou?'
rs asks
b One of the speake
What do vouthink'this'is?
c Whcre are the speakersgoing?
d Whr'?
and completethe qucstionsthat are askeclin thc conversations.
Listenag:.rir-r

AuxiliarY

word
Questions

. Verb

: etc.

:i

: mrnd

IDo
:, Are

,.,1..
$--

Subiect
"You
:: You

.: if l loinyou?
from aroundhere,then?
do?

What

sportsequiPment?

you
nnt

Hnu/ manv (tores

in?

What lrneof business

it?

Do
Are

you

a storehere,then?

you

to drink?
something
Derong

n^6c

::
::
: : '

you

the time?
soon?

:'

Bangkok?

: U O

::

yourfirsttrip there?
a:::a:: : i: aa.: : i: ::: : aa::!-:. :iaat.

:l::::::.',.::::-:::::::::::::::

b, h and n irl 2 difterent to the others?


3 Ilon' are c1-restions

4 Write questionsfor the ans\\'ersin bold.


a

Who dq y?r rq

b
C

d
tr

..

f
g
h
I

I
k
a l l

s \ \ ' e rosn p a g e1 3 2 .

,,,,ASKTNG
euEstoNs

He'stalkiugto a client.
I'rn an accountant.

You dor't knorl'the


5 Your comp:rnl hassentvou to an internationalrnccting.It startsin fir'enrintrtes.
to
make
and
to
fincl
out
about then.
the
chart
belon
conlersation
persolrsitting nert to r or-r.LJse
Questionsword

Subject

Auxiliary

Verb

etc.

live
work
Where
What
How

whv
When
How manyemployees

does
are

here

do

English

you
yourcompany

doing

at the moment

have

anyotherlanguages
yourJob
thisbook

do

has

he

got

do

she

like

are

they

go

anychildren

travel

to work

sruoyrng

muchin yourwork

have

TALKINGABOUTOTHERPEOPLE
1 S , , , , ' .L o o k : r t t h ec o n l e r s : r t i o n b e 1 o n . \ u n r b e r t h e l i n e s i rct ho er r c c t o r d e r . T h e n l i s t c r r a n c l
cltccklour :llrs\\'ers.

I \\hat's he like?
E far, isn't he Directorof BusinessDclclopmeut at (luinness?
I nu lou knot J:rn\onacki?
Do r ou haveanr cont:rctri ith hin in vour rl'ork?
I firc NationalBank of Polancl,that'sirrtcrcsting.
E Xnt :rnr'longer.Non he'sthe Public Relations\lanager :rtthe NationalBank of Polancl.
L--lHe'sa rice chap.Ybu'dlike hinr.
plal golf tlitli hnl.
L--lNot reallr,but I occ:rsionalir
2

belcxr'?
\\lhicli parts of the conlcrsation coulclr olr replaces ith the erpressions

a Have lon eler met


b cloesrr'thc u'ork for
c b r r r r r li ,r r l ol r i n rl r t c o r r t c r r r t t '
cl I don't like hirri niuch rcalh.
e I don't anlrnore.
f \\"hat clo lou think of hinr?
g

Do you Qnow

You'd get on s ell.

3 Look at the tablebelolr rrhich shori'the jobsfir e peopleclicibefore and u'hatthev clonon'.(One of
aborrt
in I as:r moclel,halc conversations
them is retired.)\\brk u'itli :r partner.Llsingthe convers:rtiorr
in the bor.
thenr Lrsingthe phr:rses
the people. Add comnrcntsabor-rt
quite reserved.
HeiShe's
a niceperson. HelShe's int"r"rting person. He/She's
"n
a bit dull.
a bit arrogant. He/She's
He/She's
a goodlaugh. He/She's
He/She
alwayshasthe latestgossip.
Now

Before
Position

: ompany

Position

PedroAmado

ManagingDirector

Shipping
,, Edwards

SalesDirector

MartinaFerlan

ManagingDirector

,, HealthGroup

President

. Biological
Co.

FrankMangliochetti

V i c e - P r e s i d e n t F i n a nDcyen a m i c a

Chairman
& COE

. MedicalPlans

CathyCheung

MarketingExecutive :: DeltacoDentalCare

MarketingManager, DeltacoDentalCare

President

: Company

Name

::
::

lbericaElectric

SpeedTrack5ystems

Non think :rbout sorne oeoole loLr kno\\' arcl have sinilar conlcrsations about theni

ASKTNG
auESIoNS

t Discnsstl-rcquestionsin gror-rps.
Do lou hale free accessto the hrternet at n'ork?Which of the for-rr
groupsin the monstcr.co.uk
surverbelon ri'oulclr'ou bcl Is this an importantissr-re
in vonr u'ork?

Doyouhave/ useInternetaccess
at worl(?
39%

267 volesfor

Yes,a high-speed
access
with morethan2 Mbit/s

37 "/"

254 votesfor

(e.g.DSL)
Yes,I usean always-on
connection

77"k

117 votesfor

No,I don'tusethe Internetat worK

5"k

40 votesfor

Yes,butwith a modemonly(narrowband)

Total:

678votes

r tlie qLrestions.
Re:rdthe articleand ans\\'e

a
b
c
d

\\'hr did Hni'el Jcnkinshire an I'l'erpert?


\\"hat kind of ri ebsitesri ere thc n orkcrslisiting?
What u.asthe positionof thc r.rnionrepresentatilc?
Do r.outhink it is reasonable?
\\'hat kinclof thingsclocs\lr Fisherthink companicsshor-rlcl
cioto preventihesesituationsfrorn
liappening?

r:,r'r.li.::r,'
,,,,,,,,,
TNTERNET
AccESS

Fw,
3 trVorkin groupsof four. You are going to take part rrt a meetingto clccideon :r policr'for Lrterncttrsc
; . -- ^ . . - ! u r r r l r d r r l . F
- ^ L t a k ea r o l e :A , B , C o r D .
lrr tuLrr
LdLLr

A
Manager
The HumanResources
\'ollrtgpeople.
talentccl,n'ell-qualifiecl,
You seeone of lour conpan\''sbiggestproblenrsis to recrr-rit
and nrobilepholressincethcv t'ere borrt.
Potentialemploveesof this hpe havebeen usittgcorttpttters
Digital communicationis part of their liles. Ther n ill hesitateto n ork for an errplovern'ho prohibits
tl-rcvseeit:rs a
block instantmcssaging
becar-tse
a lot of conrpanies
Internctacccss.For erar-np1e,
is :r legitimaten'orktool ti-rat
distractionand a ri'asteof tine , but for manl peoplenou, inst:rntrriessaging
llrone\'.
anclacttrallr'saves
allon,squick commnnicationbetrieen colleagr-res

B
The Companl'Boss
accessto the Intcn-ietand nsingfiltersto prcrcnt ltsersr.isitirrgnottYou are in favourof controllir-rg
aboutpeopledorinloadingporn (althoughaut'onerl'iio doesthis
uorried
You
not
so
ar-rthorisecl
sites.
are
n astea lot of tine lookingat thingslike eBar',tlr Space,
enplolees
that
r
ou
suspect
ri,ill be sackcdl),but
if rxtrkers
You can seetuo problerns.Ou oue har-rd,
sites.
gambling
of
z.rll,
online
Facebookand u'orst
tinc. Ort
usefr-rl
chrring
p:rid
are
not
cloing
anlthing
tl-ren
thel
use
Intemet
for
person:rl
arc using the
,
h:rve
not beetr
it
shori's
thev
n
have
finishecl
all
their
tasks,
n
he
ther
doing
this
hand,
if
ther
are
the other
rr
ork
to
do.
gir,enenough
C
The lT Vanager
This soundslike rrore u'ork for lou anclvolt nottlcl prefer not to have to clo it. You knorl'that altl'rough
thereri'ili bc sotnetechnicalproblenrs.Peopleu'ill
it is possibleto usefiltersto lin-rithrternetaccess,
for their lvork.
slstem so that thev can surf sitesn'hich are r.rsefr-rl
constantlr,beaskiligvor-rto r-r'rodifi'the
Anotherproblem is that peopleri'ill think thev arebeing spiedon and blarner.oufor it. Also,in t'ottr
'l'hese
'ttnclergrottnd'
sitesoften
sites.
securih' issuesin some
vn,ork
r,or-r
usethc ]nternetto investigate
'inappropriate'
contentrifiicl-rcor-rldget r ou into trouble.
har''e
D
The R&D Manager
unlinited accessto
You areagair-rst
an\'tlseof filtersbecauselou are conr.incedthat for vour clepartment
personallogon anclthen
You think it is sufficientto gire elerl n'otkerthcir o'nr,n
the h-rtcnretis essential.
riorkers
clear
rules
abotrtn,hattl-revcan
rnonitortheir Internetlrse.Yor-ralsothink that vou shouldgive
'fl-rel
docr-iuent:tcccpting
thesecor-rditions.
shouldalsobe obligedto signa
do and r,i,hat
thev can't do.
naughtl'
chilclrenw'ho
and
not
like
In otheru'orcls,
r'ou believeit is importantto treatpeopleasadults
cannotbe trusted.
4 $ -=.=,==
Caroline\\lheeler is businessdevelopmentclirectorat PaceTelecorr,a brtsiness
in 1991and has 3i emploveesrifio need e-nail and
telecorrrrnunications
colnp:rn\'.The firrn startecl
Internetaccess.
Carolineerplainshon thel pr-rtan e-rriailand Internetpolio' ir-rplace.Listel and
completethc missinginforrnation.
aThepo1icl'cor.erspersona1ttse,.'behi'eerrco1leagtresarrclrl,1rat
ifthe rulesare brokerr.
'
it copv of the policr'.
b Er,err,errplolee hasto
c Enploveesare alloti'edto accessthe Liternetfor personalrtsedr-rring
d
e-mailsrihich are not relateclto l'ork are ttot allon'ecl.
e Enplolee
all dar.'.
f Thel,or-rccl-rada problerlil'hen an errploveerr'assendinge-rrailsto her
asCarolinc?
5 In 3 did von come to the sameconclttsiotts

] ] : : ; . I] N
, T E R N EATC C E S S

vi*j++r**r:l i**=a:;:*l*: *ia1,r*n *v*l'-tnefr'**s!nqr*ie !;: *ur r:*tiggt's


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-cji..:..=|iiii{l
r-=L:i-ij ,.:*t+,'i*i**=*-: a,r:it"":,'*i"+
+=g ',=:t** f*st*st-gr*vu;ng ;*du:ti"l*5 :n th*
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M I C H A E LG A L L A G H E RC, E OO F T H E E S A .

: : i { c ; , r tcl 1r c r l r r o L i L t r o n . r b o1r c] o. l i r r P l r i : r r t d o r o t r t l r i n l ,t l r i r i n t l r r - r t rrrs i n t l L t t , o t - l t cl c o t t o t t r r . ' l si t


r n \ u r r c t l r c ' . cp r o c l L t c t . l
l r r p o r - f l L nr rt r o r r r c o L r r f r - rD
I o r o r r p t r : r , r l L 1 1f o
\ \ l u r f c l ol o r r k r o r , l r l r , : r r\rrtr f c r r r l o l l , j . L c ' rk r . L: i r o r - tl r s t o r - ro f L l r cc o r r p . t t r r l L r r ci lt r r \ \ \c r
=..
tlrc tlircrtLori-r.

.ji

. r \ \ l r r i tu r r ' f i r c f i r s t p r - o d L r cofi l l r i ' c o t t t P r t r ri t


l r H o n i n r p o r t : r r rrts f l r c r i c l c og . t t t t t 'l t L r s i r t t s s l
c \ \ l r l t c o r l l ) i r r \ i ' o r c c t i \ r r r t c r t c l os b t q q c . fc o t t t l t c f i f o t t i
c ] \ \ 1 r : r rt r c t h e r : r r r c s o i s o t t r co f t h e 1 t t - o t i t t c tt t. t c t t f i o t t t ' t l : i
l { c r i dt l r c l r i ' f o r . ro f \ i r f c r d r . , b c l o r i .( . o r r P l . L c l l r c L c r Lu - r i r r tqh c u o t . c l s : r r cP1l r l r s c st t r t l r c l r o r . ' l ' l t c r ' ,
1 i : f c r l L q : L i tno c h c c ' l i\ ' o L l ri L n s \ \ c r \ .
advertising competitor console innovation manufacture
m a s s - p r o d u c e d p a r t n e r s h i p p l a y i n gc a r d s s a l e s t r a d e

NINTEN

d n da
n n di nst h ew o r l a
D 0 ' t o n eo t t h eb e s t - k n obwr a

n o l l a ri n d u s t r y .
l e a d e ri n i n t e r a c t i v vei d e oe n t e r t a i n m e n- ta m u l t i - b i l l i o d
T h e c o m p a n yh a sa h i s t o r yw h i c hd a t e sb a c kt o t h e n i n e t e e n t che n t u r y .
L 8 8 9 FL , s ari o Y a l a ; c n i f o u n d s a s r r a I c o r n p a n tyo m a n u f a c t u r ter a d i t i o n a l
(a)
p l a s t i cp . l a y i ncga r d s
s ef r r s i( b )
y a n u f a c t u r et h
1 9 5 3 T h ec o m p a nm
InJapan.

1 9 5 3 T h e c o m p a n yc h a n g e si t s n a n r et o Ni n t e n d oC o . L t d .a n d s t a r t st o
( c ) . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .g. .a m e si n a d d l t i o nt o p l a y i n gc a r d s .
i a r r a u c hhi i r e s G u n p eY
i o k o i- t h e e n g i n e ebr e h i n dm a n yo f t h e
1 9 5 5 B o s sH i r o s h Y
r-rlprodltcts.
company'snrost.successf
E lectricto tal<e
.. with l\4itsLrbishi
1 9 7 5 N i n t e n dfoo r m sa t o r
m
c
r
o
p
t
'
o
c
e
s
s
t
o
e
r
c
h
n
o
I
o
g
y
.
.
o
f
t
h
e
i
r
advantage
. .r. .u. s. .e.a. .t. h. .o. .m
. .e. t, h e N E S .
1 9 8 3 N i n t e n d od e v e l o p sa ( e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. o
1 9 8 9 t t it n t e n d ol a u n c h e sG a r r eB o y- t h e f i r s t c o n s o l ey o u c o u l dc a r r y a r o u n di n y o u r
p o c k e tT. h e p a c l < a gi en c l u d e sT e t r i s- o n eo f t h e m o s ta d d i c t i v eg a m e so f a l l

w
:4:=--

t tnte.
Japan
d e f i c i tb e t w e e n
1 9 9 0 N i n t e n d os a l e sr e p r e s e n t1 0 % o f t h e ( f ) . . . . ...... . .
a r r dt h e U S A ."
1 9 9 4 S o n yr e l e a s e st h e P l a y s t a t i o nw,h i c hw o r l t s a s a C D p l a y e ra s w e l l a s a c o n s o l e .
N i n t e n d of a c e s a m a j o r n e i v( s ) . . . . . . . . . ... . ... ..... . . a n d s a l e ss u f f e r b a d l y .
2 0 0 1 t i tl n t e n d ol a u n c h e as s o p h i s ct a t e dn e wc o n s o l et ,h e G a m e C u b eS.a l e sa r e p o o r
b u t a t t h e s a m et l m e i n t h e U S A ,t h e ' G a m e B o yA d v a n c e d ' d o m i n a t et sh e
n a n d h e lm
d arket.
o f G a m e C u baen d t h e s u c c e sos f
2 0 0 4 W i t h t h e d i s a p p o i n t i n(gh ) . . . . . . . . . .
GameBoyAdvanced,N intendodecides to concentrateon the portablemarl<et
e S is
c o n s o l e- t h e N i n t e n d oD S ( D u a l S c r e e n ) . T h D
a n d r e l e a s ea n e wh a n d h e l d
p o p u l a rb u t h a st o c o m p e t ea g a i n s tS o n y ' sn e wh a n d h e l dt h, e P S P .
2005 Thingslook bad for Nintendo,but onceagain,a brilliant (i).......................................
s a v e st h e m f r o m d i s a s t e-r t h e ' W i i ' . l t s m o s t b r i l l i a n tf e a t u r ei s a ' w a n d ' w h i c h
y r o v ew h i l et h e y p l a ya g a m eo f t e n n i so n s c r e e n
a l l o l s p l a y e r st o p h y s i c a l l n
- there are no complicatedcontrolsand anyonecan play with it. With a clever
( a i m e da t a d u l tg a m e r s )i n a v e r ys h o r tt i m e i t
(j) .
. . . . . . .c. a
. .n. r p a i g n
a c h i e v e sh i g h e rl e v e l so f s a l e st h a n a 1 li t s c o m p e t i t o r s .

PastSimple:regularverbs
4 All the yerbsin bold ;- ? 1..-o 'o','le. l^.",5 in tlic PastSiltple: infinitiye+ -ed l-d.
) suffered
sLLffer
release) released
Tlre pronunciationof -ed can be ldl , lIl , or /rd/.\\'rite the PastSinple of the r,erbsin bold in I in the
tablebelou',accordingto their pronunciatiort.
Group1

Group2

Group3

/d/

/a

/td/

rn44!.faqJqr.ed
.... .......
..

develo?ed

{ounded

5 Listenagainto the historl of Nintendo.Check lour ansuers in 4.


6

\ \ r i f e f i r eq t t e s f i o lt bt 'o t r t\ i r r l e r r d o ]' t' i . t o n I l t et l r eP r . iS i r r r n l e

When did the contpant,changeits rrcme?


7 Ask lour partnerthe questionsin 6.

WHO REALLY]NVENTEDTHE INTERNET?


1 ff*r -..i: YoLlare goingto listento :r racliodocun'ientarlon the histon'of the Internet.F irst,do the
quiz belori'.Then listento see if lou are correct.

QUfZ
In whichyardid Leonard
Kleinrockconnectthe first trvo
coruputrr?
t 1969
2 7975
3 7983

In whichyearwasthe first
international
computerconnection
mad?

snton
Whatwasthe first messag
the Internet?
I 'hello'
2'lo'
3 ' l o gi n '

What is the'univerral anguage'of


the Internet?
1 English
2 J a v aS c r i p t
3 TCP/IP

!ffhatdid the first Yertionof the


Internetconnect?
1 military
installations
2 government
buildings
universities
3

What was the name of the first


hrowser?
1 Netscape
2 Mosaic
3 Gopher

1 7969
2 1973
3 7983

COIVIPANY
HISTORIES

05 CC$IPANY HISTORIES

LANGUAGELINKS

hcabulary
irsinessverbs
Omrplete the sentencesbelow with an appropriate verb.
His ambition is to
the president of the
comPany.
b The companyplansto........
..........
a new product
line.
c To make money, companiesneed to
r

qn kly.
Alot of dot.comsdon't really
anything.
The presentpresidentdidn't
.......
the
oompany, his father did.
f Ourobjective is to.....
......., salesof$10 million
" i* year.
a new deal with our
3 Ub Yl"l to.
IrPPIrers.
f, lhe fastestway for the company to grow is to
Smaller companies.
i C,onsultancies...........,.......servicesforother
hsinesses.
Itrow much did vour turnover
last year?
I
t

on page132.

Formation: regular verbs


infinitive
o work - worked
infinitive ending in e
. like-likeil
infinitiveendingin consonant+ y
. hurOt-hunied
one syllableverbsending in one vowel + one consonant
. stop - stopped
(exceptverbsending in w or 7)
. Play - played, show- showed
two syllable verbs with the stresson the second syllable
o prefER- prefered, admlT - odmitted
two syllable words with the stresson the first syllable
. VISit - visited, ENter - entered
Formation: irregular verbs
Many of the most common verbsare irregular.
go -went, come- come
You use the PastSimple to expressfinished actions, events
or sifuations.
We movedto a new ffice lastyear."
BeforeI got matied I lived in Lisbon.
ln my first iob,I travelleda lot.
o You often use the Past
Simple with expressions
describingcompletedperiodsof time: threeweeksago,
last year, on Tuesday, in March, at Christmas, etc.
Time expressions
To saywhen things happen in the past,you use:
. in + month I year- in March, in 1987
. on + day i date - on Monday, on 5th December
.
. at + time / specialperiods- at 5.00,at Christmas
o length of time + ago - five minutes ago, a weekago
o when + past sifuation / action - when I was younger,
when he arrived

Practice1
Simple

Write the PastSimple of the verbs below.


work
stop
live
sta{
use
havel

a) we.ked
b) tJeWed
c)
....
d)
el ....................
0

drop g) ...
carry h) ...... .....
tip
.
D .......

marry

i)

plan
k)
reach
l)
arrive
m)
fit
n)
visit
o)
call
p) ...
increase q) ...
like
r) ...

Practice2
The 12 verbsbelow are some of the most common in
English. They are all irregular. Write the PastSimple of
each.
tell
say
get
give
take

a) te.l.4
b)
...
c)
.....
d)
...
e) ...

put

make
do
go
come
write
have

g)
h)
i)
i)
k)
1)

05CoMPANY
HrsroRrEs

The use of e-mailcontinuesto grow, but there are suggestionsacrossthe


industry that its popularity will begin to declinequickly if measuresaren't put in
placeto guaranteeaccess,availabilityand security.
R/0,
IRECTO
3902467
3,39123837,00.HTM
HTTP
://MANAG
EMENT.
SILlCON.COM/lTD
'l

Reaclthe following article fronr a btrsinessnragazineanclcliscuss


thc qtrestionsrvith a p:rrttrer.

mmar

matter?

rec ent ly,


A ccordi ng
to a reportpubl i shed
i n w ri ttenE ngl i share fal ling.
standards
peopl eseethe e-ma il
Thi si s because
as an i nformalw ay of communi cat ing
w herethe normalrul esof gramma rand
punctuation
do not apply.In a surveyby
M SN , tw o-thi rdsof thoseaged18-24
saidthat theyweremoreconcerned
aboutthe contentof thei re-mai l sth an
grammaticalcorrectness.
0f older
users,one in four alsoadmittedthey
werenot concerned
aboutgrammatical
in their messages.
correctness
S urpri si ngliy,
n the samesurveym ost
peoplesaidtheywereannoyedby errors
i n the e-mai l stheyrecei ved.
Thi sw a sa
l el t t er s.
bi ggerprobl emw i th conventi ona
In anothersurveybosses
saidtheywould
w ho se
not do busi ness
w i th compani es
in
correspondence
had mistal<es it.
theythoughtit wasworse
Unbelievably,
thanchargi ng
too much.

way of conmunicating?
e-rr-rails
are arninfon-t'tal
:r Do you agreetl-rart
if you
b If sonreonesencls
you a badlvwritten e-nr:ril,do you find it annoving?Are you rnoretolerar-rt
know they are not writing in their first langtrage?
c Is tl'rereanythingelseaboute-nrailsth:rtanlroysyou e.g.not usinga sensibletitle in tl i e subjectlir r e,
rvhcn rcplvir-rg,
etc.?
not includingthe originalrressage
d Do vou think thc bossesin the surveywere right?WhvAVhy not?

CORRESPONDENCE
E

2 Readthe followinge-mailsfrom a companycalledCiclosCicloneto a customer,David Holmbrook.


Re-writethe e-mailsand correcttl-remistakesin punctuation and grammar.Also changeanythingwhich
yotr do not think is appropriatein style.Tl-rencompareyolrr e-mailswith the versionson pageI34.
Urrderlineanv pltrases
wlrich vou tlrink are useftrlfor this tvoeof e-mail.
6SS

ffi-q
e-E
lph
/
#
t r l t p ' f _ : * v
Fsrward l{rry Llaiiboxesfiet

9eJ:1eR.eplyRapll'Afl

Q- i'''-,rr
Mail

Search Mailb0x

GiclosCiclone
C U S T OEMR :

D a v i dH o l m b r o o l <

C U S T O M EO
R R D E RN O :

r5724

D E T A IL S :

1 x i t e mG H 5 6

t]9.50

3 x i t e m sG H 9 8

f48.00

s hi p pi n g :

f.12.40

TOTAL

879.90

e_9e

I
O.let

c!ts
Rply

Reply All

fi
Foruard

,1 lv r *'
I.!

IltlbgT:l

Get Mail

D e a rm r H o l m b r o o k
Thanksfor the order.I just wish to confermthat we have recievedyour order detailsand we have
startedto processthe order.lf your item is not instockor if there are are any dlspach problemswe
will contactyou within the next 24/36hrs.Pleasecontactus if you not have receivedyou order within
7 daysat orders@ciclosciclone.com
so we can resolvethe issues.
thankyou once again for your order.
Kind Regards.
(DespatchTeam)
CiclosCiclone

&s6

'/

s & ;, y '- ,

ffiffi

Reply
9-:,1-*1:

Reply r{ll

Forward

l{rw

,tl#

,--i-'.

w
ldailboxes Grt Mail

Q- t',:^'r:r
se*rch Meilbox

Hi there,
Rethe modificationthats not a problemthe whole amounut for your order will be f84.85.
I look forward to hearingfrom you,
Bestwishes
Diego Martin

as

tr

$tsIB
Delt

Reply

Reply All

Forward

. t

;;;

:,"{Sl M{lbI

Uailboxes Get Mail

Deardave
We appoligisefor the delay,but we haveworked out the costof your shippingamountsof the
modified order;it is going to costyou f6.99 more.
To activatethis transactionwe will needto re-takeyour card detailsby phone to processthe payment
manully.We will need the long number on the front of your card,the expiredate, and the security
code on the backof card.
Thankyou for you patienceand shoppingwith CiclosCiclone,
I look forward to hearingfrom you,
Bestwishes
Diego
GAO

sffij
9:l!!*

:
:

:lm

R:qLYlgely All

:iFqE
M

fomarO

irr#

Q,'i'

H'
l'lew

Mailboxs

5t Mail

:,ea(h

Meilbox

ok Dave,will sort this out for you, and it shallbe with you soon! Sorryagain.
Bestwishes
Diego

06 CORRESPONDENCE

ON.THE.SPOTDECISIOHS
1 | r.za Listen to the telephone conversationbetween Cathy Slater,the caller, and fim Kub, who
answersthe call. Answer the questions.
'
to?
a Who doesCalhyJ want to speak
L
bWhy?
c Why did she send him a text message?
d What solution doesfim offer?
e What is Jim's e-mail address?

Takingdecislons
2 Some situationsrequire on-the-spotdecisions.What did the speakersin I say?Circle the correct
answers.

Complete the conversationbelow using wiII + infinitive of the verbsin the box.

A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A

Have we got a decision from fim about the Mason conkact?


No, don't worry,I .......................
I tried - there'sno answer.
W e l l ,I . . . . . . . . . . . :. .
You can't - our intranet is down.
Never mind - L... .
I don't think they have one.
Well, in that case,I
Oh, come on, that'll take far too long.
So, we
Oh, that's a bit expensive.

r.zs Listen and check your answerto 3.

5 Work with a partner.


SpeakerB: Look at the chart onpage I37.
SpeakerA: Choose a problem from the table and tell SpeakerB. Begin I've got a problem ... Speaker
B will offer a solution and then tell you about a problem. React using one of the solutionsbelow. Say
Don't worry,l'U ...
A l've got a problem, the baltery in my mobile'sflnt.
B Don't worry,I'II lend you mine.

Answerson page 139.

06coRREsPoNDENCE

AN IMPORTANTORDER
abotrtan orcler
1 ff n,;lri,Listento a telephoneconversartion
:rnd ansu'erthe questior-rs:
a
b
c
d
e
f

Who clocsElena Moretti want to speakto?


What procluctcloessl-rewant to order?
Wl-ratis the referenccntrrnber?
Hor,vmany units cloesslie want?
What is the cleliveryclate?
Why is this orclerparticularlyirnportant?

2
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B

trsingthe prorrpts.
Work witl-ra p:irtner.Practisethe conversartiott
S-A-G/ lielp?
Yes/ speark
/ John Bircl?
afraiclI rtot I office / nou' / czrn/ nress:rge?
Oh, cle:rrl/ trrgentorclcr/ n.c / fir'e hvclratrlicptrn'rps/ fune 22nd
jrrst/ minute I tell Irlal-ueplease?
sorrr'/FllenaNloretti/ SternHydraulics/ Switzerlarnd
Right / takeclown/ cletails/ get /ohn / contact/ sayfive units?
Yes/ reference/ SC 94321
SC 94321/ five turits
/ cleliverydarte/ lune 2Zncl
ves/ rigl-rt/ important tl-rir-rg
notthink/aproblern
goocllfor / r'rewcustomer
I see/ when John con'res
/ tell him imrnediately/ confirm / order/ by e-niail?
yes/ course/ thanks/ n-ruch
you / welcorne/ gooclbye
gooclb-r,e

Fill the sDacesto cornolete Fllena Moretti's c-mail confinnirs the order..

6|-\B
(

Delete

d
Reply

F:.
h

Reply All

Foffiard

,,,s
New

\,("

fi+,
Mailboxts

6et Mail

SEarch Mailbsx

rh

D e a rJ o h n ,
w i t h y o u r c o l l e a g u et h i s a f t e r n o o n ,I w i s h
Furtherto a)
h y d r a u l i cp u m p s
o u r o r d e rf o r c )
b)
(ref SG 94321),to arrive no later than d)
. Pleaselet us know about about
a n y p r o b l e m sp r o c e s s i ntgh i s o r d e r .W e a r e e s p e c i a l lcyo n c e r n e da b o u t receivingthe partson time, as it
customer.
i sf o r a n e )
Bestregards,
ElenaMoretti

r8.j

using
4 Later that clzry,
John Bird pholreclback.Work rvith a partner.Try to conplete the cor-rversation
the worclsar-rcl
phrasesin the box.
all the details CouldI speakto good help you in touch
isthat it'squite morebusiness phoning worried worry
Eler-ra
Moretti, please?
John
E le n a Sp e l k i n g .
John?
backaboutyour order.
f oh n Ye s .H e l l o , l tl c n a .I' m . .
. . .. urgent.
Elena Yes,
. T'vegot
. in vour e-rnail.No problern.
f oh n D o rr' t
. I w:rsralher
aboutit.
Elena Tlral's
.
witl-rernytl-ring
else?
fohn Well, can I
frorn this custorner.
Elena No, but I hope we get
By. for now.
fohn Yes,of corlrse.Okay,I'11be
Elena Cooclbve.
J

r)i:GoRRESP.NDEN.E
E

,ff t.- . Now listen to tl-reconversationin 4 to seeif you are correct.

Later,Elena receivecl
tl-risc-rnailconfiming her order.What is the rnistake?

&*&
Itiaa"

S
Delet

gJ

ffi: fffi
Reply

Reply Afl

t-oruard

/ f t S
_t_- w
filw

Mailboxt

.
fiet Mait

L(.'

r
Searclr Miilbox

#\
*J

O r d e rn o :

D H 0 10 6 0 1

Received:

N o .o f u n i t s :
D e l i v e r yr e q u i r e d :
J o h nB i r d

7 *S n.xr.tEler-raphor-redSAG to tell )ohn Birclabout the nristake.Nunrber the lines of the


coirversation
in the correctorder.Then listenanclcheck.
L -.1S-n -C ,c rrr I l re l pro rrl
Ll No, it'snot your fault. JustaskJohn to phone me.
L--lRight,Elena,leaveit with rre. I'm terriblysorryaborrtthis.
here at the moment. Can I takea r-ness:rge?
Li Oh, hello, Elena.I'm afraidJol-rnisr-r't
Y"r, it saysJuly 7th, but tl'reagreeddeliverydate wasJune 22r-rd.It's rearllyinportant.
!
l-l Yes,this is ElenerMoretti from SternHydraulics.CoulclI speakto John Bird, please?
E Oh, dear.Can you give rle tl-recletails?
I ,ttt right, then. Bye for now.
on tl-risorcler.
I fnr"t you. I'rn not at all happy about this.A lot clepencls
I I r... Well, I'll tell hin arssoonashe comesin.
E Y.t, l-resentrr'rean orderconfirmation- the referenceis DHOl060l - but the deliveryclateis wrong.
E Goodbye.
A n s w e rso n p a g e1 3 6 .
I When Jol-rr-r
Bird got back to the office, he tried to phone Elena but couldr-r'tget through. He
using tl-reprornptsbelow.
clecidedto sendan e-nail. Write his e-r-r-rail
a n s w e /y
r o u r e -n ' ra /J
i l u n e l s t/c hecked / correspondence
/you / ri ght /apol ogi se/ rni stake
spoken/ productiondepartment/ they / giving/ order/ top priority
asa result/ confirm / deliverydate/ June22nd
once again/ pleaseaccept/ apologies
bestwishes
fo h n B i rd

Fluency
9 On Jur-re22nd the partsdidn't arrive.They dicln'tarriveuntil June 30th. Elena phoneclJol'n'ragain.
Work with a partnerand act out the conversation.
SpeakerB: Look at page l38.
SpeakerA: You are Elena Moretti. You are furious with ]ol-rnBird. The orclerarrivedlate anclas a
resultyou will get no more ordersfrom yor-rrcustomer.SAG let you down and you tl-rinkJohn Bircl
is respor-rsible.
Yotr are alsoangryabout the fact that l-reneverreturnsyour czrllsand alwaysrnakes
n-ristakes.
asheavydiscotrnts
on future orders),tell I'rinr
Unlesshe offersyou someconpensation(sucl-r
you will takeyour businesselsewl-rere.

r i ]C O R R E S P O N D E N C E

Down

06 f,sHRg$pCIf{SENCH

. (at once)
2 Pleasedo it
'cheap'.
of
The
opposite
3
4 The name written at the bottom of a
document.
. in
5 Could you confirm the

LANGUAGE LINKS

(bitsofinformntion)
pleeseT
writing,
7 A servicewhich picks up and
deliversdocuments.(like UPS)
for the mistake.
l l I'd like to

(saysorry)

Vocabulary
Busi
nesscommun
ication
1 Match the partsof the sentencesbelow.
...
a There is a message
b There is a mistake...
c I askedhim to phone ...
d I sentyou an e-mail...
e We confirmed the date of
themeeting...
f I will sendyou the packet...
g I'd like to apologise...
h We are giving top priority ...

I
2
))
4
J
6
7
8

... in writing lastweek.


... in the letteryou sentme.
... to your orderform.
... aboutthis problemlastweek.
... back this afternoon.
... for what happened.
... by courierthis afternoon.
... from Dave Cartwright for you.

from
12 I'm still waiting for a
my
letter.
to
John
14 NowadaysI use it for all my research
and for sendinge-mails.
aboutthis. (the
16 I'm very
'worry')
adjectiveof
17 I'm
about the order.(calling)
l8 Error.
'Hello,
is
Z0
John?"Yes,
speaking.'
costcompanres
23 Bad writing
a lot of money. (abilities)
for 300
25 I want to placean
units.
it to me by e-mail?
26 Can you
us to
27 How much will it
send it?
Answerson page141.

Complete the crossword.All the wordsare from unit 6.

Across
The
datefor this order is fune 26th. (when the order is
supposedto arrivewith the customer)
reply.('quick'or'fast')
6 We'd like a
way of
8 Peopleseee-mailsasan
'formal')
communicating.(the oppositeof
I'm sorry,I can't read his
(He wrote it with a pen.)
l 0 Machine usedto senddocumentsby
telephone.(not a modem)
T3 We hope to do more
with them in
the future. (b"y or sell things or services)
t5 I need to look at the
again.
'correspond')
(the noun of
l 9 To make sure somethingis correct.
.
2 l Sometimesit'sdifficultto make a....................
'decide')
(the noun of
22 C o u l d I l e a v e a . , p l e a s e ? ( w h a t y o u
leavewhen someoneis not there)
24 I'm really
he hasn'tphonedme.
(irritated)
2 8 ' T h a n k y o u . ' ' Y o u ' r e . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . .
79 Could I take
the details?
'up')
(the oppositeof
. that you have received
30 Could you
'confirmation')
this e-mail?(the verb of
I

05 CORRESPONDENCE

r .
riii*ffi

3 The followir-rge-mailshavearrivedbut there is a problem. There is no


pturcttrationor capital letters.Correct the e-mailsso that they make sense.

dear mr gonzalezthank you for contactinglexingtontechnical


support unfortunately I do not understandthe nature of the problem
you are having or in fact even the product you are usingcan you
pleasewrite backwith as much information as you can about what
product you are usingwhat you are trying to do what problem you
are having etc best regardskamal bouaissitechnicalsupport engineer
dear richardtennant thank you for registeringyour lexington
pr oduc ty our new c u s to me rn u m b e r i s 5 5 5 6 3 5 00w hen cal l i ng
technical support (925-253-3050)
or lexington customerservice(800please
your
225-4880)
have
customernumber readywe recommend
writing your customernumber in your lexington manual keeping it
with our phone numbersand filing this e-mail for future reference
thank you for your interestin lexington if there is anything we can
do for you pleaselet us know we will be happy to help you regards
lexingtoncustomerservice
A

Grammar
,,,rill
f or unolanned
decisions
\ott usewiII + ir-rfir'ritive
to showyou are n'rakingan on-the-spotor new decision.
,

P ra cti c e 1
\\ lien would you saythe following sentences?
Match the decisionsa-g to the
.ihrationsl-7.

nl

a openthe door for you.

1 A customerasksif you can givehim a betterdiscount.

b take a taxi.

2 Yourbossasksyou if you can startwork beforethe usualtime.

c catchan earliertrain.

you abouta meetingwith a clienton the othersideof town in ten minutes.


3 A colleague
reminds

d lendit to you, if you like.

4 Someoneasksyou whereyou canget a new batteryfor a laptopcomputer.

e havea lookon the Internet.

a lot of filesand documents


5 A colleague
is carrying
and hasboth handsoccupied.

asksif you cantake a dayoff work.


6 Yourwife/husband
g haveanotherlookat the figures. 7 A colleague
admires
a new CDyou arelistening
to.
f

speakto the bossaboutit.

ti::i-j!ri l..r::i!:,tiit:";i!:r

Practice
2
\\-liat would you sayin thesesituations?Reply trsingthe word in brackets.
a

Sorteone offersyolr somethingto drink. You can havetea or coffee.(coffee)

b i;,, ;;; ;',rl'i"g; ''lri i'' ,"1.r,'rr',..


Y;,';;; r''r"".rir."rr;;; ;, ,rrrJi"' r
"
starter.(salad)
c You go out witl'rsomefriends.You decideto pay for tl'redrinks. (pny)

d ,t."ri."e,,.
*r'"'"y",'iir..if i';;i;;;;;i;'"; *i,n' ".* ;;;i;;;;";';;
yolr are fan'riliarwith. (help)
Someoneremindsyou that you are takinga flight at 10.30.It is now 9.15. (taxi).
A colleaguehasl-reardon the radio that the busesare on strikeand can't get
home.Y6u haveyollr car.(lift).

coRREsPoNDENcEL

of hotel-boundbusinesstravellers
In a survey by CarlsonHotelsWorldwide, T2o/o
cited that the 'basiccondition of rooms' frustrated them most, followed by
uncomfortable beds (64%) and rooms that are were not ready following a late
arrival (64Yol,More than half of the respondents(53%) said they are more

frustratedby a non-workingtelevisionin their h


to checkin and out(47%1.

roomfhan by waiting in line

OTELIERS.COM/4HOTs_N5HW.

**---F

in hotelsff#*"y"u hadanyof the problemswhich frustffi


1 How oftendo you stayWhat thingsabouthoteisdo you lik-..?-w*W
travellers
in thb suiveyquotedabove?
1$ t"nm Listen to a conversationand answerthe questions.
a Where doesthe conversationtake place?
b Wl'ratdoestl'recustonrerwant?
c What is tl-recustomergoing to do?
2

Conplete the dialoguetrsingthe phrasesin the box.Then listenagainto checkyollr answers.


bookedin on the nextflight
likeme to phonefor you,sir

Canyou recommend couldtry the TravelInn


there'snothingbefore wasdelayed,so l've missed

A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A

Hello. My connectingflight, IB67.I,(")


the flight to Caracas.
Yes,sir.I'm sorryaboutthat.You're(b)
Right, but it's not trntil eleventonight, right?
Yes.I'm afraid(c)
. a hotel I could try?
That's nearly eight hours to wait. (d)
It's not far from tl'reterrninalbuilding.
You (e)
Thanks.I reallyneedsomewhereto sleep.
?
Would you (f)
No, that'sokay.I need to stretchrny legsanyway.Thanks very much.

What did/would you do?


Have you everbeen in this sitr-ration?

and answerthe questions.


,S t.xm Listento anotherconversation

a Where doestl'reconversationtake place?


b What specialrequestdoesthe guestmake?Doeshe get what he wants?
like sentto his room?
c What would the gr-rest
d Does the room l-raveInternet access?
5

Lister-ragain and completethe phrases.There is one word for eacl-rgap.

Cood afternoon.Do you have ......

b Well, actuallyI havea flight at I I this evenirrgso I'll

d
e

w;ii,"."f,'"irJi;l
T sth e rel n te rn e t

to pay for a roorrrby the hour?


. ' ' ' . . '?. . ' ' '

7 Act out the dialoguewith your teacheror a partner.

EoTHorELS

TIMETO KILL
I Reacltheseconrnrentsby btrsinesstravellers abouta t1'peof hotcl. Whertkinclof hotcl is it? Where clo
vou think tlie hotcl is?
A^a:
. - ' 1 i * i l 1f + I

ChrisRoberts,
Boston,USA

i."

t.?lr*{ . 00-:00r0t)

Beforemy flight home I had a few hoursto kill and I checked-inusingthe automaticservice.The price
was very reasonableand I was very impressedwith the stylishinterior of the rooms.I would recommend
it to anyonewho finds themselveswaiting for a flight and doesn'thave a problemwith smallspaces.

Firtclri'orclszrnclphrascsin the cotnnretrtsri liich lnezulthe s:rnrezrsthe follou,ing:

:r
b
c
d
e

stretc-\inga
t- . .
l,r,ir1g
dou'1
h:rclnothing to clofor a fer.vhours
having to rv:'ritwithout anythingto clo
'long-h:rtrl
the oppositeof
flights'
rro t e x p e n s i v e

3 Completethe sentencesu'ith tl-rewordsir-r2.


When I get home in the eveningtl-rconly thing I lr'antto clois . .
-fV.
sofaanclrvatch
'l'hey're
b I clon'tlike cheap
trncomfortableand tiring.
'l-he\,'re
C
I like electronicgadgetslike gamesconsoles.
gooclfor rvhenyorr

on the

cl V"f lf" pf'ror..,are reallyusefulrvhcnyou are


e C)ntl'rervhole,the pricesfor fooclanclclrink in hotelsare
4

ancl neecl to cont:rct son)eone.

Are the sentencesin 3 trrre foryotr? If not, girrerearsons.

5 Norv reacl arbouta hotcl chetin c:lllecl Yotel on tlic nert pergeald sav u'hether the st:rtements are trtrc
or f:rlse.
a, Yotelroomsarestandardthree-starhotelrooms.

Irue

false

b., Youcan'tsit down in a Yotelroom.

true

false

e ,, Yotelaimsto providea servicefor officeworkers.

ITUC

false

d,' Onlythe premiumYotelroomshavenaturallight.

true

false

, Check-in
is automatedbut thereis roomservice
available.

true

false

.ll

Yotelhopesthat in any24-hourperiodmoreguestswill stayin the hotelthantherearerooms

true

false

Youcan rentYotelroomsby the hour.

true

false

Thecreatorof Yotelthinksthat travellers


likehavingreducedspace.

TTUC

false

HorELsE

Look at the ground plan of the Yotel rooms.There is a mistakein the article.What is it?
Premiumcabin)
StandardcabinY

TJ

j,H.TELS

Large
bed
single

Discussion
7

Do you think you would want to stayin a Yotel room? Why/why not?

I What featuresdo you expecta good hotel to provide?Tick the featuresyou expect.Add your own
ideasto the list.
widescreentelevision
wi-fi connection
convenientlocation
parking

I
tr
I
I

minibar

tr

air conditioning
fl
beautifulsurroundings I

sauna

tr

bar
restaurant

I
I

swimming pool
fitnessrooms
24-hou room service
massageservice

I
f
I
I

svm

meeting rooms

tr
f

COMPARATIVES
1 Look at thie sentencefrom the article.
Of course,Yotel'sroomsare biggerthan the lapanesecapsules.
Underline any other sentencesin the article where things are compared.
J

2 Make as many sentencesasyou can comparinga Japanesecapsuleroom, a Yotel room and an


averagethree-starhotel room using the adjectivesin the circle.
AYoteI room is smaller than a normal hotel room.
A capsuleis more claustrophobicthan aYotel room.

Now work with a partner and compare:

three cities you both know.


b three different cars.

, a

oTHorELsL

ROOM SERVICE
Con'rpletethe
1 ff t .l'l It is ten o'clock at night. A gtrestcallsroorl serviceto askfor sornethir-rg.
'l'hen
answers.
listenatrclcompareyotlr
below.
conversation
Room Service Room service.My natneis Iohan.Can I lielp you?
call, please?
an earh,'n'rornitrg
Y c s ,th i s i s ro o m 3 0l . a)
Cuest
tl'recall?
sir.Wl'rattin-reb)
Room Service Certair-rly,
At half pastsix.
Guest
brcakfastsetrtttp to your rootr?
...
Roo m Se rv i c e 6 .1 0 .N o p ro b l e m .c)
.. it ir-rthe dining room.
N o , t l t a r r k sI .d ;
Guest
Room Service The cliningroont ollcils for breakfastart7.3 0 .
in rny roon. lust coffeeattd a croissant.
Oh, in tl-ratcaseI e)
Cuest
?

Room Service Coffee artcl a croissartt.f)

No, tl'rat's;rll.
Guest
Room Service Okat'.g)
'l'hank
vou. Gooclnight.
Cuest
2

SII.

in I n'ith etparttler.
Practisethe cortversattiott

Fluency
3 Work r','itha pdrtner.
SpeakerA: You are the roont-serviceclerk.
for:
SpeakerB: Phoneroom serviceto utakereqtrests
o somethingto eat
o someoneto dry-cleana tie or a skirt
o soneone to fix the air conclitionirtg
o l r e l uw i t l rw i f i c ' o t t t t e c t i o t t
o tornorrow'sweatherforecast
o (your own reqtrest)
roles.
Now cl'rar-rge
SpeakerB: You :rrethe rooltt-serviceclerk.
SpeakerA: SeepageI34.

WORLD RECORDS
Superlatives
in tl'rebox to sayhow the hotelsbelow are worlclrecorclbre:rkers.
1 Use the acljectives
(]rand
in Las Vegasis the largesthotel in the world.lt has 6,276 roonTs.
The MGM
large

expensive high

northern

southern

Location

MGMGrand

LasVegas

RoseTower

Dubai

M G MG r a n d

LasVegas

LhasaHotel

Lhasa

Ny-Alesund

S v a l b a rN
d ,o r w a y

Ushuaia

Argentina
Ushuaia,
Awazu,Japan.
ftri rilii),i:liiir :i:li': 1::r:+

Answcrson page l42.

tall
; Detail
't
6,276rooms
i
t. 72 floors

Hotel

HoshiRyokan

HOTELS

old

r $5,000room/night
it 12,087feet abovesealevel
7 B ' 5 5 ' N1 1 " 5 6 ' E
rl 54'48'568'18'W
I lt openedin 717.

i.ili.:r1ii:|i:]1]n]:Jl:|l,iil-i,!:]:].:i|:!.ii.]]l.i].].::i,:.:]:]:1,;:||j;.]i]]i:l

2 The roonr pricesof four clifferentbig hotel chainsvary fronr cotrntryto cotrntry.With a partner
'fell
completethe infornr:ltionin the tables.
vour partnerabouthotel priceslikc this.
In Frankfr-n't,tlrc nnst expensivechairt is Crowne Plcrzct.The clrcapestclnin is of tlrc fc;tn'is Accorlntels.
Tlrc second-ntost
expensitte
is Hilton lntemational and the third fu tlrc list is BestWestent.
StudentA: Look at the informationbelow.
Student B: Look at the infornrationon page 140.
city

chain

price

city

272
238

Amsterdam

Frankfurt

'

chain

prrce

Accorhotels

476

HiltonInternational

408

195

CrownePlaza

329

17B

BestWestern

London

1BB

CrownePlaza

494

HiltonInternational

330

BestWestern

157

268

Accorhotels

152

260

Geneva

584
457

New-York

3Y4

CrownePlaza

420

357

Accorhotels

381

HiltonInternational

J O I

BestWestern

254

260

Paris

148

LOCATINGAN OFFICE
Fluency
Yottrconrpar-ry
is planningto open a Ettropeanoffice:rnclneeclsto chooscthe bestIocation.Look :rt the
infomrartionbelorn,and cleciclcu'l-richcities:rrethe most stritable.
'lhlk
aboutthe following:
. |ig[ / lou'poptrl:rtion
o expensive/ che:rp hotel roonrs
r rrcarto I far frorn an ir-rternartional
o higli / lorv / expensir,'e
atirport
/ cheap apartment rents
o higl'r/ lorv taxi fares
o l-righ / low cost of living
e higli / lorv / erpensive/ cheapoffice rents
o expensive/ che:rp placc to live
DATA

FRANKFURT

Pooulation
* citycentreto airport(km)
Distance
Averagetaxifareto airport($)
per year
lnternational
conferences
City-centre
officerents(US$/sqm)
Hotelrooms( mid range/toprange)
Three-room
apartmentrents(gmonth)

642,811
12
24-29
t/
630
110/270
1431

GENEVA
'185,028
4
I /-5

161
540
140/360
1430

DUBLIN

BRUSSELS

495,781
10
17-20
42
936
140/290
2545

1,031,925
14
40-44
189
447
110/230
150/
i

" i i : . . . . . i

, , :

,':,i:F$ffp$ffifuS

Grammar

LANGUAGE LINKS

and superlatlves
Comparatives
iiii:ii

Phrase Bank: Travel & accommodation


I h a v ea f e w h o u r st o k i l l .
I'd like a chanceto shower.

':l Adjective
dli.lyps
t
y

,f

*Adjective

1 syllable

I Comparative i Superlative
i

I rich
cheap

i
,

;
l

I richer
cheaper

i the richest
,rthe cheaPest

i ho,.",

i the hottest

i bigger
,$

stretchout.
relax.

with i no,
I syllable

sleepoff the jet lag.

1 vowel+
consonant

They offer luxury at an affordable price.


The pricewas very reasonable.

2 syllables

I h a v e a n e a r l ym o r n i n g f l i g h t .

endingin -y

an afternoon

early

earlier

rrheavy

heavier

,i,i'iti$
more
economical $
2 syllables
,/tuu"sor
o, I e.onomicat
t more
,1.;iz
",ri more

an evening

Vocabulary

I interesting { economical
more
interesting
" , "

Hotelservices
'l

. big
I

Number the lines of the dialoguein the correctorder.

Receptionist
I Y.r, sir.What would you like?
I Roo* service.Katherinespeaking.Can I help you?
I W.ll, I'll haveto askin the kitchen to seeif they have
_ any foie gras.Would you like it with sorle toast?
welcome,sir. Goodbye.
L-l Yor-r're
I Y.s. Dry, medium or sweet?
[-l Right, sir. It will be with you ir-ra few minutes.
Guest
t] H.Uo, Katherine.This is rootn 208 here.I'n'rfeelinga
bit I'rungry.I'd like to order a snack.
I Ttratlk you, Katherine.
E Oh, asdry aspossible,please,and nicelychilled.
E Oh, I don't know. Perhapsa little foie gras?
! Yes,please.Ar-rdI'd alsolike son-rechampagne.
2 Cornpletethe sentencesusing the correctform of the
words in brackets.
It can be difficult to find a decenthotel room at an
price. (afford,l
. ....rneals
b If you call room setvice,they will
to your rooilr. (delivery)
sn'rall,it wasperfectly
c Although the room w_as
a

"

the biggest

ll]::i1i::1
I the heaviest
i the most
ij economical
the most
interesting
r

"

You can often usethe comparativeform of adjectiveswith


than to comparepeople,placesand tl'rings.
. Life is easierthan in the past.
o The companyis more profitable than its competitors.
You can rse much, a lot, a bit and a little to show if the
differencesare big or small.
o Mexico City is a lot bigger than Rome
o London is much more expensite than Madrid.
You can aisousenot as... as to showdifferences.
e Travelling by train is not as expensiveas by plane.
You usethe article the with the superlativeform of the
adjective.
o Taking importantdecisionsis the hardestpart of
management.
o The most useful aspectof the lnternet is
communication.
You can usesecond,third etc. with superlatives.
. Locally we dre the second largestproviderof lnternet
services.
You can alsouse less... than andthe leastto show
differences.
. Life in the past was lesscomfortable than it is now.
r Hls companyis the least profitable on the stock
exchange.

Practice
1
Rewritethe sentencesusing the oppositeof the adjective.

d ; i;;i;;;

;;"JllI:':.,

fromfoodanddrinkbut

. (profit)
our roomsare more
a standard
e Hotel guestsfrom the USA
room layout. (preference)
old buildings into hotelsbut
f You can
thereis a limit to what you can do. (conversion)
.. ....
g We haveto meet our customers'
(expect)
h Multinational companiesoften expandby taking over
. (operate)
smaller

HOTELS

a The Internet is fasterthan the post.


The post ir tlqwerthanf-heXn'fer.et,
b Hotels are more expensivethan motels.
Motels
c Englishis easierto learn than Chinese.
C hi nese
d Trains are more comfortablethan buses.
Buses
Peoplethink that marketingis more interestingthan
accounting.
Peopletl-rinkthat accounting
Flying is saferthan driving.
Driving

Srnall meetingsare rrore efficient


than largeones.
Large meetings

h This job is betterpaid than rny


lastone.
My Iastjob
The economic situationis worse
than it wasfour yearsago.
Four yearsago the economic
sihration

Practice 4
Who are the richest people in the world today?Look at the table below and
completethe sentences.Has the situationchangedsincethe information was
published?

ffi

ffi

ffi

a The job isn't as interesting


I hoped.
b The iourney wasmore expensive

. ir,i,.m;;;rtjll$:1.
the old one.
d I'm feeling more tired
I... . vesterdav.
e Fordsaren't asgood
Audis.

Practice
3
Complete the secondsentenceso
that it meansthe sameas the first
sentence.
a lt's easierto build hotels in the
USA than in Europe.
It's not at difrcultlebvtldhc'+ebin
fhe U6h a: it is-in t v:epe-.
b A MaseratiGT is more powerful
than a Chevrolet.
A Chevrolet isn't
A Chevrolet isn't as expensiveas a
Maserati.
A Maseratiis............
Profitability is more important
than furnover.
Turnover isn't.

. s;i;;";;;;;;, ;; ;; r;;.y;,^:;
Salesare

Net
worth
(billions)
2(X)8

Date
ot
Birth

$52.0

s62.0

1930

Berkshire
Hathaway

CarlosSlim $49.0
Hel0

s60.0

1940

Telmex,
Am6rica
M6vil

Warren
Buffett

ffi
ffi

ffi

Complete the sentenceswith ds or


than.

Net
worth
(billions)
2ga7

Citizenship

Sources
of
wealth

ffi

BillGates

$s6.0

s58.0

1955

U5A

Microsoft

Lakshmi
Mittal

$32.0

$45.0

1950

lndia

Arcelor
Mittal

14

Mukesh
Ambani

$20.1

$43.0

1957

18

Anil
Ambani

$1 8 . 2

yn.a

1959

lngvar
Kamprad
and family

$31.0

KushalPal
Singh

$10.0

ffi
ffi
ffi

ffi

ffi

ffi

Reliance
Industries
fndia

Anll
Dhirubhai
Ambani
Group
IKEA

Oleg
$13.3
Deripaska

128.0

Karl
Albrecht

t27.O

1931

lndia

DLFGroup

1968

Russia

Rusal

6ermany

ALDI,
Trader
Joe's

5ource: www.forbes.com/lists

ln20A7 .-a Bill Gateswasthe


personin the world.
b Carlos Slim Hehhwasn't
asWarren Buffett.
c Kushal Pal Singh was
Oleg Deripaska.
d Warren Buffett was one of the
people in the world.
e The
of all thesepeople was Karl Albrecht.

In 2008...
a WarrenBuffetwasthe
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

personin the world.


Carlos Slim Helf wasn't
asWarren Buffett.
Mukesh Ambani wasjust a bit
than his brother.
Bill Gateswasstill one of the
people in the world.
The
of all thesepeople was Karl Albrecht.
Mukesh Ambani was more than twice
.. asin2007.
The .. ...
. Indian wasLakshmi Mittal.
All of the people in this list were
in 2008thanin 2007.

This computer is fasterthan the


old one.
The old computer wasn'tas..........
It isn't as hot asyesterday.
Yesterday

*?HOTELSE

The trouble with telling a good story is that it invariablyremindsthe other


fellow of a bad one.
SIDCAESAR

1 ,$ t"mmComplete the anecclotebelow with suitablewords.T'hen lister-rand compareyour answers.


b

anecdote
I'nnrkdautl noun
a story that
you tell people
about something
interestingor funny
t h a t h a sh a p p e n e d
to you
Definition f rom Macmillan
Essential Dictionary

A
B
A
B
A

Look at that car!


Yes,verynice. It'sa Porsche9l l.
in a Porsche?
Did I evertell you about tl'retime I had a a)
No, I don't think so.
in Europeand a man in a Porsche
a student.I wasc) . . . ......
It waswhen I b)
about220 kilometresan hour
stopped.He took rne all tl'reway acrossAustria.We d)
all the way.
?
B What about the e)
...... us aboutfour times,but he just showedthern sorneidentitycard and
A Well, they fl
they wavedus ot-t.
then?
.............,
B Wa sh e s o m e o n eg )
he wassorrresort of high-rankingofficial. He didn't talk
A I don't know, I didn't ask.I h)
much, but he did drivewell.
in l.
$ t"xs Looli at thesesentencesfrorn the ar-recdote
It waswlrcnI wasa student.I washitch-hikingin Europe.
Then listen and
Make similar sentencesusing the promptsbelow.Tl-rereare severalalternatives.
comPareyour answers.
2

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
I

while / live / Italy


before/ start/ work / here
after I leave/ university
when / work IICL
beforeI get lmarried
jtrst after Ichildren / bom
look / job
do / Masters/ the States
studyi at Cambridge
work / small company/ north
travel/ Asia
stay/ Continer-rtalHotel / Pragr-re

DrDI EVER
rELLYou ...?
CI&
E

Tl'respeakerer-rds
the anccdotein 1 with a comment:
-S ru.ru+

He di&t't talk ntuch,but he did drivewell.


... he did drivewell is sinilar to he certainlydrovewell.
Did adclserrphasisto the verbdrive.Did is stressecl
when you speak.
Make similarcomuents trsingthe followingprompts,then listenanclcorrrpareyorlr answcrs.
a
b
c
d
e
f

we / havea goodtime / cost:rfortune


lie / get the job / have to merrrytl-reboss'scl:,rtrghter
we / gct there in tl-reend / sit on a bus all day
I I geta good job / have to leavethe cotrntry/ fincl one
she/ rnakea success
/ business/ her htrsbancl
/ leavel-rer
he / sell niore than anyoneelse/ have a lieart att:rck

Conrpletethe sentences
below.Usedid for ernphzrsis.

a It wasa good czrr,


b I enjoyeclthe meal,
c The conferencewasr-r't
very goocl2
.. .. . .
' l ' l rc y
d
rrra rra g eto
c lfi rrcal l ro te l
5

Cornplete

the sentences

a
l

belowso that they nrakesensc.


. . . , but we clidaskfirst.
, bnt I cliclsenclhim :rn e-mail.
, but I'recliclterkeher out to clinner
, btrt she cliclgive hinr tl-re1ob.

6 Work witl'ra p:rrtnerancleach tell an anecclotebascclon the qrrestionsbelorv.Help your partr-rcr


by
ask i rrgn ro req u e s ti o rrs .
SpeakerA
Have you everbeen stoppedby the
policewhen you weredriving?Where
were you going?Why did they stop
you?Were they right or wrong?What
wastl-reoutcone? Did it cl-range
your
attitucleeither to driving or to tl're
police, or clid it confirm wl-ratyotr
erlreacly,
thougl-rt?
SpeakerB
Who wasyorlr lezrstLrvotrriteteacl'rer
at schoolor lecturerat universiiv-?
W h y d i d n ' ly o u l i k e t l r c r r rC
?ar you
renember an inciclentthat wastypical
of that person?Who rvasinvolved?
What l-rapper-red?
What wasthe
outcome?Did it changeyor-rrpoint of
view in any way or did it confirn wl'rat
you alreadythougl-rt?

q\,

.,.,}

D I DI E V E R
T E L LY O U . . . ?

t
. ,-lFt
water?Why cloyotr think tlineral
1 Discussthescquestionsir-rgroups.Do yotr drink bottleclt'uitrerarl
wzrteris so poptrlarnow? Horv clopeoplecleciclcwhich branclof tnitteralwatcr to clrink?
Why cloesthe
2 Re:rcl:r report in :r ncrvspaperabout a local nriner:rlw:rtcrconlpany.What happertecl?
so
cliffictrlt?
nrake
the
sittratioll
watcr
is
nrineral
product
fact tliat tlie conrpan-v's

Fire
Rocl<ed
by CristalMalvern
LocalCommunity
morninghas
A fire whichbrokeout at CristalMalvernbottlingplantin theearlyhoursof yesterday
According
to company
destroyed
the factoryandofficesof the mineralwatercompany.
completely
withthe plant'spower
although
a problem
for the momentthecauseof thefire is unknown,
sources,
will
thecompany
that although
wasinformed
theworkforce
thismorning
in a meeting
supplyis suspected.
brand
will beserved.
CristalMalvernis an established
notices
rebuildthefactory,redundancy
eventually
probl em
i sthat
faci ngthecompany
p o p u l adr u eto i ts ori gi nal
andstri ki ngTVads.The
w h i c hh a sb e c o me
gives
union
a
its
name.
Ron
White,
water
which
the
mineral
plant
to
the
spring
is locatednext
the bottling
as CristalMalvernis oneof thearea'smain
saysthefire is a tragedyfor the localcommunity
spokesman,
employers.

auclPeter
$ ; :::r;Listen to the a televisioninterviewwitli Ron White, the ttttiott rcpresentativc,
Attswcr
the
cluestions.
Mzrlvern.
Jones,the ptrblic rel:rtionsofficerof Cristal
'acljttstmetrt
plattr'cloyotr think the cornpanyli:rs?
a What kind of
b Why is it r-rotpossibleto tnove to anotl-rerlocation?
c What is the attitucleof tlie ttnion?
d What cloesRon White saryarboutthe nrmour tliat the conrpanyniight havc to close?
3

4 Yotr :rregoing to take part in the meeting to clecidewhat to cloabout tl'rissittration.Each take :r role:
A,B,CorD.
A
The Managing Director
yeatrs,
anclalthougl-rthere Llrello\\'
Yotrrfaniill' hasbecn connecteclwitl'rthe conlpanyfor over :r htrr-rclrecl
rcasonsfor re-btrilclingthe
frotn
trostalgi:r
and
etlotion:rl
Apart
have
control.
still
other shareholclers,
1,s11
prodttct,sales
is ttow atr inrport:rtrtcotrstturer
Mineral r,varter
plant,thereare vervgoodbusinessreasolrs.
leaclers.h'r fact, tl'refire
is one of the trtarrket
a lot over the lastfew ycarsarncl1'6111br:u-rcl
harveir-rcreasecl
availablervill covertnostof the
nroneyarncl
other subsiclies
insuratnce
r-naybe:r'blessingin clisgtrise'.'fhe
will requircfewer
costof moclemisingand btrilclingainrodcrnplarnt.A r-rcwplant with moderltprocesscs
Yotr fcel a gettttittecottcernatttcl
will haveto be negotiartecl.
r,vorkers
so sonlepernlzurentrecltrnclancies
responsibilityfor the n'orkforcc.You haveknoln nlally of them for years.Probablyyotl cztltlosesonte
peoplethrough earlv retirernentbut you hope to keep asln:nrv of the etnplot,eesarspossible.Apart from
aspossibler,r'hilethe ftictorvis rebuilt.
this u,orrv,),orlrmajor corlcernis to loseasfervcrtstonrers
MALVERN
CRISTAL

B
The Union Representative
You havebeen with the companyall your workir-rglife. You are worried that Cristal Malvern may
disappear- that the cornpanyownerswill take the insurancemoney and run! In fact you suspectthat
the fire might not havebeen an accident.The plant wasvery old and a big investmentwasrequiredto
continue production.On the other hand, you are quite surethat the brand hasa good fr-rturebecause
the mineral water hasalwayssold very well. The other possibilityis that the companymanagement
will make everybodyredundantand then startup againasa new company.Perhapsthey will sell the
companyto one of the big multinationals.Your hope is that you can negotiatea temporaryredundancy
for staffwhile the factoryis being re-built,and then as many peopleaspossiblecan return to work with
the samesalaryand conditionsasbefore.
C
The Plant Manager
You are the Managing Director'sson/daughter.
You recognisethat the companycould still be a viable
businessbut you would preferto do somethingelsewith the insurancemoney.You havelittle interest
in reconstructingthe business.Apart from anything else,yoll are bored with life in this quiet rural area.
In any case,by the time you are readyto begin bottling again,it will be almostimpossibleto regainyour
market position.You can just seeone problem afteranotherand you are desperateto do something
more interestingand excitingsomewhereelse.Try to convinceyour father that the bestplan would be to
sell up. You could probablyget a good offer from one of the big food and drink multinationals.
D
+
The Marketing Manager
This situationis a real challengefor you. Your missionis to keep the brar-rdalive while the problemsof
production are sortedout. You know that the idea of transportingthe waterto other plantsis not viable
due to the costs.However,your idea is to make a deal with other companiesto distribr,rte
and sell their
own water asCristal Malvern with a slightlymodified label where the origin of the springwater is in
small print. You believethat most people will not notice the differencein taste.After all, water is water,
and if people drink it from bottlesratherthan taps,it is really a triumph of marketers.You are optimistic
about the future and believeit is a good opportunityfor the companyto moderniseits production in
order to meet an increasingdemand.If you can survivethe coming months, Cristal Malvern can grow,
moderniseand benefit from this disaster.
5 Readthe newspaperarticle to find out what happenedin a similar casein Spain and discussthe
questions.
a Was this company'sdecisionsimilar to what you decidedin 4?
b Do you think the waterreally'travelled'tothe other bottlingplants?
c In what waysis the mineral water businesssuch an unusualone?

{AsHsrLrmY
cRtsrAL
MALVERNE
E

Don't explain how we're going to make money today. Tell me how we're going
to make it in five years'time.
ilil.;;

;;';;^ - ';;;;*;*o

,*,r,oENroFrNDrrEX

,t
*

p'entrepreneur
/,ontrepretneilnoun
someonewho uses
money to start
and make
businesses
businessdeals

i."
,ffi
!

q:,.

Definition from Macmillan


'

Essential Dictionary

1 Readthe extractsbelow then discussthe questionswhich follow.

l've alwaysfelt that


l-l
g o i n g to b u s i n e ss c h o o l [ij
was a substitutefor
b e i n ga n e n t r e p r e n e u L
n o t a c o m p l e me n t.
Th o s ew h o c a n ,s e l l .
T h o s ew h o c a n ' t,s i t i n
class.
B u s i n e s cs o n s u l t a n ta n d
writer Arnold Kingon
http://gondwanaland.com/
mlog/ 2O05l'l 1/2 3/l earn i ng- byselling/

sornentrepreneurs fr
can be tausht how
|i
to becomebetter
B ut
busi nesspeopl e.
busi nesspeoplcannot
e
be taught how to
becomeentrepreneurs.
Wil Schroter'sBlog http://www.
gobignetwork.com/wil/

Entrepreneurs are people


who imagine things as
they might be, not as they
are, and have the drive to
change the world. Those
are qualities that business
schools do not teach.
Founder of Body Shop
Anita Roddick

'entreprenellr'
in yor,rrlanguage?Give someexamplesof entreprenellrswho are
a What is the word for
famousin your country.
b Is it possibleto teachsoneoneto be an entrepreneur?
c Wl'ratkind of skillsand qualitiesdo you think entrepreneursneed?
Which opinion abovedo you agree
to go to universitybeforeyou starta business?
d Is it an aclvantage
with most?
2 $ r.xm Now listen to a radio programmewhere an author talksabout a book on entrepreneurs.
Answerthe questions.
a
b
c
o
o
o
r
r

Which of the opinionsin 1 doesthe author most agreewith?


How many examplesdoeshe give of successfulbr-rsinesses?
Which of the following doeshe saythe entrepreneurshave in common?
o working for someoneelsebeforesettingup a business
an MBA
o ]uck
hiring good employee5
. providingexcellentcustomerservice
taking risks
o using televisionadvertising
intelligence
settingr-rpefficientdistributionnetworks o hard work

Listen againand cornpletethe phrases.

are both good examples


Mike Clare, tl'refounder of Dreams,and Michael Walsh of Blackcircles.com
..school.
.
... work when they .
of peoplewl'ro..
for someoneelse,but
knowledgeand skillswhile they
b They
that his real missionin life wasto be an entrepreneur.
.
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.....successftrl
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Age when he started the company

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B U S IE
N S SB R I E F I N G

INDITEX

sPrRrr
oFENTERPRTsE
ffi

Work with a parttrer.

SpeakerB: Look artthe instrttctionson pageI34.


SpeakerA: [,ook etttl-reinformation in the table below.Work with yotrr partnerto conrpletethc niissir-rg
over the lastfour vears.
infonnation and fincl out how Inditex h:rschetngecl
four years ago

lnditex

now
3,13',|

Shopsworldwide
New storesin year

322
69,240

Employees
Countrieswherethe groupoperates

56
60o/o

sales
% of international
six- Zara,Pull& Bear,

C h a i n si n g r o u p

MassimoDutti,Bershka
Stradivarius,
Oysho
8 , 1 9 6m i l l i o n

,r.liiTurnover
uj,
rv.t profits
lil H.rdquarters
+

639 million
Arteixo,LaCorufra

5 Corripletethe reportusinginfonriationfrom 4 :rndthe verbsin the box in eitherthe PastSinrpleor


PresentPerfect.
grow

increase

launch

make

open

reach

'l'he

successstory.Over the larstfour yearstl-regroup


recenthistoryof Ilclitex is a tren'rendous
countries, ar-rdthe ntttlber of
It now operatesin (b)
(n)
. enon'nously.
. h-rtl-ristime
(c)
frotn (d)
to (e)
worlclrvicle
sl-rops
329 new
t h e g r o t r p ( f ) ( g ) ' ' l ] e w c 1 r a i t s '
(i) .. . . .
arlevel of
shopsin Spainand 300 in the restof the worlcl.Tl-risyear,net reventres
All
hrditex's
.
(j)
':tucl
(m)
. into
activitiesare controlleclfron Arteixo,La Conrfla, where the group recer-rtly
new headcuarters.
6 Write a similzrrreport abotrtthe changesin a coilrpanyyou know abotrt.

rirl;sPtRtr
oFENTERPRIsE
E

09 5p$ffi$3#p ffiruTffiffipffissffi

LANGUAGELINKS
.lr: , phrasg Bank: Ialking
. :'....'::
'

Have
Haven't
about business achievements

H. was still only twenty when he set up the business.


' .',,:l
:,,,, The company is still growing.
., He left schoolat 15.

. ' , E v e n t u a l l yh e b e c a m ea m a n a g e r .
. , , , , ' T h e y p i c k e du p s k i l l sa n d k n o w l e d g e .
:

take risksand make money.


,:u To set up a business,
. -,.,,Customerserviceis a major selling point.
, r .: One thing they have in common is a capacityfor hard work.

..'....

Vocabulary
Word-bu
ilding
Complete the table below with the appropriateform.

ft ""rn
acqulre

acquired

reject

rejected

grow

growing
beneficial

".'.':.:"""",'
flexible
operating
profitable

Grammar
PresentPerfect

I
You
We
They

've
(have)
finished the report

He
She

haven't
finished the report
hasn't

they
Has
Hasn't

finished the report?

he
she

Short answers
Haye you seenlohn?
Yes,I have./ No, I hayen't.
Has lane sent the letter?
Yes,shehas. lNo, shahasn't.
The pastparticipleof regularverbsis the sameasthe
PastSimple, but with many common irregularverbsit is
different:
. go - went - gone
o come- cdme* come
o eat- dte- edten
Tl-retenseyou useto talk about pasteventsdependson
how you seethem.
If you seeactionsand situationsaspart of a sequenceof
finishedpasteventsand situations(e.g.stagesin your life,
eventsin history,eventsin a narrative,etc.) you usethe
Past Simple.
o I studied economicsat university.
o His first wife was Argentinian.
o Her last iob ,r4)os
with dn engineeringfirm.
. Bill Gatesfounded Microsoft with a friend.
o Somepeoplemade a lot of moneyin the wan
o Suddenlyhe stopped talking and left the room.
If pastactionsor sitr,rations
are not relatedto other past
eventsor time periods(they sirnplyhappenedbeforenow),
Perfect.Often it is becauseyoll are
vou usethe Preser-rt
referringto recent events,or to contrasta presentsituation
with the past.
o I've had a fantasticidea!
o We'yedeteloped d new product for our range.
o Our turnoverhas grown by 10%.
o The photocopierhas broken down.
There is one importantexception:
o W hatdi dyousay?nd@ Z

Write the pastparticiplesof the verbsbelow.

They,

WE

Practice
1

H e b
She
has

I?J

you

see
bty
sell
do
find
come
Put
take

a)

b)
c)

d)
e)

0
o)
d/

h)

write i)
break ')
k)
set
read l)
fall
m)
rise n)
meet o)
think p)

09SPIRIT
OFENTERP-'"
E

Practice
4

Practice
2
Reorganisethe wordsto make sentencesin the Present
Perfect.
a

lost glasses I have my


gone by 3% prices have up
has stable economic remained growtl-r

prices last years have in

has 2.000 workers sackecl Molinex

compar-ry has the

not

fallen

five the

Mr Rodriguez left

Johr-r week I

have for

seen

Match the qtrestionsto the answers.


a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Where is rny pen?


Why are you looking so pleasedwith yourself?
How is the new productline doing?
Why are yolr looking for a new car?
What's our shareprice today?
Why are you looking so tired?
Where'sJererry?

I
2
J
4
5
6
7

It's gone up by four cents.


I've achievedmy salestargetfor this month.
BecauseI've sold my old one.
It's been a really long day.
It's been very successfulso far.
He's gone to Sydneyfor the week.
I don't know. I haven'tseenit.

:.1,r1;:

i,=:

Practice
3

':,.,;l-::

. e ti s Eh

,,'aii

Write a sentenceusing the verbs*inthe box and the


PresentPerfectfor the situationsbelow.

":!+
.1ir..,

Practice
5
,r,,,arrive be break change
give lose move stop

Cornpletetl-retext with the verbsin the box, using either


the PastSimple or the PresentPerfect.

Half an hour ago,it wasraining and now it isn't.


\!.'c-lt eP.P
ed Ai ^i^1,
b The photocopierdoesn'twork. Half an hour ago,it did.
d o w n.
c Ten minutesago,you called for a taxi. It's now outside
the office.
Tlre taxi
d Lastyear,yollr companywasbasedon a site outside
towt't.Now its officesare located in tl'recentre of town.
into the

.."ir"

"rr;;;.
e You can't
find your notesfor a presentation.
notes.
You'regiving a presentation.You did the same
presentationlastweek and the week before.
This is the third tirne
Philip Windish worksfor a company.A week ago,he
workedfor a differentcompany.

ni'r.'a""-*.",';#;;#t; h";"";;;;;';";

vervbusv

l;i.iu.

,-::,acquire add create finish increase


launch open reach start turn
The h'rditexgroup consistsof almosta hundred companies
dealingwith textile design,production and distribution.Its
trniquemanagemer-rt
techniquesand its successes
(a)
. h'rditexinto one of the world's largest
fashion groups.

The first Zara shop (b)


in 1975in La
Conrfla in northem Spain.Over the years,the group
(c)
other chainsto the original Zara,
each coveringa differentmarketsector.In 1991,the
group (d)
Pull & Bear,and in 1995,
(.)
100%of MassimoDutti. Bershka
(0
its activityin 1998,followed by the
acquisitionof Stradivariusin 1999.Two yearslater, Inditex
(g)
in
Oysho,a chain specialising
fashionablelingerie and underwear.
In the lastfour years,the number of shopsin the group
(h)
a figure of over three thousand,and
the group now hasoperationsin 64 countriesworldwide.
hr the sameperiod,sales(i) ......
by 77% and
rretprofi tsby 25% .
Despiteits size,the group still controlsits activities
fronr a logistical centre in Arteixo, avtllage in the northwestof Spain,but in 2003 it (j)
.........
work
'Plataforma
on
Europa',a new distributioncentre in
Zaragoza.
Answerson pagel4l.

*r sPrRrr
oFENTER'RT'E
I

Pressureis part and parcelof all work and helpsto keep us motivated. But
excessivepressurecan lead to stress,which underminesperformance,is costlyto
employersand can make peopleill.
- HTTP:/AI/WW.HSE.GOV.UK/STRESS/
UK HEALTH& SAFETY
EXECUTIVE

Discussion

ihrc"

1 Work witl'r a partner. Whicli of these factors procltrce the


most stress?Add your own icleas.
being promoted being responsible
for people'slives
dealingwith big sumsof money dealingwith the public
doing boring, repetitivetasks learningto use new technology
looking after children making phone calls
meetingdeadlines travelling
, waiting for other peopleto do things working long hours

+,fr.'

{t --,i}
"*5"-

[ '

2 fu t.*t';n"".t.,$"#
Ar-rinterviewer for the raclio progran-mreWork
Today spoke to four people in tl-restreet about stress.
Listen to the interviews and answer the questions.

t *
\ ' - a

interview 1 interview 2 ,,ip1"ru|"w 3 rl interview 4

do?
fi ijj whut doesthespeaker
ffi

,]

no., thespeaker
sufferfromstress?
ir

3 The lastspeakersaystl'ratstressis more a problem of n'rentalattitucleth:rn ri,hatvotr clo.


Do you :rgree?
4

jobs?L.lsetire list bclori to help r ou.


In 1,6111
opinion,rvhatare tl-retl'rreenroststressftrl

1,, accountant air trafficcontroller architect chiefexecutive computerprogrammer doctor


, factoryworker firefighter journalist lawyer middlemanager miner pilot
policeofficer shopassistant secretary stockbroker taxi driver teacher telephonist waiter
Now corlpare yolrr icleaswith tl-relist on page 135. Are yotr surprisecl?
What do -vouthink are tl'releast
jobs?
stressftrl

have to
5 For each setof prorrpts a-g, make at leasttwo sentenceswith has tolhavetoldoesn'thavetol
don't hayeto.
air traffic cor-rtroller factoryworker take decisions be creative
An air tralfic controllerhas to takedecisionsveryquickly.(It's necessarv)
A factorytuorkerdoesn'thayeto be creative.(It's not necessary)
a lawyer secretary wear a suit type letters
b miclcllemanagers chief execntives solveclay-to-clay
problen'rs t:rkestrategicdecisions
c shop assistant cornputerprogrammer deal witli the public kr-rowconrptrterl:rlguages
d lorry clriver taxi driver drive long clistances menorise streetnraps
e nllrse factoryworker wear specialclothes work at night
f accour-rtanttelephonist trsea cornptrter be honest
g teacher engineer tell peoplewl'ratto do rveara tie
Make sentences
abouttl'reother iobsin 4.

srREssED
ro rHELrMrr
I

Now intervieu, sonreone abottt their job like this:

In your iob do ycttLhave to ...? No, hut I haveto ... lYes.arLdI alsohaveto ...

All the worclszrnclphraseson the left are froln the


7 You zrregoing to reaclan article arbotrtstress.
article.Match thern to the clefinitionsotr the right.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

linked tcr
root c:rtrseof
overwork
st:rfftunrover
makesbusinesssense
perfon-r-rance-relerteclpay
morale

n E b I . E d I e
I

I
2
3
4
5
6
7

cloingtoo nruch work


is good for the con'rpany
principalreasonfor
connecteclto
money for gettingbetterresr-rlts
pcoplejoining anclleaving:rconpany
positiveor negativeattitucle

trrIstr

belorvtme or false?
In your opinion,are the scntences
Stress
is alwaysa badthing.

ln

{-t-^

ro

.t

Work-related
stresscan causehealthproblems.

;, tfU

isthe maincauseof stress.


Badmanagement

r IfUe

money.
Reducing
stresscostscompanies

to reducestress.
Its easyfor companies

STRESSE
TO
D T H EL I M I T

, {IU

.
r IfUe

:, false

:'

+r d-tt)-E^
f^t-^
tdt5e

f-l-^
tdl)c

R c a c lt l r c a r t i c l c b c l o u " .I ) o c s t h c n ' r i t c r a g r c c u i t h v o r r r o p r r r i o r r sr r r 8 ?

i
/ :

t".:.

D e b o r aH
h o u l d i nogf B M Go n l i n em a g a z i neex p l o r etsh e p r o b l e ronf w o r l < relatedstressandexamines
waysin whichit canbe avoided.
S t r e s si s n o t a n i l l n e s so r a n e g a t i v e
I
c o n d i t i o nA. c e r t a i na m o u n to f

f e v e 4i r r s o m n i d
ae
, p r e s s i oenc, z e m a

s t r e s s - r e l a t ei ldIn e s sT. h e ye m p h a s i s e

l ndsocial
a n d m a n yo t h e r m e d i c a a

p r e s s u r eb r i n g so u t t h e b e s ti n o u r

problems.

t h e b e n e f i t so f r e d u c i n gs t r e s sa s :
. better health

M a n y s u r v e y sc o n f i r mt h e r o o t

r e d u c e ds i c l < n e sasb s e n c e

stressto be
causeof worl<-related

i n c r e a s ep
d e r f o r m a n caen d o u t p u t

increasem
d e n t a lc o n c e n t r a t i o n .

Too
bad managementand overworl<.

However,
too much stressis

, n gh o u r sa n d p o o r
m u c hp r e s s u r el o

w o r l < I. n t h e i n i t i a ls t a g e so f s t r e s s
t h e r ei s a s e n s a t i o n
o f e x c i t e m e nat n d

b e t t e rr e l a t i o n s h i pwsi t h c l i e n t s
a n dc o l l e a g u e s

n e g a t i v dI .t i s b a d f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l .

c o m m u n i c a t i oanr e t h e m a i n f a c t o r s .

I t i s a l s ob a df o r t h e e m p l o y i n g

R e p o r t sa n d s t u d i e sh a v ei d e n t i f i e d

T a l < i n tgh e d e c i s i o nt o r e d u c es t r e s s

o r g a n i s a t i o nI n. t h e U l ( , f o r e x a m p l e ,

t h e p r i n c i p a cl a u s eo f s t r e s sa s ' n e w

m a l < esso u n db u s i n e ssse n s eI.t ' s

s t r e s s - r e l a t ei d
l l n e s si s t h e c a u s eo f

m a n a g e m e nt e
t c h n i q u e sd'e s i g n e tdo
' i m p r o v ep e r f o r m a n c eP
' .o l i c i e s u c h

betterfor profitsand betterfor staff

a s ' p e r f o r m a n c e - r e l a tpeady ' i n c r e a s e

M a n a g e r s h o u l dl e a r nt o m o t i v a t e

s t r e s si s l i n k e dt o h e a r td i s e a s e ,

stressand demotivatea worl<force.

b u t n o t e x h a u set m p l o y e eTsh. e r ei s a

a l c o h o l i s mn, e r v o u sb r e a l < d o w n s ,
j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i ocne, r t a i nf o r m s

l xperts
M a n y l e g a la n d m e d i c a e

b a l a n c eb e t w e e no b t a i n i n gm a x i m u m

c o m p a n i etso c o n s i d e r
a r ea d v i s i n g

efficiency,
and a worl<er'sneedto rest

o f c a n c e rm
, i g r a i n e sa,s t h m a ,h a y

t h e c o s t sa n d l e g a li m p l i c a t i o nos f

a n d r e c u p e r a tteh e i r c r e a t i v ee n e r g i e s .

h a l f o f l o s tw o r l < i n g
days.
The negativeimpactof

tS

noun

verb

stress

SITESS

adjective
/stressed
motivating/

motrvatron
create
excite

a
b
c
tl
tA

morale.

O o n r p l c t c t h c c h a r t n i t h thc correct frrnrr rif thc u'orcl.

creatrvrty

11

lowerstaff turnover

/excrted

C ) o r r i p l e t et h e s c r t t c n c c sr t s i t t gt l r c n . o r c l sf r o n r 1 0 .
\\trlliing n.ith the prrblic c:rn bc vcn
W l r c n t l r c n c u ' b o s s : r r r i v e d ,s t a f f n r o r a l c \ \ ' a sv c r v l o t t ' a n c l r r o b o c l r . \ \ . i \l s. c r r \
s lot of
I ' r n a g r a p h i c c l e s i g r r csr o r n \ i o b r e c l r r i r e a
I t l o r r ' ll r rr r l t l r c n . . ' u1 l r .joe t ' Ir t ' t . r
N l a k e s i i n i l a r s c n t e n c c sa b o r r t\ o u r o \ \ ' r ]c o l l l r ) : u r \ ' .

STRESSED
TO
THE
LIMIT
ffi

should/shouldn't
13 Look at thesesentences.
their mistaftes.(lt's a good idea.)
Managersshould recognise
pressure.
(It's not a good idea.)
Employeesshouldn't work underunnecessory
Make sentencesthat are true for you using shouldlshouldn'tand the promptsbelow.
work well / have a certain amount of pressure
To work well, you should have a certain amount of pressure.
a companies/ try / reducethe level of stress
b workersi work very long hours
c managers/ communicate/ ideas
d companies/ investmoney / improve conditions
e managers/ learn / motivateworkers
f workers/ have time / rest

14 Make sentences
aboutyour companylike this:
...
In my company... shouldI shouldn't... but oftenI in fact theylhelshelwe
Include the ideasbelow and add your own.
o distributionof work
o communications
o performance-relatedpay
o sufficienttraining
o new technology

10srREssED
ro rHELrMrr

FU

witlt probler-rrs.
Follow steps1-4 below.
You are goir-rgto write a report on a compar-ry
Work with a partr-rer.
Createyorlr own cornpan)'.
r:.r Step I
in?
a What line of busincssis the cor-r'rpany
the
conrp:un'?
b Wl'rat'sthe n;rnc of
c Where is it located?
d Is it an old-fashionecl
or a modern companv?
e How long hasit existed?
,r*.ri,
Step 2
You are goir-rgto pcrfornrarroleplaywith a new partner.First,witli yotrr original parrhrer,clcciclcn ho is
Then fincl a 11s$'perrtnerwho is plavir-rg
a clifferentrolc to rott.
the employeeand wl-rois the constrltzrnt.
Employee:You work for thc conrpanyyou invented.Yotrare courpletell'negative:lbout
e\er\ a:1;ect,rf
votrr job anclcompany.Criticise everythingzrndeverybocly.
Consultant:You are a managenrentconsult:urthireclto intervioi thc staffof thc cnrplo\ee \ cornp:rnrto
the ernplovee:rncl
note ciorirtthc ansriers.\sk clttcstiotts
assess
the levelsof stress
anclmor:rle.h-rtcrvielv
ab o u t
o workinghotrrs
o colllpatn orgatrisattion
o i n te n ra l c o n rn rtrn i c a ti o n
t

Pa)'

o tr:riningprovidecl
. holiclays
o (yourown ideas)
,;,,ji.i.step
3
Work with yotrr origir-ralpartnerfron Step l. Write a report
of the lllanagel'nentconsultant'sintervicrv.
Use the franreworkbelow or aclaptit to suit tl'rcintervierv.
r Accorclingto ... the t-nait'tceruse/s
of stressirt his/herwork
is/:rre...
o Cor-r'n-r'rtrnic:rtions
in the compzuryelrc...
o The systemof payrnentis ...
o Witl-rregardto training,the sitttzrtiolris ...
r Other causesof problemsare ...
o -fo reclucethe level of stressthe cor-t-ttrzrr-ry
shotrlcl...
o In c o n c l u s i o n...
,
i;",*!Step 4
Work with your parrtnerfronr Step 2 aga,in.Check that the
report of vour intcrviervis zrcctrrate.

Company:

N a m eo f I n t e r v i e w e e :

I nterviewer:

Date:

STRESSED
ro rHELrMrr
I

,i..'i;
Y{* Yffiffi $-&$'$-4$T
S*.$'$.qm$ffiffiffi

LI\NGUAGELINKS

2 Complete the secondsentenceso that it meansthe


sameasthe first.
Does your work causeyou stress?
Do you find ye,ar:
wc.rVs.trpr.s-f.ul?.
My bossmakeslife difficr-rlt.
l i fe ............
My bossdoesn' make
t
My husbandisn't very helpful.
My husbanddoesn't
At times I get nervous.
At times I get a bit on
75% of visitsto the doctorare becauseof stress.
..of
75% ofvisitsto the doctor are the
stress.
Peopledon't think that teachingis a difficult job.
Everyonethinksthat teachingis an.
I hope things improve for you.
for you.
I hope things get
Worrying about things doesn'thelp you.
There's
... . . in worryingaboutihings.
I don't work for anyone.I'm self-employed.
I work for

{pa Phrase Bank: Talking about your health


What symptomsdo you notice?
I get a lot of headaches.
I sleepbadly.
I get a bit on edge at times.
I have a horrible rashon my neck.
I suffer from stress.
Stressis linked to heart disease.

Vocabulary
Stressat work
1 Complete the sentenceswitl-rthe correctform of the
word in brackets.
a An air traffic controllerhasa verv
iob.
(stress)
^
b A . . ......
hasto answerthe phone all day.
(telephone)
c His work involvesa lot of different
(responsible)
d C)trrbossis alwaysshor-rting
at us. I don't find it very
(motrvate
)
e Too'much stressis bad for the workers,and it's alsobad
(employ)
for the
f Stress-related
is the calrseof half of lost
(ill)
workingdays.
It's a problem of
we neverknow what's
happeningin the company.(cornmunicate)
Nobody knowshow to usethe new machine - we need
ur gent
. (tra i rr)
Employeesshouldn'twork under
(necessary)
pressure.
You should
your mistakesand correct
them. (recognition)
One of the benefitsof reducingstressis better
(relate)
with clientsand colleagues.
Workersneed to restand recr,rperate
their
energies.(create)
The expertssaythat bad
......is the n-rain
(manage)
causeof stress.
a
Policiessuch as
.. . -relatedpry den-rotivate
work force. (perform)

STRESSE
TO
D T H EL I M I T

Grammar
havefo and should

I
You
We
I ney

have to

workatnight'

Jlni n"u" ro

He
She

has to
doesn't have to

Do
Does

l/vou/we/thev
',''",:'
'
ne/sne

.
have to work at night?

shoutd
-:---:
I:i
He/She
. we
They

snouldn't

dothatiobforfree.

You use has tolhaveto to showthat it is necessary


to do
sornething.
o Everyonehas to pay taxes.
o We aII have to use the samecomputerprograms.
to do
When you want to showthat it isn't necessary
something,yoll can usedoesn'thavetoldon'thaveto.
o He doesn't haye to travel much in his iob.
o We don't have to dressformally for work.
You useshouldor shouldn'fto showthat it is a sood or bad
ideato do something.
o You should use the lnternet for getting new ideas.
o You shouldn't work so hard if you want to live to an old
age'

Practice
1

Practice
3

Uorrrpletethe sentencesin an appropriateway.Use has to,


\av to, doesn'thaveto or don't haveto and the verbsin the
bor.

Cive appropriateadviceusing shouldor shouldn'fand the


verbsin the box.
i. go (x 2)

come do finish get get up go


make show sign wear work

Practice
2
Reorganise
the wordsto make questions.

dress do

todav to

have work for

to

you

formally

. y",, ;;,;;; h;; i; ;; ;";t y;; fi-.'


a

do

have

have order we

do English go
to to

this have year classes we

have drive do

in

you

the

job

to

to

do

complete when

your

work

much

on a course.
. . . . s om u c h

time staringat figures.


My pl anei s at 2.30.

e
f

;ilil;;;h You
.. . if you don't want to.
We can- do it without you.
i You
a visaif you travelto
ce r t ainc ount r ies.
r When you crossan internationalborder,you usually
your passport.
k He'sso rich he ...
...,but he
still does.He's a workaholic.

spend

languages.
gc to English classes.
Ypushpy,ld
I don't know how to usethis new accountancy

ik6iltilih;h;;;;h;;

He'sa
anaPPointment'

have I

set up

Program.

!-l

finish this do

leave

L I can't get a job because I don't speak any foreign

.\ll visitorsto the factory


a
register.
b Our companyhasa 'casualFriday'policy,which
meansyou
formal clothes
in the office on Fridays.
'Why
a
areyou workingso late?''Because
I
this reportfor tomorrow.'
To get to work on time, he
a t 5 . 3 0a . m .
. EveryMonday morning,we
to a departmental
meeting.
f I like holidaysbecauseyou
+
anything.
g If you want to seeMr Smith, /ou

have

or you'll
missit.
I havethis constantpain in my chest.
...- a check- up.
My family is complaining they neverseeme.
. . . . s ol a t e .
I don't like workingfor someoneelse.
. . . y o u ro w n
business.

Practice
4
Completethe sentences
using a form of haveto or should
(affirmativeor negative).Sometirnesthere are two possible
answers.
The doctorsaysI ......
take
things easy.
b Yorr
spendso much tirne
in front of a computer- it's bad for your eyes.
Managers
be good
communicators.
just givepeople
d Yotr . .
orders,you
motivatethem
to do a good job.
e I
do this job even if it is
stressful- I need the money.
f I'm goinghome now becauseI
get up earlytomorrow to
catchmy plane.
g
If you need travelinformation,you
D
look it up on the Internet.
h Y o u . .
speakto the bosslike
that.
If you want to know more about the company,yoll
visitthem.
You
.......
comew i th me. I can
do the presentationon my own.
a

srREssED
ro rHELrMrr
I

A study by the ConsumerFederationof Americaconfirmsthat 25o/oof us think


that the lottery is the best bet for becominga millionaire.
HTTP:/AIVWW.TEACH- N O LOGY.CO M/F I NAN CE/NO M I LLIO N 5/

PresentPerfectfor unfinishedpast
1 Rcaclthc infornrationaboutNokia. Conrplctcit rrsingthc worclsin the bor.
acquires announce

appears

becomes begins

founds

launches merge

puts

sets

- Company
Nol<ia
History
N o k i a i s a l e a d i n gi n t e r n a t i o n aclo m m u n i c a t i o ncso m p a n ya n d a
pioneerin digitaltechnologyand wirelessdata communications
to the highly
which has continuouslybroughtinnovations
competitiveand growingtelecommunications
markets.
Finland
1865: The Nokia story (a) ... . .b-9!in2
in south-western
........
with the establishment
of a papermill at the Tammerkoski
Rapids.
l-912: Eduard Pol6n (b) ..
FinnishCableWorks,the
f o u n d a t i o no f N o k i a ' sc a b l ea n d e l e c t r o n i cbs u s i n e s s .
R u bber
1 8 9 8 : A r v i d W i c k s t r o m( c )
upthe Fi nni sh
Works.
1 9 6 7 ' .N o l < i aA b , F i n n i s hR u b b e rW o r k sa n d F i n n i s hC a b l eW o r k s
(d) . .........
t o c r e a t eN o k i a C o r p o r a t i o n .
I 9 B 2 : N o k i a( e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M o b i r aw
, h i c hl a t e rb e c o m etsh e
N o l < i aM o b i l eP h o n e d
s ivision.
. . . . . . .t.h. e
. f i r s t N o k i am o b i l e
1 9 8 6 : T h e c o m p a n y( f )
telephoneon the internationalmarket.
. . . . . . . . . . .o. .n. . . . .
1 9 9 3 : T h ef i r s t N o k i ad i g i t a lc e l l u l a rp h o n e( g )
the market.
1 9 9 8 : N o k i a( h ) . . . . .. . . . . .
t h e w o r l d l e a d e ri n m o b i l ep h o n e s .
...
1 9 9 9 : T h e I n t e r n e tg o e sm o b i l ew h e n N o k i a ( i )
. . . . . . . . . .t.h. e
w o r l d ' sf i r s t W A P h a n d s e t ,h e N o k i a7 1 1 0 .
2 0 0 6 : 0 l l i - P e k k al ( a l l a s v u ob e c o m e sN o k i a ' sP r e s i d e nat n d C E 0 .
p l a n sf o r N o k i a
N o k i aa n dS i e m e n(si ) . . . . . . . . .
S i e m e n sN e t w o r k s .

ne(

(lourulctc tlre sentcnces:rbortt Nokia trsingthe vcrbsin thc l>orcs.


has produced
a

startedto produce

n ro b i l ephonesi n 1986.
nrol>ilepltonestocl:ry.
n ro b i l cp honessi ncc 1986.

Nokia

b l r
c l t
became

has been

d Nokia
e l t
f I t

still is
thc r,vorlclleacler il rnobile pliones in l998.
the world leaclerin mobile phoncs toclay.
the world leaclcr in niobilc phones frrr over ten ye:rrs.

3 N{atchthesentences
in Z to
PastSinrple
I
Present
Sinrple I
Prescnt
Perfect I
JOBS

stillproduces

I
I
I

the tenses belor,r,.

Make similar sentencesabout Nokia with theseprompts using the PresentPerfect,since and for.

a A company with the Nokia name / exist


b The company lbe / involvedin the cable and electronicsbusiness
c The company lhave / mobile phone division
d Nokia / sell / digital cell phones
e Nokia / produce / mobile phones with accessto the Internet
f Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo/ be / president
g Nokia and Siemens/ work I on a joint venture

since & for


5

Put the following time expressionsin the correct column.

5 Write sentenceswhich are true for you. Use the PresentPerfect,since andfor.
l've been in my presentiob for two years. l've had a PDA since Christmas.

TELLME MORE
How long
1 Make questionswith you using the prompts. Use the PresentSimple, PastSimple and Present
Perfect,as appropriate.

2 Work with a partner.fuk and answerthe questionsin 1. Try to get more information about each
subject,if you can.
;...
3

Change partners.Tell each other about your previouspartner. For example:

Lucien lives iust outside Toulouse.He has lived there for three yedrs.He worksas cI resedrchscientistat the
universifi. He's workedtheresincelast lune.

11roBs
E

YffiffiYWffiffi
' fh c
bcl ou' arcfronra racl i oprogr:l nuncal rorrta busi ncss
S #
n ' o rc lus rrcpl l rra scs
pcrson alih'.
[ ,i s te nto th c c rtm c t:rn cnl trn rb crt]rcu' orcl isn the orcl crvou hcarthenr.
co-fuurrclc.r
I
rrri l l i o rra i rctr

crrrPloi'ccr E
s n r:rl l csr ta k cE

cnrrcprclrcur
nurn:rgcurcltrolcs E
I
tuti r,' crsi tr' profcssor
r' i cl co-shari ng tr
!

WcstClennarrvE

f fi R c a ctll rc s c ri p to fth c ra c l i op rogr:l l nl nco1lpagc 1' 18anclcorrecttennri stakcs


i rr thc arti cl ebclou'.
' l ' l rc r
l i s tc rra g a i i ra n c lc l rc c l i\' o u r:l rs\\' ers.

h"E$
ffi ffi ${.$S,
J,$1h
ffi $flffiis a c0| |ese student w ith a d iffere nce. For
a s t a r t ,h e i s n o t w o r r i e da b o u tt h e $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0c o s to f h i s F e r r a r i
b e c a u s eh e i s a l r e a d ya m i l l i o n a i r e .H e f i r s t h i t t h e j a c l < p oitn
2CI02when eBay boughtthe online paymentcompanyhe was
worl<ingfor.Then,in November2006, he got lucl<yagain when
M i c r o s o f ta g r e e dt o b u y Y o u T u b feo r $ 1 . 6 5 b i l l i o n .
W h e nt h e d e a lw a s s i g n e de, v e r y b o d w
y a s t a l k i n g a b o u tt w o
o f Y o u T u b e 'cso - f o u n d e r*s C h a d H u r l e ya n d S t e v eC h e n .A f t e r
a l l , t h e y w e r e t h e p u b l i cf a c e o f Y o u T u b eM
. o s t p e o p l ed i d n ' t
l<nowthat there was also a third co-founderof YouTube,
Jawed
l ( a r i m . I n f a c t , h e w a s t h e p e r s o nw h o a c t u a l l yu p l o a d e dt h e
fi rst video.
l ( a r i mg r e wu p l n W e s tG e r m a n yb,u t h a sl i v e di n C a n a d as i n c e
h i s f a m i l y e m i g r a t e dt h e r ew h e n l ( a r i m s t a r t e dh i g hs c h o o l .H i s
B a n g l a d e s hf ai t h e r i s a c h e m i s ta t 3 M , a n d h i s G e r m a nm o t h e r
i s a p r o f e s s oar t t h e U n i v e r s i t oy f M i n n e s o t al .( a r i mo b t a i n e dh i s
d e g r e ei n e c o n o m i casn d e n g i n e e r i ni g
n 2 0 0 4 a t t h e Un i v e r s i t yo f
I l l i n o i sa t Ur b a n a - C h a m p a i g n .
H u r l e yC
, h e na n d l ( a r i mh a v el < n o w en a c ho t h e rs i n c et h e ym e t
a s e m p l o y e east P a y P a lt,h e p a y m e n st e r v i c eW
. h e ne B a yb o u g h t
P a y P a fl o r $ r . s b i l l i o ni n 2 0 0 2 ,t h e y a l l r e c e i v e d
substantial
p a y m e n t sN
. o w r i c h ,t h e t h r e e m e n o f t e n m e t l a t e a t n i g h t f o r
b r a i n s t o r m i nsge s s i o nast M a x ' s 0 p e r a C a f en e a r S t a n f o r da, n d
d i s c u s s epdo s s i b l fei l m p l o t s .l ( a r i ms a y sh e o r i g i n a l l yp i t c h e dt h e
c o n c e p to f a v i d e o - s h a r i nwge b s i t et o h i s f r i e n d sb e c a u s ea t t h e
t i m e i t w a s d i f f i c u l tt o w a t c ht h e m o n T V .
T h et h r e ea g r e e dt o d i v i d eu p t h e w o r l <b a s e do n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t
s l < i l l sH
. u r l e yd e s i g n e d
t h e s i t e ' si n t e r f a c ea n d l o g o ,w h i l e C h e n
a n d l ( a r i m s h a r e dr e s p o n s i b i l i tf yo r t e c h n i c aal s p e c t sA. t a l a t e r
s t a g e ,w h e n i t w a s n e c e s s a r yt o t a l < eo n m a n a g e m e n rt o l e s ,
H u r l e y b e c a m eC E 0 a n d C h e n t h e C h i e f T e c h n o l o g y0 f f i c e r .
H o w e v e rl ,( a r i m r e a l l yw a n t e dt o r e l a x ,s o h e c h o s en o t t o b e
part of the managementteam. As a result,he agreedto tal<ea
s m a l l e rs t a l < teh a n t h e o t h e rt w o f o u n d e r sa, n d n o t t a l < ea s a l a r y
o r e v e na f o r m a lt i t l e b e c a u s ei n, h i s o w n w o r d s ,h e w a s ' f o c u s e d
o n s c h o o l 'A. l t h o u g hs i n c et h e n h e h a sc o n t i n u e idn a n i n f o r m a l
a d v i s o r yr o l e ,h e d e n i e si t w a st h e o t h e rt w o w h o a c t u a l l yt u r n e d
t h e b a s i ci d e ai n t o r e a l i t y .
J a w e d l ( a r i m i s n o t t h e f i r s t e n t r e p r e n e utro l o s e h i s p l a c e
i n h i s t o r y .P o p u l a rw i s d o m ,f o r e x a m p l es, a y st h a t B i l l G a t e s
s t a r t e dM i c r o s o f ta n d S a m W a l t o nf o u n d e dW a l - M a r t o n t h e i r
o w n , b u t t h e y t o o h a d c o - f o u n d e r sI n
. a n y c a s e ,i t i s n o t l i l < e l y
t h a t l ( a r i m h a s t o o m a n y r e g r e t sW
. h i l e h i s f o r m e rc o l l e a g u e s
c o n t i n u et o r u n Y o u T u b eh,i s d r e a mi s t o t e a c ha n d r u n a s c h o o l .
W h a t e v e rh e d o e s m
, o n e yi s n o t l i k e l yt o b e a p r o b l e m .

3 l . l n c l e r l i n et h r c e e x : r n r P l e o
s f t ] r c P r c s c r r tl ) e r f c c ti r t h e s c r i p t r , i ' h i c ht e l l s r r sw , h c r ra p r e s e n ts i t L r a t i o n
startccl.

JOBS

4 How much of the storycan yolr rememberwithout looking?Use the wordsin I to summarisethe
storywith a partner.
5

Find wordsand phrasesin the text which rrean the san'reasthe following.

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

win a lol of lnoney


had good ltrck
a g re e m e n t
got his universityqualification
m e e ti n gto s w a pi d e a s
presentedan idea
graphiclayout
stockholding
largesumsof money

Use the wordsand phrasesin 5 in the correctform to cornpletethe following sentences.

and are now very rich.


a I know peoplewho . .
in it.
b The company is a co-operative,so all the employeeshave a
c In my country,it takesmostpeoplethreeyearsto .......
asbonusesfor their work.
d Many people in the financial world get
to find a solution to the delaysin prodr-rction.
e We had a
f If you
, it is alwayspossibleyou will win the lottery.
+
...
...... which is simplefor customersto
g Our companywebsitehasa verynice
h iilt;". to
i If you manageto negotiatea good

. to some important clientsthis afternoon,so I'm a bit nervous.


, we'll go out to celebratethis evening.

7 Write sentenceswhich are true for you usingthe wordsand phrasesin 5.

l-adhunter
lhed,hrrnta/noun a
pe6on or company
nfio searchesfor
good staff and tries
to persuadethem
to leavetheir jobs
and go to work for
another company
Ddrnition
Spntial

HEADHUNTERS

from Macmillan
Dictionary

1 .$ l"*z PeterDavis is in the office when he receivesan unexpectedcall from John Lindsay.
Listen to the conversationand answerthe questions.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Why doesJohn Lindsaycall PeterDavis?


When did PeterDavis startwork for Blueprint International?
What did he do before?
How long hashe been in chargeof the internationaldivision?
Wl'ren did he get rnarried?
Has he got any children?
Is he interestedin what the caller hasto say?

=E

Discussion
2

Discussthe following questionswith other people in the class.

a What type of managementconsultantsdoesJohn Lindsaywork for?


b Do you think what he doesis ethical?
c How would you reactin this situation?

Writing
3 Readthe report for PeopleSearchbelow.Write a similar report about your partneror teacher.First
askquestionsabout hisiher careerhistoryto be able to write the report.
r*: How longhaveyou ...? When/ Wheredid you ...before? Whendid you
start/ leave/ finish...?

Report
Peter Davishas workedfor BlueprintInternationalsince2003 wtrerehe has beenheadof their
International Divisionfor one year.Before Blueprint Internationalhe was at Navigatefor three years.
Thiswas hisfirst job after universitywherehe studiedengineering.
He graduatedfrom Nottingham
U n i v e r s i t yi n 1 9 9 9 . H e h a s b e e nm a r r i e df o r t w o y e a r sa n d h a so n e c h i l d .

11roBs

-Ff3ffi%

LANGUAGELINKS
P

Phrase Bank: Money and the company background


H e ' sn o w a m i l l i o n a i r e .
He hit the jackpot.
They bought the company.
Shebecamethe CEOof the company.
H e j o i n e dt h e m a n a g e m e nt e a m .
He had a small stake in the company.
Shewas the co-founderof the company.
We don't get a bonus at the end of the year.

Grammar
- the unfinished
past
Present
Perfect
Y otrusethc P r:' .:: ' P ' -r-: -" ..,
began.For example:
PastSirnple:I startedworkinghere25 yedrsdgo.
PresentSirnple:I work herenow.
PresentPerfect:l've worked herefor 25 years.
llo'f I dm woil?hrylt
PastSimple: I met lohn for the /lrst time in 1985.
PresentSin-rple:I still know him.
PresentPcrfect:I'ye known lohn since 1985.

NorW
"

Vocabu lary
lompanynews

In many languages,yoll Llsea presenttenseto express


h'r
this idea so tl'researe very corrurronn-ristakes.
English yoLlcan only usethe PresentPerfect.

To saywhen the action beganyou usesinceor for. You use


sincewith a point in time andfor with a periodof time.

\latcl'r the partsof the sentences.


,
d
c
f
E
ir
i
r
I
?.
3
+
t
6
7
8
9
l0

Dan Colman graduatedfrorn York Universityin I9B0


s'ith ...
4
He and somestudentfriendsfounded...
In 1 9 98t heym ov ed...
At the beginning it wasa small firm wl-richproduced
c o m p o r r e n t. s. .
Th e c om panyquic k l ye x p a n d e da n d s e t...
Recentlv.it l-ras
launched...
'l
h e engir r eerrses po n s i b l...
e
It hasalsoenteredthe ...
Dan Coln-ranhasheld ...
TIie companyhasrecentlycelebrated...

for
2 years
a month
a few minutes
halfan hour
ages
hundredsof years
I!:i.tij:"ljil.tijriitrtLjqii:ii\j:li.,:i:irr;r:ti:i
iil

TI

... for ot]rermanufacturers.


... mobile phone market.
... the top positionsinceit wasfounded.
... a degreein electronicengineering.
... a rangeof computeraccessories,
n.l'richis doing
very well.
... its twentieth anniversary.
... up new divisions.
... its headquarters
to Milton Keynes.
havebecomedirectorsof the
... for this success
comPany.
...the c om panyA I T S i n I9 8 2 .

Things have beenbettersince we changedoffices.


He has lived herefor ten yedrs.
NOT
You can alsotrsefor with tl'rePastSirnple.Conrparethese
sentences:
PresentPerfect:I'"t,eliled in \Ianchesterfor tlree t'earsI
r
. sti l l l i re i n \l ancl ' rester.
si nce199E rl
PastSinrple:I lived in \Ianchesterfor threercars I ftom
1995to 1998.(Now I live somewhereelse.)

1
Practice
Complete the sentenceswith sinceor for.
a

Mr Bianchi hasbeen out of the office


lastThursday.
the summer.
b We haven'thad a holiday
they were at
c They have been friends
universitytogether.
.....
a few years
d He'shad his own business

g
a)

a while. How are


ii];.''. seenyorl
things going?
I've known Pele
we met at a tradefair
nearlyten yearsago.
They' vehad that ol d car .....
years.
9 . 3 0 .H e ' s
Mr Conzalezhasbeen here
waitingfor you in reception.
his wife I'rada baby,he'sspentlnore
time at home.
mor-rths.
He's waitedfor this promotion

,",,

Practice
2

Practice
5

Write questionswith How long ...?and the PresentPerfect.

Readthe biographicaldetailsof )amesRodgers.Then use


the promptsto write sentencesusing either the Present
Perfector the PastSimple and for, since,or from ... to.

you / work / here

heq?
tl qwlengbatt
e yevwe-rQed
b

he / know / about this problem


she / be / a directorof the company
you lwant / changejobs

ih;;h,;. /;h;;;;;;;i;
f

he lbe linterested/ in workingfor us

he / have / a companycar

she / be / responsiblefor that account

Practice
3
Rewritethe following senten..Juring the PresentPerfect.
a He workshere - he startedwork in January.
11els wcr\ed hereilneeJanuary
b He lives in Paris- he wasborn there.

famesRodgers
1984 startedsmoking
I986 went to universityto studyengineering
1989 graduatedwith a degreein engineering
1990 got a job with Rolls Royceasan aeronautical
engineer
t 9 9 rbecameinterestedin boats
1992 got married
r993bought his first yacht
1995 got a job with P & W in Canadaand moved to
Montreal
2001 moved back to the UK and went to work at the
P & W factoryin Manchester
2003 gaveup smoking
2006 moved to a new iob in the P & W officesin
Portsmouth
a

be / an aeronauticalengineer
qrce111.o-:.
aeronauti
I1.e'9-..beer
an.
eal..Jngi.n.eef
.............
....,. .

smoke
studyengineering/ university

H.j
computer programmer- he becamea
"
programmerwhen he left university.
They make furniture - they startedmaking furniture
over a hundred yearsago.

be/interested/boats
be / married
work / Rolls Royce

She ownsa business- she set it up five yearsago.


have/ yacht
They lead the market- they becamemarketleadersin

r998.

Iive / Canada
live / the UK

Practice
4
Rewritethe following sentencesusing the PresentPerfect.
a

I met him at university.


tlrrekno-wn
hinnlinpe-!4nNel1fity,
Mr Jonesarrivedhere hours ago.
When did you buy your car?

ig"i,r.i'
il i;i;;"il
They told me about the problem yesterday.
They got divorcedtwo yearsago.

j*roBs

have/job/Portsmouth

*;;k/i;,PIw
not smoke

gnmbit l'galmtiftl
noun something that
t/ou say or do in an
attempt to gain an
advantage
lHnition from Macmillan
f$ential Dictionary

The things most people want to know about are usuallynone of their business.
G EOR GBE
E R N ARSDH A W

1 Readthe article below and think about the following questions.Then discussthem with your teacher
or a partner.
a

Do you haveany strategies


like the onesin the article for startingconversations
with peopleyou
don't know?
b Do you think it's possibleto learn the skillsthe article describes?
c Which of the strategies
do you think are valid?

12 CONVERSATION
GAMBITS

Introducingyourself
2 $ a"or-:.gq You are at a conferenceand you don't know anybody.What can you sayto starta
below.
conversationwith someone?Listen and completethe four conversations
I

A
B
A
B
A
B
2 A
B
A
B
A
B
3 A

the ITM conference?


Excuseme
Yes,that's right.
Me too.
I think it's over there.
Oh, yes.Right,I'm Paulo
Hello, Paulo,I'm Kate.
Phew!
Yes,they alwaysseemto havethe heatingon full.
So, it'snot ...............
No, it's my fourth time here.
..... I' m B ori s.
....
Oh , ri g h t,s o ............
David.
Is it..............
, or is theresomeproblemwith coveragehere?

A
B
A
B
A
B
4 A
B
A
B
A
B

Typical, flat batteriesand nowhereto chargeup.


'
?
.......
Oh,
, but I wasexpectinga call on this number.
;
I see.
Nadine, by the way.From Xanadu Electronics.
Pleasedto meet you. I'm Miko.
?
.... . .................
Ex c u s ei l e , ...........
No, I'm sorry,I don't.
O h , h e re .
Thanks. By the way,I'm Bill Smart from Silicon Technologies.
? I'm KazuoYamadafrom Lexico.
Right,

Starting a conversation
3 Allan Vilkas is having a quiet drink in a hotel in Dublin after dinner. The other customerin the bar
hasa newspaper,but he'snot readingit. What do you think Allan saysto begin a conversation?
tF Complete the conversationusing the phrasesin the box. Then listen and check your
flr#rJ

ffi r#iur*eu $i

-ti"i*hffi

6br;iib#','

your time

....your newspaper?
Excuseme, would you mind a)
I've c)
Er, no, b)
There'sjust somethingI want d)
No problem.Thke e)
.......................,
my name' sA l l an. I' m
Thanks.By I
business
trip.
s)
Stranger Oh, right.

Allan
Stranger
Allan
Stranger
Allan

5 @ e.oe Now Allan hasthe newspaper.Giving it back is anotherexcuseto begin a conversation.


Which of the following do you think he does?
a mention the political situation
b comment on the weatherforecast
Listen to find out.

12coNVERsAroN
GAMBrrs
E

c
d

saysomethingabout sport
invite the other personfor a drink

5 h-rfirst meetitrgs,people often askearchot]-rersoilreof the following cluestions.


Reorganisethe worcls
to n'rakeqtrestions.
Then tnatchtliern to tl-rcanswersl-10.'l'here are two possibleanswersfor each
questior-r.
a
b

you wherc are fronr


Wlrcre (treyou front?
beer-r have long yorl hor,v here

long staying how

I'r'ufrom lirrkey.

2 Until Friday.
3 Ar-rotherfour or five days.
4 T ts c c r r rvse r l r r i c e .
5 I've been I'rerefor :r couple of claysnow.

arc you

think

brtsitress

"II

what you
here

Dtrblilr clo o

volr

bfI

oll

:lre

.fE

c lI I

o Yes.I'ni visitingsolnecustorners.
7 I come fronr SotrthAfrica.
B It'saibit cold for nre.
q
Since Saturday.
l 0 Yes.I'nr here to buy sonremachinery.

trr

7 S;t.u"*luListen to tl-reconversation.Wl-ricl-rof the qtrestionsanclanswersin 6 clothe speakerstrse?


Circle them.

Conversationtopics
8 The two rneir in the conversation ir-r7 talk about football ancl golf. Sport is a
topics are safe?Whicli shotrlclvotr :rvoicl?Circle tl-reserfetopics.

'safe'

topic. What other

art
business cars localattractions money and personalfinance music personallife
politicsand the state of the world
religion the opposite sex the stock exchange the weather

Sayinggoodbye
9

Ther-rlistenand compareyorlr allswers.


Conrpletethc conversation.
ff: ;'.151;+
'fhanks
Sean Oh, rvell,Allan, it's gettinglatc. I l-raveto a) . .
.
for the
b)
, and gooclluck with your c)

Allan Riglit,it rvasniced)


Sean It u,asnice to e)

. Clr""rio,then.

Allan By..
10 Wlrer-rSeanu'arnts
to enclthe conversatiorr,
he sayslt'sgettirLglate.Il-tave
to be off. Match the parts
of tl'resentencesbelor,,,tomarkeother wavsto end ;r conversation.
a
b
c
d
e

Ex c n s erl e , b u t I' v e j u s t ...


I think they'regoing ...
Exctrsemc, btrt I think ...
Harngon a minute,but I think I havc ...
Sorryto cut you off, btrt I errrangecl
..

I
2
7
4
5

... a call on ny r-r-robile.


I'll catcliyou later.
... someoneis tryingto catchmy attention.
... seensolneoneI hzrveto talk to.
... to start.I'11seeyotr later.
... to meet someoneat the bar five lninutesago.

Fluency
11 Work witl'rarp:rrtner.Look at the l-reacllines
belorv.Irnergineyou borrowedyour perrtner's
newspaper
alrclyou are now giving it back. St:rrterconversartion
about one of the heacllir-rcs.
Maintain the
conversationaslong aspossible.Begin: Tl-Lank
Have yoLL
wx-Lfor the newspaper.
seenthisarticleabout ...?
Prime Minister says economic situation 'hopeless'

Dog wins lottery

SC IE NT I S DI
T SS CO V ER
L IN KB ET W E EN
G OL FA N D IQ

First geneticallymodifiedhuman being

Mobiles banned on public transport

Princess Diana alive and living in New Jersey

UK TO DRIVEON RIGHT

U5 PRESIDENT
CONSULTS
PRIVATE
ASTROLOGER

: CONVER'ATION
GAMBITS
I

appraisal
noun an
le'preiz(e)U
interview between
a m a n a g e ra n d a n
employee,which
a l l o w st h e m a n a g e r
to judge how well
the employeeis
doingtheirjob
Definition {rom Macmillan
tnqllSn ulcTlonary

se questionsir-rgroups.Do you have any experienceof a staffappraisalsystem?If you


1 Discusst|1,6
of such a systemfrom a) the
clo,wastl-reexperiencepositiveor negative?What are tl'readvar-rtages
Wl-ratare the clisadvantages?
perspective?
errployee'spoint of view and b) the con'rpany's
to the Directorof a companydescribingtheir staffappraisalscheme.Has it been a
Lister-r
2 ,{} x"*sm
slccess?Nurnber the wordsbelow ir-rtl'reorder you l'rearthem. You will hear some of tl-rewordsrrlore
than once.
formal I
goalsE
for,t I
feedbackI
expectatiort,E
,r1or.uno.,, l--l chat I
tir-nescales
scaleE
I
reportI
objectivesI
,r'rotivation
E
,t-1o,r,rr"
irr".r E
E
Work rvith a partner.Use the wordsin 2 to sumtnarisewhat
3 Is the appraisalschene successful?
Alison Lea-Wilsonsa\is.
'in
how useftrl
4 Staffappraisalis very n-ruch fashion'but recentlysome expertshavebegun to qr-restion
quotesfrom differentblogsand rnatcl-rtl-reextractsto tl'reproblerns.
it is. Readtl-rese
a It is inaccurateanclsubiectivefltractb^
b It is unpopularwith both managersand employees.. . ..
It is uneconomicand r-rotgood for cornpanyperforrnance.
d It createsa bad atmospherebetweentnembersof staff'
Does not work beca.,senanagersdon't haveenough tirne to do it well'

I
I
I

w?8

l^^-_^-,^-^.--

of Year
@ t t ' sc o m i n g t o t h a t t i m e
a g a i n . A n d e v e r y o n eh a t e s i t .
Employeesdetest Performance
a p p r a i s a l sb e c a u s et h e y a r e
t o t a l l y u s e l e s sa n d a c h i e v e
n o t h i n g . M a n a g e r sh a t e g i v i n g
t h e m b e c a u s et h e y ' r e u s u a l l Y
b a d l y p r e p a r e da n d t h e y h a v e
too many other thingsto
d o . E m p l o y e e sw o r r y a b o u t
them becausethey are often
m e a s u r e do n t h i n g s o v e r w h i c h
they have no control.

;-1:,1i:
!,'l-riiiYSTAFF
APPRAISAL
E

@ nesearchconducted
by PersonnelDecisions
I n t e r n a t i o n a l( P D l ) ,a g l o b a l
c o n s u l t a n c yf i r m , f i n d s t h e
majority of emPloYeeswho
report to more than one boss
get inconsistentmarks. In
a study oI 5,970 emPloYees
reporting to two bosses,
employeeswho were rated
'outstanding - one of the best'
by the first boss,were rated
lower by the other boss62% of
the time and onlY'somewhat
above average'or less29% of
the time.

l f y o u ' r e l o o k i n g f o r w a Y st o
i m p r o v e p e r f o r m a n c e ,o r c u t
c o s t s ,y o u s h o u l d t h i n k a b o u t
getting rid of Your company's
performance aPPraisalsYstem.
I t u s e sa t r e m e n d o u sa m o u n t
of time and energY,dePresses
a n d d e - m o t i v a t e sP e o P l e ,a s
well as destroYinganY trust
and teamwork. The whole
systemsimply reinforcesthe
v a l u e sa n d p r e j u d i c e so f t h o s e
in power at great cost to Your
company.
_-,---.1

5 You work for a mediurn-sizedengineerir-rg


colrpany wl'richlnanufacttrresspecialistmachine parts.
Your conpany introduceda staffappraisalschemefive yearsago.Recentlyit seemsthat everyone(in
privateat least)is complainingabout tl'resystern.Work in grotrpsof four. You are going to take part ir-ra
n-reetingto decidewl-ratto do. Eacl-rtake a role: A, B, C or D.
A
The Financial Director
You think staffappraisalis wasteof tirne unlessit is linked to pay.You want to decideannual salary
increasesbasedon performance.You don't agreethat staffin the sarre postshould get tl-resane payrisewhen somepeopleare betterthan others.You want nanagersto come up witl-ran objectivesystem
which rewardshard work and results.
B
The Production Manager
One of the tl'ringsthat n'rostirritatesyou about your job is l-ravingto do staffassessrnents.
In yor-rropinior-r
they are time consuming,costlyand provideno clearbenefits.A good,efficientworkingatmosphere
dependson a managerbeing a good leaderand kr-rowinghow to n-rotivate
I'risor her tean witl'routall this
Human Resources
nonsense.
If you treatpeoplelike childrer-r,
they will behavelike children.
C
The Human ResourcesManager
This is reallyyolrr areaand a major part of your job. You can't understandthe attitucleof other rnanagers
in your companywho don't seehow irnportantstaffappraisalis for making the companymore efficient.
You think it is their fault tliat the systerndoesnot work at the rnoment. If they changetheir attitudesyou
think it is possibleto cl-rangethe atrnospl'rere
in your companyand that peoplewill feel positiveabout
evah-ration.
D
The {Jnion Delegate
Your positionis clear.Staffappraisalis just anothertechniquefor managenentto exploitemployees
rrore. Usually it is an exclrsefor not prornotingmembersof staff.Nobody truststl-resystentar-rdtl-re
way peopleare currently evaluatedand ratedis clearlyunfair becauseit dependson the opir-rionof
each individualmanager.The only peoplewho like the systemare thosewho get positiveresultsancl
promotionby'suckingup' to their line-managers.
6 The article below describesan alternativeto traclitionalstaffappraisalcallecl'360-degreefeeclback'.
Do you thir-rktl'ratthis sounclslike a gooclsolutior-r
to the problemsyou disctrssed
in 5?

-Deqree
t=P edbaE-(
T \

TJ

rE

-;

' 3 6 0 - D E G R E EF E E D B A C K ' i sa n a l t e r n a t i v ep e r f o r m a n caep p r a i s asl y s t e mw


, h e r ef e e d b a c k
comesfrom differentpeople,all of whom work with the employee.Feedbackcan be obtained
managersand evencustome.rs
from colleagues,
subordinates,
to havea clear understanding
of the employee'scontributionand needs.'360'refersto the 360 degreesin a circle.It
happenson a regularbasisand the individualperformanceobjectivesare thingswhich can be
focusof this kind of feedbackis on developingrelevantplansand
obiectivelymeasured.The
trainingopportunitiesfor eachstaff member.Both the employeeand the managerhavean
e q u a lo p p o r t u n i t yt o m a k ec o n t r i b u t i o n s . T hoer g a n i s a t i ohna s a o p e na n d p u b l i c
c o m m i t m e ntto h e l pe a c hp e r s o ne x p a n dh i s o r h e i k n 6 w l e d g a
e n d s k i l l s . T h i si s t h e
foundationuponwhich a continuouslyimprovingorganisationcan build.

eAsfs*r*YsrAFF
APPRAT'AL
L

It might be cheap,but it's going to cost the earth. The cut-priceair ticket is
fuelling a boom that will make controllingglobal warming impossible.
(LONDON)FRONTPAGEON SUNDAY28 MAY 2005.
THEINDEPENDENT

Discussion
1 Discussthe following questionswith other people in the class.
a How often do you fly?
b What things can go wrong when you travelby air?
c Have you had any bad flying experiences?
2

Someoneis checkingin. What goeswrong in each case?


a.rn-a.l1 Listento the conversations.

using the wordsin the box. Listen againand check your answers,if
3 Complete the conversations
necessary.

ffi cherkin
$ffi passport

Conversation I
for flight RA264?
A Good morhing. Is this where I a)
B Yes.Can you give me your b)
, Please?
A I'm afraid I've lost the paperI had it on, but here'smy c)
B I'm sorry,but if you haven'tgot the referencenumber, I can't check you in. You'll haveto go to the
over there.They'll give it to you.
d)
? You'vegot my name.
A B u t c a n ' ty o u e ) ...
B I'm not allowedto.
again?
A Dolhaveto0
B No. |ust come to the front.
A OK.
B Next, please.
Conversation 2
A Can I haveyour referencenumber and passportplease?
B Here you are.
........
to checki n.
A You'vejust got one g)
B Yes.this one.
A I'm afraid it's over fifteen kilos.You'll haveto pay hl
B It's only just over.
A Actually it's seventeenkilos.
B Are you sure?How much will it costme?
A It will be i)
, but you haveto pay over there at the main desk.
Can't I p"y here?
B What, over there?There'sa really f)
when you
A No, I'm sorry.But come k)
come back.
B OK. Thanks.

tsATTLE
OF THEARMRESTS
a travclprol>lcrt.What clo1'outhink the
1 Rcaclthe introcltrction
to un articlcort ar.,oicling
a re ?

'stratcgics

It's happened to everyone - even the most experienced businesstraveller and frequent
f l i e r. A l a s t-m i n u tetri p , n o s e a t assi gnmenton the aeropl aneand the onl y seat l eft on a
p a c k e dfl i g h t? Y o u ' v e g u e s s e di t - the mi ddl e seat. l t can make your tri p mi serabl e.H ere
are some strategiesto help you avoid the worst seat.
Source: www.about.com

Conditionalswith will
2

sentencc
Look at this First Clonclitional

Consequences
Condition
If + present
will + infinitive
If ),oucheck-inearly,yotill be able to choose))ourse(lt.
or Yotill be able to chooseyour seatif yotLclrcckin early.

Make asltl:lrtylogicalconibinationsaspossiblc.
Match the conclitions
to the consecluenccs.
'11
I yotr gct on aurcloff the plane f:rster
a if )'ou book tnontlis itr aclvauce
'll
2 votr be too earlyfor :r seat:rssigrtnrent
b if you sit:rt thc front
'll
3 you haveto go to the toilet a lot
c if yotr check in late
'll
+ you be ableto stretchyotrrlegs
d if you'rc politc to the check-inattencl:rnt
'11
5 ,vou solnctinrcsbe ableto ch:urgeyottr se;rt
e if ,votrpretenclto bc ill or pregnzrnt
'll
6 yorl get nrore personerl
spelce
f if \rotttrttstyotrr it-tstincts
'll
7 )/orl p:rvfor it with an uncomfortablescat
the artnrests
g if you clonrinarte
'll
8 yotr choosebetterse:rtnrates
h if yotr usevorlr laptop
'11
9 you feel claustrophobic
i if 1'otrclrinktoo ultch
'll
1 0 y o u feel gtriltvthe entireflight
i if you gct up cluringthc flight
a;\/
d
c
lr
ir
Q)5, A
i
i
f
g
in 2
3 ff ,.i,,'1,;r
Listento sonreonegivingaclviceaboutgettinga gooclseat.Circle the cornbin:ttiorts
agreeu'ith the :rclvicc?
rvhich correspollclto rvltatthe speakersays.Do 1,s11

Discussion
4

Work in grotrps.Make a list of five dosand fir,edon'tsfor busincssair tr:rvellers.

BUYINGAN AIRLINETICKET
1 Readthe article and :rnswerthe questions.
a

Why won't you have anyone to blarne if you get a bacldezrlon your airline ticket?

b If rnore than nine seatsare ernPty,why will EasyJetnot be happy?


If you askRyanAirabout their prices,what will they szry?

TRAVEL
CUT-PRICE
H0W is it possiblethat two passengers
s i t t i n gs h o u l d etro s h o u l d e irn t h e s a m e
planecan pay suchdifferentpricesfor
t h e i r t i c k e t s ?B u y i n ga n a i r t i c k e t h a s
b e c o m ea t e s t o f s k i l l a n d t i m i n gw h e r e
for getting
the customeris responsible
t h e b e s td e a l p o s s i b l eW. i t h t h e o n l i n e
reservationsystemsof cut-priceairlinesit
i s y o u rf a u l t i f y o u g e t a b a d d e a lb e c a u s e
there is no travel agentto blame.

N o w a d a ya
s l l a i r l i n e sh a v ea ' p r i c i n g '
d e p a r t m e nw
t h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b lfeo r ' y i e l d
In other words,their job
management'.
price of tickets in order
the
is to adjust
to get the maximumpossibleprofit for
eachseat on the flight.Ticffiprices vary
a c c o r d i n gt o s u p p l ya n d d e m a h da n d
dependon how full the flight is, and when
result is a
you make your reservation.The
tremendousdifferencein prices.In oner:

Le Mondenewspapermade
investigation,
e n q u i r i e sa t d i f f e r e n t i m e sa b o u tA i r
Franceticl<etson the sameffight from
Paristo NewYorl<in economyclass.They
were quoted17 differentprices,ranging
from 467 to 3228.
Airlinesjustify thesevariablepricing
policie;Bnthe extremelynarrow profit

this,
To illustrate
showsthe
seats.
ats to
bo i n fuel

and crew.
for profit.

cos

That

yanA i rbl ames


f o r p u s h i n gu p t h e
special
pays
prices.For,example,
each passenger
plane
t
h
e
t
h
a
t
f
o
r
t
h
e
w
h
e
e
l
c
h
a
i
r
50 cents
is obligedto carry and sincethe attacl<
on the twin towersin 2002, 5.29 for
insuranceagainstthe risk of terrorism.
it is also true that if your
However,
luggageis just overthe allowedweight,
or you havean extra pieceof luggage,
t h e y w i l l c h a r g ey o u a f o r t u n ef o r ' e x c e s s
baggage'.At the sametime you can't
c l a i m a r e f u n di f a f l i g h t i s d e l a y e db, u t
if you'refive minuteslate for check-in,
t h e y w o n ' t l e t y o u t h r o u g ha n d y o u ' l l m i s s
your flight.

2
a

Complete ttre following sentencesbasedon the inforrnationin tl-rearticle.


the price of your tickets
passenger,
If you book your ticket at a differenttime to ar-rother

ii ih;;; i;';'i ';.,;h demand for seatson a flight, the price


You will only haveyourselfto blarne if yor-r
profit.
d If they only sell 9l seats,
e EasyJetdon't make a profit on a flight if
f lf yorrhavean extrabag,
u They won't let you get on your flight if .....
D

seatsleft.

What is your experienceof cut-pricetravel?Tell your teacheror tl'reother studentsin the class.

1sArR
TRAVEL
E

cleal.

'l'lrc
4
v c r l ; s i r t c : t c l t o f t l t c f t n r r l i s t sl t e l o u ' o f t c r t l l c c o r i l ) : r r r rl.h e n o u n s o n l l r c r i g l r t . O r r c v c r b i n c u c ' l r
l i s t i s \ \ " r o n g .D c l c t c t l r c v er b s r i l r i c l r : r r c \ \ ' r o r l g .
get
buy
offer
.. a good deal
see
negotrate

COVET

estrmate
reduce
.. costs
increase
delete

CoSt
do
pay
make
charge

.. a fortune

adlust
increase
reserve .. the price
lower
reduce

f f i L ] s ct l r c r . c r b + r o u n c o r n b i t r a t i o u si r r - { t o c o n r p l c t e t l r c s c n t c r r c c sb c l o n ' .
chcapcr.
lrrtcnrct.
c

L ) o r u p a n i c sr r s cc c l r r r l t u t c rIso

d
c

arrcl:rrc c\l)cnsr\.c.
l t i s r r o t p o s s i b l ct o
L o n . c o s ta i r l i r r c s

niirLe \'ollr rcscr-r'atirlrr


u'cll i , . , , 1 r . , , , , 1 " .
S o n r c c r r t - p r i c ea i r l i n c s

but in t:rct flrcr oftcrr crcutc nrorc ri'orli


n'itlrorrt lrarcln'orli :rnclgoocl irrck.
i f r r l r l l o o k j r r s tl > c f i r r cr . o t tt r : t v c l ,s o \ ' o t l s h o u l c l

o t l t l r c i r n c l t l ) a g e s l, x r t o f t c r r t l r c r c : r c a l o t o f
h i d c l c r rc h a r g o s ,s o t h c r . a r c n o t r e r a l h ' a sc l r c : r pa s t l r c r s c c n r .
Airlincs s:tvtlrat crtnr costsn ' h i c l r t h c r c a n ' t c o n t r o l

Tff{ffiruHffi#T$AY*#re
#&fuTffi
{ 8 f u
E
&

V l r a r c g o i r r gt o p l a r a g : u n c i r r n ' l r r c l rv o r r I t a v c t o n c g o t i a t c t l r c l t r i c c , c l r r : r n t i h d
. clivcn
titnc, plrvnrcnt tc'nns arrclgtrarantcc pcriod of a proclrrctt o g a i r rp o i n t s . l l c f c r r cv o u p l a r , l i s t c r t o t r i < r
p c o p l c p l a v i r r gt h c g a n r c a s l n c r : r n r p l c .

Fluency
k

\\' b rk n ' i tl ra p a rh rc r.l ,' i rs ot f a l l, cl cci cln'


c hattl rc procl rrct
i s.
S p e a k e A:
r \' o tt l i re th c l rttv c r.L o ol i at tl rc i nstnrcti ons
anclcl r:rrtorrpagc13(r.
S p e a k e B:
r Y tn a rc th c r.l i ... L o o l il t tl rc i rtstnrcti orrs
arrclcl r:u-t
on pagc 141.

'l:i

B (b)

, I'll go on Wednesdayand reschedulea coupleof meetir-rgs.


What about gettingto the airport?
If Derek is free,(.)
And if he isn't?
Well if you'reavailable,(d)
Sorry,I can't.
(e)

&,$ffiT'FqeEfffi$-

LANGUAGELINKS
h

Phrase Bank: Air travel


ls this where I checkin for f light BA 264?
lsit okayif I takethis bag on ashand luggage?
Did you pack your bag yourself?
Could you show me where the availableseatsare?
T h e f l i g h t w i l l b e b o a r d i n ga t g a t e n u m b e r 2 3 i n 2 0
minutes.

A
B
A
B
A
B
A How are you getting ir-rtotown?
B UnlessI'm pushedfor tirne, (0
A
B

Havea good flight.

Vocabulary

A
B

Negotiating

. It's very
there'sa stop near the hotel.
convenientbecar-rse
Oh, will you stayat Tl-reMajestic again?
. It n'rishtbe difficult with the
I will (g)
conferenceon.
You'd betterget on and make sornereservations.
............
Yes,(h)
,I'll get on the Internetor give
them a ring beforeI go to h-rnch.

Complete the dialogr-rewith the words ir-rthe box.

1
',

'l0o/o accept business deal deliver' discount


,
do
more order payment price up
.,,i

with you, but


A Okay,we want to do (")
we need to talk aboutthe (b)
B Well, the catalogr-re
price is $30.25.
A I know,but we'retalkingabouta big (.)
here.If we order 100units,for example,what
(.1)
will you give me?
B If you order (.)
than 100units,I'll give
yolr a discountof (f)
A l0%. And for 150units?
to I2 % .
B F or 150units ,I' l l g o (g )
?
A lZ%.That soundsgood.What about (l-r)
B Paymentis within 60 days.
A Er, if you let us pay within 90 days,I'll (i)
a lower discount... sayl0% on 150
units.
that if I offer a discountof l0% on the
So, yotr'resayir-rg
catalogueprice for an orderof 150units,with payrnent
?
within 90 days,we'll havea (j)
in
A Yes,we'll havea deal ... if you can (k)
two weeks.
tl-rat.
All right, then. I think we can (l)
It'sa deal!

Complete the dialoguewith the phrasesbelow.

l'll askyou to take me I l'll just take a taxi then I


if I can get a room I l'll ask him to take me
What will you do I l'll take the new metro I
lf there'snothing on TuesdayI if I can finish
this report

A Have you got yor-rrtrip next week organised?


B More or less.I haven'tactualiybookedanythingyet.
A You know it's a long weekend.There'll be a lot or
peopletravellingon Tuesday(a)
can't get a flight?

i i . : iA I R T R A V E L

if you

Air travel
1 Imagine you are flying frorn Europe to the USA.
Number the followir-rgevelts in a logical order.
I

f
I

U
.

tr a
E
"
Ll f

T
Th
Ti
Ti
g
D

nk
2

Book your flight over the Internet or by phoning


tl-reairline.
Check in at least45 n'rinutesbeforeyour flight.
Go through tl'remetal detectorand wait for your
flieht to be announced.
F"rt.r'r your seatbelt and take off.
Showyour boardingpassat the boardinggateand
get on the plane.
Check the detailsof yottr reservationand seat
assignment.
Dominate the arrnrests!
Co throughcustoms.
Thke a taxi to your hotel.
Land at JFK airportand get off the plane.
Go tl'rroughpassportcontrol and pick up luggagein
baggagereclain.

Match the partsof tl'resentences.

a You shouldaskfor the seatyou want when you book ...


b It's important to be polite
c There wasa trafficjam and I missed...
d The flight wasoverbooked,so they offeredme ...
e If you don't get a gooddeal on your ticket,...
f If your flight is delayed,yon ...
I
2
3
4
5
6

... your flight


... my flight.
... to the check-inattendant.
... you can only blame yourself.
... can't claim a refund.
... a refund or a laterflight.
a

b . c ; d ' e

i*r,tU,r**..'r,t!i'
.r:,=.:.'., .rir..,, . "-, -..].,,or,,rr+s*i.$,r+'i*.*r,i$,l,ir.ni.+,!tl.l+,**rj,:*,r,

Grammar

Practice
2

with will
Conditionals

Complete the sentencesusing one of the verbsbelow in


the correcttense.

Ii- Present,willlwon'f + infinitive


. ryI have time, l'II finish the figuresthis afternoon.
. Ii they don't offer me moremoney,I won't accept
the ioh.
.,,illlwon't + infinitive + if + Present
t He won'twait if you arrive late.
. I'll phone you if my mobileworks there.
\'rtr can use conditionalswithwill to talk about future
!\'entswhich dependon otherthingshappening.

Practice
1
\latch the partsof the sentences.
-r
b
i
d
e
f
g
h
r
r

If you don't leavenow, ...


You'll be late ...
If I get a promotion,...
I'11buy a bettercar ...
If peopleare rude to the ground staff,...
+
If we make a good offer, ...
I'll takelongerto get to the airport...
I'll put on weight...
If you don't haveany plansfor tonight,...
They'll get more work done ...

I ... they won't be able to get on tl-replane.


l ... if I go to so many businesslunches.
) ... yor-r'llmissyour flight.

... if you don't keep interruptingthem.


... if you don't call a taxi now.
... if we coincidewith the rush hour.
... I'll earnmore money.
5 ... if they increasemy salary.
I ... will you havedinner witl'rme?
I U ... we'll eet the contract.

i,..' adopt
:..:,t,l659

be
need

find
pay

If I see]ohn, I

b If anyone

have improve
phone tell

.......
hi rn w hatyou sai d.
to contactme, tell them

I'll be backat fotrr.


We
able to get the 10.14train if we
hr-rrry.
If you
my keys,will you let ne
know?
Y ourE ngl i sh
. if you spendsometime
in the USA.
F I
you if there'sany news.
g
If
we
within 30 days,will you drop
D
the price?
is a success,other
h If BA'spolicy on rude passengers
it.
airlines
his seat
If he checksin late,he
assignn'rent.
Yorr
to hurry if you want to catch
vour fligl'rt.

Practice
3
Write a sentenceusing the conditional withwill basedon
eachpieceof advice.
You should confirm your booking or you won't get a
good seat.
goedte,at.. .....
it..y.p-u.e."-nfi(.r^]put
. ....
.be-alitg,yeu'l.gel.a
You should pretendyou're not interestedin buying
from them or they won't drop the price.

F..
Ek

Yor,rshould apologiseto the bossor you will have


problems.

ffi
&

Y;,,;h;;iJ,,';
;;i;ki;; ;;h

""

.r,.ni;h;";;;;ii

haveto keep going to the toilet.

Yor,rshould leavefor the airport now or you'll missyour


flight.
You shouldn'tbe rude to airport ground staffor they
won't let you on the plane.
You sl-rouldstudysomethingpracticalor yoll won't get
a job.
h You shouldn'twork too hard or yor-r'lleet ill.
You should take the client out to h,rnchor yoll won't
get his business.

,!3

AIRTRAVEL

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" . T l , o o l i : r 1l l r c l r c l d l i r t c b c l r x r . \ \ ' l r . r tc l or o r r t l r i r r l ,t l r c : u ' l i c l ci s u l r < i r r i ?


;i

l t c l r dt l r c : r r t i c l ct , r L ' gi f r , , u : n - r ' c o l r - c c f . ' l l r c r : l n s \ \ t' lcrrc c ; r r c s t i o r s .

l ) o r o r r t l r i r r l it l r c s l c ' l . i r g \ \ ' : r sj r r s t i f i c d ?
\ \ r n t l c ll l r i sl r c P o s s i l r l icr r r o r r r c ( ) r r l ) : u r,\r - i r \ ( ) u r - c ' o u r t n ' ?
c ' \ \ ' l r l t : t c l irc c u o u l c lr o u g i r c t o \ i c o l : r ?
lt
lr

'

. j
::,,

: . t i. j:'i:
: t1

",.*.

,'

,'.

l " i r r ctlu o n l o r c i c r b s i r r t l r c u r t i c l c1 l r : tui t . cs i n r i l : t irn n r c u u i r r gt o ' s : r c k '\.\ ' l r i c l rr c r b i s r r o r . r ' I r . r ;

The passive
- $ . l ' ' i r r csl c n t c r c ' c si r f l r c r r r t i c l ct l r u t u r c s i r n i l : r r r rr r c : u r i r r gt o t l r c F o l l o u i r r g :
; r l l t . . ' lr , t i t l r t ' r, , 1 1 .
'l'lrci
lr
o l c l c rc c l l r c r t o l c u rc t l r c f l c ' t o r i i r r n r c c l i u t c l r .
$

O o n r p l r c t l r c l n o p r r r r sr i l t s c r r t c r r c cr rsr1 .

:r
lr

\ \ ' l r i c l r a r c r c t i r c : r r r cul ' l r i c l r; r r c1 r : r s sci ?r


\ \ ' l r o i s r r r c r r t r o n c fcilr s t r r r t l r c : r c t i rc s c n t c n c c s ?

\ \ ' l r o i s r l r c r t i o r r c cfl r r s ti r r l l r c p : r s s i v sc c n t c r r c c s l
cl \\'lro is tlrc stori :rlrorrt?
c \ \ ' l l r t r s t l r c a c l r ' : r n t l goc f r r s i n gt l i c p ; r s s i i cs c n t c r r c ' c s ?
'llrc
|
l t g c n t i r l l r c l t c ' l i t ' cs c r t c r c ' c si s f / i c t ' .\ \ 1 l l t t l r : r p p c n st o i t i r r l l r c 1 ; i i s s i rs. cc n t c n c c s ?\ \ ' l r r ?

H I R I N GA N D F I R I N G

to sounclnroreobjectivezurcl
6 Readthe manzrger's
report of the inciclentin Z. Hc usesthe parssivc
fonl:rl in stvle.Completethe reportusingthe l,erbsbelow in the passivc.
ask

give (x 2)

inform (x 2)

warn

RE: NICOLA WILLIAMS

an empl oyee
i n the assemblpl
y ant,
Ms N i col aW i l l i ams,
O n tw o o c c a s i o ni n
s N o v e m b er
(a )
the companyrul es.
th a t u s i nga mobi l ephonei n w ork hoursw asagai nst
and (c)
by anothersupervisor,
Boththesewarnings(b)
she(d)
a w ri tten
on a furtheroccasi on,
i n h e rfi l e .T h e n ,i n D e c e mb er,
of a problem
onthe
w a r n i n gF. i n a l l oy n
, F r i d a y1,2J a n u a rayt 1 0 . 3 0l ( e )
fa c to ryfl o o r.W h e nI a rri v e dthere,I founda l ot of noi seandshouti nggoi ngon. Ms W i l l i ams
A pparentlshe
y
i n a radi ophone-i nprogramme.
w a su s i n gh e rm o b i l ep h o n eto parti ci pate
and to comein to my office.
hadwon a prize.I askedherto put the phonedown immediately,
of Ms Jones,my deputy,Ms
and in the presence
I decidedto terminateher employment,
and abusi ve,
and
S hebecamehysteri cal
Wi l l i a ms
w a sto l dth a t s h ew a sbei ngsacked.
(f)
that her
to l e a vethe factoryi mmedi atelSy he(O)
possessions
would be forwardedto her by post.

7 In what wav are the clctails:rbotttthe irtciclerttclifferent?


I

in eachtext.
Inrprovethesesl'rorttextsby changingone vcrb to tltc patssivc

is rising,artclthereare
urtetnploynrent
They havelaicloff over 35,000peoplein thc lastfivc ycetrs,
socialproblerrsin the region.
is risirtg,and thereare social
35,000peoplehayebeenlaid off in the last fiveyears,tntentployntent
problemsin the regiort.
'l'he
fast.
They are hiring nervst:rffalcl it is erpzurcling
b
businessis argreatsuccess.
they closeclone of the factories.
the nuniber of ordersclecre:rsed,
c As therewzls:rreccssiorr:urcl
'lb
wherelabotrrcostsare lowcr.
it is rn:rkingthe ncw tnoclelin Hrrngarry,
in'rprover-nargins,
d
Forclhasseveralplantsin Fiurope.One of them is inValenciaartclitprocltrcesthe Escortthcre.
'l'liey
f
have announceclplansfor the no'l incltrstrialest:rte.It will covcr tetr hectaresarnclcre:rtcspitce
ventttres.
for orrerl5 btrsiness

:l

Discussion
I Work in groups.hr what situationsclo
is iustified?'l'hinkaboutthe
you think sarcking
followine:
dishonesty disrespecttosuperiors
inappropriatedress
industrialaction (going on strike)
not meeting objectivesor achievingresults
punctuality revealingcompanysecrets
violence
Aclclyour orvn icle:rs,if you like.

HTRTNG
ANDFTRTNG
E

I\PPLYINGFORA JOB
1 *$:}.l.t-,.+--a.t;s
Listento for-rrpeopletalkingarbouttheir approachto applyingfor
a job. Thke lrotesanclmatch the peopleon the left to the surnniariesbclow.
a
b
c

I'm lookingfor a chanceto clevelopancldemonstrate


my tme potential.E
My qtralifications
and experiencespeakfor therriselu"r.
E
I'ut so brilliar-rtat whateverI clo,they woulclbe ltrckv to havc rnc working in
their cornp"ty. I
'l'l'rere
rr-rzry
d
be peoplewitl'rbetterqualificationsarndexperience,but no one is
rnore enthusiasticor l-rarcl
working than me. E
2 Whicl-rspeaker(s)
do you algreewith? Wliat approachcliclyou useto ger vour
presentjob?Doestlie approachyou useclependon the job?
3 Reaclthe following extractsfrom lettersof appliczrtion.Match tl'remto the
surnmerries
in l.

I am very keento work for your companybecause


of its excellent
,reputation.I do not havethe specificqualifications
or experience
referredto in your advertisement.
However,I am applyingbecauseI
fe el I am abl eto makeup for thi sthroughhardw ork and w i l l i ngness
to
l e arn.

ii If youbelievein ihe pursuitof excellence,


thenI am interested
in joining
yourcompany.
I sethigh standards
for myselfandexpectthemfromothers,
especially
the organisations
that I r,vorkfor. I lookforwardto an opportunityto
addto thelist of alreadyoutstanding
achieverner-rts,
whichareoutlinedin my
CV.

iii FrommyCVyouwillseethatfiveyears
ata chemicals
multinational
havegiven
mea solid
business
background.
I amresponsible
planning,
formydepartment's
logistical
whichhas
developed
myorganisational
skills,However,
I amnowlooking
foropportunities
forfurther
deveopment
andresponsibility,
whichmypresent
employer
cannot
offer.

iv As a commercially aware and linguistically trained university graduate, I have a


broad range of employment experience at blue-chip companies in both the USA and
Europe. I am dynamic and creative, with a strong team spirit and leadership qualities.
I have a Proven record of working with individuals at all levels through highly
developed interpersonal and communication skills.

Readingbetween the lines


4 Reaclthe extractsin 3 again.There arrecertain forn'ralphr:rsespeople use ir-r
lettersof applicationto talk abouttheir qualitiesanclerchiever-nents.
Unclerline
pl'rrases
whicl'rrrean the following:
a
b
c
d
e
I

I'd really like to work for you becauseyorl'resuch :r greatcornpanv.


If you think doing things rvell is in-rportant,I'd like to work for yotr.
I dor-r'treally have tl'reprofile of the iclealcanclicl:rte.
I' v e w o rk edw i tl r rrranydi ffererrli .rrrportarrt
corrparri es.
I've showr-r
I can work r,vithall kinclsof people anclget on witl-reveryone.
I look afterthe practicalday-to-clay
:rspe
cts of clepartmentorgar-risation.

I want a new job becatrserny corrpany probably u,oil't be able to pronrote nle.

h I l-rave
five yearsof internationalbtrsiness
experiencervorkingfor a chemicals
comPany.
5

i 4 H I R I N GA N D F I R I N G

Use sonteof the phrasesin 3 to write a par:rgraphintrocltrcingys111


olvn CV.

A JSB INTFRVIHTII#
1 lleaclthc job ach'crtanclCV belori'.Whv clovott think Saraapplicdfor the job?

E N TM A N UF A C T U R E R
QU]PM
P A C K A G I NEG
M UL T I N A T I O N F
AO
L OD
s e e l ( sI n t e r n a t i o n aSl a l e sM a n a g e rt o c a l l o n E u r o p ea n d L a t i n A m e r i c a .
B a s e$ B 0 l ( a n d c o m m i s s i o nf u, l l b e n e f i t sa n d e x p e n s e s .
P r e f e r sf:l u e n c yi n o n e o r m o r e f o r e i g nl a n g u a g e s .
S e n dr e s u m 6w i t h c o v e rI e t t e ri n d i c a t i n gc i t i z e n s h i ap n d s a l a r yr e q u i r e m e n t s .

VITAE
CURRICULUM

SaraVerkade

NAME

D ri ve,LondonS W 16
5 8 , Stoppard

ADDRESS
A

TELEPHONE

Tel:353 865 344872

E.MAIL

mz.
s ara .v erkade@
gnet

s, N etherl ands
.7B , Maassl uiThe
DATE& PLACEOF BIRTH 2 3 .7
MARITALSTATUS

)rngre

NATIONALITY

Dutch

QUALIFICATIONS

1996- Jul y1999


Se p tember
The
H ogeschool
, H ague
Management,
H aagse
B C o mm,Marketi ng

E M P L O Y M E NHTI S T O R Y J u n e 2 0 0 0 - p r e s e n t

Organi si ng
n,
H el enaR ubi nsteiLOreal
TeamC o-ordi nator,
M a n a gement
A nal ysi ng
sal esfi guresand produci n g
eventsandconferences.
m e e t i ngs,
to
rel ati ons
and respondi ng
reportsandcharts.C ustomer
re l e v ant
c o m p l a i n at sn dq u e r t e s .
J u n e1 g g g - J u n e2 O 0 O
teamsupport.
P roducti viC
tyentre,IB MS al es
S al
, es
S PCProfessi onal
ng mi l l i ondol l arbi ds.
pri ci ngand proposal -w ri tion
R e s earch,

LANGUAGES

D u t c hE
, n g l i s hG, e r m a nS, p a n i s h

IT SKILLS

Offi cesui te
userof Mrcrosoft
P ro fici ent

Sarr:ru'as intcn'ieu'ecl frrr tlie jolt. Listert to tltc


irrtcn,icu'.Qtrestions a - i belou :trc tvpical ill :rrl irltcn'ien'
for a job. Which of thc clttcstiotrscktesthc itrtcrvieu'erask?
(Hc cloestrot ttse thc sattttcu'orcls.)
* " f t

a
b
c
d
c
f

Wln cliclt'otr a1>plvfor this job?


Whv shotrlclu'e ernplov yott?
Whcn are vou free to start?
l)oes yorlr present enrplot.cr ktron. th:tt votr tr':ltlt to leave?
Havc \/ott e\ICrclonc artt'thirtglike this lteforc?

g
h

Hou' do feel about trar,'elling?


Hou'goocl 2trc\'otlr cotttpttter sliills?
\\'hat arc vour largtrage sliills like?

Do vott h:rvc atl'cltrestiolrs?

S l)o r,ou think the inten'ieu'er u'as fair irt tltc itrtervieu'?
D o v o r r t h i n l i S a r a hg o t t h c i o b ?

ANDFTRTNG
HTRTNG
E

Asking for clarification


4

Listen againand completethe phrasesbelow.

How much managerialexperiencedo you have ? It's


vour CV.
you'rethe leaderof a team?
b Yes. . ........
d

But

f
g

previousposition,yoll were'ar-rSPC professior-ral'.


What
?
you were directly involvedin sales?
So,
.

Can

....

..

a manager?

i"""f".2
specific,please?

Fluency
5 Write a brief CV for yourselfand give it to your partner.Then take it in turns to intervieweach otl'rer
for the job Sarahwantedor anotheriob. Ask for clarificationof the detailsof the CV.

WHAT AEOUT THE WORKERS?


1 What is happeningin the photographon this page?How do you think this situationrelatesto
ernploymentand staffing?
2 Work with a partner.You will each read an article relatingto the employmentsituationin a country
and do three exercises.
When you have finished,turn back to this page.
Student A: Look at page 136.

Student B: Look atpage 137.

3 The noun / verb combinationsin the box were in the articlesin 2. The verbswere in the passive.
Can you rememberthe sentences?
Tell yor-rrpartner.
A
conditions
/ agree lirms lcontact salaries
/ negotiate staff/ pay
B
'

anyone/ sack country/ bring

offers/ put

survey/ carryout

reforms/ defend strike/ call

Discussion
4

Discussthe following questionsin relation to your country.


a What are the lawsabout unemploymentbenefits?Do you think they are fair?
b What rightsdo workershave?How do they affectemployment?
c Why do you think there is a shortageof skilledworkers?Do you think the use of temporarylabour is
a goodsolutionto the problem?
'It
d
is increasinglydifficult to providepeoplewith jobsfor life.' Do you think this is true?

#
.
t
; *t' .0.

i&

F,#rc.!rwL
'F

r.tt;AlR,_

; de&strffi$ruffi
&ffiffi ffiffiffififfiffi

2 Cornbine one word from box A with one word frorn


box B to conplete eachsentencebelow.

LANGUAGELINKS
Phrase Bank: Asking for clarification

Now, can we just checkout some details?


,

Doesthat mean ... ?


' But do you/areyou ... ?
It sayson your CV/inyour e-mailthat ... What exactly
doesthat mean?
What does ... involve?
Could you be a bit more specificabout ... , please?

Vocabulary
Frocedures
1 Match the partsof the sentences.
She wasemployed...

b The incidentwasreported...
john wasconsulted...
C
4
d The staffhavebeen informed...
Shewassacked...
r
The conditior-rs
wereagreed...
I
He didn't acceptthe offerswhich wereput ...
h The workerwasinjured ...
i The flight wasdelayed...
The passiveis used...
I
I

I
l
)

+
;
6
7
8
9
l0

... or'la temporarybasis.


. . .a b o r rt h e d e c i s i o n .
... for writing reports.
... for stealingoffice stationery.
... to I'rirnby the ernploymer-rt
office.
... by the bad weather.
... to the supervisor.
... at a conpany wide level.
... of the new workinghours.
... by an explosionir-rthe chemicalplant.
a

d t ie

'
i
l

'

.
l
r

A
electronics
written
j ob
comPany
workers'
j ob
previous
skilled
temporary
unemployment
staffing

B
application
secrets
position
rights
needs
security
workers
warning
staff
benefits
industry

For youngpeople
is not usuallyas
important asa good salary.
We gavethe ernployeea
....for arriving
lateto work two daysrunning.
In the sumrler thereis more work so we haveto take
ol-llrrorepeopleto meet orlr .
He wasaccusedof revealins.. . .... . .
toa
competitor.
A hundred yearsago
didn't exist
becausetherewereno unions.
You alwayshaveto include a CV in your
Educatior-ris important becauseindustryneedsa
srrpplyof
Wasyour
a full-time post?
In nany countriesthereare n 0 .
..... for
peoplewho have no work.
At Christmas,shopstake on
because
it's a busytin-reof year.
The
. is an important sectorof the
local economy.
3 Reorganisethe lettersto forn'rwords to cornplete the
sentences.

j
i

q
i

kasc veritwine kemart girinf


dalifof revbal nowd
Two hundred workersat the factoryhavebeen
......becauseof the bad financialsituation.
This mobile phone is the sn-rallest
on the
I askedher to put the pl'rone
.. . . ..and corne
into my office.
They can't
you witl-routgiving you at
leasttwo warningsin writing.
. . ...someoneis one of the n-rostdifficult
things a lnanagerl-rasto do.

rhe firstthinsl:::li,1ll ." o" isgivetl'reemployee


a
How did your
you got the job?

go, then? Do yotr think

14HTRTNG
ANDFTRTNG
E

Grammar
Thepassive
The objectin activesentences
becornesthe subjectin passivesentences.
Passive(to be + past participle)
The ntachineis servicedeyeryyear.
Five factorieshave been closed down.
The officeswere decoratedlast yearShe is being encourogedto apply for the iob.
The offLceisn't cleaned orLFriday.
-l'he
You often usethe passiveto put the important inforrnationat the beginning of a sentence.
passivecan be lnore
impersonalthan the active.For this reason,you can r-rseit in fonnal documentssuch as reports.
Active
Someoneservicesthe machineeveryyedr.
They hat,eclosed down five factories.
They decorated the officeslast year.
They are encouraging her to apply for the iob.
They don't clean the officeon Friday.

You can useby to en'rphasrse


who or what perfonnedan action.
o The book waswritten by PeterHtLdson.
o The equipmentis damagedby prolongedexposureto sunlight.

Practice
1

Practice
3

Reorganise
the wordsto make correctsentences.

Answerthe questionsusinga sentencein the passive


and by.

June was at the contract the signed' end of

sacked slowly Sheila was working too for

. ;;-;;; i;; tr..*,. i; ;;; ;ii;;

a Who wastl'reinventor of the light br-rlb?


The ligh+bulbw421n;ve;nted
byTl"'er^arfdis-qn
b What currencywasthe replacementfor the peseta,
franc and lira in 2002?

workers accident injured were the in solrle

c How rrranycountries
form the U;;

mea3ures announced

been

d Who is the autl-rorof this book?

year tl'ris be will

e Who is the owner of this book?

'''''''+

^ . - statf ernployednew

the have new


no

redesigned corporate is image being our

salaries increased year have this been ollr

KilJo-t

What type of heatir-rg


haveyou got in your office - oil,
gasor electric?

s. Wl-rowas the director of tl'refilm SomeLike it HotT

Practice
2
Rewritethe sentencesin the passive.
a They havecancelledthe order.
prder\+l.f,eeyg.4leelled,.
\-.1.,p... .
b They haven'tfinishedthe new building.
c

1-r Which companywas


PC?

i . "'i-i";i';;;,'i;.i;;;;;
;iih;

Answersat foot of page.

Someonetold him aboutthe meeting.

d #;;;;;-;i; ir-'.
pi""i"',r..".;.,,;i;;
e

Someonewill pick you up at the airport.

r rh;;;ia";i,,fr,i-iih;;;ilJ ih;';b
Did anyonetell you aboutwhat happenedat the
meeting?
They hold a salesconferenceeveryyear.

Wgl LI repll6 {tttg "'


e{rBlc Lrours P rlroj c orne q
(g acqcrr4)sra,trsul-

T . {H I R I N G
ANDFIRING

Here are some basicrules on time management


Tell people how you want them to work with you, or how to use your time.

Returnthe favor,treat their time as you want your time treated.


No meetings without agenda.
No long documentswithout a short summary.
Make sure you know what is expecled of you:
STEFAN
rOprER,cEo & cHAIRMAN
oF wtNWEB(HTTe:/ryWW..
sME-BLOG.
COMiCATEGORY/HOW-TO/MANAG
E-YOU
R-Tr
W), $

T
n
collocations .-"

'

# Wy'
j'

;t
+
,"*
ft*,
"i*
1 Put vowelsi.,'the spacesto eornpletethe u.rS bdo*.
s p - r rd
I

.S

n-loney

S_V_

w_st_
h-vnv

tirne

st

using wordsfrom l. Are they true for you?


Cor-r-rplete
the.sentences

a lot of time on the phone to peopleand answeringe-mails.


a lot of time.
I don't
. much time for rnyseldbut wl'renI do, I like to get sorneexercise.
time.
d Comptrtersshould make you lrore efficient,but they can alsornakeyou
.L

At rvork,I

b I plarnrly day carefully.If you preparethingswell, you can ..

Discussion
3

Disctrssthe following questionswith a partner.

er
b
c
d

Somepeoplesay'Time is money'.Do you agree?


hr what waysdo you tl'rinkyott wasteor savetirle and money?
Wh:rt:rreyorlr workinghours?If you could choose,how would you organiseyor,rrworkinghours?
What cloyou think of the StefanTopfer'sbasicn-rlesof time nanagement?

THE NEW DATABASE


1 Match the wordsand phraseson the left with the definitionson the right.
a hold-up
point in time by which somethingmustbe done
late
periodin which somethingis expectedto happen

&.u",'tuilListen to tlie conversatiotrand answertl'requestions.


c When is it going to be readynow?
a What problem is the conversationabout?
attitude?
b When wasthe systemsupposedto be online? d What do yor-rthink of the IT techniciar-r's
2

Lister-ragair-r
and completethe phraseswith or-reword for each gap. Contractionscount as one word.

it's
We'reworriedbecarrse

, but therehavebeen someproblems...


last
October.You
... the systemwassupposedto be onlilre
, anclit's now February.
d ... not con-rpatible
witl-rthe new design.That Ineanswe havea ....... ... .
Wrat do you mean?How

b Well yes,I'm sorryabout


L

for all this is now next October?


f A;;;;., lrr,"g.hat
on
g Can you guaranteethat you'regivingus priority this?Will . ......

,s'MEE

4 Complete tl-rephrasesso they are true for you. Then compareyour ideaswith your teacheror a
partner.
to get to work in the morning.
a It takeslne . . .
meet my deadlines.
b I
for gettingthings done.
tin-reframes
c In my companywe
d When peopleare not on time for meetings . ......
behind scl'redule.
e IT projects
f At work the schedulesfor projectsare
g Wher-rthings are delayedI
h In my country,

;,.ii;;;"

THE MYTH OF TIME MANAGEMENT


1 $ x"mmListen to a talk on the topic of tirne rnanagenent.Tl'respeakerdealswith tl'retopicsbelow.
Put thern in order.
E Introduction- Doestime managementwork?
I
E
E
I

Dealing with interruptior-rs


D"fit .d tasksv. problen-r-solving
Factorsbeyondour control
Mrki,'rg useflrlinvestmentsin tin-re
each of the gapsin tl'retext with a word frorn the box. Then listen again to check your

i.rf."rtl]tlete
box

efficient expectations intelligence internet operator problem tasks

Good afternoon. The subject of my presentation today is


'The Myth of Time
Management'. Why is it a myth? Well,
there are thousands of books and (a) ...i^te{n.e1........
courses
on the market which are designed to help people be
better managers of their time. They all suggesttechniques
for using our time more efficiently.They recommend
making 'to do' lists,prioritising, and not answering the
phone as ways to make us more time (b)
But do these techniques really work?
Well, they say that time is money. That may be true,
but time is certainly not like other resourceswhich we
m a n a g e ,s u c h a s m a t e r i a l sa n d m a c h i n e s l. t i s m u c h m o r e
complex than that becauseuse of time depends to a big
extent on personalityand attitude. Sometimeswe can
change our own behaviout but time management really
depends on changing the behaviour of other people
a r o u n d u s a n d t h e d e m a n d st h e y m a k e o n o u r t i m e . A t
best, this is difficult, but more often than not it is beyond
your control. As a result, you can be a very efficient user
o f y o u r t i m e - d i s c i p l i n e d o, r g a n i s e da n d c h o o s i n gt h e
- yet stillfeel
right moment to do vital (c)
stressedand overworked. To be honest, in many cases,this
is simply becauseyou are being asked to do more than is
p o s s i b l ei n t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e .
This leads me on to the next point, becausein fact,
time management is frequently about making choices
that in reality we don't have. One of the recommended
techniques is to closeyour door at certain times, or leave
your voice (d) . . .
to deal with calls.That's fine,
but if interruptions and dealing with unpredictable human
problems are part of your work, then those techniques
don't help very much.

1 5T I M E

Another time-management technique is to analyse


what you are doing and decide if it is important or not.
Well, I think most people of average (e)
can normally distinguish between activity which is useful
and activity which is a waste of time. Unlessthey dislike
their job or their employer;they will do useful things in
their work time. ln fact, often the problem is feeling guilty
a b o u t u s i n g t i m e t o t h i n k o r a c q u i r es k i l l sa n d i d e a sw h i c h
are not immediately productive. What apparently is a
waste of time, is actually extremely useful becausein the
long run, it will make you more efficient.
Time management may work with jobs with very
defined tasks, where procedures and processesare very
clear.Machine (f)
...................,
for example, don't have
to worry much about managing their time becausethe
pace of work is imposed from outside. On the other hand,
if you are faced with a task which involvescreativity or (g)
-solving,how to go about performing the
............
task may not be clear.lt could also be that you are in a job
where you lack either the necessaryskillsor appropriate
training to carry out your duties.
I will go on to look at these different aspectsof timeuse in more detail, but we have to remember that there
will always be more work than time. This is what keeps us
employed. How effectivelyyou use your time is to some
extent a question of ability, training and proper planning.
But above all, it is about having a positive attitude
towards your work, combined with reasonable
(h)
.........,.........h
* oobwo m
u tu c h y o u c a n d o .
OK, thatt a brief summary of the points l'd like to
cover. Now let's go back to look at the question of how we
can change.....

Discussion
3

Is tlie speakcr for or against tinrc martagcrttcrtttcchniclrrcs?l)o vou agree?Wln'/ri,ln'not?

Lhrclerlinefotrr phrasesin the script u'hich carr bc usefirl irr a prcscnt:rtion.

5 Ilon'ri,cll clo 1's11


lnanzlgcvotrr tinre? Conrplete the'You'coltrnn u'ith aPProrinratc Pcrcent:rgesfcrr
thc tinre vorr spcncl on the cliffcrentactivitics.Acld other activitics, if necessarr'.'l'lienconrPlete the'Yorrr
spetrclon ...?'l-hcn charngcrouncl.
parttrcr' colttnrn bv asking Hou, nttrch thne do ))oLL
Activity

You

Your partner

100%

100%

p l a n n i n&
g delegating
meetings
rnrro<nnndonro

telephoning
reading
dealingwith problems

Wh:rt clifferenccs
are there between the u':r)'\'ott rtnclvour partner nran2lgevour tirne? Wlu.'clo votr think
t his i s ?

J U S TI N T I M E
1

Reacl the article ancl alnsu'ertl'resecltrestiorts.

a
b

Holl' cliclthcl'trv life ',vithotrt tintc?


Wl-ratwas the aiui of thc cxucrinrent?
Wht, do compl,rniesuse time as a nle:rsureof proclnctivih'?
Wh,v is the nornral rvorking tinretablc (nine to fir,c) inefficient?
What u,:rsthe restrlt of the experimcnt?

c
d
e

LIFEWITHOUTTIME
H o wd e o e n d e n
a tr ew e o n t i m e ?I s l i f ew i t h o u tc l o c l <lse s ss t r e s s f u l ?
0 n ec o m p a n d
y e c i d etdo f i n d o u t .A t A 0 L , t h e yr e m o v e ad l l t h e
c l o c l <fsr o m t h e i r U l ( h e a d q u a r t e r s . T heevne r y b o dcya r r i e do n
w o r l < i nags u s u a l .
Theywantedto investigate
how pressure
of time can leadto
stress,andto seehowan environment
withoutclocl<s
wouldaffect
p r o d u c t i v i t y . T hseayyt h a t t i m e i s m o n e ya, n dm o s tc o m p a n i euss e
t i m et o c o n t r o tl h e i ra c t i v i t i ebs e c a u siet i s e a s yt o m e a s u r e0. n t h e
o t h e rh a n d h
, u m a n sh a v ea b i o l o g i c acll o c kw h i c hd o e s n 'nt e c e s s a r i l y
correspond
to the standardeight-hour
worl<ing
day.We are more
productive
in the morning,andthenour efficiency
tendsto dropoff
after lunch.So,if you'refeelinghungry,
to
why not havesomething
eat insteadof waitingfor the lunchbreal<?
0r,if you'vefinishedyour
w o r l <d, o n ' th a n go n u n t i li t ' s t i m et o c l o c l <
o f f ,j u s t g o h o m e .
S o ,w h a th a p p e nws h e ny o ur e l yo n y o u ro w nb o d yc l o c l <
instead
o f a r t i f i c i adl e a d l i n e sA?c c o r d i ntgo o n ew o r k e 4 ' M o s t

p e o p l ec a r r i e d0 n a s n o r m a la, l t h o u g h
s o m et o o k a d v a n t a goef t h e
o p p o r t u n i ttyo h a v ea n e a r l yl u n c h . ' A n o t h e
r i d ' T h i si s g r e a t I. t
sa
makessenseto be ableto worl<whenyou needto and leavethe
officewhenyou don't.'0nthe otherhand,onesecretary
foundthe
experience'disorientating'.
However,
oneofficemanagerwas in
n o d o u b t : ' T h a ngl <o o d n e swse a r e g o i n gt o b r i n gt h e
clocl<s
bacl<tomorrow.Mal<e
no mistake,
a clocl<less
officeleadsto chaos.
S o m ep e o p l em a yb e l e s s
stressed
withoutclocl<s,
but you needto knowwhere
p e o p l ea r e a n dw h e n a, n d
meetings,
for example,
can
lastforeverif youdon't have
a t i m el i m i t . '

Discussthe follou,ingquestions.

Is it useful,interesting,or i:r\\,asteof tinre?


a What cloye11tl-rinkof tliis erperimcr-rt?
b Hon' :llelre clovotr neeclto be of tir-nein l,otrr job?
c Coulcl you rvorkri,'itliouta rvatchor clocks?
d Do vou h:rveltrr-rchetc. at the salre tit-trceven'clar'?

,tru

,,n

Vocabulary
3

Find wordsand phrases the article which mean the sameasthe following:

a continue
b fall quickly
c resultin
d wait
e quar-rtify
4

Use the wordsand phrasesin 3 to completethe following sentences.

...to unnecessary
stress.
methods........
a Tin're-management
efficiency.
it is difficult to
b In somebusinesses,
cWhenyouhavetomakeadecision,it'sbestto............
in the samejob for a long time, you lose interest.
d If yor,r.
on a Fridayafternoor-r.
e The amount of activityin an office
5 Which of the sentencesin 4 do you agreewith?
we dre
6 Look at this sentencefrom the article on page97 and answerthe questions.Thank goodness
going to bring the clocksbacktomorrow.
a
b

Does the sentencerefer to the past,presentor future?


Which of the following is closestin meaning to we are going to bring the clocksback?

We would like to bring the clocksback...


We are intendingto bring the clocksback ...
We haveto bring the clocksback ...
7 Plan how you are going to spendyour next working day.Then explainyour plansto your partnerlike
this.
At 9.00,whenI arriveat work,I'm going to checkmy e-mail.Then ...
using the verb in bracketswith eithergoingto
8 .S x.nt*a"Xs Complete the following conversations
or will. Then listen and check yolrr answers.
Conversation I
A Where are yolr going?
B Well, I've finishedeverythingI had to do, so I (a)
A What about the salespredictionsfor next month?
B Oh, I'd forgottenabout that. I (b)
I've arrangedto meet someoneat five.

(leave)early.
(start)on them tomorrow first thing.

Conversation 2
C Have you planned Mr Logan'svisit?What about lunch tomorrow?
(take)him to The Redwing.
D I (.)
C I seemto rememberhe'sa vegetarian.
(phone) to check they have a vegetarianmenu.
D Is he? In that case,I (d)
Conversation 3
E Is everythingconfirmed for your trip to San Sebastian?
(take)the train from there.
F Yes,the plane goesto Bilbao. I (.)
E No. don't do that - it takesforever.The bus is much faster.
(take)the bus,then.
F Is it?Well,I (0
9 Readthe conversations
againand look at how will andgoing to areused.Underline the correct
option in the following sentences.
You can ue will or going fo to talk about decisionsand plans:
a Will / Going fo showsthat you are making a decisionnow.
b Will I Going fo showsthat you made the decisionearlier.

E1s'ME

10 Work r,vitha parttrer.Havesinrilarcotn'crsations:.rs


in 8 rrsingthe prornptsbelolvanclfollou'ingtlris
n:rttenr:
A Sar.what you arc going to clo.I'nt goirtgto walk to tlrc stcttiott.
B Merrtion arproblenrlvith tl-replan. I)ut it's rctirtirtg.
A Rearct
u'ith atr atlte
rnativeplan trsingwill. C)h,in that ccLse,I'il
tcLke
a tctxi.
Plan

Problem

Alternative

walkto the station


attendJapanese
classes
buya bargaincomputer
g i v eu p s m o k i n g
job
get an easier
takea taxito the airport
takeup rollerskating

i ts r a i n i n g
you'retoo busy- you'llmissclasses
it'san old model- it'll be obsolete
verysoon
you'llget fat
you'llearnlessmoney
the taxidriversareon strike
- therearelotsof accidents
its dangerous

?
7

)
?
?

W/ISTIhIGTIME
Collocations
1 Match the rvorcls
to nrakcfcnrrcornnioncolkrc:rtiorrs.
a r b o t t o n r r 1 b a l a n c e
b clelicatc
2 cartrght
c get
3 tinre
d ll'aste
4 line

, I
2

b I

. I

d f

L.lscthe colloc:rtions
in I to complctcthc article.

wasting

Ht

WORK

L o t s o f p e o p l ea r e s o a f r a i d o f g e t t i n gc a u g h t t, h e y n e v e r( a )
y r e r i g h t t o b e a f r a i d . T h e r ei s a
y o r l <t h e e n t i r ee i g h th o u r s . T h e a
a t w o r l < . T h ew
(b)
b e t w e e nn o t d o i n ga n y w o r l <a n d d o i n gt o o m u c h . T h e
(c)
i s y o u m u s t g e t y o u r w o r l <d o n e .I f y o u s t a r t w a s t i n gh o u r sa t a
.
. T o b e a n e f f e c t i v et i m e w a s t e ry, o u h a v et o f i n d s m a l l
t i m e ,y o u ' l l ( d )
, u c a n ' t w a s t et h e c o m p a n y ' tsi m e i f y o u d o n ' t w o r l <f o r
w a y st o e a t u p t i m e . R e m e m b eyr o
r , i t h a l i t t l e e f f o r t ,n o o n ew i l l e v e rl < n o wh o w l i t t l e y o u d o .
. o w e v ew
t h e c o m p a n yH
)ource: www.vgg.com

from the restof tl'rcarticle.What tips clovou think thc authorgivcstrncler


3 Here are the lieaclings
ezrchl'reacling?

Besloppy

T h ec o m p u t e r

The Internet
Officeconversations

Meetings

Look at page I l8 to see whartthc arrthor recorllllertcls.

5 Conrplete the sentcncesbelow rvitli u'orclsor phrascsfionr the text orr pllge 138 that nre:ur thc satne
as the words in brackets.
'Yes,
'Yotrr
.'
btrt I know'u'herc cvervthing is, so clon't totrch anr,tliing.
a
papcrsarc

b
c
d
e

(trnticlr,)
tirtreto preparcit. (rcscrvc)
Beforen'rakingan inrportatnt
call, \'ott shottld
I onlv usc thc hitenretto get specificinfornration.I clon'thavctin-rcto
tltc Web.
(mor,'earorrnclfrom link to link rvith no partictrlarainr)
. , So I neecla goocl hrtcrnct corrnection. (infonnation searchirtg)
M1' job reqtriresa lot of
ancl agree lvifh sl,slything are no trsc ;rt all. (nrovc hcacl trp and
Peoplervho ah,varrs
clou'n)

5 Work rvith a partner.What otlier \\a\rsof rvastingtime c:ln vou think of?

,"H

Coniplete the setrtencesttsing the correct forrn of the

LANGUIIGELINKS
r:,::,'PhraseBank:Presentations
Good afternoon.The subjectof my presentation
t o d a yi s . . .

worclsin brackets.
betterin tl-renrornit'tg.
Most people
(perfornance)
tl-restaff to
is goingto
A psychologist
seel-rowthet' r,vork.(observation)
will not be
Time\nanl\ger-!.rent
impresseclbv the resultsof the experinent. (specidis'1
after a gooclltrnch.
We :rrenot so
(production)
'l'l'rey
to redtrcetlie working rveekto
35 l-roursitt sotnecottntries.(intentiort)
. what to cloabout the
Have you
(dccision)
situatior-r?
'l'he
wettt on for hottrsancltl-re
..
n'reetingcndeclverylate. (cliscuss)

a
b
c

Jhis )eadsme on to tbe ne;t Point ...


I will go on to look at these different aspectsof time-use
i n m o r e d e t a i l ,b u t . . .

O k a y ,t h a t ' sa b r i e f s u m m a r yo f t h e p o i n t sI ' d l i k e t o
cover.Now let'sgo backto look at ...

e
f

-:e Phrase Bank: Talking about time


I t ' sb e h i n ds c h e d u l eW
. h a t i st h e s i t u a t i o n ?
l ' m s o r r ya b o u t t h e d e l a yb u t t h e r e h a v eb e e n s o m e
problems

How long isit goingto take?

Grammar

I t h i n k w e s h o u l db e r e a d yb y . . .

be + goingfo + infinitive

I t s h o u l d n ' tt a k e l o n g e rt h a n t h a t .
'!
Will it be on time?

Affirmative & Negative


r'

Vocabulary
Workingconditions
Cornbine one worcl from box A with one worcl from
box B to'complete ezrchselrtencc below.
1

realistic
eight-hour
long
sales
forward
bottom

planning
deadline
forecasts
line
hours
day

YOU

we

'l'he

traclitional
clocsnot suit ottr
natttrarlclailyrh),thnr.
we are going to sell
t o o1 1 r.... .. . .
c A c c or c ling
overZ0%more nextye:rr.
is that you l'rave
d In ar-ry
businessthe . .
to nr:rkeenorrghmoney to survive.
tasksstrchas
e You shotrlclgivepriorih to irlrporternt
eu'rcl
problem analysis.
f hr the UK, peoplework
but their
procltrctivi[,,is
not ashigh as in Franceor Certlr:rr-ry.

ltl"*

soinsto applyfor thejob.

They
He

is

She

isn't

lr,rterrogaiiv*

,'

r.,.': :, tl

you

Are(n't)
fft
ls(n't)

is too soon fol tts: trext Friclay is a tnore


ar Mor-rclerv

f i
'm
not

goingto phone
rater?

he
she

Yotrcarru.segoittg to to tzrlkabout intentionsancldccisions


yotr h:rvemacle:rbotrtthe future beforethc tnourcnt of
speaking.
o We're going to open ctnev)ofllce in l)erlin.
o l'm going to askfor an applicationfonn lor the new
post.

going to or will?
Yotr usewill to sl'rowyou are rnakir-rg
a decisionat the
rloment of speaking.
A Could I spertkto Mr Contez,pleaseT
B I'nt afraid lrc'sout at the ntonrcnt.Can I take a
nrcssage?
A No thanks,I'lI phone later.

TIME

)ractice1

Practice
3

Write sentences
usinggoingto and the word prompts.

Cornpletethe responses
with the r,,erbin bracketsusing
eitlrergoingto or will.

this evening/ n-reet/ friends/ a drink.


T h.i:eVeni
ng, t' ^ +oing.tq.yu'eet.
tor^e{ yis.;nd1
f pr.a dlin.k,
b they / ernploy/ more staff/ clealwith the new order
yotr/ meet I ne lairport?
d

wl-rat/ you I sztylat / rneeting?


nextyear/ I / study/ Cernan

r'"/rl"r.i";/;,;; j;b
she/ not / accept/ our offer

h we / t : r k e/ t r air -/rbu s ?

Practice
2
Reacltl'resentencesand make ,.r1ror.ri, rvith wi// and an
icleafrom the box..
call the office and apologise
take the team out for lunch
take a taxi back to the office to collectthem
take an aspirinand go home
switch it off
call the lT department
ask her for her businesscard

Yor-rrsalestearn has met its targets


- for this month.

Xllltakethe tearnqut{prlunch,
b Yott'reat a rneeting
andyourphonerings.
L

Your computerhasjust crashed.

d You'veforgottensome in-rportantdocurnentsfor a
nreeting.
P

Yotrsuddenlvhavea terribleheadacheand feel sick.


You seean irnportantclient at a conferenceand you
can't remenber her name.
You'veoversleptand you'regoing to be late.

a We've run out of toner for the photocopier.


(order)some
Havewe?I
more.
b What are yorlr plansfor the weekend?
(visit)somefriendsin
We
the country.Do you want to come?
c Dicl vorl renerlber to book the hotel?
( P h o r r)e
No, I forgotl I
now. I hope tliey still have someroom.
d You should constrltCeorge abotrttl'reprocluction
problerns.
I've erlready
rner-rtioned
it to him. We
(disctrss)
it tl-risafternoon.
e Have you seentheir offices?Tl-rey'remiles from
anywherein tliis really olclbtrilding.
Yes,I know. But they
(r'r'rove)
to a new place next year.
f I'm dying for a ctrp of coffee.
(make) one
A l l ri ght.I
now. Do you take sugar?
g Why are you working so l-rard?
B ecauseI
(leave) on time
today,for a change,and I want to finish this beforeI
qn

i l.ru" to go to tl'reairport anclmy car won't start.


(lend)yorr
Don't worry. I
mi ne.

Practice
4
Con-rpletethe conversationusing tl-rewordsin tl-rebox.
do easier information learn someone
start strategy time urgent
A What are you doingT
B I'r'r-r
putting this custorner(")
into the
database.
A Why don't you get (b)
elsein vour tean'r
to do it?
B Well, it's (c)
if I just do it n'ryself.
A Yes,but if you do it yourself,they'll never
(d)
B Yes,you're probablyright. I'll (e)
that
nexttime.
A Anyway,haveyou finishedthe rnarketing
(0
for tl-renew product launcl'r?
B No, I'm goingto (g)
...that this afternoon.
A Oh, corne or-r!It's really (l-r)
We're all
waiting for it.
B I know, but I l-raven'thad (i)

r5r,ME
E

Often, a telephonecall is requiredto get things done, possiblyto someoneyou


haven't spokento before.You imaginethat persondoesn't take calls,is very
frighteningand hatesyou and your ridiculousplan. But most peopleare glad to
hear from new people, as it adds to the richnessof life.
JUNE4, 2005- HTTP:/AI/WW.GUARDIAN.CO.UK/WEEKEND/
THEGUARDIANSATURDAY
cUY BROWNING
sroRY/0,,1497435,00.HTML

ASKING FAVOURS
1 ff: ,i,,ii ,;.,iri.'i
Complcte the cxtractsfron-rtwo convels:rtionsbelorvwhich take place itt attroffice.
'l'hcn
listen ancl cotnpare vottr attswcrs.

Extract I
A I

go to tlic PostOffice to pick somethingtrp alrd it's


lcnclme yottr ttmbrell:r?
B Of course.As long :rs .

Extract 2
'l'hc
tliing is that I need
A
yotrr office?
B All right, aslorig:rs .

wherewe won't bc interruptccl.


. I've got a nreetingmyself.

...?
cnOotld I...? anclCotLIdyor-1
betrve
Wlrart's
the clifferetrce
in I
trsit-tgthe promptsbelow. l.lsethe cottversatiotrs
2 Work u,ith arpartner.Act otrt conversatiotrs
etsa rtroclel.
Problem

phonehome/ mobilebatteries
flat
sendan e-mail/computernot working
not answering
be at airportat five/ taxiservices
oosta letter/ can't leavethe office
thisletter/ no dictionary
translate
take notes/ no pen
makecopies/ photocopiernot working

As long as ...

i Request
, use/ yourmobile
i use/ computer
" give/ lift
postit on Vourway home
;
r: oorrowyours
i lendme one
i take/ photocopyshop

justa shortcall
not taketoo long
get backbeforesix
haveit readyby five o'clock
get it backby this afternoon
giveit backlater
answerthe phonewhilel'm out
rr,lj.]:tl,ll:i;:i:'lliii

::ii:tri::+li+:rlt:;F/ i+:r:r:lri 1i:"|n1i'i.;'i:i+r:ffllii..;i:+t

Sayingno
for the
tactfully.Otherwiseyou can createproblen-rs
to sayno to zrrecprest
3 ff ; :iir It is in-rportar-rt
attd altswerthe questions.
future.Listento the couversation
askRicharrcl?
a What favour cloestl-respearker
b How cloesRicharclrezrct?
4

so that it soundsrltore
Use the phrasesin the box to rewritethe conversatiotr
I hope.
l'd take my own,of course,but it'sbeingrepaired. Nothingserious,
What'sthe problem? Well,actually,l'm not verykeenon the idea.
It'sjust that I don't feel happy about other people driving my car.

GETTING

Oh, all right. Not to worry.

Requests,persuasionand threats

il

5 $ x.mx Put tl'reconversationin the correctorder.Ther-r


listen and cl'reckyour answer.

*#
.$

leff
I ,

... but on the other l-rand,if you do it, I'll seeit asa
personalfavour.
I know,but you can take the time lateron.
No, there isn't. Look, I know it's inconvenient,but I can't
think of any other solution.
Sandra,we needsomeoneto answerthe phone from 2.00
til 4.00 while Juliais off sick.Could yor-rdo it?
Yes,in principle, yes.But you neverknow.Your contract
is up for renewalnext month. Enough said?
L_l f No, it isn't,and obviouslyI can't forceyou to do it, but ...
Listen,I'd do
L l g Not really.It createssuch a bad irnpression.
it myself,but I've got to be somewhereelse.
Sandra
I fr From 2.00to 4.00?It's not my hours.
E i Well, can't we just put tl-reanswerphoneon for a couple of hours?
_E i Yeah,enough said.
L--lk It's not the time. I'll have to get someoneto pick the kids up from school.Isn't there anyoneelse?
tr t I see.I don't reallyhavemuch choice,do I? I hope it'sjust this time ...

Iu
I.
Ia
I.

$ "',

E '. But?
E

"

I'rn sureyou would, but it'snot my problem,is it?

ldentif'phrasesin 5 for the following:

a
b

a request
a srrggestion

c
d

emotionalblackmail
a threat

UPGRADE
1
A
B
A
B

A
B
A
B
A
B
A

is checking in for a fligl-rt.Listen to conversationI and answerthe questions.


.$ x.mwA passenger
Cood afternoon,sir.
Hello. I'm on flight IB 603. I waswonderingif there'sany cl'ranceof an upgradeto br-rsiness
class.
Well, I don't know. It dependshow crowdedthe flight is.
Yes,I quite understand,br-rtI'd reallyappreciateit if you could havea look. I don't mind payingthe
extra.It's just that I've had a reallyhard day,and it'd be reallynice to havea bit more spaceand
comfort.
Justa minute, sir.
I'm sorryto put you to any trouble.
No, that'sokay.Oh, yes,there'slots of spacein businessclass.I think we can do it.
Oh, fantastic.How much is that?
That'sall right, sir. Don't worry.
Oh, thank you everso much.
You'rewelcome.Have a good flight.

Do you think the passenger


really expectsto pay for the upgrade?

b Is the passengerpolite?
c

Does he get what he wants?

d Underline the phrasesin the conversationwhich the passengerusesto sound polite.

$ z.;* A guestis checking in to a hotel. Listen to conversation2 andanswerthe questions.


Do you think the guest'srequestis reasonable?
b Is the guestpolite?
Does he get what he wants?
a

3 Work with a partner.Find conversation2 on page152 and act it out. This time the guestis polite.
Use the phrasesyou underlinedin conversationl. If you are the receptionist,
decidewhatto do.

1{;GETING
DoNE
rHrNGs
E

'i

l { c a c lt h c i n f i r r n l r t i o r r u b o r r td i f f c l c r r t t r P c s o f c o r t t P a n vs t r t t c t u r ea n c l : l n s \ \ c r t l r c c l t r c s t i o t rusl i i c l r
follori.

Cornpany
Structure
B u s i n e s sceasnb e o r g a n i s ebdy :
i function
"irgeographical
area
.+ productor customer
i:! project
F UN C T I O N
L a r g e rb u s i n e s s easr e t r a d i t i o n a l l yo r g a n i s e di n t o
sith
d e p a r t m e n tas c c o r d i n gt o t h e i r r o l e .E m p l o y e ew
s i m i l a rj o b s ( f u n c t i o n sa) r e g r o u p e dt o g e t h e rE. . g .
p r o d u c t i o nf ,i n a n c i n gm
, a r l < e t i nagn d h u m a nr e s o u r c e s .
AREA
S o m eb u s i n e s s eosr g a n i s et h e i r a c t i v i t ya c c o r d i n g
t o g e o g r a p h i c a rl e a . T h i si s c o m m o ni n l a r g e
m u l t i n a t i o n ac lo m p a n i ebsu t i t m i g h ta l s ob e
a p p r o p r i a tfeo r m e d i u m - s i z ebdu s i n e s s eEs..g .a s m a l l
r e t a i lc h a i no r a f a s t - f o o dc h a i nw i t h b r a n c h e s .
EM
R
PRODUCT/CUSTO
T h i si n v o l v e o
s r g a n i s i n tgh e b u s i n e sisn t o d e p a r t m e n t s
. m p l o y e ew
sith
w h i c hf o c u so n d i f f e r e n tp r o d u c t sE
d i f f e r e n ts l < i l l w
s o r l <i n d e p a r t m e n tas c c o r d i n gt o t h e
p r o d u c t h e y a r e d e v e l o p i n gD. e p a r t m e n tcsa n a l s ob e
o r g a n i s e tdo s e r v eg r o u p so f c u s t o m e r w
s ith specific
n e e d sE
. . g .a b a n l <m a y h a v es e p a r a t ed e p a r t m e n tfso r
p e r s o n aal c c o u n t sa n d b u s i n e sasc c o u n t s .
PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
P r o j e c t - b a s em
d a n a g e m e ni ts b e c o m i n gi n c r e a s i n g l y
p o p u l a r .E m p l o y e easr e g r o u p e di n t w o d i f f e r e n t
w a y s ,f o r e x a m p l eb y f u n c t i o na n d b y p r o j e c t .I n
m a n yc a s e st,h i s i s a t e m p o r a r ya r r a n g e m e ndtu e
t o a s p e c i a pl r o j e c LP. r o j e c t e a m sh a v es p e c i a l i s e d
e m p l o y e ew
s o r l < i n fgo r t h e m f r o m o t h e rd e p a r t m e n t s .
T h e s ee m p l o y e etsh e r e f o r er e p o r tt o t w o m a n a g e r s
* d e p a r t m e n t aal n d p r o j e c t .

:r
b

\ \ / l i : r t l i i r r c lo f s t n r c t r u c c l r i c sr o r r r o r g a r r i s u t i o nh a r e ? ( O r o r r c v o t t k n o u a l r o i r t . ) W h r i s i t o l g a r t i s c c l
lilic llris?
of tlrc diffcrcnt trpcs of corttltartr strttctttrc?C)orttparc
\\rlrat arc thc ach'antagcsarcl chsach'antages
l o r r r i c l c a su i t l r t l r c i d c a s o n t r a g c 1 4 2 .

C O M P A N YS T R U C T U R E

2 You are going to take part in the meetir-rg


to clecidewl'ratthe bestorganisationfor a con-rpanyis.
Readthe backeroundir-rforrnation
below and tl-reneach take a role: ConsultantA. B. C or D.

W IL L IA M T U C I(ERL T D i s a B ri ti shtransportand l ogi sti cs


company
w hi chw asfounded
2 0 y e a rsa g o .D u ri n gth i sti me i t hasgrow nfrom a smal ll orrytransportcompanyw i th 10
employees
to becomea leaderin the sectorwith a fleetof over300 trucks.
Thecompanyhasa structurebasedon geographical
areaswith branchoffices/depots

distributedoverthe U l(. Eachbranchhasa team run by a managerwho is responsible


for
a profit and lossaccount.This
structurewasefficientin the earlydayswhenthe company
just had onemainactivity.However,the
companyhasdiversified
and providesmany

il

differentservices.
In transport,thereare largeloads,packetdeliveryand liquidand gas

ri

+
&
s

).

l ogi sti cs
tra n s p o rtl i n e s .It h a sa l sodevel oped
support(movement
andcontrolof stock)
fo r th e a u to m o b i laen ds teeli ndustri es.These
acti vi ti es
haveverydi fferentoperati onal
n e e d sa n dth e c o mp a n yneeds
to re-thi nki ts structure.The
Managi ngD i rectorhas
contractedfour consultants
to adviseon howto organise
the company.I

Consultant A
You think the cor-npany
should centraliseits adn'riristrationin a heaclquarters.
Departrlentsshoulcl
tl'renbe organisedaccorclingto the main functions ir-rthe company- operatior-rs,
finarnce,HR anclR&D.
This will n'rakeit easierto establisl-r
policieswhich will n'rakethe companymore efficient.Costscan
be recluceclby providir-rg
central servicessttch as HR and finance from ercentralisecl
Yotr
heaclquarters.
believetl'remodenrtechnologl,rnakes
it possibleto do this from a distance.
Consultant B
You believethat everypart of the companystmcturemustbe responsible
and accountablefor its
results.Yotr are alsoagainsthzivinga large centralzrdrninistration
and recoillmend that the con-rpany
- any changewotrld costa lot of noney. Your solutionis
continneoperatingfrom a sn-rall
headquarters
to maintain tl'representstnrcttrreof branch offices.However,certain branch managerswith specialist
kr-rowledge
and a concentrationof a particularractivityin their areawill havea double role. On one
hanclthey will continue to run a branch office/depot,but on the other har-rcl
tl'reywill harveoverall
responsibilityfor a line or activitvover tl-rewl'rolecompany.This rneansthey will have two 'profit and
loss'accottntsunder their control.This meansthat sornen-ricldle
managersmay reportto more than one
boss.
Consultant C
'matrix'
'product
Yott arguein favourof a
orgauisationwhere employeesreportto a
line' bossin tl're
headquarters,
aswell asto a local branchboss.This rneansthat productline bosses
will liaveto coordinatewitl'rbrancl-rbossesto rlrakethe most efficient use of each specialistir-rtl-reorgar-risation.
Tl'ris
in the companybut will help distribtrtethe availabletalent ar-rd
will require improveclcornmur-rication
skillsin the cornpanies
to meet the needsof eachbranch office.
Consultant D
Your solutior-ris radical.Your adviceis to breakthe preser-rt
companyup into separatecompanieswithin
a grollp.Eacl-rseparate
companywill operateindependentlyand concentrateon one particularactivity.
This will encourageconpetition, clearaccountabilityand profit responsibility.Il sornecasesthis will
mean creatingnew offices.You believefuture growtl-rwill be fasterasa resnltbecatrseeach company
will I'ravethe organisationthat fits its needs.For exan'rple,the logisticssupportto car factoriesis more
concernedwith stockcontrol in rvarehouses
than transport.
3 Now look at page139to reaclabouta similarcompanyin Spair-r.
Is its organisation
to what
sin-rilar
votr cliscussed
ir-r2?

il&SilST{-J#Y
COMPANY
5TRUCTU-'
E

Gossipis the cementwhich holds organisationstogether.Providingcommunal


spacesuch as coffee areasor lunchroom,allows employeesto shareinformation,
knowledge and build relationsthat benefits both companyand the employee,

JUDITHDOYLEHTTP:/A|/WW.PERSONNELTODAY.COM/ARTICLESl2OO0lll/22/31254ruORK-LIFE-BALANCE-D
OVER-SIMPLISTIC.HTML

1 $ x"xmListento the conversation


zrndanswerthe questions.
a Why hasTrixy been out of the
office?
b Wl'ratis the newswhich she hasn't
heard?
c Is Prescotttheir bossor a colleague?
d Why are they worried?
e Why don't they think that Maureen
will be worried?
no smoke
f The expression'There's
w i tl ro u tfi re ' rn e a rrs
tl ra tw h e i r
peoplegossipaboutsomething,
there'strsuallysorrretrutl'rin what
they say.Do yotr havean equivalent
Do you
sayingin your language?
tl'rinkit's true?

Reportedspeech
2

in 1.
Look at this sentencefrom the converszrtion

... he said that we wereoverstaffed.


The origirralstaterr-rent
wasYou are overstaffed.
Listen to the conversationagainand completetl-rereportedstatements.
'You
a
will haveto let somepeoplego.'
haveto let somepeoplego.
Tl'risconsultantchap
..
'How
rnanypeopledoesit involve?'
b
it involved.
Prescott
'lt
c
dependson individual perforilranceand attitucle.'
. . on i ndi vi dualperformance
and atti tude.
H e .. ........
'l
d
often seethem con'ringout of The CreenMan together.'
I'm not sayingwl'ro,but sorneone
them rnThe GreenMan together.
'Will
you staybehind to work on somethingwith me?'
e
staybehind to work on somethingtogether.
The other clayhe

say and tell

below needssaid andwhich one needsfold?


Which of the sentences

He

.. ..

b He ......

we were overstaffed.
ne we were overstaffed.

What is the main differencebeh.veensay and tell?

Questionwords
What wordsare missingfrorn the followir-rgsentences?
'Where
I wasgoing.
a
are you goittg?'He askedme . ....
'Wl-ren
.
I wasgoing.
b
are you going?'Heaskedrre
'Are
I wasgoing.
c
you going?'He askedrrle . ..

When reportingquestions,when do you trsethe word if?

1?oFFrcE
GossrP
E

Tenses
5 Complete the sentencesbelow.
'l'm
b u s y .'H e s a i dh e ..........
busy.
'l'll
startstraightaway.'He saidhe ...........
away.

a
b

straight

What changesdo you make to the PresentSimple in


reportedspeech?What changesdo you make to will in
reportedspeech?
5 @ z.sr*:.sd Look at the conversations
below.Complete
them with wordsand phraseswhich make sense.Then listen
and compareyollr answers.
Conversation I
A leff, a)
last month's
production figures?
B No, Jane,I'm b)
. Can I give
them to you this afternoon?
A It's no good being sorry.There'salwayssome
c)
If they'renot on my desk
by four o'cloek,I'll have to
d)
Mr Bradley.
B Yes,Jane.I'll starte)
Conversation 2
C David, haveyou got 0
o)
D

D
C
D
C

'

There'ssomethingI want to
;h

;;., . . i" -"

What's it abor-rt?
Oh, well, we're missinga laptop h)
What hasthat got to do with me?
Well, you are the only other personwith a i)

"?
......
from the store.
to the storeand ...

Conversation 3
E Marie, the figuresyoll need are j)
F Thanks, Pedro.Is everythingk)
E Yes,no problems.Would you like to l)
themwithme?
F Yes,but I'm a bit m)
iht;;ii;;;;;;
E Me too. Er, do n)
that new caf6 they'vejust opened?It's nice and
. We can go through them there afterp)
o)
F Oh,I q)
so, but I won'tbe ableto stayfor long.
. thereat aboutsix,then?
E Great.r) ........
.......
F Yes,all right. Seeyou there.
Conversation 4
G Hi, Monica.
thingsgoing?
H Oh, hello, Ji-. s)
G Great. In fact, you can be the first to congratulateme.
......
H Yes,you look very t)
with yourself.What's up?
of the easternsalesteam.
G I'm the new u)
H Oh, really?What salaryare you on now, then?
ayear.
G v)
H I can't believeit. Sixtythousandl
G And they'regiving me a new w)
are on you. Seeyou later.
H Oh, really?Congratulations,then. The x)
G Yes.Bye.

,I7OFFICE
GO5SIP
E

7 Yotr :rreat the coffeer-nachinehaving a gossipwith a colleague.You have overhearclthe


conversaltiorls
in 6. Use the frameworksin the box to tell vour partnerwhat vou he:rrcl.It is r-rotnecessan
to report everything.

GOSSTP
1 Reacltl'refollowing newsarticle.
a Wliat is tl'renervlaw?
b Do vou think it's;r goocliclea?Wl-ry/whyr-rot?

City Council
gagsworkers
Municipalemployees
in the Brazilian
cityof Cascavel
havebeen
b a n n e dfro m g o s s i p i ndgu ri n gworki nghours.U ndera new l aw
who spreadrumours
approvedby the citycouncil,publicemployees
facethe sack.Thecitysayscivil
or gossipabouttheircolleagues
environment
servants
havethe rightto work in a professional
and
i n publ i coffi ces.
c l a i mth e n e w l a ww i l l p ro mo tei ntegri ty

2
CL

Underline wordsand phrasesir-rtl-retext which rrean the following:


-d"t.dr-t

to closon-retl-ring

b passon ir-rforrnation
which is not official and may not be true
be in a positionwhereyou can be dismissed

Discussion
3

Discussthe followingwith otl-rerpeoplein the class.

a
b
c
d

How do you clefinegossip?


Is it alwaysa bad thing?
Is it possibleto ban it?
Doesyour companyhavea policy on gossip?Haveyou everl-reard
of a companythat does?

r?oFFrcE
GossrP
E

'l'he
4
comments below were mzrcleoll a u'ebsite for office u,orkers. Rcaclthenr and classifvthenr in the
table. Tl-relr compare yorlr Lrnswcrswith a partner.
,, Gossipis good

' Gossipis bad

Mixed feelings

s4i

;'li?li.+l.::::::::::-..
:::::::-:::-:::
_,,
,m

&\
tfi

li

Iri
tti

ll

Iri
rs
Iti

iir

.io';:..:tt*,rd
i;r'o
J a m e sP i t t m a n ,
England

l:,r
@ r"r:-tt*,.$
Janet Jones, Wales

Luke McCarthy,
Australia

A f r i e n d l ya n d c h a t t yw o r k e n v i r o n m e n m
t a k e se m p l o y e e sh a p p y .T h i sr e s u l t s
in a better levelof work from employees,which meansthe companymakes
m o r e m o n e y .A n y e m p l o y e rw h o b a n so f f i c eg o s s i pw i l l l o s em o n e yb y m a k i n g
the workforce lessproductive.
l n m y p l a c eo f w o r k g o s s i pi st h e o n l y w a y o f f i n d i n g a n y t h i n go u t a b o u t t h e
companystrategy.The managementrefuseto talk to most of the staff.
There'snothing worse than gossip- and it's mostlypropagatedby women
who have nothing better to do than YAPYAPYAP.

[r,i:str,:,*
hr;,,
N i c o l eM a r t i n ,
France

G o s s i pi s n ' ta b a d t h i n g . l st h e r e a n o t h e rw a y t o l e a r na b o u t o f f i c ep o l i t i c s ?|
see it as a healthyactivityand part of working in an office.

|}

s,*s{:+*iiinu,
PieterGroot,
Netherlands

G o s s i pi sw h a t s o m e o n es, o m e w h e r ed, o e s n ' tw a n t y o u t o k n o w .A d e l i c i o u s


p a s t i m e- u n l e s sy o u a r e t h e o n e b e i n gg o s s i p e da b o u t .A n d c e r t a i n l yn o t a
sackableoffence.

r'o*stn,i:i
[ru,,
SanjayPatel,I n d i a

Havingstarteda new job a year ago, I made an effort neverto engagein


g o s s i p l.f l ' m i n a g r o u p w h e r e g o s s i ps t a r t s I, f i n d a r e a s o nt o l e a v et h e a r e a .
I t c a n b e v e r yd a m a g i n gt o y o u r c a r e e ra n d g e n e r a lw o r k p l a c er e l a t i o n s .

i-.'r,
i:r*si.r:*$
Claudia
Weber,
Germany

l s n ' tf r e e d o mo f s p e e c ha b a s i ch u m a nr i g h t ?H o w e v e ;t h e r e ' sa f i n e l i n e
b e t w e e nh a r m l e s a
s n d h u r t f u l r e m a r k sI. t h i n k i t ' sb e s tl e f t t o i n d i v i d u a ltso
d e c i d ew h i c h i s w h i c h .

$t*o.i,r:,
il r,:ii:r',,
J o h nM a s o n ,
Scotland

S o m eo f m y b i g g e s ti n s i g h t si n t o p r o b l e m sa t w o r k h a v eo c c u r r e dw h i l e
c h a t t i n gb y t h e c o f f e em a c h i n e H
. a v i n ga ( b r i e f )c h a t a b o u t t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d
matters,although not directlyproductive,can actuallyimproveproductivity
b y b r e a k i n gu p t h e d a y a l i t t l e .

5 Tl-rephrasesbelow are fron the cotntletrts above. Complete the sentences witl-r vorlr own words ernc]
icleas.
a In rly placeof work,
b Any en-rployerr.vho

will

. ir'lr.:,''o,ti,rg*"r1.ir.'r;
cl
e I markean effort neverto
F A

i r , , ' f r, , r Jr r r i , , g
. work environrnent rnakes erlployees

oFFrcEGossrP
I

about office gossipfrom a radio programme.Tl'reworclsand


6 You are going to listen to an ir-rterview
on the right.
phraseson tl-relcft are fron'rtl'reinterview.Match thern to the definitior-rs
a
b
c

I
2
3
+
5
6

drive for efficiency


scrappecl
human resorlrces

d encounged
e
f

chatting
tea trolley

, I

. I

b I

talking ir-rfon'r-rally
mobile refreshrnents
service
effort to get ilrore work done
seenasposjtive
not contintredwiti-r
staff
of con-rpar-ry
organisation:rncllraltagemer-rt

cltr .I

Beforeyou listen,decicleif you agreewith the followingstatetlents.


a Comp:nies who providean opportunityfor their workersto soci:rliseare makirtga mistake.
tl'rar-r
beforc.
b Peoplehave lesstin'reto talk to each other anclsoci:'rlise
a good job and a bad job are the socialaspects.
betweer-r
c The clifferer-rces
d Errployeesare more prodtrctivewhen they are liappy.
the conrpanybenefits.
e When employeesshareinfomration and kr-rowledge,
f Companiesshouldtake tleasuresto encotlragegossip.
7

to tlie interviewto seeif the speakeragreeswith you.


fr:i.:+l+ Lister-r

Roleplay

9 Work with a partnerand perfonl the following roleplayabout office policy on coffeebreaksar-rd
gossiping.

onpaBe\39.
R: Looka\theinstructro\\s
Speaker
irl the
SpeaLer A: Yol are one of the rranagenlent constrltants who prep:rreclthe stucly netrtioned-fry
to
machine.
to
the
coffee
trext
notice
below
the
see
yolr
ir-rtcrviervin B. In a client's cornpany
policy.
persuaclcthe client to cliange the

COMPANY NOTICE
Employeesmay tal<eup to three coffeebreaksper day.
Ma x i mu mti m e a t c o ff eemachi ne:four mi nutes.
of non-w orkrel atedmattersi s prohi bi ted.
A l l ' g o s s i p ' o rd i s c u s si on

Writing
10 Complete the fom'rbelow

F R 0 M : P e r s o n n eMl a n a g e r
M a n a g i n gD i r e c t o r
T0:
With regardto the companypolicyon coffeebreal<s,.

ln my opinion,
According to a report by the

trorrir'"t..'.i,

I n t h e r e p o r tt h e a u t h o rs a y st h a t . .
I t i s a q u e s t i o no f b a l a n c eb, u t . . . . . . .

ii oFFrcE
GossrP
E

17 oFFTCE
GSssIP

LANGUAGELINKS
.Bdnk,Social chat

ii goingr
.t{\reyou been?
yg[]rhard th,e news?

i."*;beliewit!
:i:i.

h it official?
they are going to ...

2 Complete the puzzle using the cluesbelow. Sometimesthe first letter has
been given.
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
l0
II
12

Having communal areasbenefitsrelationsin the w.......


.
We are having a
for efficiency. (You also
a car.)
What this unit is about.
Let'smakean ..... ....not to wastetime.
It's not a good idea to
rumours.
Have you heard the
?
There'sno...................
without fire.
We havebanned smokingin the o
.
They don't a . . . of people taking long tea breaks.
Let's go to the pub for a
.. . on Friday night.
We shouldencourageemployeesto ...................
their ideas.
What hashappenedto the tea
?

Vocabulary
Relationships
at work
1 Combine one word from box
A with one word from box B to
completethe sentencesbelow.

Peoplehavethe bestideas
in conversations
around the

Grammar
The companyhashired a

,J"rf
. "";;;;;;'::1l'i1,",,

communications.
What do you think about this
idea of removingthe chairsfrom
the
....,.....
so we
don't spendso long talking about
things?
What is the
on
taking coffeeor tea breaks?
Nowadayspeople say
insteadof
'personnel'.

Reportedspeech
say& tell
You can usesdl or tell to report what someonesaid.
say + something
o He says(that) he is happy in his new iob.
tell + somebody+ something
o He tells everyone(that) he is the company boss.
Tense
If you usethe pastforms said or told,yorshave to changethe verbsin the
original.
Present ) Past
. 'l like working on my own.' ) He said he liked working on his own.
will ) would:
. 'l'Il help you.' ) He said he would help me.

lToFFrcEGossrP
I

Pronouns
t
I
helshe
me )
himlher
mY t
his/her
my
your t
. 'l speakto your secretary
everyday.')
He told me he spoketo my secretaryeveryday.
Adverbsof time & place
+ thenlat that moment
now
t
today
that day
)
here
there
tomorrow t
the next daylthe following day
yesterday + the day beforelthepreviousday
. I'll seeyou here tomonow. )
He said he would seeme there the next day.
Most of thesechangesare logicaland naturaland
They dependon the
often similar in otl'rerlangr-rages.
differencesin tine, place ar-rdpeoplebetweenthe original
and the reportedconversation.
conversation
asked
For reportedquestionsyou can rse asked+ whatlwhenletc.
o What do you want?) He askedme what I wanted.
or asked+ if for reportingyes/noquestions.
o Is it official?) He askedme if it wasofficial

Practice
1
Complete the secondsentenceto reportthe first one.
I'm really enjoying rny job at tl-rernoment.
Sher ayt the'9-rcal:lyaweyin
l herleb at-the-r^ethent,
b It's too late to cancel the meetins.
I s aid
c We are having a lot of problernswith the production
departrnenttoday.
He told me
d What time t;M; K;;;;; ;;i;s to arrive?
He asked
e We should buy a new
He keepstelling rne
Is Mr Merchantavailable?
S heas k ed
The fixed costsinclude the office rent and equipment
hir e.
S hes aid
Where do yor,rwork now?
They askedme
I'll meet you at the airportat eighto'clock.
S h es a i d
I want to seeyou about the arrangementsfor tomorrow.
He told nre
Does the office open on Satr-rrdays?
He as k edm e
When will the documentsbe readyT
She asked
a

;;il;;; ;;;i;;

1?oFFrcE
GossrP
E

in the comPany.
Tm t)-rebestsa)esman
He keepssaying
Can I rnakea phone call?
H e askedi f
o What do you think of the new website?
He askedrne

Practice
2
Complete the sentenceswith saylsaid,tellltold, or askl
asked.
me you weren'thtppy
Why didn't yorr
job?
with yor,rr
......
....if we try to ban office
W hat w i l l peopl e
gossip?
Did he
what time you l'radto be there?
that I should keep my
d The bossalways
deskmore orgar-rised.
H e .......
....
me he w ashavi ngsecondthought s
for
about applying
the job.
t
I
him if he'sgoingto come?
Will you
g
on this.What doesit
I
can't
read
the
small
print
D
....?
me how you
h Everytime I visit them they
are.
I'll ....
you if you promiser-rotto
anythingto anybodyelse.

A report, to be releasedby leading insurer AXA next week, has found Britain's
pensionershave become a generation of silver surfers.
HTTP:/AA/\I/W.AXA.CO.UK/MEDIA/PRESSRELEASES/2007/PR20070202
1100.HTML

b Usingthe Internetis the preferredhobbyof pensioners


ts Fourin ten retiredpeopleare regulare-shoppers
ts 88o/o
of silversurferschat regularlywith friends
and familyoverthe Internet

1 Cornpletethe sentencesusing the phrasesin the box. Then comparethen'rwith thoseon page 179.
Do yor,ragree?
you'reinterestedin quality who cares? you'reinterestedin price
you'reinterested
in qualityandprice
a
b
c
d

Wl-renyou buy somethingfor yourselfwith your own rloney,


Wlren you buy somethingfor someoneelsewith your own rrroney,
When you buy somethingfor yourselfwith someoneelse'slnoney,
Wl-renyou buy sonetl'ringfor someoneelsewith someoneelse'smoney,

Discussion
2 Work with a partner.Ask each other the following questions.
When wasthe lasttirne yor-rbought somethingfor:
yourself?
somebodyelse?
a customeror clier-rt?
your company?
b What did you br-ry?
c What factorsinfluencedyor-rrdecisions?
d What kind of shoppingdo you like/dislike?
e How often do you buy things on the h-rtemet?
a
.
o
o
o

"ns
E-coMMr-.,
I

E-commerce- advantagesand disadvantages


Work with a partner.Decide if the featureson the
ar-rddisadvantages.
3 E-commercehasadvantages
left are plus factorsor negativefactorsfor the seller(S) or the customer(C). Add your own ideas.

snail mail /'sne{


meiU noun letters
that are sent by post
Definitionfrom Macmillan
EssentialDictionarv

s"

4 .@ a.*o Listen to a radio programwhere expertsdiscusse-commerce.Which of the ideasabovedo


they mention?Are their ideasthe sameasyoursin 3?

Discussingadvantagesand disadvantages
5

Listen againand completethe phrases.There is one word for each gap.

b +h;

: access

that may not be availablelocally.


to prodr-rcts
lower prices.

h Yes,buying online will inevitablymake groceriesmore expensive,so what'sthe point?Actually,


......
when yor-rgo to
Not
look
what
to
choose
you
up,
a shopand pick something
it.
at and how to look at
There's

B;;;;'; p'y-.". r, fy .r.dit


card,very small or very largetransactions
tend not to be conductedonline.

1sE-coMMERcE
!

S *.-x- Look at this plirasefron'rtlie cliscussion.


Booftscmd DVDI dre otTething, htLtfn-Litand wgetahlesare crnother.
6

Make sirriilarsentencesusing the following pror-npts.


ar the right cpralifications
/ have experietrce
\.h9.rightqua|rfqation1f91a1o.baronetKin4,buthaYln1
b a high tunrover / r'r-rerke
gooclprofits
c' l ra v ea g o o c il ,1 1 ,,
i 1 r,,ti ,' i ,, l ,;;;ti ;;

cl Irignprocn,ctiuity
i i,'';;;;" r,rii","ii";ii;;;
e

crearte
a good procluct/ scll it

Now listen:rnclconrpareyour:lnswers.
7 Work with a perrtner.Brainstonr the :rclvzrntages
anclclisadvantages
of the following:
a
b
c
d

Working for :r cornpanyand working for yourself.


Livir-rgin the country anclliving itr :r towtt.
Havir-rgchilclrenand not having c1-rilclrer-r.
Going to uni.vcrsityand stzrrtinglr,orkstraightafter school.

Roleplay

8 Work in groupsof three.You all work for a narketing col'npany.Market sttrclies


have shown that
retiredpeople spencla significantantottnt of their free time surfirrgthe Internet. You haveforrrecl:r
foctrsgroup to explorethe possibilityof n'rarketir-rg
to the over-sixties
using tl'rehrtenret.Make notes
abotrtwhatyonare goingto say.Usesomeof the expressions
ir-r5 ancl6 in your discussion.
'fhink
of argtrnentsto supportit.
SpeakerA: You tl-rinkthis is a fantasticicle:r.
SpeakerB: You think tl'risis a ridiculousidea.'l-hinkof argtrnentsagainstit.
Yortare uot sureaboutthis iclea.Lcaclthe clisctrssion,
SpeakerC: You are the focusgroupleacler.
listen
to the othersar-rdaskquestions.

E-COMMER"
H

,',ii

:u6

(, - h) are from a text on the ftrture of the Internet.Match them to the


1 The wordsand pl-rrases
(l B).
explar-rations
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

clevastzrtir-rgattdck
c ' ort1
r ;rrti ntlge v i c ' c ' s
govenrnrentatuclbttsirtess
sun,cillance
virtual classes
a rvicleptrblic
cligitalprodr-rcts
he:rlthcareproblerris
sociallretworks

n I

b t r " I

i1 :r classroot-u.
lessonswherethe stuclcnts
are not ph-vsically
a.largegrorlp of clifferentpeople.
DVDs, nrp3 music,ctc.
softrvare,
clectronicchipsrvhichcan controlthingsand comn-tttnicate.
clifficulticslooking:rfterpeoplewho are ill.
or
fricnclship,relationships
groupsof peoplewho h:rr.,e
interestsirr conrnron.
7 companies:urclthe statcwatching rvhatpeopleclo.
somcthing.
B a violent:ictionwhich completel\,clestroys

I
Z
3
4
5
6

d t r . I

r I

s t r h I

'l.hey
were
A group of technology experts have answerecla survey about thc ftrttrre of the htte rtret.
askecltheir opinion on tl-refollowing statenrents.Work rvith a parrtnerancl say if you agrec (/) or clisagrec
(X) witli eacli precliction.
2

agree or disagree?
At leastone devastating
attackwill collapsethe Internetin the nextten years.
As a result,therewill be more
cars,phonesand evenclothes.
in appliances,
Manufacturers
will usecomputingdevices
will arrestmorepeopleusingthisevidence.
government
Theauthorities
and business
surveillance.
'schooldays'in virtualclasses.
In ten years,moststudents
will spendat leastpartof their
family
will be lessclear.Everyday
betweenwork and leisure
Tele-work
and home-schooling
will grow,andthe barriers
lifewill changeasa result.
with othersto makemoremusic,art,and literature.
Theywill collaborate
TheInternetwill makepeoplemorecreative.
freelyonlineand will commandthe attentionof a wide public.
Theirwork will circulate
All media,including
audio,video,print,and voice,will streamin and out of the homeor officeviathe Internet.
that controlvideogames,audio,andvideowill becomethe centreof the livingroom.Theywill linkto
Computers
centralplacein the home.
the television's
networkeddevices
aroundthe house,replacing
peer-to-peer
freelythroughanonymous
digitalproducts
lnternetuserswill continueto easilycopyand distribute
networks.lt won't be possible
to stopthis.
will increase
as
in religionand in groupswhichbelievein usingviolence
fanaticsin politics,
Thenumberof dangerous
theirnetworksgrow online.
problems
service
and lackof
suchas risingcosts,poorcustomer
will helpsolvehealthcare
Onlinemedicalresources
access
to medicalcare.
aboutjob
will havea muchwiderrangeof information
Thesizeof people's
socialnetworkswill grow.People
personal
and products.
commoninterests,
opportunities,
services,
asa result.
in elections
Morepeoplewill participate
of security.
People
will votern elections
onlinewithoutproblems

E.COMMERCE

Compareyorrrauswcrsto what thc expertstliought on page 140.

4 Complete the sentencesbelow with the vocabr-rlary


itemsin l. Each sentenceexpresses
an opinion.
Do you agree?
a
b
c
d
e

tf
D

Peopleshould be allowedto share


.like rnusicand films.
in carswill rnakethen'rsaferand more ecological.
I like the idea of children being at I'romeand studyingin
will increaseasthe averageage of the popr-rlation
goesLlp.
appealto
State-fundedtelevisionshor-rld
and not just peoplewho want to watclr
documentaries.
As peoplespenclrrore tirne online they spendlesstime with tl'reirfriendsand their
are gettingsmaller.
One day terroristswill use a very harn'rfulcomputer virus to rnake
on all our

communication systems.
You don't need to worry about

if you haven'tdone anythingwrong.

MAKING PREDICTIONS
1 Look at this sentencefrom the surveyon pageI16.
At leastone devastatingattackwiII collapsethe Internetin the
next ten yedrs.
This is a predictlon.You expresspredictionsabout the future
usingwll/. Underlir-re
other predictionsin the article.
2 Do you agreewith the predictionsin the article?Discuss
then-rlike this:
A
B
A
B

I think the securityissuesof the Internet will be solved.


Do you?I don't./ Me too.
I don't think terroristswill attackthe Internet.
Don't you?I do. / Me neither.

3 What otl-rerpredictior-rs
can you make about the Internet?
ln ten yedrs.all bankinewill be online.

Discussion
4 Tick Y (yes)or N (no) againstthe predictionsin the chart so that they are true for yor-r.Then discuss
them with a partner.
A Do you think yotill changeyour iob in the nextfive years?
B Yes,I do. I don't really like what I do now. How about youT
A No, 1 don't think I will. Thingsare goingwell and I like my iob.
next year

Y i N

infiveyears

l'll changejobs.
Our maincompetitor
will go bankrupt

:
i
l

l'll leave
andstartmy
owncompany.

Y jN

i
I

i
i

Everybody
will work at i
homemostof the time. i

i
i

Therewill be an
economicboom.

The USAwill havea


tOtact<president.
':,,]t: r+,,itlrl*t*i1,*rL-tf.St.,$.S

.
,

in the next ten years : Y : N


l

l ' l lm a k ea m i l l i o na n d
retire.
Mostemployees
will be
replacedby computers.

i
I

a-ti.,.
-S*U-ltt

There'llbe a world
$government.
"c-'+-j-'.;1,."'-ii1;d1".':ri-.

. E-LUrv'vrEKLE
I

Grammar

LANGUAGELINKS

will f or futurepredictions
Affirmative

Phrase Bank: Advantages and disadvantages


W h a t a r e t h e p r o sa n d c o n s ?
T h e a d v a n t a g e is b e n e f i t s/ d i s a d v a n t a g e/ sd r a w b a c k sa r e . . .
That'sa negative/positive
factor.

H a v i n ga g o o d j o b i s o n e t h i n g , b u t e a r n i n ga l o t o f m o n e y i s a n o t h e r .

1 Match eachr.'crbon thc left to the itcnr on the right that it collocatcsn,ith.
'l'hen
trsetlie phrasesto conipletethe selttcnces.

U
I

CI

nll] uP
trv on

ACCCSS

il

I like to

I
2
3
4
5
6

a bill
the conr.'ers:rtiorr
a netrv_qrk
p ri c e s
the clecision
elsu'calter

lr H i sc ' l r i l r l r tl' r r n c
thc hrtenrctall clar,long.
When ihc askecltcr
h : t l' eone in hc r si z c .

Hp

-,She
,,
We
They

w
- -i "l l' .n_o-twon't

work

Interrogative

beforcI buv anvthingerpensive.


of over$300bl' surfingon
thev told her the1,611,1tr'1

will
Won't

you
he
-h^
)I IE

work?

rt
WC
thov

'ltr

Vorrlrrlvcto olttain:l uscr n:uneancl:r


p:rssu'orcl
fronr the :rclnrinistr:rtor.
Dicl r'orr
in the cantccnvesterclal'?
'
What factorsclovou tliink u,ill niost
on salaries?

Corriplete the aneccloteusing the u,orclsirr the bor.

We
They

I
You

S h o p p i n&
g theInternet

collrp:tre
influerrce
listen to

work

Negative

Vocabu lary

t)

will
'll

II

A n o t h e rp o i n t i s . . .

2I

LJn

::=
\NA
, ""

S e c u r i t yi s a n i s s u e .

I
You

button came charge


e-mail message online

clicked complain crashed download


pay reply
security website

Why I will never buy anything on the Internet again


A s k m o s t p e o p l e h o w s h o p p i n g w i l l b e i n t h e f u t u r e a n d i n e v i t a b l yt h e y w i l l m e n t i o n t h e I n t e r n e t .W e l l , t h e o t h e r
d a y I h a d a b a d e n o u g h e x p e r i e n c es h o p p i n g ( a )
to put me off for life. I heard about a book you could
download from a (b)
b e f o r e i t w a s p u b l i s h e da n d s o l d i n b o o k s h o p s A
. s it was by an author I adore,I
decided to i nvestigate.
I found the page and read the information. They charged sixty euros for the (c)
..
. Not a massive
a m o u n t b u t y o u h a d t o u s e a c r e d i t c a r d . I c o m p l e t e dt h e f o r m w i t h t h e e n d l e s sd e t a i l sr e q u e s t e d ,i n c l u d i n g m y
(d)
addressF
. i n a l l yI e n t e r e d m y c r e d i t c a r d n u m b e r , b e c a u s et h e y s o l e m n l yp r o m i s e dt h a t t h e r e w a s n o
(e)
r i s k .W h e n t h e p a y m e n t w a s a u t h o r i s e d- i t t o o k a b o u t a m i n u t e - a n e w s c r e e na p p e a r e dw i t h a
(f)
which said'download now'. | (g)
. . o n t h e b u t t o n b u t n o t h i n g h a p p e n e ds o I c l i c k e d
a g a i n .T h e n a ( h )
c a m e u p s a y i n g' D o w n l o a d s u s p e n d e dd u e t o n e t w o r k o v e r l o a d .P l e a s et r y a g a i n l a t e r . '
F i n a l l yt h e s y s t e m( i )
and I had to turn off the computer. When I reconnected,the same forms as
before 0)
u p b u t I d i d n ' t w a n t t o r i s k p a y i n g a g a i n , s o I w r o t e a n e - m a i l t o t h e c o m p a n y e x p l a i n i n gt h e
p r o b l e m . I n e v e rg o t a ( k )
. .....
I assumedthat as I never got the book I wouldn't have to (l)
..
, but when I got my credit card
statement at the end of the month I saw the (m)
for sixty euros was there. lt was too late to do anything
and there was no one to (n)
to. okay,so it wasonly sixtyeuros- no big deal- but the questionI ask
m y s e l f i s t h i s : w h y r i s k b u y i n g o n l i n e w h e n i t a m o u n t s t o w h a t i s b a s i c a l l ya n a c t o f f a i t h ? I n a n y c a s e ,i t w i l l b e a l o n g
t i m e b e f o r e I t r y b u y i n g s o m e t h i n go v e r t h e I n t e r n e t a g a i n .

E-COMMERCE

You can ttsewill + infinitive to expresspredictionsor beliefsabout the future.


c This yearthe economywill grow by 3%.
o l'm surewe will finish the orderon time.
The negativeof will is won't.
o l'm sorry,but thingswon't get any better.
. No, therewon't be a recession.
PvtwiII beforethe subjectto make questions.
o WiU peopleusethe Internetfor mostof their shoppingin the future?
. WiU the economyrecoyerby nextyear?
\bu often introducepredictionswith I think ...
o I think the DVD will replace the CD.
o I think the meetingwill end on time.
-\r'oidsayingI think ... won't...
LIseI don'tthink ... will ...
o I don't think the keyboardwiII becomeobsolete.

(Nor

.)

o I don't think the meetingwill end on time.

(Nor

Practice
3
Make questionswith do you think ...
will ...?and then write answersthat
are true for you.
a

What tine / get home tonight?


ge! hor^"
What firv.e
.de..yqv
t.hin?.y.e.u'.ll
tpnilht? hbqutJ,jo,
b What / have/ dinner?

. wh;;; t g,o
l i,","fh;iil;;i

d "r-',"e.
lil; ,;';;ii;;;;;;;;
. l;;. /;.igr,,lihif-""ii'z

.)

Practice
1
Join the sentencebeginningswitl'rthe*endingsusing will + the verbsin the box.
affect arrive be
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

continue get

Prices ...
willcontinue
Th e r e . . .
Th e m anagingdir e c to r...
Th e gov et nm ent . ..
YoungCeorge...
Th e c or npany. . .
Life here ...
Th e plane. . .
The political sitr-ration
...

go

have retire take

How long / take / do this exercise?

s ;;;;h,"; /;;; ;";i;;;;t

... public by next year.


... with a massivegoldenhandshakesoon.
... better.
... a boorn in the economy.
... late asusual.
... measures
againstinflation.
... a verysuccessful
career,I'm sure.
...to ri s e .
... the econorny.

lr everdrive lFenarr?

work as hard I five yearsfrom


now?

Practice
2
Reorganisethe wordsto make correctsentences.
a

any
new
you
system won't
with
have problems
wontha/.e..Ary..pbblery':-.wi.th.t-he.ne:w.2yr1e,h0,.
Y-qu
... ... ......
b information think
you'll
the
Internet I
on

i;;

Berlin

d |uan

you'll

good

have

time

think

Montes

think

see

you'll

there

*'ri" 'lp"', il;

think

do

time

yoll

what

long

l-row

us

we'll

shopping

make

;;;
before

think

arrive

will?

will

get

it
I

to

money

;l"pr. ,;; il
them

most

think
I

he'll

uri

go
"

Iot

don't

take

time
'

the

in

t;,,ii il; ;;;


there

the

;i;;t; i;

[-rave?

to?
any

of

to

don't

have

;;il;;

ih;)

rsE-coMMr-.,
E

We are a societyoverwhelmedby pollution,trafficjarns,and seeminglyendless


commutesto work. Timewith our familiesis often minimal.And we lookto
teleworkingas one solutionto theseformidableproblems
UNITED
STATES
OFFICE
MANAGEMENT
OFPERSONNEL
HTTP:/AffVVW.
CYBERWORKER5.ORG/RLEWIS/ HTTP:/A/I/\A/W.
OPM.GOV/

1 Discussthesequestionwith a partneror your teacher.What is e-work?Choosethe bestdescription


from a-d below.
a Workingfor a companyfrom an office in your home.
b Working at home a couple of daysa week and going into the office on other days.
c Using a laptop and electronicequipment to work when you are travelling.
d Settingup your own Internet-based
businessat home.
Do you haveany experienceof working like this?

19 E-WORK

Readthe article below and answerthe questions.

a
b
c
d
e

Which of the Vpes of e-workin I doesthe article mention?


Why is it difficult to sayhow many people are doing e-work?
What is the typical idea that feople have of e-work?
What is the mo;t common form of e-work?
What form of e-workdoesthe article sayis not likely to grow?

Sayif the following statementsare true (T) or false(F) accordingto the article:

Peoplehave differentideasabout what teleworkis.

b The surveyonly included peoplewho worked for themselves.


(- The biggestgroup of teleworkerswere thosewho only worked at home.
d The su-rieylIokecl at four differer-rtWpesof telework.
e
f
tJ
D

Approximatelyhalf the teleworkershave their own businesses


hi 2010therewill be threetimesthe number of horne-based
businesses
The ntrmber of peoplewl-rodo teleworkfor cornpanieswill increasea lot.

tr
I
I
I
I

STAYAT HOME A]\T


1 There are a lot of advertsfor e-work
Look at the exarnplebelow.Have you
like this?How do you think you can
working from home?

Make money

while you work


at home

where two people cliscuss


the advertin I and answerthe questions.
*$ x"mmListen to a conversatiot-t
a Do the speakersthink that tl-readvertis about a real job?
b What do they think are the advantages
of working at home?
c What do they think are the disadvantages?

Conditionals
3 Complete the phrasesfrom the dialoguewith tl-remissingwords.There is a gap for eacl-rword contractionscount asone word.Then listenagainto checkyour answers.
a If i t.............
...
s o e a s ye, veryone
.....
do i t.
b T h a t' sa s h a m e I. ............... ... mi nd w orki ngat home i f L.........
the opportunity.
c I'rn not so sure.I wouldn't misstravellingin to work everyday,but if L.......
at home,
the contactwith peoplehere.
d That'strue, but if you
. . ..just come in a coupleof daysa week,it ...
okay.On the other hand, unlessyou
somewherequiet to work, it

b' dirficult
t" to"Jiiltlilf.l":T;"*n?,
,rdon,r
. .D;;;; ihi;k
know
r
f

if it

mv own business.but otherwisewho knows?'


They do talk aboirtteleworka lot thesedays.Some peoplesaythat if people
cornrnuting,it
be rnuch more ecological.

4 The phrasesin 3 are all exan'rples


of how we Lrseif + past+ wouldlcouldto talk about hypotl-retical
or
imaginedsituations.Cornpletethe phraseswith your own words.
If I worked at home/if I didn't work at home, rny life
I'd be happieraboutmy job if
I wouldn't be happyaboutwork if
d If n-rycompanyintroduced/stopped
flexible working
e If I spokefluent English,
f
I w o u l ds a y ' n o 'i f
My companywould be more efficientif
I'r If people coulclpredict the future, ..
a
b

'J
D

1sE-woRK
E

5 A conrp:urv nr2urlrgeris sitting in his office che:uring :rbout hon' he coulcl changc his life. Prrt lris
icle:rsinto a chain of conclition:rlsto recreatc his clrearrtlikc this:
If I left ntt iob, I'cl spend nutre tinrc ctt honrc. If I spent ntore thne dt |rcnrc, ...
be an enormoussuccess be completelystressedout again be more relaxed
come up with a reallygreat businessidea have a lot of responsibilities havetime to think
set up a company
haveto work harderthan I want to

ll u,hat circurnst:rncesu'oulcl 1'ort...

o st:rrtvorlr o\vn btrsincss?


o stop r'lorkir-rg erltogethcr?
r chalgc jobs?
o rcfusc arpronrotion?
o ask for a pzr1,
rise?
o :rccept :r cut in pa-v?
I'd start n7\)owtT btLsinessif I had a good idea.

TELEWORKING
't

,,.ii .i' ii,i Llsten to turo inten,icn's ll,ith people u'ho


ff'
telelvork.
Which spcalier:
rt
b
c
d

l u t sc ' l r i l c l r e r r l
lives in thc cotrntn,?
cloesn't have fixecl hcltrrs?

gets up l:rter than befcrrc?


\\,eLrIS
hel slippers to ll'ork?
is sclf crnplo-vccl?
litorks for a conrpanv?

Listen ngain ancl conrplcte the chart.

e
f

Speaker1
Country

Speaker2

What did she do before?

What does slieldo now?

What are the advantagesof her new work?

What are the advantagesfor her employerslclients?

Discussion
opinion?Wh:rt u,otrlclthe nrain
3 Which of the spe:rkcrs
is nr:rking:rbettertrscof tcchnology,in 1's111
of lr'orkitrgfrotl hotne be for 1'orr?
arclvarttatgcs
anclclisaclvantages

E-WORK

4 , l { c a c lt l r c u c l v u r r t l g c sa r c l c l i s : t c l v a r t t a gocfsn ' o r l i i r r gf r - o r t lrr o r n c r r r t h c n r a g a z i n ca r t i c l c l > c ] o r i 'l.) r r t


c a c h r n t l r c c o r r c c tc i t t c g o n ' i r t h c c l r a r tb c l o u . ' l ' h c f i r s t o r r c l r : r sb c c n c k r r r cf < r r o u .
Does working at home really work?
Advantages

Disadvantages

Theworkplace
T h ew o r k i n g d a y
Commuting
T e c hn o l o g y
E f fi c i e n c y
Costs
Motivation
Family

WORIflNGAT HOME

m'

Theadvantages
anddisadvantages
--l

*,4p
'

***agglf
t-,t-.

f r o m d i f f e r e n ti n d u s t r i e as b o u tt h e i r e x p e r i e n c eosf t e l e w o r l c i n g .
A s y o u w i l l s e e t, h e r ew a s q u i t ea w i d e v a r i e t yo f o p i n i o n s .
f

and

mppf

nernr nonnle

' I t h i n l <u s h o m ew o r l < e rgs e t m o r e d o n ei n a s h o r t e rt i m e . T h e r ea r e n o p h o n ec a l l so r


c o l l e a g u etso s l o wy o u d o w n . '
' W i t h o u tt h e j o u r n e y st o a n d f r o m t h e o f f i c ey o u d o n ' t g e t a c h a n c et o r e l a xa n d p r e p a r ey o u r
between
m i n d b e f o r ey o u w o r k ,o r t o w i n d d o w nb e f o r ey o u g e t h o m e .I m i s st h e s e p a r a t i o n
h o m ea n d l e i s u r et i m e . '
' Y o u d o g e t t o s e em o r e o f y o u r c h i l d r e n . T h pe r o b l e mi s ,t h o u g h t, h a t y o u ' r es u p p o s etdo b e

6
7

WORI<ING.'
' Y o u d o n ' t h a v et o s i t i n t r a f f i c j a m s o r w a l l <t o w o r l <i n t h e r a i n . 0 r l i s t e nt o p e o p l et a l l < i n g
l o u d l yo n t h e i r m o b i l e so n t h e t r a i n . '
' l t h i n l <f i n a n c i a l l y o u m i s so u t o n p e r k sl i l < es u b s i d i s erde f r e s h m e n tosr t r a v e l . '
' L i f e i s d e f i n i t e l yc h e a p e fro r t h e e m p l o y e e . Y osua v eo n t h i n g sl i l < et r a n s p o r ta n d s m a r t

c l o t h e sI.t ' s a l s oc h e a o etro h a v el u n c ha t h o m e . '


' l t ' s a b i t d a n g e r o ufso r w o r l < a h o l i c s . Y co au n e a s i l yf i n d y o u r w o r l < i n tgi m e c r e e p i n gi n t o y o u r

l e i s u r et i m e . '
' S h a r i n gi d e a sa n d p r o b l e m sw i t h y o u r c o l l e a g u ecsa n m a l < ey o u m o r e p r o d u c t i v ei n s o m e

rn
fv

11
I2
13

j o b s .A n d t h e g o s s i pc a n b e r e a l l yi n s p i r i n g ! '
\Qnano
n r n h o a p r o b l e mR
. o o m sc a n b e c o m ea n u n p l e a s a nmt i x o f h o m ea n d o f f i c e . '
vPquL

uqrr

vL

*#ry
qM,
ffiffi,.t:i ;, I

#i

iif:i'.;:i'1';,'

ffiw

#Mw

w
ffi
.sM'

A"

' Y o u d o n ' t h a v et o w o r l <w i t h t h o s eo b s o l e t eo f f i c ec o m p u t e r sa n d t h e c o m p a n yi n t r a n e t


w h i c ha l w a y ss e e m st o b e d o w n . '
' T h e f f e x i b i l i t yi s g r e a t . Y o uc a n w o r l <a t f i v e i n t h e m o r n i n go r o n a S u n d a ya f t e r n o o n . '
' l l i l < et h e f r e e d o m . Y o u
, l a y m u s i ca n d g e n e r a l l ym a l < ey o u r s e l f
c a n o p e nt h e w i n d o w p

15

c om f o r t a b l e . '
' l t c a n b e d i f f i c u l tt o g e t d o w nt o w o r l <Y
. o u h a v et o b e v e r ys e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d . '
' l f y o u h a v ea t e c h n i c apl r o b l e my, o u ' r eo n y o u r o w n . T h e r e ' ns o I T e x p e r tt o c a l l o n . '

16

' N o b o s sc r a c l < i nt qh e w h i o l '

14

'There is no gettingaway from the family.When you worl<in an officeyou get a chanceto
pqa2ntr

" "'eP

"%,",.^4

W h a t d o p e o p l er e a l l yt h i n l <a b o u tw o r l < i n g
f r o m h o m e ?W e i n t e r v i e w ead c r o s ss e c t i o no f p e o p l e

L i l o k : r t t l r c c l r : r r -ot n l ) a g c l - 1 0 a n d c i r c c k \ ' o l r - : r r s \ \ ' c r s .

E-WOR

Vocabulary
6

F,'ir-rd
rvorclsarncluhrascsin tlie tert lvhich nrealnthc szrme:rs:

;t
b
c
cl
e
f
g
li

r el i tr
cpleuesof czrrsand lorriesunable to move foru'arcl
benefitsnot includeclin your salary
p e o p l erv l roc a r' t s to pw o rk i rrg
( ) t r lo f t l l t c : r r r crlr ol o r r g errr s e f t r l
infonnal exchangeof newsanclinforrnatior-r
s l :rrt
trying to nrakc peoplework l-rarcier

Complete the sentenceswith tl'reworclszrndphrarses


from 6.

;r As I haveto travelso nruch I dor-r'thear arnyof the office


b When I get hon're,I like to
..
by listeningto somecl:rssical
rnusicwith a glassof
wine.
C
My bossis :r conrplete. . . .
. She just cloesn'tknow how to relaxand turn off.
d It'sbetterto harvea higher salarythan . . . .
. like ercompanycar or free meals.
The problen-rwitl-rbuying arconrputeris that in :r couple of ycarsit's . . . . .
f I fincl it cliffictrltto
, .. .. .. the arccounts
:urclusuallyleavether-nuntil the last milute.
9'
a)

I reave
rro'reve-ry:$J,[il:;',i.:H;il1;tili]"

or.r
trrew:rv
towork

h
8 Are the sentences
in 7 tnre fory617 If not, cl-range
them so thattheyare.
I Work rvith :r pzrrtneranclperforrnthe following roleplayabout the aclvzrnt:rges
of workir-rgat home or
in the office. Use tl'rephrarses
in tl-rebox to help yotr.
SpeakerA: You are a nlz-urzrger
il vour conrpany.You zrrer-regotiartilrg
with tire unions to introcluce
e-workin ye111
comp:lny.Convinceyour partnerof the:rclvantages
of workingat hone.
SpeakerB: Yotr are arlrniolr represent:rtive
in speerker
A's company.The ilran:lgelnentwantsto
introcltrceworking fronr honre but you are :rgarir-rst
it. Convince your partnerof the aclvantages
of office
work.
lf peopleworked from home, ... Most peoplefind / would find that ...
Fromthe worker's/ company'spoint of view it would mean ... At the moment, people haveto ...
There'llbe all sortsof problemsif ... I agreewith that, but ... That'snot necessarily
true, becauseif ...

E-WORK

l,

'i::

d Pcoplewoulclneeclgood conrputers...
e Our qtralityof life would inrprove...
f If I nevers:rwllry colleagues,
...
'l'l'rere'd
g
be problernswith this plan ...

i' i.,: ! i . :

LANGUAGELINKS
Phrase Bank: Explaining things
It's not really about working at home.
Then you are supposedto persuadeyour friends.
T h e i d e a i st o . . .
I doubt it reallyworks.
It soundsmore attractivethan it really is.
You can do as little or as much as vou want.

i ... I'clhavemore time with mv f:rnrily.


2 ... if tlie stzrffclidn'tagreewith it.
3 ... if they l-racl
to work from honc.
4 ... if we clicln'th:rveto cornnlrte.
5 ...1' c1
mi sstl ' repersonalcontact.
6 ... we'clspencllesstime travelling.
7 ... if it investecl
in horneworking.

T h e b a s i ct o o l s a r e . . .

Vocabulary
Teleworking
'fhe

text below is an extractfronr an article :rbout


teleworking.Corrplete it using tl'reworclsin the box.
commute

desk

flexibility

home

local

office

The keyword for the future is (a)........


.
We'renot suddenlygoingto seemassive
numbersof
people working from (b)
instead of
going into the (c)
. . . .W e ' l l s e e a m u c h
more hybrid existencewhere some of the time people
are in theoffice, maybe at a shared (d)
, and some of the time at home. And there are of
course 'telecentres'- servicedoffices which provide an
intermediate stage where people can find a
(e)
office instead of having to
(f)
into a town or city centre.

Grammar
(futurereference)
Conditionals
Yotr carruse if + past+ wouldlcouldto talk :rbout
hypotheticalor imagineclsituationsin the ftrture.'l'his
'secor-rcl
is often called the
Look at these
conclitior-ral'.
exarnples:
Condition
Consequence
lf I knew the answer, I'd tell you.
lf we got the order,
we'd haye yearsof
worR.
Conpare thesetwo sentences:
. lf the factoryshuts,over200 peoplewill losetheir iobs.
(Tl'respeakerthinks the situationis likely to happer-rir-r
tl re[ r r t r r r e. )
. If the factoryshut, over200 peoplewould losetheir iobs.
(The speakerthinks tl'resituationis unlikely or
irr-rprobable
in the future.)

Practice
1
Match the partsof tl-refollowing conditionalsenter-rces.
a If we wor k ecflr om h o me ,...
b If I spentlesstirre travelling,...
c Tl-recompanywotrlclsavenoney ...

Practice
2
DaviclerndSarahare a couDlewho live in Lonclonu,itl-r
their two yolrngchildren.Reacltheir conversation
and
complete it trsingthe verb in bracketsin the appropriate
tense.
Sarah Why don't we rnoveout of the city ir-rtothe
country?I'rn fed up lr,ith living here. It's so
stressftrl.
D avi d l f w e ta)
(live) in the cotrntry,it
(take)
aboutten ninutes for
tbr
you to get boredwith it.
(get)a
Sarah No it woulcln't.We (c)
nice big house- somewherewith a garden.T'he
(go)to a little village
kids (d)
(forget)about
school,anclr,r,e(")
all the streetviolence,trafficanclpollution.
David Btrt they (f)
(like) living in the
(n-riss)
city, anclthey (g)
their
(move)
friends.Also,if we (h)
into the country,we (i)
(spend)
all our tin'rein the car travellir-rg
in and out to work.
(ask)
Sarah Not necessarily.
If y611(t)
(let)
your comp:rny,they (k)
yotr work fronr home someof the time, anclrnine
would, too.
(have)to be
David I don't think so.I (l)
ir-rcontact with people in n-ryjob. Anyway, if I
(tr,)
(be)i n the houseall day,
(go)uazy.
I (n)
Sarah Don't be so lregative.If you (o)
(spend)rrloretirne at home, we (p)
(see)ilroreof you, and we could
do more thir-rgs
like going for walksand playing
(have)a better
tennis.Yotr(q)
qualityof life.
David I'm sorry.I just don't think you'rebeing realistic.It
(')
(be) a clrean.
(b.) lessselfish,yott'd
S a r a h l f y o r r( s)
at leasttl-rinkabout it.
(give)it
David Okay,I pronriseI (t)
somethought if that'swhat you want.

E_woRKE

Practice
3

Practice
5

Write conditionalsentences
usingthe prompts.

Reorganisethe wordsto form questions.

He doesn'twork hard so he isn'tverysuccessful.


rn9-.r
-[f he.Worked hafdef, hp'd b.9,.
9,.1uacerrf.u!,.
b You dolr't have enough experienceso we can't give you
the iob.
L

H;;;; i;'t". r'.r'r'i" trtl ,""i',irii'",i',,..


"

I don't ]ravetl'reinforrnationso I can't help you.

iJ",,'irir.;;;;i;;r d;;,:i;;,",i,.gy,;

He workslong l-roursbecausehe er-rjoys


his job.

g
D

l'l

Sl-reonly doesthe job becauseshehasn'tgot any


cl'roice.
My car is in the garageso I can't take you to the
airport.
4

Things take hirn a long tirne becausehe isn't very


organised.

H. drivesan expensive
car becausehe can affordit.

Practice
4
Cive adviceby cornpletingthe sentences.
a
b

belatete...wprkIf yor,rgot up earlier, yot/.w.q\aldo'!


t.o-.p{ten,
If you did a con'rpr-rter
collrse,

You wor-rldmake a betterimpression

d Iiy;; h'; -"uii";h;;;,


"
e You wouldn't be so stressed
f

If you usedthe Internet,

s i;;'; ;;;.i,.' ,iir'.i'i.'"i"*


h

If you didn't complainall the time,

i:,:jE-WORK

job
do
wl-rat would
you
if
choose
you
could
W-haf"b wovldyoude i{ yeueevldqhqo-te?
worrld
b live you
abroad you
where if
to
had
go
treat
were

people boss
if
the
you

I'row

you

didn't
language stucly would
English yolr
if
learn

would

what

you

*",,rJ;;;,, i,;; ; t;,, ii;; ;;;,,;,


living

salary

if

irr-rportant

Practice
6
Respondto the sentencesusing tl'reprompts.Decide if the
i s realor i rrragi rrary.
si l trati orr
a Are you going to tell the bossabout it? (lf / tell / she /
sackme)
No way.Xf t fofdher aboy.!.i!,.2lreld..qac?^e,......
....
b Do you thir-rkhe is goir-rgto get tlie job? (Unless/ get
nervous/ interview/ not have/ problems)
Yes,I think so.
Are you going to ir-rviteSarahto the party?(lf / invite /
Dave / haveto invite Sarahtoo)
I don' t haveany cl roi ce.
d Are you going to invite Su to tlie party?(If / invite / Su
/ haveto invite Dave too)
N o, I can' t.
and Janewould be upset.
I've got an awful l'readache
but we haven'tgot any
aspirin.(If / take i aspirin / you l feel better.)
Ol r dear.
In this job you haven'tgot er-roughtirne to take r-rpa
hobby. (If / have / tirne / do somegardening)
Yes,it'sa sharne.
He almosthad a accidentagainon Friday.(Unless/
stop/ driving like a maniac / kill himself)
W hat, agai rr?
Can you give rne his mobile number? (lf / know I giveI
it / you)
N o, I can' tI' rn afrai d.

Accordingto a poll conducted by the CreativeGroup, being rude to a restaurant


employeeis the No. 1 reasona businesslunch goes bad.
- HTTP:/AA/WW.ELLIOTT.ORG/POWER-TRIP/FIVE-BUSINESS-LUNCH-FAUX-PAS
CHRISTOPHER
ELLIOT

i , ,.
i r':I
Discussion
with a partneror your teacher.
1 Look at the quote aboveand discussthe qr-restions
a Does tl'reresult of the CreativeCroup sllrveysurpriseyou?
b What do you think the otl'rerreasonsare?Compare your ideaswitl'rthe articleon page 141.

S x.,x.tNeil Klein and SatoshiThnakaare I'ravinga working lunch at a restaurantin Japan.Lister-r

to their conversationand answertl'requestions.


a

Why doesNeil like the restaurant?

b Who orclersthe food?

c What doesNeil want to eat?


d What doesNeil decideto eat?

in 2 in order.
3 Put the linesof the conversation
Then listenagainand check.
Neil Klein
E fnir lookslike a very nice place,Satoshi.
E t'11try the unagi,then.
Soundsgood.
I Ot
"y
Ll What's that?
I Y.r, I reallylike the decor.Er, could you order
for both of us, Satoshi?
E H-, I'm sureit is.Actually,do you think I
could have a steak?
I Xo, no, let'shavesone sake.
Satoshi Tanaka
E n"a then I think you should try someunagi.
I It" eel - erilled and servedor-ra bed of rice. It's delicior-rs.
E Y.r, I thought you wor-rldlike it.
E W.li, I'm afraidthey don't servesteakhere.
E F it'r.. Would you like somesake,or would you prefersomebeer?
I Of course.I think we could havesomemiso soupto startwith. They do it verywell here.
@ nignt. Sakeit is,then.

2 0 W O R K I N GL U N C H

Make a list of sorlreof the tvpical clishesn'hicli restzrurzurts


serve in vour arer,
t r s i r r gt h e l o c a l n : l m c .

.'-,,
Starters

r tvna

fish
meat
vegetable
pie

nf

;att

.ili.l
ll::a::

.=,,

Onionbh4;i

ricedish
pastadish

:j lii

i r.ll
t .rl

Sa osn

.;i '

.,.ir,rlt's
.jll

madewith
madefrom

,.i.r
'.r:l

Main courgeg

tl
irrlili

vegetables

:,,l.,

servedwith

Chi"k"r, Ivladrar

e9gs
fruit

Ve1etableMiryanr

- -^t-.J
d Sdldu

potatoes
a sauce
with garlic
with spices
with herbs
i n o l i v eo i l

cooked

zrvisitor.Sotnctiures
b Inragineyou are entertarining
bttt vott u:'tt'
you czlntranslatethe nanresof clisl-res,
how tl-reyarrecookecl.Act otrt a
alsohaveto erplarir-r
r,vithzrperrtneranclexplaitrn'h:rteach dish
conversa.rtidn
on the rigl-rtto I'relpyotr.
consistsof. L.lsethe pl'rrarses

r . ' : .i ,

WHO DOESWHAT?
1 ff' ,, t.,, Coniplete the seconclpart of Neil anclS:rtoshi's
convers:rtion
witl-rthe phrasesin the box.
'fhen
listenanclchcck!or1r2urswers.
job title

reportto

for
responsible

Satoshi Neil, I nretJcff Segran earrlicrtl'risvear.What exactlvis his a) .


Neil
He's the l\{an:rgingDirector.
Satoshi Do vou nrearlthe CEO?
Neil
Yes,th:rt'su'hertthe Americanssav.He's the personon tl'rcboarrcl
u'ho is b)
the c1ar,-to-c1ar1'
nrnning of the compzrtrv.
Satoshi Ar-rdu'l'ratzrbout1's112
Neil
I'm the ProductDevelopmentl)ircctor. I'nr on thc boarclasrvell,but I c)
Ieff'
S a to s h i R i g l rt.I s e e .
2

in I which are sinrilarin nie:rningto tl-refollowing:


Finclplrrasesirr thc conversartion

i t i s i r r c ' l r a r goeF
b J e f f i sr r r l b o s s .
c' Wlrirt cloeslre clol
3 Act otrt conversartions
like the one in I trsingthe pronrptsbelolv.LJscyour owrr icleas,if yotr like.
iiji who you met

, Job title

Responsibilities

i Chairman/President

long-termstrategyand
planning

,ii:.i:

i.i, John Atherstone

i.ii
i{, r,r,Arbright
i iii

i
l

, ,woRKrN
GN C H
LU

i Who you report to

I
M a n a q i n q D i r e c t o r l JohnAtherstone

::
i)
i

:i Directorof Marketing/
policyandthe i Headof Asian
marketing
i SisiAlbright
r Vice-President
Marketing worldwidesalesforce : SalesDepartment ;

,iil t*. a -r,,,,tt*,,,r-..r,ri,:i.i+,,!.r


:ir:,i

Your job title

Work rvith a partncr.

a List five job titlesin your coillp;lny,or in other comp:rnies.


job titlesin linglish?
l) Do you know the ecluiv:rlent
c Explainrvhatcach pcrsoncloes.

DOWN TO BUSINESS
1 ff -;r.+,:I
l,isten to Neil Klcin talking to Jeff Segraniwhen he rettrnreclto head office, anclansri,crthc
qucstions.
a Wasthe trip a success?
b Wliat cloyotr think liappeneclu,henthey got clor,r'n
to business?
2 S ;.*,* Now listcr-rto the converszrtion
behveenNeil anclSatoshi.What cloyotr think Ncil clicl
wrong?
3

Reaclthe infonlzrtiotrbelowetbotttcloingbtrsiness
in Jap:ur.Doesthis confinn your icleasin 2?

T h eH a r dS e l l
A hard sell is ofJenseenas offensivein Japan.Japanese
businesspeople
may think that you are trying
to convincethem becauseyour product is no good.It is betterto usea low-keysalespitch and give
them objectiveinformation.Japaneseare not accustomedto aggressive
Americantechniques
that usea
persuasive'winning'argument.
If you are not completelyhonestabout your product,your credibilitywill be
damagedand what you say will loseinffuence.Don't say that yours is tthe best on the market'.It is better
to say,'Wesold two million units last year.As you know,our closestcompetitorsold lessthan a million.'At
the sametime, be carefulnot to criticisecompetingproducts.In fact, the Japanesewill respectyou if you
mentionthe assetsof the competition.

Act otrt the conversatiortbetween Neil and Satoshi.but tliis tin're Neil shotrlclfollow the aclvicein
the text.
5 Do yotr harve:rny sinrilar cxpericnce of cloing business lvith cliffcrent ctrlturcs? What othe r clifferences
in the lvaty,sf cloing bttsitiess clo you ktrow abotrt?

M:tc,
1 Discussin groups.What operatingsystenrcloyou haveotr vottrwork conrpttter- Winclorvs,
l,intrx or son]eother? Do you find it easyto trse?Havc ]'ou r.llryerperict'tceof other oper:rtirtgsystems?
2 Reerd
the articlebclow.Why :lresonrecotnpaniesch:urgingto Lintrx?Wh;rt:rrethc trtainIT issues
that companiesarc concerneclabout?

O n eo f t h e w o r l d ' sl a r g e s tI T c o m p a n i e bs e l i e v etsh a t L i n u x
will take 20"/" of the marl<etfor desktopcomputersin large
i n s t i t u t i o n sw i t h i n 5 y e a r s .S i e m e n sB u s i n e s sS y s t e m st,h e
$ 6 b i l l i o n g l o b a l I T c o m p a n ys, a y t h a t a d e s k t o pr u n n i n g
Linux can be as effectiveas one usingWindows,but at a
s i g n i f i c a n t l yl o w e r c o s t . L i n u x i s a n 0 S w h i c h i n i t s m o s t
basic format is free. Users can also modify the program
c o d e a n d a d a p t i t t o t h e i r n e e d s- t h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l ew i t h
commercialsoftware.
Senior program manager Duncan McNutt says that
Siemenshas beenencouragedto investigatethe viability of
Linux by customerswho are annoyedby Microsoft'spricing
a n d l i c e n s i n gp o l i c i e s .H o w e v e rt,h, e r i s k s a r e h i g h - w h i l e
lower IT costs are important, maintainingproductivityis
even more critical. Just one day of productivitylost to a
s hen it is multiplied
t e c h n o l o g yp r o b l e mc a n b e d i s a s t r o u w
b y 1 0 , 0 0 0 o r m o r ew o r k e r s .
For this reason/they testedthe softwarewith secretaries

. i e m e n sb e l i e v et w o d a y s
a n d m a n a g e r sa, n d n o t I T p e o p l e S
o f t r a i n i n ga r e a l l t h a t i s n e e d e df o r t h e c h a n g et o L i n u x .
This is the same as the standardtime budgetfor upgrading
to a new versionof Windows/MSOffice.McNutt saysthat
Linux will save 20"/oto 30"/" in administrationcosts,507o
i n h a r d w a r ec o s t s ,a n d 8 0 7 o i n l i c e n s i n gf e e s . L i n u x a l s o
savesmoneyon hardwarebecauseit needsfewer resources
and can run on lesspowerfulcomputers.
A n d i t ' s n o t j u s t a b o u t s a v i n g m o n e y .W h i l e L i n u x
will save B07o over Microsoft's licensingfees,many large
customersare evenmore unhappyabout beingin a position
where Microsoftcan dictatetermsto them. Many European
i n s t i t u t i o n sa r e a n g r yt h a t M i c r o s o f t ' sl i c e n s i n gm e a n st h e y
cannot afford both upgradesand support on their current
budgets.In any case,they would prefer to use their IT
spendingto helpencouragea localtech industry,ratherthan
s u p p o r ta U . S .m o n o p o l y . T h e raer e n o w s e v e r ael x a m p l e so f
this at city governmentlevelin Germanyand France.
Source:www.linux.com

Underline tl'rephrasesin the :rrticlewl'richmean the sane asa - I'r

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

one fifth of companycomputersin the world will rur-ron Linttx


studyif Linux is a goocliclea
it is possibleto make or losea lot of money
the tirne cornpaniessetasidefor
operateon
derrar-rdas much as tl-reywant fron'rthert-t
the rnoneythey have reservedfor this
companywhich hastro cornpetition

LINUX

4 The bossof MedicoTek,a companywhich tradesin medical supplies,hasseenthe article in 2 and


wantsthe managementteam to evaluatethe possibilityof changing to Linux. Work in groups of four.
You are going to take part in a meeting to decideif you should change.Each take a role: A, B, C or D.
A
The IT Manager
You agreethat changingto Linux would savea lot of money,but there are problems.All your training
and experiencehasbeen in Windows-basedsystems,
and the move to Linux would mean a greatdeal
of effort and extrawork for you. You are alsoworried about the supportavailable.However,you are also
concernedabout somethingelse.You know that some of the programsthat the companyusesat the
moment are illegal pirate versions.If the companypaid for them, it would be very expensive,but if it
getscaught,the consequences
would be a largefine for the companyand bad publicity.
B
Head of Sales
You spendmost of your time travelling.You love technologyand dependon lots of differentgadgets
when you are on the move. You don't think your toyswill be compatible with Linux. Apart from that,
you believethat there will be problemswith your customersbecausethey all useWindows.You also
think it will be difficult for staffto adaptto somethingnew and will requirea lot of training. For these
reasons,you are againstany change.
C
The Company President
At present,your"marginsare not good,and any cost-cuttingmoveswould help the situation.IT is a
maior part of your budget,and you are worried about the costof softwarelicencesgoing up in the
future. On the other hand, you suspectthat the transferto a new systemwill be difficult for the company
and will possiblyhave a negativeeffect on efficiency.On a personallevel, you are worried about having
to adapt to new software.You alsothink that if you go ahead,it will be necessaryto replacethe present
IT managerwith an expert in Linux-basedsystems.

D
The Head of Research& Development
You are very keen on Linux and know a lot about it. In fact, many of the specialisedscientificprograms
you usefor your work are only availablein Linux, and you are convincedthat it is a more secureand
stablesystem.You don't think that staffwill find it difficult to change to the new softwarebecausethe
new versionsare very similar to Windows. You are also part of a group on the Internet which is very
critical of Microsoft.You don't like Bill Gatesand asa questionof principle you think peopleshould use
open-sourcesoftwarebecauseit is better.
5 A companyin Australiadecidedto use Linux. Readthe article below.What happened?Why do you
think the situation createdby the new softwarewas unacceptable'from a businesspoint of view'?

cAsE
sruDY
L'NUX
L

01 INTRODUCTIONS

04 ASKING QUESTIONS

Across
2 website
3 list
5 e-mail
7 mouse
9 intranet
l0 l i n k
l l connection
14 virus
l6 browse

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

Down
I attachment
4 screen
6 download
8 online
lZ cl i ck
l3 si te
l5 su rf

02 WOMAN AT WORK

i
k

05 COMPANY HISTORIES
a
b
c
d
e
f
,g
b

h
i
j

03 TELEPHONE
TALK
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A

InterAir / help?
Yes,please/ like / information / flight / Munich
Yes/ know / flight number?
The flight number?/ sure/ know / leavesMunich I 1,770
yes lIA345
Yes/ tell / time / getsin?
arrival/ 19l0
1910/know I deIayT
No / flight / on time
R.ight/ thank / much
welcome / goodbye

ADDTt.NAL MATERTAL
-[

Who do you work for?


Where is your companybased?
Where are you staying?
Do you speak(German?)
Who is (AIex) talking to?
What do you do? lWhat's your job?
Have you got any children? lDo you haveany children?
Where are you from? / Where do you come from?
Are you married?
Do you play golf?
Do you know (Adriana BeIIini)?

become
launch
expand
produce
found
achieve
negotiate
bry
provide
increase

,,:jttidffi

02 WOMAN AT WORK
For
o Peoplehavean alternativesourceof information to TV, newspapers
and radio.
o ,Amore 'human'face for organisations.
o { good way of sharinginformation and ideasin an organisation.
e { good way to get feedbackon ideasand developments- readerscan make
commentsand suggestions.
o An opportunityfor the writer - showsthey havetalent and helpscareerprospects.
. Sometimeswriterscan make a living through advertising.

03 TELEPHONETALK
Speaker B
Situation I
You work for ADH Graphics.A potentialclient phonesyou. Listen to what the
customerwantsand completethe phone contact form below with the necessary
intbrmation.

05 COMPANY HISTORIES
Bill Gatesdidn't found Oracle, he
founded Microsoft.
The Wall StreetCrash didn't start
a worldwideeconomicboom, it
startedan economic depression.
The six Europeanstatesdidn't sign
the Treatyof Madrid, they signed
the Treatyof Rome.
The elevenmember statesof the
EuropeanUnion didn't adoptthe
pound asa common currency,they
adoptedthe euro.
Henry Ford didn't manufacture
the first mass-produced
electronic
components,he manufacturedcars.
Napsterdidn't have problemsover
peopledownloadingbooks,it had
problemsovermusic.

P H T I H EC S f I T A * TF B R M

OO(D Graphics
CALL I}ITTIATf,$ BY:
CALL HAt'lSLERr

ADDRES$:
COHTACT:
F0$ITI0ilr

NATUREOF BU$IilE$S:
PURPOSH9F f,ALL;
G0MMEHTST

ASTIOSI
TEOUIREB:
BY lS'fiOM:
IIATHAl'10TIME;.

Situation 2
You work as the Marketing Manager in the marketingdepartmentof a clothes,
manufacturet,Lewis & Co. You are looking for someoneto print somelabels
for your new rangeof jeans.The labelshave to be printed on quality card in h.vo
colours.They alsohaveto be cut to the shapeof the companylogo. You want
10,000labels.PhoneADH Graphicsfor an estimate.

ADDITIONALMATERIAL

{}.I HOTELS

,i:r;.i:
CORRESPONDENCE

'-l :
. r r J , : , t , i , :r , r , t i r t i l : , : rr i t i i t : 1 . :

'

D e a rM r H o l m b r o o k ,

D e a rM r H o l m b r o o k ,
T h a n ky o u f o r y o u r o r d e r .I j u s t w i s h
to confirm that we have received
y o u r o r d e r d e t a i l sa n d w e h a v e
startedto processthem. lf your item

W e a p o l o g i s ef o r t h e d e l a Yb, u t w e
haveworked out the shiPPingcosts
o f y o u r m o d i f i e do r d e r .l t w i l l b e a n
extra f6.99.
To activatethis transactionwe will
n e e dt o r e - t a k ey o u r c a r dd e t a i l s

i s n o t i n s t o c ko r i f t h e r e a r e a n y
d i s p a t c hp r o b l e m sw e w i l l c o n t a c t
you within the next 24136hrs.Please
contactus if you have not received

Speaker A: Plione rooltt service to


rnake reqttestsfor:
o a bottle of Glenficldich whisky
o someone to fir the minibar
.
o
o
t

solreone to explain hon'the'lV


c ' l t i t n t r eul so r k
s o l n c o l l e t o s c w t - l t tl t l l t l t t o t t
:u'r cxtta set of cle:ut tor,r'els
(.),orn'outn reqtLest)

by phone to processthe PaYment


m a n u a l l yW
. e w i l l n e e dt h e l o n g
n u m b e ro n t h e f r o n t o f y o u r c a r d ,t h e

y o u r o r d e r w i t h i n 7 d a y sa t o r d e r s @
ot h a t w e c a n
c i c l o s c i c l o n e . c os m

expirydate, and the securitycode on


the back of the card.
T h a n ky o u f o r y o u r p a t i e n c ea n d f o r
s h o p p i n gw i t h C i c l o s C i c l o n e .
I l o o k f o r w a r dt o h e a r i n gf r o m Y o u .

resolvethe issue.
T h a n ky o u o n c ea g a i n .
Bestwishes,
heam)
C i c l o s C i c l o n( D
e e s p a t cT

Bestwishes,
D i e g oM a r t i n

D e a rM r H o l m b r o o k ,
Pleasedo not worry.We will sort the
p r o b l e mo u t f o r y o u , a n d Y o u ro r d e r
. n c ea g a i n ,
w i l l b e w i t h y o u s h o r t l yO

D e a rM r H o l m b r o o k ,
R e g a r d i n gt h e m o d i f i c a t i o ni,t w i l l
n o t b e a p r o b l e m .T h e t o t a l a m o u n t
f o r y o u r o r d e rw i l l b e f B 4 . B 5 .
I l o o k f o r w a r d t o h e a r i n gf r o m y o u .
Bestwishes,

p l e a s ea c c e p to u r a p o l o g i e s .
Bestwishes,
D i e g oM a r t i n

D i e g oM a r t i n

i.'{TSPIRITOF ENTERPRISE
:

,.

'i:'

Speaker B: Look :rt thc itrfomatiotr in the tablc. Work rvith )'ottr partuerto
over the
complete the rnissing infon-natiort :rrtclfincl out how Irtclitexhas ch:rr-rgecl
last four veelrs.
Inditex

four years ago

Shopsworldwide

2,244
439

New storesin year


Employees

47,046
64

wherethe groupoperates
Countries
sales
7oof international

now

55%
Class,Pull& Bear,
eight- Zara,Kiddy's

C h a i n si n g r o u p

MassimoDutti,Bershka
Oysho,ZaraHome
Stradivarius,
Iu r n o v e r

5 , 5 6 9m i l l i o n
1 , 0 0 2m i l l i o n

Net profits
Headquarters

MATERTAL
ADDTt.NAL
E

Arteixo,LaCorufra

pay

*3 TELEPHONE
TALK

S# STRESSED
TO THE LIMIT

,,'.i:t$'fffTf,

ffiI,ff,

SpeakerA
Situation I
Yor-rwork astl-rePublicationsOfficer in the marketingdepartn'rentof Miki-char-r
FashionAccessories.
Yotrare cllrrentlyproducingyour new companybrochure.
This is a 3?-page,full colour brochure on high quality paper.You need 10,000
copies.Phor-re
ADH Graphicsfor an estirnate.The only problern is that the
brochureneedsto be readyin ten days.Can they do it?
Situation 2
You work for ADH Crerphics.A potentialclient phonesyou. Listen to what the
cttstomerwantsand completetl-rephone contactform below with the necessary
inforrrration.

Measuredby levelof 21 specificjob


demands,in the USA the ten most
stressftrljobsare:
1 Inner-cityhigh schoolteacher
2 Policeofficer
3 Mi ner
4 Air traffic controller
5 Hospitalcloctor
6 Stockbroker
7 Joun-ralist
8 Custon-rer
cornplair-rt
worker
9 Waiter
l0 Secretary

ffiATH:
ffiALi-3ruTT$AYf,ffi
ffiY:

fli-$ilf'CTr

*nowrss.

#I}NTA#T:
$}SSITISN;

#Y',#$4SfVt:
SATfiAH* TIlVlflr

## WOMAN AT WORK
':,;.iir[itff
ffi li,ilfiiiiit*.T:$$
SpeakerA
Your partnerhasthe missinginformation. Complete tl'recl'rartby askingquestions
like tl-reonesin exercise2 on page 15.
iil lrt"rn"

Janice

Delia

.ij tobtitle
, "r|:

Directorof RetailSales

rypeor company

chainof clothingstores

iii wort
ing hours
'*ii Responsibilities
'rllj
ili'w..t

45
;i

fr Leadinga teamof 25. Accountsand stockcontrol.


Maintaining
inventory
in stores.

.nd/Lateeveningwork

Oneeveningand one weekenddaya week.Sometimes


'on call'with pager
a
in caseof emergencies.

tit
i'ii nlouenjoys
iii rr.au"t
ili Horiouv,

internalclients.Peoplesheworkswith.
i Satisfying
i"Not o{ten.Tripsto differentstores.3 tradefairsa year.
'li

i 2 weeks.3 weeksafter 5 years'service.

ti! nutioof womento


menin position/field
i

ADDTIoNAL
MATERTAt
E

HIRING AND FIRING

TELEPHONETALK
. '
'l'hc

fir,c nraitr frttstrationscttstotnersexpcrietrcc itt clealing

u'ith teleuhone staff are:


o taking too long to :tttsu,er
. bcing pttt on holcl ancl forgotten
o l>eing trar-rsfcrrcclatrcl h:rvitrg to rcpeat tlteir cnqttiry
. being Attsu'cleclby voicetnail ancl otl-rcrtttachitres
o not havirrg calls rettrrnecl

I\IR TRAVEL
,

Student A
1 Reaclthe article.
of the
2 Finclanclunclerlincin the articlefive exettrtples
passive.
3 Match thc five rvorclsanclphrascsin bold in the article
to five of thc clefinitionsbelou'.Ask yottr partnerlvhicl'r
u,orclsnratch the othcr five clefinitions.
for
:l conrpenszrte
n'ithoutjolts
b percentagcof u,orkingpoptrlzttion

c
SpeakerA: Buver
Ncgotiater,i'itlivorrrp:rrtnerto gct the bestclealpossiblc.
You get points for each categoryof tlie cleal- price, clttatrtih.,
ort:i price
eurcl
so on. Fbr er:rnrple,if votretgree
clclir,'cn'tinre,
o f (r ctu os ,\ iouget 2 poin ts ,o r 3 p o i n tsi f th e p ri c c i s 5 .5 .
'lb
Aclclvorrrpointsfor each categort'to gct vottr scorc. be et
ncgotiator)'ou hrtrrcto get at lcastten points.
strccessful
Points

Price

6.5

5.5

Quantity

200

150

100

units

Delivery

WCEKS

Payment

30

60

90

days

Guarantee

12

1B

months

tlseful language
Let'stalk about (,price'1
'l'hat's
nir' bestoffer.
Okar',I can go n'ith that.
It'sa dcall

I can't go an\'higher/1orver.
I can't clo that.
Can you help ure on this?

CORRESPONDENCE
A: S-A-C,car I help -votr?
CoulclI
Morctti fiorn StenrHy{1x11lics.
B : Ycs,this is F-,len:i
spenrk
to )ohn Bircl,pleasc?
here at the
A: Oh, hello, Fllena.I'm afr:riclfohn isr-r't
nronrent.Car-rI take a nressarge?

B : Yes,he setrttre atr orclercotrfirnration- the referenceis


darteis rvrong.
DH()10601- btrt the cleliver,v

A: Oh, clcar.Oan ,\,s11


give n'rethe cletails?
cl:rtervasJttne
btrt the agreeclclelivcr-v
B : Yes,it sa,vs
7tli,
fuly
ZLrtrl.It's reallt,importartt.

A: I see.Wcll, I'll tell hinr assoonarshe conresin.


'l'hanli
B:
votr.I'nr not at all happy,:rborrtthis.A lot clepertcls
on this order.
Riglrt,Elena,le:rvcit rvith ttte.I'rt tcrriblysorryabottt
tl i i s.
B : No, it'srtot vottr fatrlt.Justaskiohn to phone tne.
A: All right, thcn. B-vcfor now.
B : Cooclbl'e.

A D D I T I O N AM
L ATERIAL

employecsrvith trairtingarrclaltilitiesto clotechnicaltasks

cl pl,,pf t"ft; ;t;,,''"'iplovecl frrra lo'g ti're


"
e

.",r lcgalh erpectfront thcit-entployers


rvh:rt
"t,,ploy..,

f
g

rnotir.,:rtingfactors
nroneypaiclto pcopleuho clon'thavejol>s

all tlie people u'ho work itr a cotttttrv or for el cotuPzutv

thc ntrniber of enplo-veesil conrpany reqttires to do its


rvork
workcrswho harvecotrtractslinritecl to a periocl of tinre
Which cotttrtrvcloyott think tlie :rrticleis abotrt?Coulclit
to
re:rsons
Why? Whv not?Explain1,0111
be yotrr cour-rtry?
your p:rrttrer.

shortage
Sl(ills
linl<ed
to jobinsecurity
A c c o r d i n gt o a s u r v e yw h i c hw a s c a r r i e do u t b y t h e
C o n f e d e r a t i oonf I n d u s t r ya, l m o s tt w o t h i r d so f t h e
c o u n t r y ' sc o m p a n i eas r e e x p e r i e n c i nags h o r t a g eo f s k i l l e d
w o r k e r s .I t i s a p r o b l e mw h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l ya f f e c t st h e
e l e c t r o n i cisn d u s t r y .
T h e c o m p a n i ecsl a i m e dt h a t t h e y p r o v i d e dt r a i n i n gf o r
their worl<force,but that this on its own was not sufficient
to covertheir staffingneeds.
In an attemptto mal<eup for this lack of skilled
w o r k e r s n, e a r l yh a l f o f t h e 6 7 0 f i r m sw h i c hw e r ec o n t a c t e d
saidthat they had increasedtheir useof temporarystaff,
and overa quarter intendedto do the samein the next year.
a
for the Confederation,
Accordingto a spol<esman
r e s u l to f t h i s s l < i l l s h o r t a g ei s a n i n c r e a s ei n f e e l i n g so f j o b
insecurita
y m o n ga t h i r d o f e m p l o y e e s . ' Iits i n c r e a s i n g l y
d i f f i c u l tt o p r o v i d ep e o p l ew i t h j o b s f o r l i f e , ' h es a i d .
Althoughover 607o of firms said staff were paid based
o n t h e i r s k i l l sa n d l e v e lo f c o m p e t e n c teh, e C o n f e d e r a t i o n
n o t e dt h a t w h i l es a l a r i e sa t m a n a g e m e nl te v e lw e r e
i n d i v i d u a l l cy o
, n d i t i o n fso r c l e r i c a l
f r e q u e n t l yn e g o t i a t e d
s e r eu s u a l l ya g r e e da t a c o m p a n y a n d m a n u a lw o r l < e rw
w i d el e v e l .

06 CORRESPONDENCE
SpeakerB: Choosea problem from tl-retable and tell SpeakerA. Begin l've got a
prohlem...SpeakerA will offera solutionand then tell you abouta problem.React
nsing one of the solutionsbelow. SayDon't worry,l'll ...
B l've got a problem,the batteryin my mobile'sfl.at.
A Don't worry,l'll lendyou mine.
Problems

Solutions

I can't understand
thesefigures.
My computerkeepscrashing.
I can't get an answerfrom the taxi service.
I needto speakto you urgently.
The printeris not workingproperly.
I don't know how to usethis program.
Our e-mailsystemisn'tworking.

l'll lookfor informationon the fnternet.


l'll sendit to you again.
l'll go throughit and correctthem.
l'll reserve
the ticketsfor you thismorning.
l'll lookit up for you.
l'll printthemout for you.
l'll get you an aspirin.

1 4 H I R I N GA N D F I R I N G
4
Student B
I Readthe article.
2 Find ar-rdunderline in the article five examplesof the passive.
3 Matcl'rthe five wordsar-rcl
phrasesin bold in the article to five of the defir'ritions
below.Ask your partnerwhich wordsmatch the other five definitions.
a compensatefor
b percer-rtage
of workir-rgpopulationwithout jobs
c employeeswith training and abilitiesto do tecl-rnicaltasks
d peoplewho are unemployedfor a long time .. ....
e wl'ratemployeescan legallyexpectfrom their ernployers
f n'rotivating
factors.....
g noney paid to peoplewho clon'thave jobs
h all the peoplewho work in a country or for a company
i the nurnber of ernployeesa cornpanyrequiresto do its work
j workerswho have contractslirnited to a period of tirne
4 Which cottntrydo you think the article is about?Could it be your country?
Wliy? Why not? Explain your reasonsto your partner.

general
Unions
threat
stril<e
T h e w h o l eo f t h e c o u n t r yw i l l b e b r o u g h t o a h a l t i f p l a n s
for a generalstrike go ahead.Thethreatenedstrike has been
called by the unionsin reactionto the government's
attempts
to cut unemploymentbenefits.With the proposedchanges
unemployed
workerswill haveto take one of the first three
'acceptable'job offerswhich are put to them, if the place
of work is within 30 km of their homes.If they refuse,they
will losetheir benefits.Also,anyonewho is sackedfrom their
j o b b u t a p p e a l i n ga g a i n s t h e d e c i s i o nw i l l l o s et h e i r s a l a r y
e n t i t l e m e ndt u r i n gt h e p e r i o do f t h e a p p e a l .
The two main unions,eachwith overa million members,
say that the reforms are a direct attacl<on workers' rights.
Theysay the changeswill be especiallynegativefor those

who losetheir jobs,and the long-termunemployed.They


also claim that the new law will make it easierand cheaper
for companiesto lay off staff,and will leadto increasedjob
insecurity.
With an ll.3o/o unemploymentrate, the highestin
the EuropeanUnion;tHb reformshavebeendefendedby
the government,
which saysthey are necessaryin order
to be competitiveand providean openand flexiblelabour
market.It saysthe measureswill help solvethe problemof
unemployment
by increasingthe incentivesfor peopleto find
jobs.Although its relationswith the labour movementhave
beengeneral{ygodd for the last six years,trade union officials
say that this time the governmenthas gonetoo far.

ADDTT.NAL
MATERTA'
L

i.;,,i:,
CORRESPON
DENCE
SpeakerB: Yotr arreJohn Bircl.You unclerstancl
rvhy Eler-ra
Moretti is angry.Her company is onc ofyorrr best customers.
Your production department let yon dowl. They promised
to meet the clelivery clate but there was a transport strike ancl
sone colnponcnts didn't arrive. Apologise as ntuch elsyou
calt for rvhertharppcr-recl
:rltcl iltvent excusesfor everythir-rg.
Offer to pa1'for a l-roliclaly
weekencl in Lonclol for Elen:r, but
clon't n'rakearnypronrisesyou caln'tkeep.

SpeakerB
You were just about to send this e-nail to a colleague,when
they ring you. Answer their questions.
ftc)s
( } h f f i . # ! * ! '
D.h!

Reelv

AlolvArl

fo&ild

&.F

Mlrrb(ret

:i,rl:rl
$i:a'+;ls
lltil :

li,iiu$*flu+*.r::til
An n ua I sales meeti ng

.::::;;.
TIME

BE SLOPPY
A good hour or two can be gainedeveryfew weel<sif you
k e e py o u r d e s ki n a m e s s F
. r i d a ya f t e r n o o n as n d M o n d a y
m o r n i n g sa r e p e r f e c t i m e st o s e t a s i d ef o r c l e a n i n gu p y o u r
w o r l <a r e a .( 2 8 m i n u t e st o a n h o u r o n c e a w e e l ( )
THECOMPUTER
L o a dy o u r c o m p u t e rw i t h u n n e c e s s a rpyr o g r a m st h a t m a k e
y o u r m a c h i n er u n m o r e s l o w l yW
. h i l ey o u / r ew a i t i n gf o r t h e

Y o u ' r e o n f l i g h t 8 A 4 4 3 6 2 a t 1 9 5 5o n t h e 2 1 s t
D e c e m b e rf r o m L o n d o n H e a t h r o w t e r m i n a l 2 . Y o u ' l l
b e m e t b y a t a x i w h i c h w i l l t a k e y o u t o t h e f a c t o r yt o
m e e t M r F u e n t e s .l t ' s a b o u t 4 0 k i l o m e t r e sf r o m t h e
airport.
Y o u ' v eg o t o n e h o u r w i t h M r F u e n t e s T
. hen you leave
t o g e t t o t h e h o t e l f o r t h e m e e t i n g .Y o u ' l l n e e d t o g o
a c r o s sc o u n t r y .A v i s h a v e e i t h e r a R a n g eR o v e r3 . 6 o r
J e e p G r a n d C h e r o k e e ,w h i c h e v e ry o u p r e f e r .A n a r m e d
g u i d e w i l l a c c o m p a n yy o u . D o n ' t f o r g e t t h a t y o u ' l l
n e e d t o c a r r yy o u r p a s s p o r ta n d i n t e r n a t i o n a ld r i v i n g
l i c e n c ea t a l l t i m e s .

PC to processinformation,sit bacl<and relax.If the boss


q u e s t i o n ys o u ,j u s t s a y , ' D a m nc o m p u t e r s .H' e ' l l l a u g ha n d
a g r e ew i t h y o u .( r o u g h l y4 2 m i n u t e sa d a y )

T h e h o t e l i s T h e L o d g e .l t ' s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f o r e s t ,
t w e n t y m i l e sf r o m t h e n e a r e s tt o w n , a n d h a s 5 s t a r s .
A l l t h e r o o m s ( i n c l u d i n gt h e m e e t i n g r o o m ) h a v e b e e n
booked for the whole week.

T H EI N T E R N E T

All the best,

B e v e r yc a r e f u lm i s u s i n gt h e c o m p a n yP C t o s u r f t h e N e t
for personalenjoyment.Your bossl<nows
the Internetis
a b i g w a s t eo f t i m e a n d i s w a t c h i n gf o r p e o p l ew h o a r e
d o i n gw e b s e a r c h efso r M P 3 s a n d g a m e s . T h e
b e s tw a y i s
t o u s ei t f o r a l l r e s e a r c hI .f y o u n e e da p h o n en u m b e rf o r a
c l i e n ta c r o s st o w n ,u s et h e I n t e r n e t o f i n d i t . M o s t p e o p l e
j u s t r e a c hf o r a p h o n eb o o l <w, h i c h i s f a s t e rt h a n u s i n gt h e
I n t e r n e t (. r o u g h l y9 t o 3 3 m i n u t e sa d a y )

0 F F J CC
E0 N V E R S A T T 0 N S
Enter businessconversations
aroundthe officethat are
t a l < i n gp l a c ei n t h e o p e n Y
. o ud o n ' t h a v et o b e a p a r t o f t h e
c o n v e r s a t i ovne r y m u c h .T h e i m p o r t a n t h i n g i s t o b e t h e r e
p h y s i c a l l yJ.u s t l i s t e na n d n o d y o u r h e a dw h e na p p r o p r i a t e .
( 2 3 m i n u t e st o 1 . 3 h o u r s )
MEETINGS
Go to everymeetingyou can get into.You'dbe surprised
a t h o w m a n yp e o p l em i s st h e o p p o r t u n i t yt o w a s t et i m e b y
a v o i d i n gm e e t i n g s0. n c ey o u ' r ei n a m e e t i n gi,t ' s a l l a b o u t
p l a n n i n gy o u r w e e l < e n od r, t h i n l < i n a
g b o u tt h e f o o t b a l lg a m e
you watchedthe night before.(Accordingto OfficeStudies
Internationalthe averagemeetingtal<es42 minutesand
m e e t i n g sh a p p e ne v e r y5 h o u r s .C o u n to n 2 - 3 m e e t i n g sa
weel<.
)
A d a p t e df r o m ' W a s t i n gt i m e a t w o r k ' b y G a l e nB l a c k
S o u r c ew
: ww.vgg.com

TETEPHONE
TALK

ADDTt.NAL
MATERTAL

*6 CORRESPONDENCE

#R WOMAN AT WORK

fi

iiuii:i -iilill

fi-l$prootems
..-.-i

,i
.,"
"
1

.
,d

l can'tunderstand
thesefigures.
My computerkeepscrashing.
We didn'tget yourfax.
Thisreporthaslotsof errorsin it.
| can'tremember
hisphonenumber.
I needto speakto you urgently.
I haven'tbookedmy flightto Berlin.
Theprinteris not workingproperly.
I don't know how to usethisprogram
I needthreecopiesof thisproposal.
I don't knowanythingaboutthiscompany.

I can't get an answerfrom the taxi service.


,ti:;
':..

Solutions
l ' l lg e ty o u a n a s p i r i n .
l'll explainthemto you.
l'll callthe lTtechnician.
l'll sendit to you again.
l'll go throughit and correctthem.
l'll lookit up for you.
l'll phoneyou thisafternoon.
l'll reserve
the ticketsfor you this morning.
I'llchangethe ink cartridge.
l'll showyou how it works.
l'll printthemout for you.
on the Internet.
l'll lookfor information
l'llfax the detailsto you instead.
l'lltakeyou to the airport.

..::..1

fili:i;uiliririi'i+iii.l*liii:irli:iiiii,rali\+r..iiil:rl::ili!rrir:ri:'

rrrll :rr.i:+n.l'irlii.ritllirr.,rr'i,i"i1

'r? oFFlcEGosstP
i. il,lilllili*, i$I$1i{1qi+ltiil:

idrHill$qifi

SpeakerB: You are tl-repersonnel,-,-rri,-,"g.,


of the companywith the notice below
about coffeebreaks.You think a lot of tin-reis wastedby people chattingar-rd
gossipingwhen they are supposedto be working.You are under pressurefrorri the
Managing Director to improve the efficiencyof the compaily.Also, recentlythere
havebeen a lot of nlrrorlrs abor-rtstaffcutbacks.Most of thern are falsebut some
are true, and this is creatinga lot of problen-rs.

C O M P A NNYO T I C E
.

Employeesmay take up to three coffeebreaksper day.

M a x i m u mt i m e a t c o f f e em a c h i n e : f o um
r inutes.
'
gos
s
ip'
o
r
A ll
d i s c u s s i oonf n o n -w o rl re
( l a te dmattersi s prohi bi ted.

CASE STUDY4
COMPANY STRUCTURE

Against
o Most people don't have interestir-rg
tl-ringsto say- rnostblogsare not
very good.
r Most peopleare not very good at
expressir-rg
their ideasclearlyin
writir-rg.
r Peoplewitl'rsornethingto saydor-r't
usuallyhavetime to write and
peoplewith tl-retirne have notl-ring
to say.
r { blog is easyto startbut difficult
and tin-re-consurning
to n-rair-rtair-r.
A blog whicl-ris not updatedgivesa
verybaclimpression.
r It isr-r'talw:rysa good idea to let
peopleto saywhat they tl'rink- it
can createan irnageof confusion
and conflictingmessages.
Cornpaniesare not clenocracies!

SffiE.COMMERCE
for
Wher-ryou buy sornethir-rg
yourselfwith yor-rrown rnoney,
you're interesteclin quality :rr-rd
pri ce.
Wl-renyou buy sorlething for
someoneelsewith your own
money,you'reinterestedin price.
When you btry son'rethingfor
else'smoney,
yourselfwith sor-neone
you're interestedin quality.
Wl-renyou buy somethingfor
solrleoneelsewith solneoneelse's
noney, who cares!

ADDITIONA'
'O"*':L

X8 E.COMMERCE

itjriir,i?,$j,t1;3,9x,rjs:sff
:ri
Sorre expertsdid trot either lgree or disagree.In some casesthey did not answerand in othersthey gavea different answer.
Agree

At leastone devastating
attackwill collapse
the Internetin the next10 years.

660/o

Manufacturers
will usecomputingdevices
in appliances,
As a result,therewill be more
cars,phonesand evenclothes.
government
and business
surveillance.
Theauthorities
will arrestmorepeopleusingthisevidence.

59%

15Yo

ln ten years,moststudents
will spendat leastpartof their"schooldays"in virtualclasses.

57%

18o/o

Tele-work
and home-schooling
will grow and the barriers
betweenwork and leisure
will be lessclear.Everyday
family
lifewill changeasa result.

56%

17o/o

TheInternetwill makepeoplemorecreative.
with othersto makemoremusic,art,and literature.
Theywill collaborate
Theirwork will circulated
freelyonlineandwill commandthe attentionof a wide public.

54o/o

All media,including
audio,video,print,andvoice.will streamin and out of the homeor officeviathe Internet.
Computers
that controlvideogames,audio,andvideowill becomethe centreof the livingroom.Theywill linkto
networkeddevices
aroundthe house,replacing
s centralplacein the home.
the television

53%

19o/o

Internetuserswill continueto easilycopyand distribute


peer-to-peer
freelythroughanonymous
digitalproducts
networks.lt won't be possible
to stopthis.*

52%

20o/o

Thenumberof dangerous
fanaticsin politics,
in religionand in groupswhichbelievein usingviolence
will increase
as
theirnetworksgrow online.

50%

23%

Onlinemedicalresources
problems
will helpsolvehealthcare
suchas risingcosts,poorcustomer
service
and lackof
access
to medicalcare.

4\o/o

22%

T h e s i z e opf e o p l e s s o c ni aelt w o r k s w g
i l rl o w . P e o p l e w ihl la v e a m u c h w i d e r r a n g ei no f o r m a t i o n a b o u t j o b
opportunities,!ersonal
services,
commoninterests,
and products.

42%

29o/o

People
will votein elections
Morepeoplewill participate
onlinewithoutproblems
of security.
in elections
asa result.

39%

30%

HOTELS

city

chain

Amsterdam

price city

chain

408

CrownePlaza

10(

329

BestWestern

| /6

1BB

330

CrownePlaza

Accorhotels

qaA

New-york HiltonInternational457

1q7

CrownePlaza

268

t>t

BestWestern

260
420

394

HiltonInternational? q 7

381
rafls

Accorhotels

260

361

BestWestern

l+6

254

ADDTT.NAL
MATERTAL

'

1To/o

Doesworking at home really work?

476

238 , London

494 :

Geneva

price

Accorhotels

Frankf
urt

11o/o

H.WORK

Hiltonlnternational2 7 2

Disagree
'

Advantages Disadvantages
Theworkplace

11

Theworkingday

t7

Commuting

Technology

ll

Efficiency

Costs

lo
g
,
t5

Motivation

t0

1
b
t+

Family

4
I

CORRESPONDENCE

AIR TRAVEL

\cross
Down
1 clelivery
2 irrirnccliate
11'
6 prolnpt
3 expetrsive
B infonnal
4 s i g n a tu l e
9 h:urclrvriting
5 clctails
10 farx
7 c o u ri e r
l3 busincss
11 apologise
I5 cor r c s ponc lenc e1 2 re p l v
1 9 cliec k
1 4 In tc rn c t
ZI clec is ion
16 worriecl
22 lressage
17 phoning
24 arrnoyecl
1 B n ri s ta k e
28 u'elconre
20 that
29 clor,r,n
23 skills
30 confirn'r
2 5 o rc l e r
26 scncl
27 cost

S P I R I TO F E N T E R P R I S E

SpeakerB: Seller
Ncgotiateu,ith r,ottrpartncrto get the bestclcalpossible.
Yru gct pointsfor
ef the deal- 1>ricc,
eaclrcartegorlr
cpraptih,,
cleliveryti1re,alcl so o1. F-or
if 1'o11
zlgrceotl:r price of 6 ctrros,1''tt get 2 poittts,or 3 pointsif
cxetnrple,
the price is 6.5.Add I'ottrpointsfor eachcatcgorvto get rrottrscorc.To be a
negoti:rtor
succcssfitl
1'olrhetvcto get at le:lstten points.
Points

Price ,

5.5

6.5

Quantrty

100

150

200

un|tS

Defivery

WEEKS

Pavment

90

60

30

d:rr<

Guarantee

18

12

months

Llseftrllanguage
Let'stalk abotrt(price)
'l'l'rat's
n'rybestoffer.
Oka\,,I c:ltr go u,ith that.
It's a cle:rl!

T h e I n d i t e xg r o u pc o n s i s t so f a l m o s ta

WORKINGLUNCH

h u n d r e dc o m p a n i e ds e a l i n gw i t h t e x t i l e
d e s i g np, r o d u c t i o na n d d i s t r i b u t i o nI.t s
u n i q u em a n a g e m e nt e
t c h n i q u easn d i t s
(a) haveturned Inditex into one
successes
o f t h e w o r l d ' sl a r g e s tf a s h i o ng r o u p s .
The first Zara shop(b) openedin 1975
i n A C o r u f r ai n n o r t h e r nS p a i n .O v e rt h e
yearsthe group (c) has addedother chains
to the originalZara, eachcoveringa
differentmarketsector.In 1991 the group
( d ) c r e a t e dP u l l & B e a r a
, nd in 1995
( e ) a c q u i r e df O O y "o f M a s s i m oD u t t i .
Bershka(f) started its activity in 1998,
f o l l o w e db y t h e a c q u i s i t i o n
of Stradivarius
i n 1 9 9 9 . T w oy e a r sl a t e r I n d i t e x
( g ) l a u n c h e d0 y s h o a
, c h a i ns p e c i a l i s eidn
fashionablelingerieand underwear.
In the last four yearsthe numberof
s h o p si n t h e g r o u p( h ) h a sr e a c h e da
figure of overa three thousand,and the
group now has operationsin 64 countries

A b u s i n e slsu n c hi s p a r t m e a l ,p a r t m e e t i n gI.t ' s i n f o r m a l b


, u t a t t h e s a m et i m e
t h e r e ' sa l o n g l i s t o f u n w r i t t e nr u l e st h a t c a n ' t b e b r o k e n A
. c c o r d i n gt o a p o l l
c o n d u c t e db y t h e C r e a t i v eG r o u p a
, n advertising
a n d m a r k e t i n gf i r m i n M e n l o
P a r l <C, a l i f . ,b e i n gr u d et o a r e s t a u r a net m p l o y e ei s t h e N o . 1 r e a s o na b u s i n e s s
l u n c hg o e sb a d .W h a t a r e o t h e r r e a s o n s ?
. A r r i v i n gl a t e .
'

B a dt a b l e m a n n e r s .

D r e s s i n tgo o c a s u a l l y .

B u t w h a t e l s ec a n g o w r o n ga n d h o w d o y o u l < e e p
i t f r o m h a p p e n i n gH
? ere's
ua
x s ' t h a ta r e e a s i l y
a l o o k a t s o m eo t h e rc o m m o nb u s i n e s s - l u n c h ' f a p
preventabl
e:
. Choosing
. o r e x a m p l ei:n v i t i n ga p r o s p e c t i vcel i e n t
t h e w r o n g r e s t a u r a n tF
.

one whereyou don't haveto shoutbut you havesomeprivacy.


.

S a y i n gt h e w r o n gt h i n g .A t a n A m e r i c a nb u s i n e slsu n c h ,i t ' s c o n s i d e r e d
inappropriateto get down to businessbeforethe waiter has handedyou the
m e n u .I n o t h e rc o u n t r i e sy,o u d o n ' t t a l k b u s i n e sus n t i l t h e f i r s t g l a s so f w i n e
h a sb e e np o u r e da n d t h e h o s t o f f e r sa t o a s t .E l s e w h e r eo,r d e r i n gw i n e i s

by 25Y".
D e s p i t ei t s s i z e t, h e g r o u ps t i l l c o n t r o l s
A r t e i x o ,a v i l l a g ei n t h e n o r t h w e s t o f
S p a i n ,b u t i n 2 0 0 3 i t ( j ) f i n i s h e dw o r l <o n
' P l a t a f o r ma E u r a p a ' a n e wd i s t r i b u t i o n
,
centrein Zaragoza.

w h o i s a l l e r g i ct o s h e l l f i s h
t o a s e a f o o dr e s t a u r a n t .
of
S i t t i n ga t t h e w r o n gt a b l e .W h a t i f y o u c a n ' t d i s c u s tsh e d e a l b e c a u s e
all the noise?0r the quiet restaurantwhereyou haveto whisperfor fear of
is
beingoverheardby the peopleat the nexttable?The idealestablishment

w o r l d w i d eI.n t h e s a m ep e r i o ds, a l e s
(i) have increasedby 22"h and net profits

its activitiesfrom a logisticalcentrein

I can'tgo :ur)'higher/lou,er
I can't clothat.
Can votr help rne on this?

c o n s i d e r eidn a p p r o p r i a t e .
.

Endingit the wrong way. A verbal"thanl<you" is alwaysappropriate(even


i f i t d i d n ' t g o a s y o u p l a n n e d ) . l fp o s s i b l es,e n da t h a n k - y o un o t e ( w h i c h
i s a l s oa n o t h e ro p p o r t u n i t yt o s e n dy o u r b u s i n e scsa r d ) ,n o t i n gw h a t y o u
s p e c i f i c a l llyi l < e da b o u tt h e m e a la n d ,p o s s i b l yr ,e c a p p i n tgh e c o n v e r s a t i o n .
Sourcew
: w w . el i o t t . o r g

^DDrrroru^r
v^rExrH,E

a"?
{:-e%ffi.%-Y-L$ff3Y
f,#$wp&ruv $TffiL$ffgqjffiffi

Advantages

Disadvantages

Functional

- eachdepartment
focuseson its own work
Specialisation
- someoneis responsible
for the section'
Accountabrlity
theirsand others'roles
understand
Clarity* employees

couldleadto lackof focus.


Closedcommunication
to change.
canbecomeresistant
Departments
C o o r d i n a t i ocna nb e d i f f i c u lat n dm a yt a k et o o l o n g
Gaobetweentop and bottom.

By Product/
Activity

needs.
Clearfocuson marketsegmenthelpsmeetcustomers'
betweendivisions.
competition
Positive
profrt
canact asseparate
Bettercontrolaseachdivrsion
centre.

of functions(e.g differentsalesforcefor each


Duplrcation
division).
Negativeeffectsof comPetition.
division.
Lackof centralcontrolovereachseparate

By
Geographical
Area

Servelocalneedsbetter.
competttton.
Positive
betweenfirm and local
communication
Moreeffective
customers.

Conflictbetweenlocaland centralmanagement.
andfunctionse.g.a differentsales
of resources
Duplication
forcefor eachproduct.

By Project

C a nm a k eo r g a n i s a t i o nbaolu n d a r i el es s sc l e a r .
way of
or cross-functronal
a multi-disciplinary
Facilitates
mayreportto
asemployees
linesof accountability
Confuses
worktng.
managers.
different
several
hierarchy.
Canflattena business'
to itscoreactivities
according
is organised
a business
Ensures
skills.
Makesbetteruseof employees'

HOTELS

Largest
Tallest
Most expensive room
Highest
Most northern
Most southern
Oldest

M G MG r a n d
RoseTower
MGMGrand
LhasaHotel
Ny-Alesund
Ushuaia
HoshiRyokan

LasVegas
UUDAI

LasVegas
Lhasa
Norway
Svalbard,
Argentina
Ushuaia,
Awazu.Japan.

6,276rooms
72 floors
$5,000room/night
12087feet abovesealevel
11 " 5 6 ' , E
78"55',N
54"48'S68"18'W
l t o p e n e di n 7 1 7.

WOMIIN AT WORK
SpeakerB
I 5.
Yotrr parhrerliersthe rttissingi;rfor1ratio1. Colrpletc the chart bt' asking cluestionslike tlie ones iti ercrcise 2 on page
Name

Janice

Jobtitle

Manager
Production

lypeoi company

softwarecompanY

W o r k i n gh o u r s

40-50hoursbut can be up to 75
Normally

Responsibilities

offices.
with international
Managingwebsite.Liaising

evening work
Weekend/Late

Not in her presentPosition.

Most enjoys

to the
that makesa realdifference
Doingsomething
company.

Iravet

tripsto otheroffices.
Occasional

Holidays

3 weeks

arewomenbut onlytwo have


Ratioof womento men in position/field Halfthe department
t e c h n i c as lk i l l s .

A D D I T I O N AM
L ATERIAL

Delia

$J INTRODUCTIONS
.$ r"m'x

lil

A: Okay everybocly,can we make a start?


First of all, allow me to welcome you all
to Ashbourne Managernent College. My
name is Mariah Wilson and I am the
main tntor for our'Performance'fhrough
People' corlrse.It's alwaysuseful to know
son'rethingabout the backgrounclof the
other participantsso we normally begin by
asking you to introduce yourself to tl-rerest
of the grolrp. Perhaps we could start witl-r
you, Jan?
B: Yes, hello. My narne is fan Werner. I work
for Metronet Fibre. Our main business
is fibre optics. We install urban fibreoptic networks for telecornnunication
systernsall over the world. I'm director of
communications ir-rthe HR denartnerrr.
I'rn Norwegian but I live and work in
the Czech Republic. Our head office
is in Prague. That's where I'm based.
At the mornent, thougl-r, I an-rspending
a lot of tin'revisiting our other offices
in Europe. I organiseand run different
management training coursesfor our
senior management.
A: Tl-rankyou fan. Silvia?
C: Well,l'n-r SilviaFortuni. I'm Catalan
ancl I'm from Barcelona. I work for a big
retail chain witl'r franchisesall over the
world. We manufacture and sell clotl'res
and fasl'rionaccessoriesbut of course, rrry
role is related to oersonnel. I work out
of our I'readqr-rartlrs
in Barcelona and I
am director of staff training responsible
for recmitn'rent and training ir-rtl-re
European area. I have to say I love ny job
ancl I welcome the opportunity to learn
sometl'ringmore about performance and
motivation. I think that's it. If you want to
know anytl'ringmore, yoll can ask me.
D: My turn? Hi everybody.My name is |eanChristophe Marchal but most people just
call r-r-re
fC. I'm here becauseI have a new
job in the HR clepartn-rentof Acl,ralux.
I'rn mainly involveclwith staff training.
As I say, it's a new job for me but I I'rave
five years'experienceworking in the HR
field. You probably think fron'r rny accent
that I'm Frencl'r.Actually, I'rn Belgian
but I'm based in Paris wl'rerewe have our
main office. Aqualux is a utilities company
and our n-rainactivity is the supply ancl
treatment of water and waste.
A: Tl'rank you fC. Now, Elena, I think it's
yollr tllrn .....

.$ r"ma
Hello and welcome to BusinessThlk. If you've
ever had a meal in an Indian restaurantin
the UK, you've probably sarnpledthe subject
of this week's programme.'l'his rnonth we
are looking at the retail food trade ancl today
we examine the arnazing sllccessof one of
the fastest-growingbeer brar-rdsin the UK.
Cobra exportsto rrore than 45 countries
worldwide, and now with subsidiariesin India,

Soutl-rAfrica and the US, it is becomir-rga


mainstrearn,global beer brar-rcl.
Later on we
talk to the founder and managing director,
Karan Bilirnoria, but first, here's a quick
profile of the con-rpany.
Back in 1989 an nnknown Cambriclge
gracluatewith previous businessexperience set
up Cobra Beer to fill a very specific gap in the
narket. Karan Bilimoria noticed how normal
beers left eatersof curry feeling very full ancl
bloated, so he had the idea of a lighter, less
gassybeer. Tl'ris is its USP or unique selling
point but I'risain'rwas to brew the best Indian
beer possibleand to make it a global brand.
He startedby importing I'risbeer frorr h-rdia,
but nowadaysCobra is brewed ir-rtl'reUK,
Polar-rd,Belgir,rrr-r,
tl-reNetl-rerlandsand India.
Cobra Beer usesonly natural ingredients
bnt retains a prernium strength of 5%. As an
indication of its cluality,Cobra Beer won 6
Grand Cold Medals and 14 Gold Medals at
the 2007 Monde Selection beer awardsil
Brr:ssels,
Cobra Beer has a turnover of L75 milliorr
a year and supplies over 6,000 restaurants
ancl most major supermarketsand retail
drink cl'rainsin tl'reUK. It is also available in
nearly 6,000 pubs ancl clubs. The cornpany is
expanding rapidly witl'r a growth rate of 42% in
tl'relast ten years.
The company headquarters are in
Fulham, in southwest London br-rtit now
l'rassr-rbsidiariesin h'rdia, Sor-rthAfrica and tl're
US. As a current developrnent it is extending
ooerations to meet the demancl for Cobra
in the European and worlclwide n'rarket,but
Karan saysthat innovation is still tl're key to
His busir.ress
the Cobra pl-rilosopl-ry.
principles
from the outset are very straightforward. They
are: the product corres first; be different and
better; never ask for exclusivity;treat suppliers
and customerswith the sarnerespect:
naintain an informal vet rrofessional office
atmosphere.

$X WOMAN AT WORK
$ "t.mx
A: Wl'rat's tl-rat?
B: Ol'r, it's a blog by a worr-ranwho's a top
manager in a big telecom company.
A: Wl'rat does she say?
B: It's abor-rtl-rerdaily routine. I wonder I'row
she can survive on five hours' sleep.
A: It's probably not true. People can invent
anything they like in blogs. What do you
think about people blogging?
B: It depends what you rnean by blog.
A: Well I'd say tl-ratn-rostpeople who are
normal don't have nuch to say that's of any
i r r t e r e st o a n y o n e e l s e .
B: Yes, you're probably right, but it depencls
on tl'retype of blog. Technical blogs can be
cuite usefr-rl.
A: What do you mean?
B: You have some problen'r with tl-re
cor-nputer,do a search on Google and fir'rd
the solution in some techie's blog.
A: Okay, br,rtthat's an example of a blog

Phrasesin bold are frorn the PhraseBanks in the Languagel,inks

which has useftrl infomation on a verv


specific subject. Most blogs are just
p c o p l e ' so p i n i o n s .
B : Well, that's democratrc.
A: ['m not sure about that. ]']re inforrnatior
miglrt just be nrbbish.
B : Aren't you beir-rga bit negative?For
example, from a business point of view
tl'reycan be very useful.
A: Our company blog for exan-rple?
B : Yes, it's a good way for us to share
inforrlation and ideas.
You mean complair-rabout things and
gossip.It's a good theory but in practice
it cloesn'twork. In any case,you can't say
what you really think becauseyou might
get into trouble.
B : Maybe, but look at Sallv McDermott's
blog. It rnakesher company look rnore
hunan. It's good public relations.
A: Do you really think it nakes an1,
difference?Who's going to read it anyrvay?
B : Lots of people. Me, for a start.
t s
"ffis.
*l

A: H i E d d i e . H o w a r e y o u ?
B : Oh hello Jennie. I'rr fine. Ancl you?
A: Fir-rethanks. How's Fiona?
B : Oh, she'sokay. She'sgot a new job.
A: Really, that's goocl.
B : Well, yes, I strpposeso br-rtI'm worriecl
she'sworking too l-rard.

A: Ol-r dear. Does it involve long l-ronrs?


B : Officially 40 hours but sl'reoften u'orks
late. We don't see her at horne much.
A : What's sl'redoing?
B : It's the salne colnpany - you knou'
- eclucational sofhvare, but she's nor,r,
regional n-rarketingmanager for Westen-r
Europe.
A: Sor,rndsirnpressive.What does it involve?
B : Apart from being in charge of the sales
reps she'salso ir-rvolvedir-rnew product
developr-nentand the whole rnarketing
strategy of the con'rpany.
Does it mean a lot of travelling?
It seens to. At least a couple of trips a
n-ronth.
I see.
I don't n'rind tl'rat.It's the weekends that
c a u s ep r o b l e m s .
Does sl-rehave to work weekends?
Not every weekend but we can never rrake
Dlalls.

A: Oh dear. How rnuch holiclay does she get?


B : It's r-rotbad. Tl'rree weeks a year. But that's
a long way off.

A: Yon're being a bit r-regative.Does she


enjoy it?

B : It's hard work but

I think she eniovs tl're


challenge.
A: But you're not very happy.
B : I'm happy for her. The money's good
and it's great for her career but there is a
downside.
A: Well, it's alwaysdifficult at the beginning.
Anyway, give her rny regards.Wl'ry don't
we go for a drir-rksornetime?
B : Okay, I will and yes, I'd like that.

LrsrENrNG
scRrPrs
L

03 TELEPHONE TALK
$ r.os
A A: Yes?
B: Can I speakto DerekLaMotteplease?
A: Who?
B: DerekLaMotte.Is that ILM?
A: What number did you want?
B: 0837 621882.
A: No, I'm afraidyou've got the wrong
number.

.$ r.oe
from 901586759at
B You haveone message
'Hi,
it'sDavehere....
18.30on April l. ....

$ r.or
C C: This is the BetaGuidedirectoryservice.
Which city?
Donna speaking.
D: I'm in Portsmouth.Can you give me
the number of BudgetCar rental
please?
C: fust one moment.I havethree
numbers.
D: Oh. I needto call them to reporta
+
breakdown.
C: Okay.It mustbe this one.
D: I think the number...
E: The numberyou requireis 0453
678234.The numberyou requireis
0453 678234.

$ r.oa
D F: UKN Sptems.fanetspeaking.
G: Morning. My name'sPeterBland from
PressicSA. I arrangedto meet Derek
LaMotte atE factoryout here on the
Houghton IndustrialEstatebut I can't
find it. Could you giveme his mobile
numbersoI can askhim whereit is?
F: Err, yes.fust one moment.
G: It's probablyjust aroundthe corner.
F: It's 07663493782.
G: I'm sorry.Could you saythat againa bit
slower?
F: 07663493782.
G: Right. Got it. Thanks.
F: Bye.
G: Yeah.Goodbye.

@ r.os
E Remember,you havethe chanceto win
I'll
I1000.Ringnow on 0902386980.
repeatthat for you. If you know the answer,
phoneus now on 0902186980.

$ r.ro
A: InterAir, can I help you?
B: Yes,please.I'd like someinformationabout
a flight arrivingfrom Munich.
A: Yes.Do you know what the flight number
is?
B: The flight number?I'm not sure.I know it
leavesMunich at 1770.
A: Oh, yes,that's1A345.
B: Yes,that'sit. Could you tell me what time
it getsin?
A: Yes,the arrivaltime is 1910.
B: 1910.Do you know if there'sany delay?
A: No, the flight is on time.
B: Right, thank you verymuch.

LrsrENrNG
scRtPrs
E

A: You'rewelcome.Goodbye.

B : Yes,that would be perfect.Could I iust

.@r.rr

readmy notesback?
A: Yes,go ahead.
B : You wantquotesfor print runsof 10,000,
20,000and J0,000of an A5 1O0-page
manualin blackand white.The cover
the
is in colourand you'll be presenting
materialon CD.
A: That'srigl'rt.
B : Would you like me to visit you with some
samples?
A: Yes,okay.
B : Would tomorrowmorning suit you?
A: No, I'm out of the office tomorrow.How
about Friday?About ten o'clock?
Friday...the l6th ... at ten.That'sfine. I'll
bring the estimateswith me and we can
the detailsthen.
discuss
Fine.
Oh, couldyou giveme the address?
Yes,it's 14,ClaphamRoad,London SWl4.
And your telephonenumber?
0207 8394216.
02078394216.Right. Oh, do you have
e-mail?
com.
Yes,it'sclarkson.bellstone@lineone.
Can I just checkthat?clarkson,dot,
bellstoneat lineone,dot,com.
A: Okay,then, Mr White. Seeyou on Friday.
B : Yes.Goodbye,then.
A: Goodbye.

A A: Can I haveextension305, please?


B: I'm afraidthe line is engaged.Will you
hold?

@ r.r:
B A: Could I justcheckthat?You need50
unitsby Friday,and Mr fohanssoncan
contactyou on 943 694726.
B: Yes,that'scorrect.
A: Right,Mr Srnith.I'll givehim the
assoonashe'sfree.
message

.@r.rr
C A: ... and it reallyisn'tgoodenough.
B: Yes,Mr Wright. I understandwhat
you'resayingand I apologisefor the
error.As soonasMr Downs is back I'lI
askhim to get in contactwith you. I'm
reallysorryaboutthis.
A: Right, thank you. I realiseit's not your
faqlt.

@ r.ra
D A: Could I havethe SalesDepartment,
please?
B: One moment,please.fustputtingyou
through now.

,@r.rs
E A: ShonaghClark speaking.
B: Hello, I'm phoning about your letter
of lZth fune.

@ r.re
F A: This is JorgenBodehere.Could I
speakto fean Simmons,please?
B: Oh, I'm sorry,Mr Bode,but Ms
Simmonsisn't in the office right now.
Can I askher to call you back?Or I can
contacther on her mobileif it'surgent.

04 ASKING QUESTIONS
@ r.rs

ConversationI
A: Hello, do you mind if I join you?
B: Er, no, not at all.
A: How do you do?My name'sRick Van
Looy.
to meetyou. I'm Florent
B: Hi. Pleased
Rondele.
@ r.rr
A: Hello, could I speakto Mr White, please? A: Are you from aroundhere,then?
B: No, but my companyhasa storein town'
How can I help you?
B: Speaking.
Actually,Ilive in France.
A: Hello, Mr White. My nameis Clarkson,
A: So,whatdo you do, Florent?
from Bellstone& Smith, the elevator
B: I'm in marketing.I work for a retail
manufacturers.
company.We deal mainly in leisuregoods.
you.
heard
of
I've
B : Yes, I think
A: Do you mean sportsequipment?
A: I'm in charge of the customer support
B: Well, both sportsand casualwear.Clothes,
department. I'm phoning to ask for an
stufflike that. We have
shoes,accessories,
estimate. It's for a service manual we're
in
countries.
stores
several
preparing.
A: Soundslike a big operation.How many
B: Oh, yes.I don't think we'vedoneanything
storeshaveyou got?
for you before.
B: Nearly fifty in total.And what line of
A: No, that'sright. We're in the processof
areyou in, Rick?
business
updatingall our manuals.If the price is
A: Well, quite similar really.I'm a sales
right, it will mean quite a lot of work.
managerfor a largeDutch clothing firm,
B: I see.Well, could you giveme the details,
Fashion- do you know it?
Verweij
then?
A: Yes,it's for a manualof just over 100Pages. B: Yes,of course.Are you openinga store
here,then?
B: 100pages.Could you tell me what size?
A: Yes,we'relooking at possiblesitesat the
A: It's in 45. We wantto print 20,000.But
moment.
for 10.000and 30,000as
I'd like estimates
Rick,do
B: Hm. That can be a slowprocess.
well.
you fancysomethingto drink?
B: I see.Is it in colottr?
A: Erm, yeah,thanks.
A: No, it's in black and white. Mainly text.
B: Come on, then.There'sa tablefreeover
The coveris in colour,though.I can put it
there.
all
right?
Is
that
all on a CD for you.

,$ r.r*
Conversation 2
A: Excuse me, does this belong to you?
B: Oh, tl'rankyou very much.
A: It wason the floor.
B: Yes, I was looking for it just r-row.I wanted
to finish this crossword.I'm feeline a bit

groggy,actually.
Yes,it's a long flight.
Isn't it? Haveyou got the tir-r-re?
Yes,it's... erm ... justaftermidnigl'rt.
So,do we land soon?
Yes,in abouthalf an I'rour.
Oh, good.Do you know Bangkok?
Yes,I live tl'rere.Is this your first trip there?
Yes,it is actually.
On business,
I suppose?
Yes,I'rn visitinga supplier.
Oh, really?I wonderif I ...
't.?o

B:

A:
B:
A:

Do you knowfan Nowacki?


Yes,isn'the Directorof Business
Developmentat Gr-rinness?
Not any longer.Now he'stl'rePublic
+
RelationsManagerat the NationalBankof
Poland.
The NationalBankof Poland,that's
interesting.
Do you haveany contactwith
him in your work?
Not really,but I occasionally
playgolf with
I'rim.
What'slre like?
He'sa nice cl-rap.
You'dlike him.

CASE STUDY:
INTERNETACCESS
$ r.'
We introduced our policy in 1997, when we
gave each employee accessto e-mail and the
Internet. It covered personal use, downloads,
the use of e-mail behveen colleaguesand what
would happen if guidelines were ignored.
We felt it was very important to have a policy
- if your employees don't know tl're rules, yotr
can't blame then'r for breakine tl'rern. The
policy is hvo pageslong and ii part of our
ernployee I'randbook. Each en-rployeesigns for
a copy during their induction and it is then
theirs to keep and refer to.
With the Internet, rather than ban personal
use we allow our employees to do what they
want, as long as they do it during a break.
We do allow personal e-mails, but not during
work time. The only thing completely banned
is internal, non work-related e-rnails. This
is becauseif an employee gets an external
messagethey could passit around internally
during their break to colleagueswho are still
working, and disrupt tl'rem.
We also won't tolerate anyone looking at
adult websitesand we ask employeesto be
careful with wl'rat they download. If you allow
your employees to accessthe h'rternet freely,
you have to protect your IT system against
viruses.
We have only had a problem once - one of
our key members of staff was sending personal

e-rnails back and forth to her boyfriend all


clay.Wl'ren we did take action, it not only
got her focused on her job once again, but
also showed tl're rest of our staff that we
would enforce our policy - even againsta key
en-rployee.

05 COMPANY HISTORIES
.$ r"ea
Nintendo is one of the best-known brands
in tl'reworld and the leader in interactive
vicleo entertainment - a rnulti-billion dollar
industry. The company has a hisiory wl-rich
datesback to the nineteenth century. In I889
Fusajiro Yamauchi founded a small company
to manufacture playing cards. The cornpany
continued this activity over the years ancl in
1953 it manufactured the first mass-oroduced
p l a s t i cp l a y i n g c a r d si n f a p a n .
In 1963 the company changed its name to
Nintendo Co. Ltd. and startedto manufacture
games as well as playir-rgcards.A couple of
yearslater in 1965, company bossHirosl'ri
Yamauchi I'rireda young engineer, Gunpei
Yokoi. Gunpei was later the engineer behind
many of the company's nost successful
products.
In 1975 Nirtendo formed a partnership
with Mitsubishi Electric to take advar.rtageof
their n'ricro-processortechnology. Tl'rrough or-rt
the 70s Nintendo was the leader in video
games for public arcades,but in 1983 it
developed the NES, the first console for
use at home. In another clever move. thev
negotiated deals with third-party cornpanies to
produce new garnes.This was easierand faster
than producing the games themselves.
In 1989Nintendo launched Game Boy
- tl're first console you could carry around ilr
your pocket. The package included Tetris one of the most addictive games of all time. In
1990 Nintendo salesrepresented l0% of the
trade deficit between Japan and the USA.
However, there were problems ahead and
in I994, Sony releasedthe Playstation.The
Playstationworked as a CD player as well as
a console and was a huge success.Nintendo
faced a major new competitor and as a result,
its salessuffered badly.
In 2001 Nintendo launched a new
console, the GameCube. Saleswere poor but
at the same time in the USA, their'GameBoy
Advanced' dominated tl-reI'randheld
market. With tl're disappointing salesof tl're
GarneCube and the successof GameBoy
Advanced, Nintendo decided to concentrate
on tl're portable market. ln 2004 they released
a new handheld console - the Nintendo DS
(Dual Screen). The DS was popular but again
had to compete against Sor-ryand its new
handheld, the PSP.
So, in 2006, things looked bad for .
Niniendo but once again, a brilliant
innovation saved them frorn disaster- thb
'Wii'.
'wand'
Its most brilliant feature is a
which allows players to physically rnove while
they play a game on screen - a completely new
concept becausethere are no cornplicated

controls and anyone can play with it. With


a clever advertisingcampaign in a very sl'rort
tin're it acl.rievedhigher levels of salesthan all
its competitors.

$ r"a:
How old is the Internet? It's difficult to fix
a single date for the birth of any complex
technology. In tl-recaseof the Internet, people
suggestdifferent dates.Ii depends on what
tl'rey understand the h-rternetto be.
We know that in 1965, the Aclvanced
ResearchProjectsAgency (ARPA) ur-rderthe
US Department of Defence began work on a
systernto connect computers. Tl'rey called the
project ARPANET.
On SepternberZnd, 1969, in a laboratorl,
at tl-reUniversity of California, Professor
Leonard Kleinrock connected the first two
machines. At its sinplest level, the Internet
connects computers so for many people that
day the Internet was born. The r-rextmonth
they sent the first messageto a cornputer at
Stanford University. The rnessagewas'lo'.
They wanted to send the words'1og in'but
'g'the
wl'ren they typ"d
systemcrasl-red.So
appropriately, this first word was a phonetic
'hello'.
version of
By fanuary 1970 ARPANET connected
computers in four American universities,and
by the following year tl'rere were 23 in the
system,connecting different universitiesancl
researchinstitutes.ln 1973 Ray'lor-nlinson
sent tl're first e-mail via ARPANET. In the
sane year tl'reNet went internatioral,
connecting computers in England and
Norway.
The ARPANET was a single network,
but tl-renext step was to connect different
'internehvork'.
neh.rrorksar-rdto create an
In
1974 Bob Kahn and Vincent Cerf invented a
software tl'rat allowed nehvorks using different
operating systemsto connect to each other.
The sofhvare, called TCP/IP, became tl're
universal language of the Internet on fanuary
1st, i983. Many expertsargue that tl'risevent
was the real birth of the Internet becauseit
made it possibleto link different nehvorks ilt
one web.
More and rnore nehvorks joined the systenr
and the number of connecteclcomputers
increaseddramatically: frorn 10,000 in I984
t o 1 0 0 , 0 0 0i n 1 9 8 7 .B y t h e e a r l y 1 9 9 0 st h e
World Wide Web was the n'rostpopular
way of browsir-rgthe web, and the network
was accessibleto anyone in the world witl'r
a computer. ln 1992 the number of I'rosts
ieached 1,000,000.
In I993 two progranrners, Marc
Andreessenand Eric Bina,launched the first
version of Mosaic. This was the first graphicsbased browser of the type we all use today
and rnade possible wl'rat many people r-row
understand as the Internet - an easymeans to
browse websites,get inforrnation and spread
news.

LrsrENrNG
scRrPrs
q

S6 CORRESPONDENCE
$ r.a*
A: |FA Fabrics, can I help you?
B: Yes, I'm phoning frorn Natural Furnishirrgs
in Chelsea. Could I speak to Peter
S i m p s o n ,p l e a s e ?
A: I'm afraicl he's out of the office right r-row.
B:
A:
B:

A:

B:

Can I I'relpyou?
Well, I ser-rthim a text messageancl he
hasn't replied. It's really quite urgent.
Can you tell me what it's about?
It's a bit con'rplicatedto explain. I need a
copy of a certificate for crtstoms. Maybe he
didn'i get n'rymessage.Can I iust cl'reckhis
r.nobile - 07 6367 46784?
H a r r g o n . Y e s ,t h a t ' st h e r i g h t n r r m b e r .
Listen, why don't you send tl'redetails to
n-reby e-rnail and I'll send yott a copy of
the certificate as an attacl'red PDF.
Yes, that's a good idea. What's your e-mail

A:
B:
A:
B:

A:
B:
A:

address?
|im, dot. Tl'rat's Jl-M, dot, J-F-A, at
lineone. dot. net. Lineone is all one word.
*
Can I just check that? |im, clot,)FA, at
lineone, dot, net.
Yes. that's right.
Don't worry. I'll deal with the e-n'rail
straight away. By the way, rny natne's
Cathy, Cathy Slater.You nust be |im.
Yes,|irn Kutz. Don't worry about the
certificate.You'lI have it by this afternoon.
Okay, thanks%r yorrr help.
You're welcor-t're.Bye.

,S t'as
A: Have we got a decision from f in-rabout the
Mason contract?
B: No, don't worry, I'11ring hirn about it tl'ris
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:

afternoon.
I tried - there's no answer.
Well, I'll send him an e-n-rail,then.
You can't - our Intranet is down.
Never n-rind - I'll ser-rdhirn a fax.
I don't think they have one.
Well, in that case,I'll write him a letter

before I leave the office.


A: Oh, come on, that will take far too long.
B: So, we'll fly ottt to see him!
A : O h , t h a t ' sa b i t e x p e n s i v e . . .

.$'r.ae
A: S-A-G, can I help you?
B: Yes,could I speakto fohn Bird?
A: I'n afraidhe'snot in the officeright now.
Canltakeamessage?
B: Ol'rdear!It'san urgentorder- we need
five hydraulicpumpsl:y 27 Jtrne.
A: )usta minute.Could you tell ne your
natr.te,please?
B: Yes,I'm sorry.It'sElenaMoretti from Stern
Hydraulicsin Switzerland.
A: Rigl'ri,I'll take down the detailsarrdget
fohn to contactyou. Did yotl sayfive units?
B: Yes,the referenceis SG 94371.
A: SG 94321- five r-rnits.
B: Yes,that'srigl'rt.But the importantthing is
the deliverydate- 22ltne.
A: I clon'tthink that will be a problern.
B: Good,it'sfor a new cttstomer.

scRrPrs
LrsrENrNG
E

A: I see. Right, when fohn cones in, I'll tell


Could you confirm the
him it-t'rmediately.
order by e-mail?
B: Yes, of course. Tl-ranksvery much.
A: You're welcome. Goodbye.
B: Gooclbye.

$ t.:r
A: Could I speakto ElenaMoretti,please?
Is tl'rat|ohn?
B: Speaking.
A: Yes.Hello, Elena.I'm phoningbackabout
yorlr orcer.

B : Yes, it's quite urgent.


A: Don't worry. I've got all the details in

your

e-n-rail.No problen'r.

B : Tl'rat's good. I was rather worried about it.


A: Well, carr I help you wiih anything else?
B : No, but I hope we get nore businessfrom
this cnstomer.
A: Yes, of cottrse.Okay, I'11be ir-rtor-rch.Bye
IOr now.
B : Goodbye.

*r 1 " ? 8
A: S-A-G, can I I'relp you?
B : Yes, this is Eler-raMoretti from Stern
Hydraulics. Could I speakto Jol'rnBird,
please?
isn't here
A: Oh, I'rello,Elena. I'rn afraid Jol-rr-r
at the moment. Can I take a message?
B : Yes,he sent tne an order confirmation
- the reference is DHOl060l - but tl're
delivery date is wrong.

A: Oh, dear. Can you give me the details?


B : Yes,it saysJuly 7th, but the agreed delivery
date was fune 2Znd. It's really irnportant.
I see.Well, I'll tell him as soon as he
cornes in.
B : Thank you. I'm not at all happy about
this. A lot depends on tl'risorder.
A: Right, Elena, leave it with me. I'rn terribly

A:

sorry about tl-ris.


No, it's not yottr fault. fust ask fohn to
phone n-re.
A: A l l r i g h t , t h e r r .B y e f o r t t o w .
B : Gooclbye.

S7 HOTELS
$ r.eu
A: Hello. My connectingfligl'rt,1862l, was
delayedso I've missedthe flight to Caracas.
B: Yes,sir.I'm sorryaboutthat.You'rebooked
in on the next flight.
A: Right, but it's not until eleventonigl'rt,
right?

B : Yes. I'm afraid there's nothing before.


A: 'fhat's nearly eight hours to wait. Can you
recommend a I'rotel I could try?

B: You could try the TravelInn. It's not far


from tl'reterminal building.
to sleep.
A: Thanks.I reallyneedsomewhere
B : Would you like me to pl'ronefor yott, sir?
A: No, that'sokay.I needto stretchrny legs
very much.
anyway.Thar-rks

$'r.se
A: Good afternoon.
B: Good afternoon. Do you l-raveany roolns
available?

A: Yes sir. Is it jLrstfor tonight?


B : Yes.Well, actually I have a flight at eleven
this evening so I'll check out in a few
hours. I really need to get sorne sleep. Is
it possible to pay for a room by tl-rehour?
I rnean, do you have any reduced ratesor
sornething?
A: Err ... no sir. I'm afraid not. I have to
charge you for tl're whole night. I'm sorry,
but that's tl're hotel policy.
B: Well, never mind. I'11take it anyway.
A: Okay, could I see your passportplease?
And I'll need a credit card.
B: Yes, of course. Here you are.
A: Would you like anything else sent up to
your room?
B: Yes,please.I'd like a ham and egg sandwich
and a diet coke. Oh, I need to send some
e-rnails.Is tl'rereInternet accessavailable?
A: That's no problem. You can pick up the
hotel wi-fi in every room.
B: Right, thank you.
A: You're welcome. Have a good stay.

$ r.x'r
A: Roomservice.My name is Johan.Can I
I'relpyou?
B: Yes,this is roorn301.Could I I'ravean early
morningcall,please?
A: Certainly,sir.What time would you like
the call?
B: At half pastsix.
A: 6.30.No problem.Would you like
sentup to your room?
breakfast
B: No, thanks.I'll haveit in the dining roorr.
open for breakfast
A: Tl'redining room doest-t't
until 7.30.
B: Oh, ir-rthat caseI will haveit in rny room'
|r.rstcoffeeand a croissant.
Anythingelse?
A: Coffeeand a croissant.
all.
B: No, tl'rat's
A: Okay.Good night,sir.
B: Thank you. Good nigl'rt.

$8 DID I EVERTELLVOU ...?


.$ t.*a
A: Look at tl'rat car!
B: Yes,very nice. It's a Porsche9l l.
A: Did I ever tell you about the time I had a
ride in a Porsche?
B : No, I don't tl'rink so.
A: It was when I was a student. I was hitchhiking in Europe and a man in a Porsche
stopped. He took me all tl-reway across
Austria. We went about 220 kilometres an
hor-rrall the way.

B: What aboutthe police?


A: Well, theystoppedus aboutfour times,but
tl'rischapjustshowedsomeidentitycard
and theywavedus on.

B : Was he someone important, then?


A: I d o n ' t k n o w , I d i d n ' t a s k .I s u p p o s el t e
was sorrle sort of I'righ-ranking official. He
didn't talk rnuch, br-rthe did drive well.

$ r"nx
a Yes, that was a long time ago. It was while I
was living in ltaly. I I'radthis apartment in
the centre of Milan ...

I can rernember wl-rathappened. It was


before I started working here. I was
working on a ternporary basis...
No, it wasn't until rnuch later. It was after I
left university.I'd got my degree ...
Oh, yes, tl-ratreminds me. It was when I
was working at ICL. I was in the marketing
department...
I had more time in those days.It was
before I got married. In fact, I hadn't even
met Mary ...
The timing was awful. It was just after
my children were born. And there I was
without...
CJ
I'd just arrived in London. I was looking for
b
a job. I bought the paper every day ...
h Yes, I was still studying at the tin're. I was
doing my Masters in the States.At the
Harvard BusinessSchool, in fact ...
I was nineteen. I was studying at
Cambridge. Things weren't going very well
No, it was with a different set-up. I was
working for a small company north of here.
+
One day the bosswalked into ...
I was having a gap year after university. I
was travelling through Asia. I'd just arrived
i n S a i g o na n d . . .
It happened last March. I was staying at
the Continental Hotel in Prague. Lovely
hotel, I recommend it.

$ r.r+
a

We had a good time, but it did cost a


fortune!

He got the job, but he did haveto marry


the boss'sdaughter!
We got there in the end, br:t we did sit on a
bus all day.
I got a goodjob, but I did haveto leavethe
countryto find one.
Shemadea success
of her business,
but
her husbanddid leaveher.
He soldmore than anvoneelse.but he did
havea heartattack.

CASE STUDY:
CRISTALMALVERN
$ r.rs
R: Mr fones,this is obviouslya tremendous
blow to Cristal Malvern. Is tl'rereanything
you can tell us aboutthe future of the
company?
l: It's a bit earlyto saybut obviouslythe fact
that the whole plant hasbeendestroyedis
a total disaster.
We are still waiting to see
if anythingcan be salvaged
but it doesn't
look like we will be able to startproduction
for a verylong time.
R: What aboutthe workforce?
l: That'sour major concernat the moment.
fu I say,we haven'tmadeany decisions
yet but I'm afraidsomesortof adjustment
plan will be necessary.
We will of course
do what we can to protectasmany jobsas
possible.
R: Are you worriedaboutthe ftrtureof the
brand?

J: Of course. Unfortunately, becauseof the


nature of our product, we can't just move
to another location, becausetl'risis where
the water comes from. We will I'raveto look
at our options.
R: Tl'rank you Mr Jones. I also have with
me Ron White, who represents the main
union active at the plant. Mr White, how
are people feeling?
W:We are all shatteredby what has happened.
The livelihood of dozens of people has
gone up in flames. It's not just tl'repeople
who work in the plant but also the local
community. I don't know what's going
to happen. I think the company has a
responsibility to do what it can to keep
people employed while a new plant is
built.
R: There is a rumour the company rray have
to close.
W: That would be totally unacceptable.
After all, we all know tl'rat there will be
an insurance payout. Cristal Malvern is a
company with yearsof tradition behind it.
Our water has some exceptional qualities
and it would not make any businesssense
at all for the brand to disappear.We are all
prepared to co-operate but tl're company
must take the initiative and it must do it
quickly.
R: Thank you Mr White. And good luck.
. Now back to the studio.....

09 SPIRITOF ENTERPRISE
@ r.:e
A: ... next on today's programme we talk to
David O'Brian abor,rthis new book on
entrepreneurial success"The Sky is the
Limit". So David, are entrepreneursborn
or created?
B: Well, I think they're basically born, but
obviously for an enterprise to be a success
there are certain key businessskills which
have to be learnt. Business studies cor.lrses
provide an opportuni$ for the potential
entrepreneur to get the skills without
taking any risks while they do it. In other
words, they can learn from the mistakes
and experience of others.
A: So yor: don't think the classic MBA course
does any harm?
B: No. not at all. but on the other hand an
MBA is probably more important when
you want to get a job working for someone
else and not set up your own business.
A: Tell us about some of tl're people you
feature in the book.
B: Well, Mike Clare, the founder of the
bed shop chain Dreams, and Michael
Welch, the entrepreneur behind car tyre
distributor Blackcircles.com,are both
good examples of people who started work
when they left school. They first picked
up knowledge and skills while they
worked for someone else,but each knew
that his real mission in life was to be an
entrepreneur - to set up a business, take
'
risks and make a lot of money.

A: Apart from their first names, do tl'rey I'rave


anything else in common?
B: Well, Welch started his br,rsiness
wher
he was a lot younger, but actually they
do have certain things in common. For
example, both have made customer
service a maior selling point. This sounds
obvions but bad customer service is often
the reason why businessesfail. Botl'r
businessesrely on efficient distribution and
they've been successfulat building up their
networks.
A: Surely there is more to it than that.
B: Well yes, of course. They botl'r saw an
opportunity in a market where they felt
they could do something better than the
competition and had the confidence
to take a risk. There is always a certain
amount of luck involved but the other
thing I think they have in common is
capacity for hard work. They have worked
incredibly hard to get where they are today.

10 STRESSED
TO THE TIMIT
r"r:
.S
Interview I
A: Accordingto statistics,
around75%of all
visitsto the doctorare the resultof workrelatedstress.Do you think you sufferfrom
stress?
That'sthe questionwe'reaskingin
the streets
of Edinburgh.Excuseme, I'm
from the radioprogrammeWorftToday.
We'redoing a surveyon stress.
Would you
mind answering
somequestions?
B: Eh, well, actually,I'm in a bit of a hurry,
but ...em ...go on, then.
A: Thank you.What'syour job?
B: I'm an accountant.
A: Do you sufferfrom stressin your work?
B: Eh, yes,I do, I think.
A: What syrnptomsdo you notice?
B: Em,I get a lot of headaches
and I sleep
very badly.
A: And whatcauses
your stress?
B: It'smy boss.He'sa real ...well, let'sjust
sayhe doesn'texactlyrnakelife easy.He
alwayswantsthingsdone for yesterday.
A: Thank you verymuch.

.$ r':e
Interview 2
A: ... and what do you do?
C: I workin a shop.
A: Do you sufferfrom stress?
C: No, not at work,I don't.I find beingat
home more stressful.
A: Why's that?
C: Well, I've got threechildrenand my
mother'sill. Sheliveswith us.And my
husband... well, he doesn'thelp much.
A: And do you haveany physicalsyrnptoms?
C: Well, I get a bit on edgeat times and tl'ren
I get this horrible rash on my neck.
A: So,stress
is a problemin your life.
C: Yes,definitely.

@ r.rs
Interview J
A: ... and you, sir. Do you sufferfrom stress?

LrsrENrNG
scRrPrs
E

D: Well, to tell the truth, I'm off work at the


monrent bec:ruseof it.
A: Really, what do you do?
D: I'm a teacher. I work witl-rteenagersalcl I
clon't know why br-rtevery year they seerr
to get worse.
A: Yes, tl'rat does sottncl stressful.
D: Everyone tl-rinkstezrching'san easyoption
becauseof tl'reI'rolidays,but yotr get to a
point wl'rereyou just can't hanclle it ar-ry
longer. You lose control.
A: Well, I hope things get better for you.
'fharnks,
btrt I tliink that basically ihe
D:
solution is probably to change iobs.
Fbrtunately, I'm still yolulg enough to clo
that.
A: Right. Good luck, then.
F,*o*
5-r $.sw

Interview 4
A: Can I ask you if you strffer frorn stress?
E : W h o ? M e ? N o , n o t : t t a l l . I c l o n ' tr e a l l y
unclerstanclwhat it is, really.
A: Ar-rdwl-ratclo yotr do for a living?
E: I'rn a self-en'rployedarcl-ritect.I work for
r.nyself.
A: I see,ancl rvhat'syottr secret?
E : I'm sorry?
A: nean, how do you avoid getting stressed?
E : think it's all clown to a philosophy of life.
itrst take each clavas it cotnes. I clon't
worry about tl.rings.What I say is that if
you've got a piobletr, solve it. And if yor,r
can't becausethere's no solutiot't,there's uo
poir-rtil worrying becanseihat won't helpA: So, yon think avoiclingstressis to clo with
nental attitude, r'rotwhat yor.rclo?
E : Yes,that's basically it.
A . Well, tl'ranksvery r-nuch.
E : Not at all.

-$q
TOP JOBS
- * ,* . * *
t;

{.46 s

JaweclKarim is a college str-tdentrvith a


clifference.For a start, he is lot worriecl abotrt
the $100,000 cost of his mastersprogratn at
Stanford University becausehe is already
a millionaire. He first hit the jackpot in
2002 when eBay bor,rghttl'reor-rlinepaynent
conrpany he was working for. Then in
Novenber 2006 he got lucky again when
Google agreeclto buy YouTube for $ 1.65
billion.
Wher-rthe deal was signecleverybodywas
terlking about hvo of You'litbe's co-founclers
- Chad Hurley ancl Steve Cl'ren. After all,
they were the public face of YouTube. Most
people didn't know tl'ratthere was also a third
co-for-urderof YouTube, fawecl Karim. In fact,
he was the person who actually first proposed
ihe iclea.
Karirn grew Llp in West Germany, but has
lived in the USA since his fan'rilyemigrated
tl-rerewl-renKarinr starteclhigh school. His
Bangladesl'rifather is a chenrist at 3M, ancl his
Gem'r:rn nother is a professorat the University
of Minnesota. Karin-robtainecl his degree in
conrptrter scicnce ancl engineering in 2004 at

L I S T E N I N GS C R I P T S

tlie University of Illinois.


Hr:rley, Chen ancl Karin'r have known
each other since they met as employeesat
PayPal, tl-rcpayrrer-rtservice. When eBay
botrght PayPalfor $\1.5billion in 2002, tl'rey
erllreceiveclsubstantialpaynents. Now
ricl-r, tl'rc three men often met late at night
for brainstoruing sessiottsat Max's Opera
possible
Caf6 near Starrforcl,and cliscr-tssed
ventures. Karim saicll-reoriginally pitchecl
tl-reconcept of a video-sl'raringwebsite to his
fricr-rclsbecartse at tl-retir-nc it was clifficult to
downloacl vicleosoff the net.
'l'he
tl'rree agreeclto divide up the work
based on their different skills. Hurley designed
the site's interface ar-rcllogo wl-rile Chen ancl
Kzrrim shared responsibility for technical
At a later stage,whett it was necessary
zrspects.
to take on r-nanagemcntroles, Hurley became
CEO ancl Chel the chief tecl'rnologyofficer.
However, Karitn really war-rteclto retttrn to his
computer studies,so he chose not to be part of
the manageinent team. As a result he agreed
to take a smaller stake than the other two
founders, and not to take a salarvor even a
in his own words, he was
formal title becar-rse
"focused on school." Althougl'r, since then, he
has continued in an informal advisoryrole,
he admiis it was tl-reother two who actually
tunred the basic icleair-rtoreality-.
|aweclKarinr is not tl'refirst entrepreuertrto
lose his place in history. Popular wisdorn, for
example, saysthat Bill Gates starteclMicrosoft
and Sam Walton fotrr-rdedWal-Mart on their
own, but tl-reytoo had co-founders.In any
case,it is not likely ihat Karin'r has too nrauy
regrcts.While l-risfomer colleaguescontinue
to mn Yor,rTube,his clrearnis to teach and
become a ttniversityprofessor.Wl'rateverhe
cloes,n-roneyis not likely to be a problem.

* *,",.
*iJ u'+*
A: Goocl nrornirg. Coulcl I speakto Peter
D a v i s ,p l e a s e ?
B: Speaking.
A: Oh, hello, Mr f)avis. My natne is John
Lindsay.
B: Wl'rat can I clo for you, Mr Lindsay?
A: It's rnore a czrseof what I can clo for you
... Em, l-rowlong have you worked for
B l u e p r i n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l ,M r D a v i s ?
B: For about six years.Why clo you ask?
A: And before tl-ratyou worked for Navigate
for three years.
B: Yes, I joined them as a trainee ruartager
I left university.BLrt ... what is this
wl-rer-r
about?
A: And you were macle I'reaclof tl-re
L-rternatioral Division a year ago. How is it
going?
B: Very well, thank you. Now, could you tell
me what yott want, Mr LinclsaY?
A: I'd like to talk to yott abottt atr extremely
ir-rterestingcareer opportr-rnity.I work
for People Search, the managentent
consultants.We've been approacl'redby a
witl'r iust
client who's looking for sorr-reone
yoltr professionalprofile.
B: Oh, I see. So tl'rat'swhat it's about. Lisren,

Mr Lindsay, I'rr really cluite busy ancl ...


A: Ycs, I unclerstzrncl
that btrt you shortld knou,
I'n-rtalkir-rgabolrt a consiclerablesalary
increase.YoLr'vebeen nerrrieclfor a cotrple
ofyears now and recently becaure a father,
I believe.
B : What's tl'rat got to do with it?
A: Well, think abotrt yor-rrfamily and the
financial possibilitiesof an zrdvantageotts
career nove at this nomeut in your life. I
tl'rink you should at least talk to me.
B: En, well, I sllpposeso. What's the uatlrc ,':
the con-rpany?
A: I'cl rather not say over the phor-re.Perhaps
we cor-rldmeet to discussthings ftrrther?
B : I ' m n o t s u r e I ' m t h a t i n t e r e s t e d. . .
Blueprir-rtInternatioual I'ravebeen very
gooclto me.
A: Ol'r, come olr, Peter! Wl'rat are the real
prospectsin your present post?You've got
as far as you can irr Blueprir-rt.Do yor,rwant
to be in the same place ter-ryears frotn
now? At least find tl're tirne to talk to us.
B: I'd like to think about it. Can I phone you
I

DACK'

A: No, I'cl prefer to phone you back rnyself


ir-ra cottple of clays.h'r the nreantime,
think about what I've saicl.A nore
stimulating work situation, not to tneutiot't
a considerablerise in salary ... Talk it over
witl'r your rvife.
B: Fair enough.
A: Oh, ancl one tr-rorething, Peter.I'd
appreciate it if you clich'r'turertiot-r this call
to anyone in your conrpany, okay?
B: Yes,yes, all rigl'rt.So, you'll call me, theu?
A: That's right. h'r a couple of clays.We'll
arrange a neeting sourewhere.Bye for
now, theu.
B: Bye.

"H
tr CONVERSATIONGAMBITS
h, * n**
{b"/ c"u $

A: Exctrse me, are you here for the I'f\l


conferenceT
B: Yes, that's right.
A: Me too. Do yott know where to registeri
B: I think it's over there.
A: Oh, yes. Right, I't-n Paulo, by tl'reu'ar.
B: Hello, Paulo, I'rn Kate. Let's go and

register.
c;***
u *'u"e
2

C: Phewl Is it me, or is it boiling ir.rhere?


D: Yes, they always seem to l-ravethe
l-reatingon full.
C: So, it's not your first time.
D: No, it's n-ryfor,rrthtime here.
C: Oh, right, so you're an old hand. I'n-r
Boris.
D: Davicl. Pleaseclto meet yott.

.S x"ms
J

E: Is it rny nrobile phone, or is there some


probler-n witl-r coverage l-rere?
F: Ol'r, hang on. No, mine seernsto be
working okay.
E: T ypical, flat batteriesancl nowhere to
cnarge uP.

.*e-,yrygq-.rg;:r1ii..,

Can I lencl vou mine?


Oh. that'svery kincl, but I was expecting
a call on this r-runber.
I see.
My name's Nacline, by the way. Frorn
Xanadu Electronics.
F : Pleasedto rneet you. I'm Miko.

$ *.mw
4

G: Excuse rle, clo you know anything


about this speaker?
H: No, I'ur sorry,I dor-r't.
G: I can't find n'ryprogranne notes.
H: Ol-r,here. Borrow mine.
G: Thanks. By the way, I'm Bill Sn'rart
fron'r Silicon Tecl'rr-rologies.
H: Rigl'rt,how do you do? I'rn Kazuo
Yamada from Lexico.

.$:"ms
A: Excr:se rne. Woulcl you n'rind if I had a
quick look at your newspaper?
B: Er, no, go ahead. I've fir'risl-red
with it.
A: There's jusi sometl-ringI want to cl'reckout.
B: No problem. Take your tirne.
A: Thanks. By the way, my name's Allan. I*r-r-r
here on a businesstrip.
B: Ol'r, right.

$ a.**
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:

Here's yorlr paper tl-ren.Thanks very nuch.


Don't n'rention it.
I'm afraid rny team didn't win.
'
Sorry?
Tl're football results.
Ol'r, I see.
Can I buy you a clrink? If you don't have
ar-rythingelse to do, that is.
B : I w a s j u s t a b o u t t o g o , a c t u a l l y ,b u t . . . y e s ,
why not, ... Al, I think you said your name
was.
A: Allan, Allan Vilkas.

$ x"*r
B : I ' m S e a n ,S e a n O ' M a l l e y .
A: Pleasedto meet you, Sean. What would
you like io drink?
A beer,please.
Right. Two beers,please.
Right, sir.
So, Allan, where are yoll frorn?
Well, I was born in Litl-ruania,but I've
lived ir-rGernany most of ny life. Are you
from l-rere?
B: Yes,what do you think of Dublin?
A: Well, I've only just arrived toclayand it's
rny first visit, br-rtit seemsvery nice. Lots of
character.
B: Are you here on business?
A: Yes, that's right. I I'ravea rneetir-rg
tornorrow. I'n-r a bit nervous abor,rtit.
B: I'm sure it'll go all right. How long are you
staying?
A: Just a couple ofdays. I go back on
'fhursday
morning. I was just looking at
your paper to see how Bayern Mur-ricl'rdid
yesterday.Do you like football?
B: If it's a good match, but I'm not tl'ratkeen.
Actually, I prefer golf myself.
A: Do you mean yoLrplay golf?

B: TLrat'sright.
A: I play nyself. W'rat'syour handicap?

.S e"mm
B: Oh, well, Allan, it's gettir-rglate. I l-raveto
be off. Tl'ranks for tl're clrink, and good luck
witl'r your rneeting.
A: Right, it was nice talking to you.
B: It was nice to rneet you too. Cl-reerio.ther-r.
A: Bye.

CASE STUDY:
STAFFAPPRAISAL
$ x.m*
Presenter:Anglesey Sea Zoo is Wales' largest
nrarine aquarinrrr,attracting over 75,000
visitorsper year. Director and partner
Alison Lea-Wilson describesI'rowthe
conpany introcluced an appraisalsysten-r
tl'rat has proved to be a key motivator for its
25 staff.
Alison Lea-Wilson: When we startedour
appraisals a few years ago tl'rey were lrore
of an infonnal chat. As we grew, we
decided to introcluce hvice-yearlyformal
appraisals.We wanted to ensure that
er-nployees'workmatchecl the goals of
the business.We also wanted to provide
a chance to recognisegood perfornance
and deal with any issues.We based
tl'reperforn'ranceobjectiveson each
employee'sjob description. We talked to
staff so tl-rattlre objectives cor-rldbe agreed
in aclvanceand tl'reyknew what to expect.
That was very irnportant becausethe
rnajority of our perfornance objectives
aren't things wl-ricl-rare easyto neasure
like sales,for exanple, so we nse :r scoring
system.Each objective is rateclon a scale
of one to four anclbotl'r managersand
ernployeesfill in the form. Comparing tl're
two sets of ratings can be very useftrl for
identifuing differencesin expectationsand
perceptions.
'l'l're
process is formal. We invite staff to
tl'reirappraisalsin writing, and they get a
copy of the appraisal forrn to fill in before
the interview. Tl-re cornpleted forn-r is tl-ren
cliscussecl
clurir-rgthe appraisalitself. There
is an empl-rasison constructive feeclback,
but as well as talking abor,rtperformance,
we cliscusswhat kind of training rnight
I'relpen-rployees
achieve their goals.After
tl'reappraisal,tean leaderswrite a report
of the cliscussionand put action points and
timescalesagair-rst
each itern before giving
a copy to the employee.
We l-ravefound that a systen'rwl-rerestaff
can expresstl'reirviews and have issuesancl
problems aclclressedis defir'ritely good for
r-r-rotivation.It's also good to have a forn'ral
way of telling people when they've done
a good job. We know this becausewe
concluct anonymolls staff surveysto assess
the effectivenessof our :rppraisals.

,I3 AIR TRAVEL


.$ a"cm
Conversation I
A: Good morning. Is this where I check in
for fight RA264?
B: Yes. Can you give n-reyotrr reference
ruumber,please?
A: I'rn afraiclI've lost the paper I hacl it on,
but here's rny passport.
B: I'm sorry,but if you haven't got tl-re
reference number, I can't cl-reckyou in.
You'll have to go to the main desk over
tl'rere.They'll give it to yon.
A: But can't you look it up? You've got n-ry
name.
B: I'm not allowed to.
A: Do I l-raveto queue up agair-r?
B: No. |ust come to the front.
A: Okay.
B: Next, please.

,$ n.'rt
Conversation 2
A: Can I I'ravevour reference number and
passportplease?
Here you are.
Yott've just got one suitcaseto check ir-r.
Y e s ,t h i s o n e .
I'n-r afraid it's over fifteen kilos. You'll have
to pay excesshaggage.
It's only just over.
Actually it's seventeenkilos.
Are you sure? How much will it cost me?
It will be ten pounds, but vou have to pay
over there at the main desk.
Wl-rat,over there? There's a really long
qllelle. Can't I pay l-rere?
No, I'm sorry. But come straigl'rtto tl're
fror-rtwhen vou come back.

B: Okay.Thanks.

.$ *.ra
Book as early as possible- within three weeks
of the flight. Witl'r an early booking yolr car.r
choose the seatyou want. However, if you
book montl'rsin advance, you'll be too early
f o r a s e a ta s s i g r r n r e n t .
If you use a travel agent, make sure they
have a record of yor,rrseatir-rgpreferences
- aisle or window. Tell them you want to sit
close to the front. If yoLr sit at tl-refront, you'll
get on and off tl-replane faster.
Wl-rer-ryou receive your ticket ancl boarding
passor e-ticket confirmation, check the seat
assigrrnent. Mistakes I'rappen.If you have
tir-ne,crossreference with the airlir-reseating
chart.
If you are unable to confirn a seat,be sure
to get to the airport early - at least 45 to 60
minutes before the flight.
If you clo have an assignmentfor yor-rr
preferred seat,don't cl'reckin too late.
Tl-rosefew ninutes reading magazinesin
the newsstandcan translateinto hours of
discomfort in ttre air.
Finally, the gate check-in attendant can
be yor,rrbest friend. Ask politely if there is
a better seatavailable. Saying that you are

LrsrENrNG
scRrPrs
L

claustropl'robic n'rigl'rtnot hurt, but don't feign


an ilh'ressor say you're pregnar-rtif you're not.
There's no point in feeling guilty tl-reentire
flight.
If, in spite of yor.rrbest efforts, you encl up
witl'r the micldle seat,here are some tips to
CODC:

If you are late boarding ancl have yor:r


cl-roiceof middle seats,go for the one np front
near the exit.
Check out the aisle and winclow
passengers.Do they look like they will be
self-containedand give yor.rplenty of room?
Observe their body language and trtrst your
instincts.
Capture as much personal spaceas yolr
can right away. Dominate the two arnrests.
This will force your seatmatesto give you
more space.Be polite, but establishyour
'personal
territory. After all, they I'rave
space'
on eitl'rerside.
l)on't work on the laptop dr-rringtl-re
flight. A crar-npedspacebecomes even more
claustropl'robicwl'ren you bring out the
hardware. Ancl clon't try to read a newspaper. *
Stick to small paperbacks.
Although it is important to keep I'rydrated
ir-rthe air, don't drink water by the gallon. If
you climb over seatmatesrepeatedlyto get to
tl're bathroon'r, they'll get annoyed.
Get r-rponce during the flight to stretch
your legs. Even if yor,rdon't have to use tl-re
restroom. Tl'ris tirne away will allow your
companions to move arouncl as well and
refresh the whole row.

.$ e"l:
A: If I order 100ur-rits,
will you giveme a
priceof 5.5 eurosT
B: No, I'rn sorry.I can'tdo tl-rat.On 150units
I'll giveyou a priceof six euros.
A: Six euros.And wl'rataboutpayment?
B: Payrnentis within 60 clays.
A: If we paywithin 30 clays,
will you lowerthe
price?
B: I'll go downto 5.5eurosif you order200
units or rrore. That'srr-rybestoffer.
A: Well, whataboutthe gr-rarantee?

,*4 HIRINGAND FIRING


*S r""r+
Speaker I
I think that tl'resedays yor-rhave to really sell
yourself. Certainly this is what employers
expect in tl're US. You sl'rould sl'rowtl'rern how
great and self-confidentyou are. Modesty
isn't going to get yor-ranywhere and no one is
going to mind if you exaggeratea bit and clress
things up to sound more impressive.Make tl're
potential employer feel that, altl'roughthis is
the job you alwayswanted and of colrrseyou
are the ideal person for it, if they don't snap
you up, sorreone else will. So, tl'reyhad better
I'rireyou before they lose the cl-rance.

.$ x.ls
Speaker2
It's not often tl-ratqualificationsand
experience
totallymatchup to an advertised

LrsrENrNG
scRrPrs
E

post, so it's preferable to ernphasiseother


qualities like your willingness to learn and
the fact that you work l-rard.In fact, you
should be careful not to give tl-reimpression
you are over-qualified for the iob. I think
that ernployers are often more interestecl
in tl'ringslike loyalty and ability to fit in. A
high-flier who knows too nuch can create a
bad working atrnosphereand break a tean.
Personally, I want the ernployer to tl'rink that
I an-rgoing to be easy to work with ancl won't
create too many waves.
$

e"l*

Speaker 3
'big
I'reacl'but,ot-tthe other
No one likes a
hand, don't be falsely modest eitl-rer.Basically,
your qualifications and experience tell tl'reir
own story so you're not going to impress
anyone by adclinga lot of ad jectiveslike
'excellent'
and'outstanding' to yor,rrCV.
Usually this will make an experienced
recnritnent pfficer suspicious.It doesn't hurt
to acknowleclgeone or two weaknesseseither
- areastl-ratyou would like to inprove ancl
you want a chance to develop. Above all, be
honest, because if you exaggerateor lie, in tl-re
end someone is goir-rgto catch yott ottt and
you'll end up looking stupid.

.$ *"rx
Speaker 4
People'smotivations interest en'rployers.If you
want to work for a specific company, tell thern
why, especiallyif you are changing jobs. Valicl
reasonswould be tl'rat you are frr,rstratedby the
limitations of your present post, or that you
car-r'tftrlfil tl-repotential of your backgrouncl
and eclucation.Don't whine, tl'rougl'r,and
don't blarne yorlr current employers:yott've
learnt a lot with them, but it's time to move
'lbll
on.
potential ernployersthat yotr have a
all you need is an opportunity
lot to offer, ar-rcl
to show it. If son-reonegives yor,ra break, they
won't be disappointed.

$ e.rm
A: Right, sl'rallwe make a start?My name
is Philin Rickett. I work in the htttnar.t
,"ro.,r"", departn'rentancl I'm responsible
for recruitment.
B: Right, pleasedto meet you.
A: Did you find r-rsall right?
B: Yes,the n'rapyou sent me was very clear.
A: Good. Now, this is just a preliminary
interview to check out some details. If
yon're successful,you'Il go on to a rnore
in-depth interview this afternoon. Is that all
rigl'rt?
B: Yes, I don't l-raveto be back at work ur-rtil
tomorrow morning so as long as I have
time to drive back this evening, that's fine.
A: Do your present en-rployersknow where
you are?
B: No. I asked for a clay'sunpaicl leave for
personal reasons.I didn't say why.
A: What don't you like about yollr current
nosition?
B: Actually, there are a lot of things I do like
about it, but no job is perfect. I tl'rink I am

ready for n-lore responsibility ancl when I


saw your aclvert,I tl'rougl'rtI should apply.
A: You know this job is a managerial position.
How rnuch managerial experience do you
have? It's not very clear frorn your CV.
B: Well, in ny present job I'n'r a management
team coordinator.
A: Yes.Does that mean you're the leaclerof
the team?
B: Not exactly.I assistthe general manager it-r
running the departrnent.
A: Ol'r,l see.Are you a kind of personal
assistant?
B: No, I tl'rir-rkit's a bit more than that ...
A: But are you a manager?
B: I supposer-rot.
A: It saysin your CV that in your previous
position you were'ar-rSPC professional'.
What exactly does that mean? Is Sales
Productivity Centre basically a sales
departrnent?
B : Yes, we provided backup for twenty
salesr-nenfrorl different sectors of tl-re
comPany.
A: Are yor-rsaying you were clirectly ir-rvolved
in sales?
B : No, it was more abor-rtprovicling support to
help clrive salesand increaseproductivi$.
I see. So, what sort of work did the job
involve?

B : I'd say it was a position that requirecla lot


of time rranagenent skills and prioritising
of tasks.It gave me a lot of insight into tl're
salesprocess.
A: Can you be a bit more specific please?
B : Well, to be honest, some of the work was
secretarialbut I anl applyir-rgfor your post
becauseI'rn capable of doing far rnore. I'cl
like n.roreresponsibilityand to be able to
use my stucliesand my languages.
A: Yes,your hinglish is obviously excellent
and you speak Spar-risl'r.
Is your Spanisl'ras
good as your English?
B : Yes, it's not bercl.
A : Could you tell rne about your clegree
colrrse ... in Spanisl'r?
B : I'm sorry?Oh, I beg your pardon ... Well, I
neecla little time to think ... Let's see ...

T5 T I M E
$ a.r*r
A:
B:
A:
B:

Hello.
Hello, is that Don'ringo?
Yes,speaking.
Hi, this is |oe. Look, I need yor-rto tell n-re
gorr'rethingabor-rttl're new database.We're
worried becauseit's behind schedule.
What is the situation?
A: Well yes, I'm sorry about the delay but
there have been some problems with tl-re
application.
B: I appreciate tl'rat,br-rtthe system was
supposedto be online last October. Yotr
didn't meet the deacllineand it's now
Febnrary. My boss is getting a bit nervous.
And so arn I.
A: Okay, okay. But you modified tl're
requirenents and the old systen is not

B:
A;

B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A'
B:
A:

compatiblewith the new design.That


meanswe havea diferent timeframe.
What do you mean?How long is it going
to take?
We needto makesurethat migratingthe
datafiom the old databaseis goingto go
smoothly.We don't want to loseanything
important.And then thereare the securi-ty
issues,but I thinl we should be readybf
october.
ldontunderstand.Areyousayingthat
the
schedulefor all this is norvne*t d"tob.rt
Yeah.It shouldn't take longer than rhar.
"
you're joking.
No,l'm not actually.It really is much more
complicatedthan anyoneanticipated.
Can you guaranteetiat you'regiving us
priorig on this?will it be on time?
%ah, sure,you'reat the top ofthe list.
Okay.Listen,is Jorgenthere.I'd like to
speakto him.
Hang on, ['ll seeifhe's available.

$ z.zo
Good afternoon.The subiect
',. of mv
. ,,
- , - .;;
; ;'-.
"
Presenuuon rco:r) ls I ne lul'tn ol I Ime

Vanagement
.',Vh1isit amyth?
Well.tr'er"

are Inou\anosoI DooKs


eno lntetnet. courses
on tne mrrkel\ nlcll areoeslgneo
to hetp
peoptebe beter manag".sofih.i, tin'.. ih.t
atl suggesttechniquesior usingour rime mo-le

efficie"n'tJ1.
Theyrecommend
ialing todo

,
sts.pnonnsmg.enc not an\\ enngme pnone
, . emc'enr'
-.
. - , ;';J:iilfiJ:,1seilre nme
t'utco

their job or their employer,they will do weful


things in their work time. In fact,ofteDthe
problem is feelingguilty aboutusingtime to
think or acquireskillsand ideaswhich are not
immediatelyproductive.What apparendyis
a wasteoftime, is actuallyextremeLy
useful
becausein the long run itwill make you more
efficient.
Time managementmay work wirh jobs
with verv definJdhsks.whereproceduresand
proce..es
areueryclear.Machineoperators.
io..""*ple, do."t haueto worry much about
managingrheir time b."".,r. til. ;;; ;f *;;k
i. imp"oseid
from outside.or rh" J;;;;;J:
ifyou are facedwith a taskwhich invoLvS
creativityor problem sotui'g, r,o*-to jo iio.,,
performingtire taskmay noibe c1ear.-ltcould
alsobe that you are in a j"b *h.t;;;;iJ
skillsoi appropriate
eitherthe necessary
training to carryout your duties.
I will go on to look at these different
aspectsofhme-use in more detail, butwe
havefrr rememberthat therewill alwaysbe
more work than time This is what keepsus
employed.How ellectrvelyyou useyour time
. ' ilib. haining
:'-'.::::"^-":i:::i-1'"j:::Jj:"^
proper
prennrng.
orrr
ano
aooveall, it is about
..
.:. ,
havinga posrtive
attifudelowardsyorrr * orlt
about
j:esonableexPectatrons
::lt]L:l:Ii
*:l-:il-l'1":l-*;------.
^r.L^
o'
tn' -^:-L

o"'"o

I,.,
d YflT^".1-'-""1l1ij,1lTl?
l*e to cover.Now lel s qo bacLto lool.at
,r
lhequeslionolhowwecanchange.....

g i.:r

Well, they saythat time is money.That


ConversationI
may be true but time is certainlynot like other
A: Where areyou going?
resources
which we rnanagesuch asmaterials
B: Well, I've finishedeverythingI had to do so
and machines.It is much more complexthan
['m goingto leaveearly.
that becauseuseof time dependsto a big
A: What aboutthe salespredictionsfor next
extenton personalityand attitude.Sometimes
month?
we can changeour own behaviour,but time
B, Oh, I'd forgottenaboutthat. I'll starton
managementreally dependson changing
them tomorrowfirst thing. I've arrangedto
the behaviourofother peoplearound us and
meet someoneat five.
the demandsthey makeon our time. At best
$ z.zz
this is dif6cult, but more often,thannot it,is
don ersation2
Deyondyour conlrot. As a result.yoll can Dea
lvll Lopans vlslt,wnat
ruve
v e r y e t h c i e n | U s e r o | y o u r t i m e - d i s c i p | i nL:e d
' - ' . ;vou
' ' ' , Dlannec
''.
. ,
aDoulluncn tomorrow,'
organised
andchoosinglhe right moment
^. ;;:^;:";^
;:;:;;:
,^ -rr^-D-r.. r-_
8:t:c:"1tJ11fr!l::::.*
to do vital tasks-yetstill feel stressed
and
P'
l'*
.
rememDer
ne
L: I Seemrc
-;
" ; : , , - ,t"a- vegelanan
o v e r \o r k e d .l o b eh o n e \ ti.n m a n yc a s elsh i s
:-U:
; " ,t(- ;ne.
' -, * ,In
; - ;rnalCaSe
: - ;Cneck,tllet
,
I tt DnonerO
rssimply becauseyou are beingaskedto do
.-';;
menu.
navea vegelaflan
more than is possiblein the time available.
This leadsme on to the next point
! z'z:
becausein fact,time managementis
frequently about making choices that in reality
we don't have. One of the recommended
techniques is to close your door at certain
times, or leave your voice box to deal witl'r
calls. That's fine, but if interrr-rptionsand
dealing with unpredictable human problems
are part of your work, then those tecl'rniques
don't help very much.
Anotl'rer time management tecl-rniqueis to
analysewhat you are doing and decide if it is
important or not. Well, I think rnost people of
averageintelligence can normally distinguish
behveen activity which is useful and activity
which is a waste of time. Unless they dislike

Conversation3
E: Is everythingconfirmedfor your trip to San
Sebastian?
F: Yes,the plar-re
goesto Bilbao.I'rn goingto
take tl'retrain frorn there.
E: No, don't do tl'rat- it takesforever.The
busis mrrchfaster.
F: Is it?Well, I'll takethe bus,then.

T6 GETTINGTHINGSDONE
r$ e.a+
ConversationI
A: Oh,look or-rtside!
B: Wl'rat'sr-rp?

A: I've got to go to the PostOffice to pick


somethingup and it's raining.Could yot
lend me your umbrella?
B: Ofcourse.As long asyou don't loseit.
A: Oh, right. Don't worry,I won't.
$ z,zs
;--,
-,---,
Lonve$anon
z.
t'
with an agentthis
9:11!":jlT:]ing
afternoorl'
end theyre clecorahngmy
^ :'n:'
it lllYl"i,
*utg ,.,,
ftjt I needsomewherequiet
ll:
l:
wherewelonlbe
interrupted co'ld I
^o a]
H:],:lj:*:"'
'lqi!
b}.as ,.
itt ftee bv four' ['ve got
"
^ i,lllq]lllllc:
Don t worry' it won,,t takethat long
$ z'z'
A: Richard,I wonderif I could askyou a
favour?
B: Dependswhat it is.
A: I've got to go overto the warehouseto
do something,and I haven'tgot my car'
Would you lend me yours?
B, No *a1i
A: Whatl
B: I neverlend m) car:Inan) case.wleres
vour car?
A: Ifs in the garageEh'Ihadalittle

accrdent
B: And yorretpeclmelolru\l youwithmine?
A : I t s i u s la m i r j o r\ c r a t c hO. h . d o nt w o r r y .

l ll think
orsomething
else

$ z zz
A: Sandra,we needsomeoneto answerthe
phone from 2.00till 4.00 while Julia is off
sick.Could you do it?
Br Fron 2.00 to 4.00?It's not my houn.
A: I know,but you can takethe time later on.
B: It's not the time. I'll haveto get someone
to pick the kids up from school.Isn't there
anyoneelse?
A: No, there isn't.Look, I know it's
inconvenient,but I car't think of any other
.ollllion.
on for a corrpleof horrrs?
A: Not realty.Ir crearessucha bad
impre"rion
L .i : t e n . l dd o i l m y s e l f b uI tv e
gol to be somewhereelse.
B: I'm sureyou would, but it's not my
problem,is it?
A: No, it isn'! and obviouslyI can't forceyou
t o d o i t ,b u t . . .
B: But?
A: ... but on the otherhand,if you do it, I'll
seeit asa personalfavour.
B: I see.I don't reallyhavemuch choice,do
I? I hopeit'sjusttl'ristirne ...
A: Yes,in principle,fes. But you never
know.Yourcontractis up for renewalnext
rnonth.Enoughsaid?
B: Yeah,erroughsaid.

$ *"am
Conversation I
A : C o o d a f t e r n o o n ,s i r .

L I S T E N I N GS C R I P T S

B: Hello.I'm on flightIB 601.I was


if there'sany chanceof an
wor-rdering
upgracle
to business
class.
A: Well, I don't know.It dependsI'row
crowdedthe fligl'rtis.
B: Yes,I quiteunderstand,
br-rtI'd really
it if you could l-rave
appreciate
a look.I
clon'tn-rindpayingthe extra.It's just tl-rat
I've had a reallyI'rarddayand it'd be really
nice to havea bit rnorespaceanclcornfort.
A: Iusta ninute, sir.
B: I'm sorryto pttt you to any trouble.
A: No, tl'rat'sokay.Oh, yes,there'slots of
spacein business
class.I tl'rinkwe can do
it.
B: Oh, far-rtastic.
How rnuch is tl'rat?
'l'l-rat's
A:
all right, sir. Don't worry.
B: O}r,thar-rk
you everso much.
A: You'rewelcorne.Havea goodflight.

.$ e.eu
Conversation 2
A : C o o d e v e r r i r r gs. i r .
B: Look, I'm not at all happy with tl-reroor-n
you've given rne. It's on the wrong side of *
the I'rotel. It faces on to the road and it's far
too noisy.
A: I'm sorry,sir. No one has ever said
anything before.
B: I can't believe that. Are you going to
change it?
A: I don't think I can, sir. We're a bit ftrll
tonight.
B: Look, I'm really tired, and the last tl'ring I
want to do is argue about rrry room. If you
don't change it, I'll tell rny company not to
use this hotel again.
A: I'm sorry.There's no other room available.
B: Oh, come on.
'l'here's
A:
notl'ring I can do.
B: Wl'rat about some sort of discount, then?
A: I'm afraid I'm not autl'rorised to offer a
discount on yorlr room.
B: So, I l-raveto pay the full price for a noisy
room. Brilliant!
A: Sir, if you want, I can call you a taxi ...

17 oFFTCEGOSSIP
.S a.sc
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:

Hi Quin. How's it going?


Trixy! Where haveyou been?
I had a few clays'holidayowingto ne.
Go anywhereinteresting?
I wisl-r!No, I went up nortl'rto staywith rny
parents.
So,you haven'thaveheardthe news.
What news?
'restructuring'.
About the
W-rat restructuring?
They wantto reorganise
rnarketingand
sales.

A: Nol Really?Is it official?


B : No, but somebodyoverheardPrescott

A: Never!
B: Yes,this consultantchaptold him tl'rey
would haveto let somepeoplego.
A: But that's awful.
B: Yes,Prescottaskedl-rimhow manypeople
it involved.
Ar-rdwl-ratclid he say?
He said it depended on inclividual
perforrnance and attitude.
Does that include Maureen?
What do you mean?
Well, you know what they say about her
and Prescott.
Go on ...
I'm not saying who, but someone told n-re
he often seesthem in The Green Man
together.
B : That little pub on tl're Oxforcl Roacl?
A: That's right.
B : Well I never! The otl'rer day I'reasked
l-rerif sl'rewould stay behind to work on
something together. I heard him.
There you are, then. Tl-rere'sno smoke
witllout fire.
B : Listen, don't tell anyone I told you.
A: Now, come on, Quin, yott know rne better

than that.
B: Backto work,then.
A: Right. Catch you later.
B: Bye.

$;.:r
Conversation I
A: feff, have you fir'rishedlast month's
production figures?
B: No, Jane, I'm sorry.Can I give therrr to you
this afternoon?
A: It's no good being sorry.There's always
some excuse.If they're not on my desk by 4
o'clock, I'll have to speak to Mr Bradley.
B: Yes,fane. I'll start straight away.

{$ *.r:
Conversation 2
C: David, have you got a rninute? There's
something I want to discusswitl'r you ... in
n-ryoffice.
D: What's it about?
C: Ol'r, well, we're missing a laptop computer
frorn the store.
D: What has that got to do with me?
C: Well, yolr are the only other person with a
key to the store and ...

S a.ss
Conversation J
E: Marie, the figures you need are ready.
F: Tl'ranks, Pedro. Is everything okay?
E: Yes, no problerns.Would you like to look at
then-rwith rne?
F: Yes,but I'm a bit br-rsythis afternoon.
E : Me too. Er, do you know that new caf6
they've just opened? It's nice and quiet. We
can go through them there after work.

F: Oh, I supposeso,but I won't be ableto


stayfor long.

talking to one of tl'rernanagement


cor-rsultants.
E : Great. See you there at about six, then?
A: Wl'ratdid he say?
F : Yes,all right. See you there.
B : ApparentlyI'resaidthat we wereoverstaffecl
in someareas.

LrsrENrNG
scRrPrs
E

$ a.m
Conversation 4
G: Hi, Monica.
H: Oh, hello firn. How are things going?
G: Great. In fact, you can be the first to
congratulate me.
H: Yes, yor-rlook very pleased with yourself.
What's up?
G: I'rn the new head of the easternsalesteam.
H: Oh, really?What salaryare you on now,
tnena
C : S i x t y g r a r r da y e a r .
H: I can't believe it. Sixty thousar-rd!
G: And they're giving rrre a new company car.
H: Oh really? Congratulations, then. Tl're
drinks are on you. See you later.
G: Yes. Bye.

.$ a"xs
A: In this week's BusinessToday, we talk to
Karina Schmidt. Karina is the author of
a report by the h-rdustrial Society which
looks at workplace relations, and how
they've changed over the years.Karina, first
of all, welcorne to the programme.
B: Thank you, it's a pleasureto be I'rere.
A: h'r your report, you say that many
have abandoned
companies r-rowadays
some useful institutions which allowed for
social interaction.
B: Yes,these days there's lessopportunity to
gossipand socialise.For example, often the
tea trolley has been scrapped,and having a
chat in the tea break was an irnportant part
of the working day. The drink after work
at the pub around the corner is another
examDle.
A: And wl'ry do yor-rthink these tl'rings have
disappeared?
B: I think it's all part of tl'rerevolution in
human resollrces.Some of these traditions
have become unfashionable. Talking about
things not connected to work is now seen
as bad and as wasting time. Tl'rere are
even theories about removing chairs from
rneeting roorrrs,so tl'rat tl-remeetings are
more efficient and finish quickly.
A: And are we more efficient now, then?
B: Well, that's a good question, but in any
case, sornething I'rasbeen lost frorn the
workplace wl'ricl'r is very important. And
perhaps in the long term, with tl'resedrives
for efficiency, companies are making false
econonies.
A: In what way?
B: The clifferencebetween a good job and
. a bad job are the hunan, emotional
elements. h'r other worcls, hrppy ernployees
are productive employees.People enjoy
tl-resocial aspectsof work, the personal
interaction with colleagues,the friendsl'rips
A: And the gossip!
B: Ancl the gossip.Yes, in some ways gossip
is tl're glue that holds the organisation
together. Providing communal space such
as coffee areasor lunch rooms allows
employeesto share information and

A:
B:

A:

B:
A:

builcl relationshipsthat benefit both the


conrpelnyancl the employees.
Are you sayir-rgthat gossip sl'rould be
encouraged?
Not exactly,it's obviously;r question of
bzrlance.All gossip:rnclchatting doesr-r't
nrake for an efficient company, btrt r-reither
cloesno gossipor chat. All I'm saying is
that I thirrk companies woulcl do well to
renenber tl'riswhen trying to improve
efficiency ancl brir-rgclown costs.
Karina, I'nr afraiclthat's all we've got tirne
'l'hank
for.
yoll very r-rrtrchfor talking to us.
It's been very interesting.
Thank you for inviting rne.
That's all for now frorr BusinessToday. So,
until next week, gooclbye.

1S E.COMMERCE
$ x.xru
I:

For most listeners.Arnazor-r.eBav and


P a y P r lw i l l o f c o u r s e b e l r o r r s e l r o l c l
names, ar-rcl
bring to rlincl books, music
ancl sl'roppingon tl'reworld wicle web. *
Accorcling to latest srtrveysthree out of
five Liuropeanshave at sometirne bought
goods on the hrternet ancl online sales
have cloubled anr-ruallyover the last five
years.Br,rtwill tl'risgrowth continue? Ancl
what will the state of online traclingar-rd
sl-roppingbe l0 yearsfrom now? Our
guestsiodhy - Paul Braclleyand Johan
Webb - are both well-knoll'r'r corrrnentators
ancl bloggerson business:rnclonlir-re
technology. Paul, how do you see tl-re
fr-rture?What are the pros and cons?
P: It's difficult to say becatrsethir-rgsmove so
fast but I tl'rink the fr-rtureis quite bright.
I an-rpretty sure that e-cornmerce will
become the normal way to buy ancl tracle,
not in all products, but in a fairly wide
range of goocls.The advantages for the
customer are obvious: accessto products
tl'ratmay not be available locally, in online
shops oper-rhventy-four hours a clay,
seven days a week ancl three hunclrecl ancl
sixty-five days a ),ear witl'r clelivery to yottr
cloorsteo.
J: Yes, forthe customer the benefits are
clear - convenience ancl lower nrices.
You can aiso conpare the procluctsancl
prices of different shops without le:rving
hone. C)r-rthe other hancl, the seller can
clo businesswith anyone in the worlcl
connected to the Internet. In fact, tl-reonly
linritation is when transport ancl delivery
costsget too I'righto make it viable.
P: That's absolutely right, but there are
other drawbacks as well. In the traclitional
scenario :r custorner can visit a bookshop
ancl leave witl-ra book. But when you buy
online you inevitably have to wait for
the goods to arrive. Sorne of Lrsquite like
waiting for the postr-nanto arrive with a
package,but a lot of us just don't have the
patience. There is :rlsotl'repossibility the
gooclswon't arrive as expectecland wl-rer-r
there are problems they can be clifficult

l:

I:
l:
P:

j:

I:

t:
P:

I:
J:

P:

l:

to sort out. For example, if things arrive


damaged or you find they aren't what you
really want, returning gooclsis not easy.
If someone jr-rsttakesyour money and
clisappears,
there is no-one to conrplain
to. This stopsa lot of people from btrying
online, ancl retailers have to find solutions.
Witl'r a procluct like a corlrputer or high
clefir-ritiolTV for exanple, people like to
have :r shop where they car-rtake it back to
be repairecl if sorr-retl-ring
goes wrong. Aftersales service is still a negative factor.
On the plus sicletl'reseller can deal clirectly
witl'r the nanufacturer ancl offer a cheauer
price as a result. There's no wholesaler
ir-rtl-remiclclletaking a cut. You can take
advantageof more competitive prices. For
the cnstonrer the price clifferencehas to be
enor-rghto nerke it worth taking the risk, if
it exists.
Is payn-renta problerr?
Not really - once people get over the initial
worries abor-rtr-rsingcredit carcls.
For rre security is still the big issue in
'l'hey're
scareclof iclentity
peoplc's n'rinds.
tl'reft ancl wl-rathappens to the infonlatron
they give online. For tl'reruoment it's
something whicl'r is slowirrgdown growtl-r.
There are soltttions ottt there. The success
system offers
of eBay is that the payn-rer-rt
Also, they Lravea
glrarantcesancl secr-rrity.
voting systemwhich is good for potential
buyers because thcy benefit frorn tl're
experience of previous cnstomers.
Is tl'ratwhere custornersancl sellersgive
eacl'rother positive or negative voteswhen
the transaction has been comoletecl?
Yes, it's a very effective system.
I zrgreebut it's difficr-rlt to apply to other
e-comrnerce situations becauseeBay is not
the seller, it works as a market place for
o t l r e r sa r r dt a k e sa c o n r r r r i s s i o r r .
What abor-rttl're type of proch,rctsthat can
be sold?
Well, I don't tl'rink buying food is ever
going to take-off except for perhaps rnerking
your order at the local supernrarketvia a
webpage. Books and DVDs are one thing,
but fruit and vegetables are another.
Yes,buying online will inevitably rrake
groceriesmore expensive,so what's the
point? Actually, this highlights another
lin-ritation.You can see pictures, reacltext
ancl hear sounds on the Intemet, but you
carn'tsmell a flower or feel the quality of
clotl-ronlir-re.Tl'rere will alwaysbe some
products tl'rat people will war-rtto toucl'r
;rncl feel before they buy.
Not onll'that, btrt when you go to a shop
ancl pick something Llp,you choose what
to look at ancl how to look at it. On tl're
hrternet, you only see what the seller wants
'fhat's
why people are rrore
yor: to see.
comfortable buying standard,generic
products like DVDs, books and electronrc
gadgets.Often you've seen them in a sl'rop
before ancl yon're just looking for a better
price. Personallyfor example, I won't bu1'

I:

P:

J:

P:

I:

clothes online unless I knor,vit's sornetl-ring


I want becauseI'r'e been able to try it on to
s e ei f i t f i t s .
Can w'e go back to tl-retrse of credit carcls?
Apzrrtfrom security, are there anv other
issues?
Well, ves. Credit cards are ar-raclcledcost
for tl-reseller but you can't pay casl-rover
the Internet. Credit cornpaniescharge big
c o n r r r r i s s i o nosn e a c h p u r c h a s e .
There's another point here. Because
payrnent is by credit carcl,very snall or
very large transactior-rstcncl r-rotto be
c o r r c l u c t e coln l i n e .
'fl'rat
brings us back to what e-corlnerce
is all abor-rt:buying and selling prochtcts
whicli are sr-ritablefor packageclelivery,,
where compared to trzrclitionalretail, tl're
costsof selling, payment ancl transport
nake it worth cloing businessonline for
botl'rbuyer and seller.
Well, Par-rl,fol-rar-r,tl-rankyor-rbotl'r verl
r-nuch.If you would likc to comurent or-r
anything you've hearrd,clon't forget yotl can
e - r n a i ln s a t . . . .

r+r

The right qualifications for a iob are one


thing, but having experience is another.
b A high turnover is one thing, but making
good profits is another.
c Having a good idea is one thing, but
putting it into practice is another.
cl High productivity is one thing, but
irnproving staff motivation is another.
e Creating a good product is one thing, but
selling it is another.

3S E.WORK
$ e"xm
A: Have yor-rseen this?
B: What?
A: "Make money while you work irt home. No
skill recruired."
B: Ol'r, it's not really about working at home.
You sign up to a scheme where they say
they will pay yolr to reply to e-nails or
visit pageson the Internet. Then you are
supposed to persuade your friends and
family to clo it.
A: Oh, so it's like pyran-riclselling.
B : Yes, the more people you get to clo it, tl're
rrore rroney you make. The idea is to
sl'rowpotential advertisersthat tl'rey l-ravear-r
auclience.I doubt it really works. If it was
so easv.evervonewould do it.
A: That's a shame. I wouldn't n'rind workine
arthome if I hacl the opportunity.
B: I'n-rnot so sure. I wouldn't miss travellir-rg
in to work everydaybut if I was at houre,
I'cl miss the contact witl-rpeople I'rere.
A: Tl-rat'strue, but if you coulcl just come in a
couple of claysa week it would be okay. On
the otl-rerhand, nnless you l-raclsornewhere
quiet to work, it would be clifficult to get
anvthins done.
B : Do you think yotr'd be disciplined enor-rgl'r?
A: I clon't know. I lr,oulcl if it was nry own

LISTENING
SCRIPTS

businessbut otherwise who knows? It


probably sounds more attractive than it
would be in reality.
B: They do talk abor-rttelework a lot these
days. Son'repeople say tl'ratif people
stopped commuting, it would be mucll
more ecological.
A: Tl'rat's probably right but in the end, I
tl-rinkit depends on the type of job you
nave.

Santa Clara, California.


A: What was life like before yott became a
teleworker?
B: I had to get up at three in tl're mornir-rg so I
could shower and dress,take my kids to my
mother's, and set off to work by 4.30.

.S e"xw

s e v e no ' c l o c k .
A: It sounds awful.
B: Yes, I was getting r,rpin tl-redark and
getting home in tl're dark. I never saw rny
job but rny
.husband or cl.rildren.I like nly
life was a r-rightmare.
A: And what is life like now?
B: Oh, I feel like tl'reluckiest person alive. I
now get up at 5.30. My mother stiLllooks
after the cl'rildren but I don't have the
80-mile drive to work along Highway l0l.
We've set up my workplace in one of the
bedrooms: I sit down in front of a camera,
pin on a microphone and I'm ready for

Interview I
A: The Internet and other new technologies
have changed the way we work and the
titles of our jobs. For example, instead of
'virtual
the secretary,meet Jill Spencer, a
is
a
virtual
assistant'.fill, what exactly
assistant?
B: Virtual assistants,or VAs, work from horne.
We offer servicesto businesseswhich don't
have sufficient work to justify en'rploying
someone full-tin're.
A: Why did you dgcide to be a virtual
assistant?
B: I retired from my job as a conference
organiser,but I wanted to earn some extra
money. I became a VA becauseit meant
I didn't have to leave my countrv home
down here in Cornwall.
A: Yes, it's a lovely place - I can understand
wl-ryyou didn't want to move away. So, how
did you start?
B: I I'rad a lot of contacts from rny previous
work. I began by providing things like
bookkeeping but now I offer a range of
servicesfor clients all over the UK.
A: It's going well, then.
B: Yes, I wasn't looking to earn a fantastic
amount of money. The biggestadvantage
is that you can do as little or as much as
you want. If it's a lovely sunny day, I can sit
out in the sarden and do the work in tl're
evenlng.
A: Wl'rat do you need to get started?
B : The basic tools are a computer with an
Internet connection , a fax machir-reand a
rnobile phone. Anyone with basic office
skills could do the job. Apart frorn tl'rat
it depends on the kind of servicesyou're
going to offer and what the clients want.
A: And what's in it for the comnanies?
B : C o m p a n i e sg e t a h u g e a m o u n t o r r t o f i t
becausethey only use a virtual assistant
when they need one. Also, they can
perhaps get someone with a higher
professionallevel than they could get
if they had to pay someone fr-rll-time.
There's also no problem of office hours.
A businessmancan be out of the office
all day, but l'risassistantis still available in
the evening if he needs to cliscussthings.
T t h i n k i t c o r r l d m a k e a b i g d i f f e r e r r c et o
everyone'slifestyle.

o$ a.+*
Interview2
A: Anna, what exactly do you do?
B: I'n a concierge at the Westin Hotel in

LrsrENrNG
scRrPrs
E

.$ x.ex

A: 4.30!

B: Neil, I n'retfeff Segrarnearlier this year


What exacily is his job title?
A: He's the Managing Director.
B : Do you nean the CEO?
A: Yes, that's what tl're Artericans say. He's the
person on tl-reboard who is responsiblefor

B: Yes,there was a lot of traffic. On a good


day I got there by 6.30. That gave n'reI'ralf
an hour to relax before starting n'ry shift at

B : And wl'ratabout you?


A: I'm the Product Development Director.

business.
A: How does it work at the I'rotel?
B: Guests still go r-rpto the concierge desk,
but instead of me in person, they see me
on a giant TV screen.They can only see
my head and shoulders,so I can wear my
slipperswhile I work.

A: What do your employers think about it?


B : Oh, they're hrppy becausethey can't afford
to lose me. In tl'rehotel industry we dot't't
have the high salariesof Cisco, Palm or
Sun Micro, so there's a high turnover of
staff. With unen-rployment around here
so low it's hard to replace workers. It cost
them $50,000 but they thought it was

worth a try.
A: And the guests?
B: They'rehappy.Apart from anytl'ringelse
theydon't haveto leavea tip!

}O WORKING LUNCH
.S *.e"t
A: This lookslike a verynice place,Satosl'ri.
B: Yes,I thoughtyou would like it.
A: Yes,I reallylike the d6cor.Er, could you
orderfor both of us, Satoshi?
B: Of course.I think we could havesome
misosoupto startwith. They do it very
well here.
A: Okay.Soundsgood.
B: And tl'renI think you shouldtry some
unagl.
A: What'sthat?
B : It'seel - grilledand servedon a bed of rice.
It'sdelicious.
A: Hm, I'm sureit is.Actually,do you think I
could havea steak?
B : Well, I'm afraidtheydon't servesteakhere.
A: I'11try the unagi,then.
B : Fine.Would you like somesake,or would
you prefersomebeer?
A: No, no, let'shavesomesake.
B : Right.Sakeit is,then.

tl're day-to-day mnning of the company.

I'm on the board as well. but I report to

I"ff
B: Right,I see.
.$ a"*x
C: So, any news froni Tokyo, Neil?
A: No, I'n afraid noi,leff. It looks like they're
not interested.
C : How did it go with Mr Thnaki?
A: Ol'r, I'rewas really nice. He took me to a
great restaurant. Actr,rally,everytl'ring went
okay until we got down to business.
\-: What I'rappened?
A: I don't know. I thought the sale was a sllre
thing, but he seemed to lose interest. I
don't know wl'ratI did wrong.

*$ x"+e
A : M m , t h a t w a sd e l i c i o u s .
B: I'm glad you enjoyed it. So, Neil, tell rne
about this digital cor-rtrolsoftware. Whr do
you think we should be interestecl?
A: Because it's easilythe best program for the
job on the market.
B: Tl-resystemwe use at the mornent u'ork
okay.Why should we change?
A: It's a cuestiot'tof costs.It could sa\.
trp to 70%.lf you look at the cotnp.:: ,t h e r e ' sl u s t n o c o n r p a r i s o u .
B: Can you give me some inforrnation abi'--:
your sales?
A: Er ... about two million dollars' worth
worldwide.
B : C o u l d I s e et h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n ?
A: Well, I'm afraid that's confidential, but
listen, if we can make a deal today,l can
offer vou an even better discount.

CASE STUDY 1
INTERNETACCESS
(un)authorised /(nn)'c:Oerarud/
adj.
(not) having official permissionfor
something
bfame lbletm/verb [T] to sayor think
that someoneor somethingis
responsiblefor an accident,problem
or bad situation
colfeague l'koli'^glnoun [count]
someonewho worksin the same
organizattonor department asyou
dismiss /drs'mrs/verb [T] to force
someoneto leavetheir job

il
t
ii

policy /'polesi/noun [count] a setof


plansor actionsthat are agreedon
by a government,political party,
business,or other organization
prohibit /preu'hrbrt/verb [T] to
officially stoppeoplefrom doing
something
recruit lrr'krultlverb [T] to get
solneoneto joir-ra compan/, or an
organization
spy On someone /'spaton srrmwnr/
phrasalverb to watchsomeone
secretlyso that you know everything
that they do

enforce /rn'fc:(r)s/verb [T] to make


people obey a law, rule etc.

surf /ssr(r)f/verb [T] to look at various


placesone after anotheron the
Internet or on television

firewall /'fare(r),wc:l/
noun [count]
a computer programthat preventS
people fron'renteringa computer
systemillegally

union l'jutnjen/noun [count] an


organrzatronthat representsthe
workersin a particularindustry

gambling /'grembh4ladj.risking
money in the hope of winning more
if you are lucky

virus l'varasl noun [count] a program


that entersyour computer and
damagesor destroysinformation that
you havestored

guidef ines /'gard,larnzl


noun [plural]
official instructionsor adviceabout
how to do something

voicemail /'vcrsmerl/noun Iuncount]


an electronicsystemthat records
and storespl-ronemessages

hire /'hare(r)/verb [T] to pay someone


to work for you

noun [count]
website /'web,sart/
the
Internet
where
a place on
is
available
about
infonr-ration
subject,
company,
a particular
universityetc

inappropriate /,me'preupriet/
adj. not
suitablein a particularsituation
induction hn'dnkJ(e)n/noun [count]
a period of training that introduces
people into an orgamzaion or
institution

welfare /'welfee(r)/noun [uncount]


tl'rehealthy,happiness,and safetyof
a Personor grouP

issue l't|urlnoun [count] a subjector


problem that people discussor argue
abor-rt
lT l,ar 'ti:/ noun [uncount]Information
Technology;the use of computers
and other electronicequipment to
store,process,and send information
fogon I'Iogonlnoun [count] a user
name and password
monitor /'morute(r)/verb [T] to
regularlycheck somethingor watch
someonein order to find out what is
happening

Definitions from Macrnillan Essential Dictionary arrd Macmillan English l)ictionary

CASE STUDY 2
CRYSTALMALVERN
ad (advertisement) lnd
(ed'vs:(r)trsment)/
noun [count] an
annoLlncementin a newspaper,on
television,on the Internet etc that is
designedto persuadepeople to buy
a product or service,go to an event,
or apply for a job
agreement /e'gri:ment/noun [count]
an arrangementor decisionabout
what to do, made by two or more
people,groups,or organizations
benefit l'benrfitlverb Il/T] to get an
advantage,or to give someonean
advantage
a bl essi ngi n di sgui se/e ' bl esr qr n
dts,garzlphrasesomethingthat
seemsto causeproblems,but that
you later reahzeis a good thing
blow hleul noun [count] an event
that makesyou feel very sad,
disappointed,or shocked
bottled /'bot(a)ldladj. containedin
bottles
brand lbrr:ndl noun [count] a product
or group of productsthat has its own
name and is madeby one particular
company
challenge I'tlr,lrnd3lnoun [count]
somethingthat needsa lot of skill,
energy,and determinationto deal
with or achieve
adj.
commercia| /ke'mg:(r)J(e)1/
relatingto the businessof buying
and sellinggoodsand services
consumer prod uct /kan,sju:ma(r)
'prodrrkt/noun
lcount] something
by households
intendedto be r-rsed
asthe ultimate consumer
demand ldt'mslndlnoun [uncount]
the amount of a product or service
that peoplewant, or the fact that
they want it
distribute /dr'strrbju:t/verb [T] to
supplygoodsfrom one central place
distribution /,drstrrbjuf(e)il noun
[uncount]the processof supplying
goodsfrom one centralplace

GLossAq
.ASE
sruDrES

estimated /'estrmerted/
adj. calcr_rlated recon stru cti o n /,ri:ken'strnkJ(e)n/
or guessedby r-rsing
tl'reinforr-nation
n o u n [u n c o unt]the process
of
tliat is available
building somethingagain
genuine /'dgenjurnladj.real and not
pretendeclor false
the initiative /r'nrJetrvi[singular]the
opportunityto take action before
otl-rerpeople clo
i nstallation /,rnsterle{(e)n/
noun
[count] btrildingor placethat
provideszrparticularserviceor is
trsedfor a particularinclustry

redundancy /n'dnndensi/noun
[count] a situationir-rwhich
sorneoneis told to leavetl'reirjob
becausetl-reyare lro lolrgerneeded
redundant /rr'drrndentladj. if someone
is rnaderedundant,they havebeer-r
tolcltl-ratthey must leavetheir job
becausetl-reyare no longer needed
renew kt'nju;lverb [T] to clo
somethir-rg
againafter a pause

insurance/rn'Juerens/
adj. relating
to an arrangementin which you
rumour /'ru:me(r)/noun [count]
regularlypay a colnpanyan arnount
sornethingthat peopleare saying
of r-noneyso that they will give you
that rnay,or may not be true
money if somethir-rg
tl'ratyou own is
salvage I'sa.lv:d3lverb[T] to save
dan-raged,
lost,or stolen,or if you die
thingsfrom a ship or btrildingthat
or are ill or injurecl
"
hasbeen damagedor destroyed
investment /rn'ves(t)ment/nou n
shareholder /'Jee(r),heulde(r)/
no u n
Iuncount]the processof spending
someonewho ownsshares
[count]
money in orclerto in-rprove
in zicorlpany
sometl-ring
or nake it more
successful
site /sart/noun [count] a placeuseclfor
a particularpurpose
livelihood /'larvlihud/noun Iuncount/
noun
countl somethingsuchasyour work spokesman /'speuksmen/
that providestl-renoney tl'rzrt
you
lcount] someonewhosejob is to
needto live
officiallyrepresentan organization
and to speakto journalists
mission / mrJ(e)n/[singular]an ain'r
noun [count]
tl'ratis very important to a personor
subsidy /'srrbsedi/
organizatior-r
an alrount of money that the
governmentor anotherorganization
modernise /'mode(r)natzlverb Il/T]
paysto help to reducetl-recostof a
to becomelessolcl-fashioned,
or
productor service
to nake somethingbecon'reless
old-fashioned,
triumph l'tratnmflnoun lcount] an
asa resultof new
rnethods,equipn-rent,
excitingvictory or sllccess
or ideas
negotiate /nr'geuJiert/
verb [l/T] to try
to reachan agreementby discussing
sornethingformally
owner /'eune(r)/noun [count]
someonewho ownsson'retl-ring
payout I'petautlnoun [count] an
amount of money tl-ratis paid to

viable /'vareb(e)l
I adj.able to be dorre,
or worth doing
workforce /'ws:(r)k,fc:(r)s/nou n
[s i n g u l a r]th e total numberof
peoplewho work in a particular
conpany, industry,or country

CASESTUDY3
STAFFAPPRAISAL
anonymous /e'nonrmes/
adj. done or
written by sor-neone
whosename is
not known
assessment/e'sesment/
noun [count]
tl'reprocessof thinking about
sometl-ring
careftrllyand rnakinga
j trdgen'rer-rt
about it
atmosphere /retmes,fie(r)/
noun
Isingular]the rnoodt]ratexistsir-ra
place and affectsthe peoplethere
attitude l' nfi ,t1u:dlnoun [uncount]
opir-rions
or feelingstl-ratyor-rshow
by your behavior-rr
basis/'bersrs/noun lcount] a particular
method or systemthat is usedfor
doing or organizir-rg
something
behave lblhewlverb [l] to do things
ir-rzrparticularway
conduct /ken'dnkt/verb [T] to do
son'rethingin an organizedway
delegate l'delegetlnoun [count]
someonewho is chosento represent
a group of otherpeopleat a meeting
detest ldt'testlverb[T] to hate
someoneor son'retl'ring
d i sadvanta g es /,drsed'vontrd3azl
noun [count] sornethingthat rlakes
sorrleoneor somethinglesseffectile.
successftrl.
or attractive
effectiveness /rrfektrvnes/no u n
[uncount] degreeto wl-ricl-r
son'rethingworkswell and produces
tl-reeffectthat wasintended
efficient /r'fiJ(e)ntladj. working well
and producinggooclresults,using
the availabletirne,money,supplies
etc. in tl'rernosteffectiveway
emphasi s/' emfesrs/
noun [count]
specialimportanceor attentionthat
is given to one thir-rgin particular

solTleone

plant lplotntlnoun [count] a large


factory
rebuild l,ri;'bildlverb [T] to build
somethingagainafter it I'rasbeen
darnagedor clestroyed

.ASE
sruDrES
GLossARY
E

evaluate llvnljuertlverb [T] to think


carefullyabor-rtsomethir-rg
before
yor-rmake a judgementabout its
value,importance,or quality
eva Iuation /r,vrelju'erJ(e)n/
no u n
tl're
process
making
of
[count]
a carefuljudgernentabout
sornething's
value,importance,or
quality.

excuse /rk'skju:s/noun lcount] a


reasonfor doing somethingthat you
want to do
exploit /rk'splcrt/verb [T] to treat
soneoneunfairlyin orderto get
sorrrebenefit for yourself
fou ndation /faun'ded(e)n/nou n
lcount] tl'rernostbasicpart of
somethingfrom which the restof it
develops
goal /geul/noun [count] somethir-rg
that you l-ropeto achieve
inaccurate /rn'rekjuret/adj. not
accurateor correct
inconsistent/,rnken'srstent/
adj. not
alwaysbehavingir-rtl'resameway or
producingthe sameresults
informal /rn'fc:(r)m(e)l/adj. relaxed*
friendly,and not official
irritate ltntteftlverb [T] to make you
feel anr-royedor angry
measure I'mqa(r)lverb [T] to form
an opinion abouthow goodor bad
somethirigis
medium /'mirdiem/adj. behveensmall
and largein sizeor amount
motivate /'meutrvert/verb [T] to make
someonefeel enthusiastic
about
doing somethingor determir-red
to
do something

prepared /prr'pee(r)d/noun [uncounU


c o u n tl

unpopular /nn'popjule(r)/adj. disliked


by rnanypeople

rate lrefilverb [T] to considerthat


someoneor somethinghasa
particularqualityor hasachieveda
particr-rlar
standardor level

useless/'ju:sles/adj. r-roteffective
in achievingtl'repurposeit was
intendedto achieve

rating I'rertrqlnoun [count] a


measllrementof l-rowgood or
popularsomeoneor somethingis
reinforce /,rirrn'fcr(r)s/
verb [T] to
make an idea,belief,or feeling
stronger
reward /rr'wc:(r)d/verb [T] to give
someonesornethingsuchaspraise
or money asa reward

vafues I'vnlju;zlnoun Iplural] the


prir-rciples
and beliefsthat influence
the behaviourand way of life of a
particulargroup or comrnunity
waste /werst/noun [uncount]the
failureto usesomethingthat is
valuableor useful in an effective
way

scale/skerl/noun [count] a range


of numbersor amountsforrning a
systernfor separatingthings into
differentgroups
scheme /ski:m/noun [count] a plan
that is developedby a government
or a largeorganizationin order
to providea particularservicefor
people
scoring system /'skc:n4 srstem/
noun [count] an organrzedway of
decidingthe number of points or
amountsgiven for sornething
subjective /seb'dgektrv/adj. basedon
your own feelingsand ideas,and not
on facts

motivation /,meutrrve{(e)n/nou n
subord i nate /se'bc:(r)dmet/nou n
Iuncount]a feelingof enthusiasm
[count] someonewho haslesspower
about sometl'ring,or a detern-rination
or authoritythan someoneelse
to do something
teamwork /'ti:m,ws:(r)k/nou n
nonsense/'nons(e)ns/
noun Iuncount]
[uncount] work that yor,rdo together
ideas,behaviour,or statements
that
with other people
are not true or sensible
noun [count]
timescale /'tarm,skerl/
outstand i ng /aut'strendr4/
adj.
time
in
the periodof
which
extremelygood or impressive
somethinghappensor shouldbe
done
performance /pe(r)'fc:(r)mens/noun
trust ltrrctl noun [uncount]a feeling
Iuncount]the standardof success
that someoneor somethingachieves
that you trust someoneor something
perspective /pe(r)'spektrv/nou n
lcount] away of thinking about
sornething

trust ltrttstlverb [T] to believethat


someoneor somethingis good,
honest,or reliable

prejudice /'pred5udrs/
noun [uncount]
an unreasonable
opinion or feeling,
especiallytl-refeelir-rgof not liking a
particulargroup of people

adj. not
uneconomic /,,Lni:ke'nomrk/
capableof making a profit
unfair /nn'fee(r)/adj. not fair, just , or
reasonable

CASE
sruDrEs
GLossAE

CASESTUDY4
COMPANY STRUCTURE
accounta bi Iity /e,kaunte'brleti/
noun [uncount] responsibility
for
somethingtl'rathashappened
accountable /e'kaunteb(e)1/
adj. in a
positionwhere people can criticize
you or askyou why something
happened
advantage /ed'vo:ntrd3/noun [count]
a good featureor quality that
somethinghas;somethingthat
makesone personor thing more
likely to succeedthan others
advice led'varclnoun [uncount]an
opinion that someonegivesyou
about the bestthing to do in a
particularsituation
advise led'vatzlverb[l/Tl to give your
opinion to someoneaboutthe best
thing to do in a particr-rlar
situation
approach ldpreutfl noun [count] a
way of dealingwith something
branch hrolntJl noun [count] a
shop or office representinga large
companyor organizationin a
particulararea
centralise /'sentrelarzlverb [T] to give
control of a country, organization,
or ir-rdustry
to one centralgroup of
people
centralised /'sentrelavdl adj. brought
togetherunder the control of one
central group of people
chain lt[em/noun [count] a group
of businesses
that all belong to the
samecompany
delivery /dr'hv(e)rilnoun [count] the
processof bringing goodsor letters
to a place
depot l'depeulnoun [count] a large
building where things are stored
until they are needed
diversify /dar'vs:(r)srfar/
verb Il/T]
to developadditionalproductsor
activities
division /dr'vr5(e)n/noun lcount]
or-reof the partsinto which a large
or ganrzatronis divided

cAsE
sruDrEs
GLossARY
E

geographical /,d3i:e'grrefik(e)Il
adj.
relatingto an areaor place,or to
geography

sector /'sekte(r)/noun [count] a part


of a country'seconomic or business
activity

growth lgreu9lnoun [uncount]an


increasein the nunber. size.or
importanceof something

segment /'segment/noun lcount] a


part of something

h iera rchy /'hare,ro:(r)ki/nou n


[uncount]a systemfor organizing
people accordingto their status
HR /,eftJ'or(r)/noun [uncount] Human
- the departmentin an
Resources
organizationthat is responsiblefor
looking afterall of the peoplewho
work there,and for choosingnew
workers
logistics/le'dgrstrks/
noun lplural]
the practicalarrangernents
that
in order to organize
are necessary
solrlethingsr-rccessfully
+

stock /stok/noun [uncount]the goods


that are availableto buy in a shop
suppfy lse'plarlverb[T] to provide
someoneor somethingwith
somethingthat they need or want
tafent lttr,lentlnoun[uncount]a
natural ability for doing a particular
activitywell
team lti'^m/noun lcount] a group of
peoplewho work together
temporary /'temp(e)reriladj. existing,
done, or usedfor only a limited
periodof time

lorry l'loril noun [count] a largeroad


vehicle that is usedfor carrying
goods= TRUCK

truck ltrtyk/noun lcount] a large road


vehicle that is usedfor carrying
goods= LORRY

operating costs /'operertrpkosts/


noun [plural] the day-to-day
expensesincurred in running a
business

wa rehouse /'wee(r),haus/nou n
[count] a big building wherelarge
amountsof goodsare stored

operational /,ope'rerJ(e)nel/
adj.
relatingto the way somethingworks
policy /'polesi/noun [count] a setof
plansor actionsthat are agreedon
by a government,politic:rl party,
business,or other orgar-rization
profit l'profftl noun [uncount]
money that you get when you sell
sornethingfor a price that is higher
than the costof rnaking it or buying
it
project l'prod3ektlnoun [count]
an organizedattempt to achieve
something
promote lpre'meutlverb[T] to support
somethingor to help son-rething
to
develop
retail l'rilteilladj. relatingto the saleof

to thepublicfortheir
il""d:$r"ctly
role lreull noun lcount] the pr-rrpose
or influencethat someoneor
somethinghas

CASE STUDY5
LINUX
adapt le'dnptl verb [T] to make
somethingmore suitablefor a new
Llseor situation
afford le'fct(r)dlverb[T] to have
enor-rghmoney to pay for something
bilf ion I'b:Irjen/numberthe nr,rmber
1 ,0 00, 000, 000
budget I'btd3ttlverb [l] to careftrlly
plan the way you will spendyour
noney
compatible /kem'preteb(e)l/
adj. able
to be usedtogetherwith another
pieceof computerequipmentor
sofhvare
consequence /'konsrkwens/nou n
+
[count] a resultor effectof
something

gadget I'gndgtl noun [count] a srnall


tool or piece of equipment tl'rat
doessomethinethat is useftrlor
impressive
a great deal of sth /e 'grert ,di:l ev
phrasea largeamount of
srrmOr4/
something
ha rdware /'ho:d(r),wee(r)/nou n
[uncount] computer equipment
illegal /r'li:g(e)l/adj. not allowedby
the law
install /rn'stcrl/verb [T] to put a piece
of equipmentsomewhereor a
pieceof softwareinto a computer
and make it readyfor use

nlore

Po\\ cITLil crf cfJctn\

version /'vsr(r)J(e)rV
noun lcount] a
form of somethingthat is different
fron'rother forms or fron'rthe
original
viability /,vare'brleti/
noun [uncount]
abilitvto work and succeed

margin /'mc(r)dgrnlnoun [count] an


additionalamount of time, space,
money etc that you include to be
certain that you will be safeor
successful
monopoly /me'nopeli/noun [uncount]
cornpletecontrol over somethingby
one organizationor person

effective lt'fektwI adj. working well


and producingtl'reresultthat was
intended

pirate version l,parcet'vs:(r)J(e)rV


adj.
illegal copy of computer prgoram,
book,videoor CD

efficiency /r'fiJ(e)nsi/noun [uncount]


the ability to work well and produce
good results,using the available
time, money,suppliesetc. in the
most effectiveway

policy /'polesi/noun [count] a setof


plansor actionsthat are agreedon
by a government,political party,
business,
or other organization

evaluate lt'vnljueftlverb [T] to think


carefullyabout somethingbefore
you makea a judgementabout its
value,importance,or quality

Prograln
upgrade l"tp,gretdlnoun [count] a
piece of equipment or softwarethat
is designedto make_acomputer

license/'lars(e)ns/
noun [count] an
official document that givesyou
permissionto do or usesomething

desktop com puter /,desktop


kem'pju:te(r)/noun [count] a
computer of a sizedesignedto
be usedon a deskor table,as
opposedtolargermachines,suchas
mainframes,and srnallermachines,
such aslaptops

effort l'efe(r)tlnoun [uncount]


physicalor mental energyneededto
do something

update l"tpdeftl noun [count] a piece


of softwarethat containsrecent
improvementsto a computer

pricing l'prarsr1ladj.relatingto the


amount of moneythat is chargedfor
something
secure /sr'kjue(r)l adj. safefrom attack,
harm or damage
software /'sof(t),wee(r)/nou n
[uncount]the programsusedby
computersfor doing particularjobs

licensing fees /'lars(e)nsr4


,fi:z/noun
[plural] moneythat you pay to an
organizationto be allowed to use
their sofh,vare

stability /ste'brleti/noun [uncount]a


situationin which thingscontinue
without any major changesor
problems

format /'fcr(r)mret/noun [uncount/


count] the arrangenlent,
size,or
shapeof something

stable /'sterb(a;l/adj. not changing


frequently,and not likely to
suddenlvbecorneworse

cAsE
sruDrEs
GLossAE

t
l\'lacnrillau[t]diicatinr
Ilehn'cen'Ibu'rrsRoad. (Jxford OX4 ll'tl
I'ublishersLirnited
A clivisionof h'lacn'riliarr
(Jornpanicsand representltivcstlrr-otrqhout
the rvorlcl
17lj -6
lsBN 978-0-210-7
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SirncinClaLkci009
Design arrd illustrntioniO Vlacriiillan Puhlislrersl,rmited 2(109
I,'irstpubl isfredl0iil
'I'his
cdition 2009
no part of this publicatir;rrnrav bc rcpnrdtrcccl,storc,d
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in a reltrievalsvstcnt,iransnrittcdirt att,vfolnr'or iit' uttt nlealls'elelctrorric,
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Illustratedb1"Julian h4osedalcp l 08
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Cover designby Kciili Shar,i.'l'hrcefr;lti
Covcr photographsbv IN{AC}HSOURCtt, PHO1'OAIiI'O
ierrts:
Antl iors' acknolvieclgcn
'I'lre
first cdition oltln C)onipLlnywas ccnrniissiotredbi' David lLilev rvhrr
is sadll'no ionger"u'ithr-rs.I ruill be forevergratefuito hinr for givirrgrne
a chance fo gct inio plint in the first plaie and lre corttinuesto be arr
. I-lisiclcasand advicehaverc'miliitedaspertirierrtand
intporiant inflr-rcnce
valuablc for suhseqirentproicctsasfor tirc first eclitionof In Cc;nrpanvPreInterrnediatc
\"lanv thauksio the tcarn af N'lacnrillanarrdcspeciallyto Ilariira I{ictrter
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to Kathcr:irreStannettwho editecithc
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i:ublishcrsrvtiuldlike ta thank [{ob Ratio, Brvron, Rornc;Angela


Wright, Briiish C)otrncil,Rorne;Norntati Cain,lll ldorne;tiiona Canrpbcll,
'Jbach-ln
l{onre; Sr.te(litrtort, lnis Cleg* artd lrertc l"rederick, [.1r1ivs15ify
iif Panna;Sirnon F{opsonand Gordoir l)o14c,LrtensiveBusincssFinglisir,
N{ilan; I)errnisN4arino,ISocconitlniver:sih'.l\4ilan;l\'like CrLrikshank,
AdvancedLanqtrageServiccs,N{ilan; Christinc 7'artl>an,Persotito Pcr:son,
1\'lilan;Fiona O'(lonnor, In-(loilrpanv Flnglish,\,'{iian;Pel.erPanton.
ftrnttin Sclrool,i\'liiarr;Colin lrving Bell, Novara;N'lartaRociliguez
Casal,(]oai ltush Institnte,llucnos Aires; fi,lizabethN'langianrl Siivil
\/entura,NFI'I'Ngr,Iinglislr'Itainiug, llttenosAires;()raciclal?riinra and
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VcronicaCerrirri,Ci\BSI. lJucnos.\ires;\,'iviarraPisatti,.t\sociaci6n
l\1unruos,lluenos;\ires;ClaucliaSiciliano,LliA Institute, Bttenos-t\ires;
Cr-icah'lartocq,Ai\CI, Buenosi\ircs; l,ititra l,ervitr,ABS hriernationai,
BuenosAires;Charlic [-,opez,Instituto Big Berr,I]ttenosAires;Alice Filvira
Prtricia IJIolr,er;
VnleriaSiliscalciri;C)arlaClravcs;Virginia
N4achaclo;
(larcia; Crrltura Inglesa,ltio de ]arreiro;Srtsanl)ianne N{acc,Britarrrria,Rio
dc |arreiro;fohrr Paraskori,l)ilnrond School, Sbvres;I )orothv R:llcv nnd
NacliaFairbrotlier, f',xcct.ttivcL,anguagcServices,Paris;Clairc N,{ach,{r,rrray,
F'rancolliitish Chainber of
Fbnnaiargues,I?aris:Claire Oldnreaclorv,
and ;\nne jatncs,II;'G l,angues,Paris;Karl
Cornrrcrce, Palis;lrrgrirl Fbrrssat
Willcnrs, Qtrai d'OrsavLanguaqeCcntre, Paris;I-,ouisllrazier"Ciarc l)avis'
, Ptris; }oirn
JacquelincI)crrbel, Siobhan N{ladakand l{eclge.'lEl6lairgue
\,'lorrison h,'liine,Iair Stricle.(lareth ltlastanci Richarrl lv{arrisort,II{ \'{adricl;
Gina Cucirricllc; I{clcna C}ornrn;P;inrlcitcDooler.
'I'he

prrbiishcrsu'or-rldlikc to lJrankthe follorvingschoalsarril tcachersfor


thcir help in developingthe secondc:dition:Sylviali,enaiicion,I'Iannali
-liilnsfe
r, Paris;Nadia Ilairbrothcr at lixecutir.'c
L,cloup, Sven Steph at
Patis;Panl
L,anguagesenices,Paris;Fiona l)elattet'l.iill'onnalarrgucs,
Charnbcrs,Rr-rthlv4aslcnat BPJ-,,Paris:\4oirl Jansenand teachersat Arlglo
arrd]ohn l{yds ,1 lntc:rnatiorral
FlnglishScfrool,I{arrburg; Patrick\Vc"nrlFe
I-k:use,flarnbtrrg;CharlesReid Dick, Christine Dlngokenckv,Petra
it'locklinghoff, Marie'Colettc Docld. Oria NllacNlahorr ai F},rrospeak,
I{anrburg;Bili Cope at finglish School ol'}-[anrhurg;SlavornirGibarti,
Sior,akia;SvlvieJeanloz,Ii'rancc.
N'flnv tlranks io a]i thc ieachersaroturclthe rvorid rvho taok the tinre to
cornpleteorrr ln Oompany online qr"restinnrtaire.
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authorsarrdpuhlishersr.i,ouidiike to thrnk ilic,follorvirrgfrrr pcrmissiorr


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author arrdpubiishcrsarc gratefuifor pcrmissionto reprint thc:


follou'ing cop-vrightnratcrial:
Adapteciextracts
Il,xiractsaborrt Facebooktakcn ft.ornwr.r,w.faccbook.com;
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2013201220lr 20102009
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