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1.

0 OBJECTIVE
To provide and strenghten knowledge, skill, understanding in solid determination and
enable to relate theories taught to the practices in laboratory.
2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME
1. Apply knowledge in solid determination
2. Analyze the laboratory result and differentiate between suspended solid and dissolve
solid.
3. Identify problems and use their generic skill to solve problems.
4. Develop their ability to work in group
3.0 THEORY
Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in water or waste water. Solids may affect
water or effluent quality adversely in a number of ways. Waters with high dissolved solids
generally are of inferior palatability and may induce a favorable physiological reaction in the
transient consumer. Solids analyses are important in the control of biological and physical
wastewater treatment process and for assessing compliance with regulatory agency wastewater
effluent limitations.
Generally, total solids is the term applied to the material residue left in the dishes after
evaporation of a sample at 103C to 105C. Total solids include total suspended solids, and
total dissolved solids. Total suspended solids is the portion of total solids retained by filter,
and total dissolved solids is the portion of solids that passes through a filter of 2.0 m (or
smaller) nominal pore size under specified conditions. Fixed solids is refer to the residue of
total, suspended, or dissolved solids after heating to dryness for a specified time at a specified
temperature (500C 50 C for 15 minutes).
The weight loss on ignition is called volatile solids. Determination of fixed and volatile
solids does not distinguish precisely between inorganic and organic matter because it includes
losses due to decomposition or volatilization of some mineral salts. Settle able solids is the term
applied to the material settling out of suspension within a defined period. It may include floating
material, depending on the technique.

Settleable
solids

Imhoff cone

Filter paper

Samples

Fibre glass filter


( 2.0m)

Microwave (at
103C - 105C)

Total solids
(TS)

Dissolved
Sol
id

Microwave (at
180C 2C)

Microwave (at
103C - 105C)

Suspended solids
(SS)

Dissolved solids
(DS)

Muffle furnace (at

Muffle furnace (at

500C 50C)

500C 50C)

Volatile suspended
solids (VSS)

Fixed suspended
solids (FSS)

Volatile dissolved
solids (VDS)

Total volatile solids


TVS = VSS + VDS

Fixed dissolved
solids (FDS)

Total fixed solids


TFS = FSS + FDS

Total solids (TS)

FIGURE 1.0: TOTAL SOLID DETERMINATION

4.0 EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIAL

1. Evaporating dishes: Dishes of 100mL

6. Drying oven

capacity made of porcelain, platinum

7. Analytical balance

or high-silica glass.

8. Magnetic stirrer

2. Muffle furnace for operating at 500 oC 50 oC

9. Graduated cylinder

3.

Steam bath

10. Wid-bore pippette

4.

Desiccator

11. Low-form beaker

5. .water sample

Evaporating dishes

Pipette

clipper

Oven

vacuum

Analytical balance

water sample

Clamp

Furnace

5.1 PROCEDURE
5.2 TOTAL SOLID TEST

1. 2 crucible was labeled A,B and weighed. Data was recorded.


2. Using a 50 mL graduated cylinder, 5 mL of sample water was carefully
measured into each crucible.
3. Using gloves, the crucibles was placed into the oven and the water was allowed
to evaporate at a temperature of 180C for 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Using gloves, the crucibles was removed from the oven and placed in a
dessicator to cool for 15 minutes. A dessicator will keep the samples from
absorbing any water from the air that would increase their mass.
5. An analytical balance was used to measure the mass of each crucible with the
solids now left behind.
6. The crucible was again placed into the oven for 3 minutes at same temperature
to get constant weight or until the weight change is less than 4% of the previous
weight or 0.5 mg, whichever is less.
6. The difference in mass before and after is the mass of the total solids.
Calculations was made to convert the change in mass to mg/L total solids.

5.3 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID(SS)


1. The 2 crucible was labeled and weighed. The data was recorded.
2. A forceps was used to lift a filter paper and it was put in both crucibles. It was again weighed
and the data was recorded.
3. The sample was analyzed.

4. The filtering apparatus was assembled as shown above.


5. The water sample was first measured 5ml using beaker. Next, the sample was poured into the
filtering apparatus to pass through the filter paper. The pump was used to make the filtering
process faster. Distilled water was poured around the filter holder to make sure all the water
sample had passed through filter paper.
6. The filter paper was carefully removed from the filtration apparatus using forceps and was
transferred to the crucible again.
7. The filter paper was dried in the oven for 20 to 30 minutes at 180C in the oven. It was left
cool in the dessicator for 10 minutes. After that, the filter paper was weighed together with the
crucible and the data was recorded.
8. The filter paper was again put into the oven for 3 minutes. It was weighed until a constant
weight is obtained or until the weight change is less than 4% of the previous weight or 0.5 mg,
whichever is less.

6.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION


BENCH SHEET
6.1 Unfiltered Sample
DATA FOR TOTAL SOLID TEST (TS)
Sample A

Sample B

Volume of sample (ml)

Weight of evaporating dish (g)

25.32

24.68

Weight of evaporating dish + sample

30.25

29.58

Weight of sample (g)

4.93

4.90

Weight of evaporating dish + sample after


drying process at 180oC

25.34

24.70

Weight of solid (g)

0.02

0.02

Total Solid (TS) (mg/L)

4000

4000

10

Percentage of solid in sample (%)

0.41

0.41

Example Calculation for Sample A


1. Weight of sample = (Weight of evaporating dish + sample) (Weight of
evaporating dish)
= (30.25 25.32) g
= 4.93 g

2. Weight of solid (DS)

= (Weight of evaporating dish + sample after drying


process at 180oC) - (Weight of evaporating dish)
= (25.34 25.32) g
= 0.02 g

3. Total solid (TS)

= Weight of solid / volume sample


= (0.02 / 5) x 1000 x 1000
= 4000 mg/L

4. Percentage of solid in sample

= (Weight of solid / Weight of sample) x 100%


= (0.02/ 4.93) x 100
= 0.41 %

6.2 Filtered Sample


DATA FOR TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (SS)
Sample A

Sample B

Volume of Sample (ml)

Weight of crucible dish(g)

24.22

23.23

Weight of crucible dish + filter paper(g)

24.32

23.32

Weight of filter paper (g)

0.10

0.09

Weight of filter paper + solid after drying at 180oC

0.09

0.08

Weight of solid (g)

0.01

0.01

Weight of wet filter paper + solid before drying at


180oC(g)

0.38

0.35

Total Suspended Solid (SS) (mg/L)

2000

2000

Example Calculation for Sample A


1. Weight of filter paper = (Weight of crucible dish + filter paper) - Weight of crucible dish
= 24.32 24.22
= 0.10 g

2. Weight of solid

= Weight of filtered paper - (Weight of filtered paper + solid after drying


process at 180o )
= 0.10 0.09
= 0.01 g

2. Total suspended solid (SS)

=[ (Weight of solid (g)] x1000 / Volume sample


= (0.01) / 5 x 1000 x 1000
= 2000 mg / L

7.0 DATA ANALYSIS


7.1 Average of total solid (TS)

Total Solid A + Total Solid B

2
=

4000 + 4000
2

7.2 Average suspended solid =

4000 mg/L

Total Suspended A + Total Suspended B


2
=

2000 + 2000
2

2000 mg/L

7.3 Dissolve Sample


TOTAL SOLID (TS) = TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS) + TOTAL DISSOLVE
SOLID (TDS)
Therefore,
TOTAL DISSOLVE SOLID (TDS) = TOTAL SOLID (TS) TOTAL SUSPENDED
SOLID (TSS)
TDS = 4000mg/L 2000mg/L = 2000mg/L

8.0 DISCUSSIONS
1. Distinguish between suspended solid and dissolved solid.
Suspended solids refer to small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as
a colloid or due to the motion of the water. It is used as one indicator of water quality.It is
sometimes abbreviated SS, but is not to be confused with settle able solids, also abbreviated

SS, which contribute to the blocking of sewer pipes.Suspended solids are important
as pollutants and pathogens are carried on the surface of particles. The smaller the particle
size, the greater the total surface area per unit mass of particle, and so the higher the pollutant
load that is likely to be carried.Suspended solid will include the larger floating particles and
consist of sand, grit, clay, piece of wood, particles of food and garbage, and similar materials.
Dissolved solids are smaller in size than suspended solids. In order to differentiate them, you
will need to filter the solution and then evaporated out the liquid. The solids that filtered out
would be the suspended solids and the solids remaining in the jar after evaporation are known
as the dissolved solids.
2. Suggest some possible causes of high levels of total suspended solids.
The causes of high levels of total suspended solids (TSS) are mainly due to:

Decaying Plants and Animals


As plants and animals decay, suspended organic particles are released and can contribute
to the TSS concentration.

Urban Runoff
When surface runoff occurs due to raining or other reasons, soil particles and debris from
the land surface can be washed into streams. Because of the large amount of pavement on
the land surface, infiltration is decreased, velocity increases, and natural settling areas
have been removed. Sediment is carried through storm drains directly to creeks and
rivers.

Soil Erosion
Soil erosion is caused by the disturbance of a land surface. It could be due to the activities
such as mining, construction of building, logging and so on. The eroded soil particles can
be carried by storm water to surface water. This will increase the TSS of the water body.

Wastewater and Septic System Effluent

The effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) can transfer suspended solids
to a stream. The wastewater from our houses contains food residue, human waste, and
other solid material that we put down our drains. Most of the solids are removed from the
water at the WWTP before being discharged to the stream, but this treatment cant
eliminate the TSS completely, thus the TSS in the stream increased.
3. The suspended solid for a wastewater sample was found to be 175mg/L. if the following
test result were obtained, what size sample was used in the analysis?
Tare mass of glass fiber filter =1.5413 g
Residue on glass fiber filter after drying at 105 C = 1.5538 g

Solution:
mg Total suspended solids/L

( A - B ) 1000
Sample Volume, (mL)

175 x 103 g/L

[(1.5538 1.5413) 103] g 1000


X

12500 g
X

=
=

175 103 g/L X


12500 g
175 103 g/L

0.00714 L

71.429 mL

9.0 CONCLUSION
In conclusion, we had achieved the objective of this experiment that is determine the
difference between suspended solid and dissolve solid. In this experiment, we only did for total
suspended solid test and other group did the total solid test. We learned that total solid test is
equal to total suspended solid plus total dissolve solid. From this equation, we get the value of
dissolve solid by using value of total solid minus value of suspended solid. Despite, we didnt do
the volatile test to the consuming of longer time.
We learned that theoretical for total solid on inlet is greater than outlet at same treatment
plant process. For total dissolved solid, the conditions that tend to suspend larger particles
through water motion can produce higher values of Total Suspended Solid not necessarily
accompanied by a corresponding increase in turbidity. This is because particles above a certain
size are not measured by a bench turbidity meter, but contribute substantially to the Total
Suspended Solid value.