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IGCSEandGCSETourism
IGCSEandGCSETourism
Specification:
3.3Leisureactivitiesandtourism
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
Describeandexplainthegrowthofleisurefacilitiesandtourisminrelationtothemainattractionsofthephysicalandhumanlandscapeinanareaorareasselectedforstudy.
Demonstrateanunderstandingthattheeffectsofagrowthintourismaregenerallypositiveandthatcarefulmanagementisneededifproblemsaretobeavoided.Reference
couldbemadetoadvantagesaccruingfromtourismsuchasgrowthinincome,anincreaseinforeignexchange,employmentopportunities,thedevelopmentofinfrastructureand
facilitieswhichmaybeusedbythelocalpopulation,theencouragementofotherdevelopmentstotakeplaceinanarea,culturaladvantages,etc.Disadvantagesmightinclude
seasonalunemployment,underuseoffacilitiesatcertaintimesoftheyear,increasedcongestion,pollution,ashortageofservicese.g.watersupplies,social/culturalproblems,
damagetothephysicallandscape,etc.Aselectedsamplestudyshouldbeusedtoillustrateboththebenefitsanddisadvantagesassociatedwiththegrowthoftourism.
Leisure:Anyfreelychosenactivitythattakesplaceinnonworktime(IBdefinition).
Tourism:Thebusinessorindustryofprovidinginformation,accommodations,transportation,andotherservicestotourists.
DomesticTourist:Someonewhogoesonholidayinthecountrythattheyareresidentin(livein).
InternationalTourist:Someonewhogoesonholidaytoacountrytheyarenotresidentine.g.theyliveinElSalvadorbutgototheUSforholiday.
Resort:Atypeoflargehotelthatoffersextrafacilitieslikeswimmingpools,spas,restaurants,bars,activities,etc.
PackageHoliday:Thisiswhenallaspectsofaholidaye.g.flights,hotel,transfers,etc.areincludedinoneoverallprice.
Allinclusive:Ahotelorresortthatincludeseverythinge.g.food,activitiesanddrinkinoneoverallprice.
LowcostorBudgetAirline:Airlinesthatprovidecheapflightsbyremovingalladdonsasstandardandchargingpeopleiftheywantthen.Forexampleifyouwanttocheckinat
theairportorcheckabagintothehold,reserveaseatoreveneatfoodontheflight,youhavetopayextra.

GrowthofTourism
Tourismisarapidlygrowingindustryandisconsideredbymanycountriestobeanimportantdevelopmentstrategy.CurrentlythemajorityofinternationaltouristsgotoMEDCs,
butmanyLEDCsarealsoseeingrapidgrowthintourism.IwillmentionthegrowthinLEDCdestinationsalittlelater.
externalimage20071016_164233.gif

ReasonsforGrowthinTourism
LeisureTime:Mostworkersnowenjoyatwodayweekendandinadditionareentitledtoseveralweeksholiday.Thisholidaytimecanbespentgoingonholiday.
PaidHoliday:Notonlydoanincreasingamountofworkersreceiveholiday,theyarealsopaidforit.Thismeansthatpeopledonotlosetheirweeklyincomebygoingon
holiday.UKworkersgetleastpaidleaveBBCarticle
Income:Moreandmorepeopleareworkinginthesecondaryandtertiarysectors,wherepayisgenerallyhigher.Alsomanymorefemalesarenowworking.Thismeansthat
morepeoplenowhavemoneytospendonholidays(higherdisposableincome).
Transport:Airtravelhasbecomerelativelycheaperandtherearenowmoreairportsopenforholidayflights.Inadditionroadandrailnetworkshaveopenedupnewtourist
destinations.AirbusandAirAsiaannouncerecorddealfor200planesBBCarticle
Advertising:Peoplearenowbombardedbyholidayadvertsontheinternet,television,radio,mobilephones,billboards,etc.Thismakespeoplemoreawareofholiday
destinationsandpossiblymoretemptedtobookthem.
TravelPrograms:Thereareahugeamountoftravelprogramsontelevisionsopeopleareabletoviewdestinationsthattheyhavenotheardof,temptingthemtogo.
Touristfacilities:Touristfacilitieshavegenerallyimprovedandincreasedinnumber.Therearenowmanymorehotelsofallsizesandmosthavefairlystandardservices.
Freedom:Morepeople,especiallywomenandtheelderlyarefreetotravelandgoonholidays.InadditionformerlyclosedcountrieslikeChinanowallowmostoftheir
citizenstotravel.
Rangeofholidays:Thereisnowamuchgreatervarietyofholidaysthatcanattractpotentialtouristse.g.golfholidays,divingholidays,walkingholidays,cookingholidays.
EaseofBooking:Theinternethasnowmadebookingholidaysmuchmorestraightforward.Alsopackageholidaysallowpeopletopayonepricebuthaveallaspectsof

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theirholidaypaidfore.g.flights,hotels,etc.
CreditCards:Moreandmorepeoplenowowncreditcardswhichmakesbookingholidaysandpayingforthingsinaforeigncountrymucheasier.
PassportOwnershipandVisaRegulations:Morepeoplenowownpassportssoareabletotravelandtheprocessofobtainingvisasisnowmuchmorestraightforward.
RetirementandLifeExpectancy:Peoplearenowlivinglongerandremainhealthierlonger.Anincreasingamountofpeoplealsoretirewithapension.Thismeansthatmore
peoplearefitenoughandhealthierenoughtogoonholiday.
ReasonsforGrowthinLEDCs
NewDestinations:Peoplearegettingincreasinglyboredoftraditionallocationsandwanttoexperiencenewandexoticdestinations.
ExchangeRates:LEDCsoftenhaveweakercurrenciesmakinggoingonholidaytothemalotcheaper.
Advertising/EaseofBooking:LEDCsnowadvertisethemselvesmuchbetteranditiseasiertobookthesedestinationsonline.
Transport:Manycountrieshaveupgradedtheirtransportinfrastructuremakingtraveltothemeasier.
Security:ManyLEDCsarenowmuchmorestablewithlesssecurityworriessomorepeoplearepreparedtogoonholidaytothem.
Althoughthegraphaboveshowsthatinternationaltourismisgenerallyincreasing(withmaybetheexceptionof2007)regionscansuffertemporaryorevenpermanentdeclines.A
regionmayexperienceadeclinebecauseof:
Terrorisme.g.BalibombingorMumbaiterrorattacks
Crimee.g.MexicoorevenElSalvador
Naturaldisasterse.g.tsunamiinIndianOceanorhurricanesintheCaribbean
Economicdownturne.g.recessionsanddebtcrisisinEurope
Ware.g.Afghanistan
Alsosomedestinationsmaybecomerundownorpeoplesimplygetboredofgoingtothesamelocation.
ThetableaboveshowsthatFranceisthenumberonedestinationforinternationaltourists.Franceispopularbecause:
ItissurroundedbyMEDCse.g.Germany,Belgium,UK,ItalyandSpain
Ithasanexcellenttransportnetwork
Ithasdevelopedtouristsfacilitiese.g.hotelsandtouragencies
Ithasmanyhistoricalattractionse.g.EiffelTowerandCarcassonne
Itisfamousforitsfoodandwine
Ithasgoodweatherinthesouthnearlyallyear
Itattractsmanydifferentholidaymakerse.g.skiers,beachlovers,surfersandrafters.
Chinaiscurrentlyonly8thonthelist,butitprobablyalreadyhasthemostdomestictouristsandinthefuturewillprobablyattractmanymoreinternationaltourists.
Althoughtourismisseenasadevelopmentstrategybymanycountries,itdoesnotsolelycreateadvantages,butcanalsocreatesomedisadvantages:

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

SOCIAL/CULTURAL

Localpeoplecanperformtraditionaldanceandmusictotouriststherefore
protectingtheirlocalculture.
Touristsmaypaytovisitmuseumsprotectinglocalartifacts.
Historicalruinsmaybeprotectedorrebuilttoattracttourists.
Mayimprovecountriesreputationandcreatecrossculturallinks.
Encourageseducationinordertoworkintouristsectorandshouldimprove
linguisticskills

Anincreaseintouristsmaycausegreatercongestion,leading
tolongerperiodsspentawayfromfamilies.Alsoincreased
transportmayincreaseproblemsofasthmaandtraffic
accidents.
Tourismcanincreasecertaincrimes,likeprostitutionandtheft
Peoplemaybecomemorematerialisticandhomogenisedwith
thearrivalofinternationaltourists.
Maycreateracialtensionsbetweentouristsandlocals

ECONOMIC

Jobsarecreatedforlocalworkersinhotels,restaurants,etc.
Secondaryjobsarealsocreatedinshops,maintenancefirms,etc.
Workersandcompaniespaytaxestothegovernment.Thismoneycanthenbe
invested.
Peoplelearnnewskillsthatcanthenbetransferredtootherpartsofthe
economy.
Newequipmentortechnologymaybeintroducedtothecountrywhichagain
canbeusedinothersectorsoftheeconomy.
Localinfrastructurelikeroadsandelectricitymaybeimproved.

Manyofmanagerialjobsgotooverseasworkers.Local
workersoftengetlowpaidjobs
Thereiseconomicleakage(lossofmoneyoverseas)because
manyofthetouristcompaniesareTNCsandtheprofitissent
elsewhere
Manyjobsareonlyseasonalsoworkersareonlypaidhalfof
theyeare.g.theskiseasonislessthan6monthslong.
Theincreaseddemandforproductsandservicesmaycause
inflation
Countriesorregionsmaybecomedependentonjustone
industry.
Mayplacepressureoninfrastructuree.g.electricityandwater
supply

ENVIRONMENTAL

NationalParksmaybecreatedprotectingareasofnaturalbeauty
Animalsobtainaneconomicvalueifpeoplearewillingtopaytoseethem.If
thevalueoftheanimalisgreateralivethandeadpeoplewillprotectthem.One
goodexampleofthisisMountainGorillaswhichtouristswillpay$500tosee.

Sometimestouristdevelopmentsmaycausethedestruction
offorests,sanddunes,etc.
Noiseandlightpollutioncreatedbytouristdevelopmentsmay
alsointerferewithanimals.

Butler'sProductCycle
TheButler'smodelattemptstoshowthecyclethatallproductsgothroughfromthem
beinglaunchedtothemflourishingorbeingdiscontinued.Peoplehaveappliedthe
Butler'smodeltotouristdestinations.Themodelsshowsthatproductsor
destinationsgothroughsixstages.Thesixstagesare:
Exploration:Anewlydiscoveredtouristlocationthatonlyreceivesaverysmall
amountoftourists.
Involvement:Anareathatbecomesbetterknown.Tourismissupportedbythelocal
populationandtheystarttobuildbasictouristinfrastructure.
Development:Tourismbecomesanimportantsectoroftheeconomy.Thereismore

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investmentfromforeigntourfirms.Infrastructurebecomesdeveloped.
Consolidation:Growthcontinueswithresourcesdivertedtothetourismsector.
Areasmaychangetotheexclusiveuseoftourists,possiblyalienatinglocals.
Stagnation:Thereisincreasedoppositiontotourism,touristfacilitiesmaybecome
tiredandthenumberoftouristarrivalplateausorevendeclines.
Rejuvenation:Atouristdestinationrebrandsitselforimprovestouristfacilities,
offerspromotionsorimprovestransportation.
Decline:Noimprovementsaremadetothetouristdestinationandthenumberof
touristscontinuestodeclines.
ThedocumentbelowshowshowtheSpanishresortregionofCostadelSolhasmore
orlessfollowedButler'sproductcycle.
CostadeSolButler'sModel.docx
Details Download 14KB

PrimaryTouristResource:Preexistingattractionsthatwerenotspecificallybuiltforthetourismindustrye.g.churches,beaches,mountains,museums.
SecondaryTouristResource:Facilitiesthatarebuiltspecificallyforthetouristindustrye.g.hotels,restaurants,museums.
HumanAttraction:Anattractionthathasbeenbuiltormadebyhumanse.g.castles,churches,museums.
PhysicalAttraction:Naturalattractionse.g.rivers,mountains,beachesoreventheweather.

ElSalvadorCaseStudy
ElSalvadoristhesmallestcountryinCentralAmerica.ItscapitalcityisSanSalvador.Ithasa
populationofjustover6millionandaGDPpercapitaofabout$7,500.ElSalvadorhasalong
pacificcoast,idealforsurfing.Inlandthereisachainofactivevolcanoesfollowedby
mountainousareasalongtheHonduranborder.
ElSalvador'stourismindustryhasgrowndynamicallyoverrecentyearsastheSalvadoran
governmentfocusesondevelopingthissector.Lastyeartourismaccountedfor4.6%ofGDP
only10yearsago,itaccountedfor0.4%.Inthissameyeartourismgrew4.5%worldwide.
Comparatively,ElSalvadorsawanincreaseof8.97%,from1.15millionto1.27milliontourists.
Thishasledtorevenuefromtourismgrowing35.9%from$634millionto$862million.Asa
referencepoint,in1996tourismrevenuewas$44.2million.Also,therehasbeenanevengreater
increaseinthenumberofexcursionists(visitsthatdonotincludeanovernightstay).222,000
excursionistsvisitedElSalvadorin2006,a24%increaseoverthepreviousyear.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Salvador)

HUMANATTRACTIONS
TheOrangeRoute
SanSalvadorCathedral
SuchitotoandAtaco(colonialtowns)
TheFlowerRoute
Mayanattractionse.g.Tuzamal,CasaBlanca
LaPalma
PerquinandElMozote(warmemorials)
JoyadeCeren(thePompeiiofCentralAmerica)

ADVANTAGESOFTOURISM
Createjobsdirectlyandindirectlye.g.Decameronresort
Improvestheimageandreputationofthecountry(importantafterthecivilwar)
Touristcompaniesandlocalpaytaxestothegovernment
Attractsforeigninvestmente.g.IntercontinentalandHiltonhotels
Improvedroadsignage
Improvedlanguageskills,especiallyEnglishcateringforUStourists
Diversificationoftheeconomy
Increasedprotectionofnationalparksandbiodiversity

http://greenfieldgeography.wikispaces.com/IGCSE+and+GCSE+Tourism?f=print

PHYSICALATTRACTIONS
LagodeIlopango
LagodeCoatepeque
ElImpossibleNationalPark
Volcanoes(SantaAna,SanMiguel,Izalco,SanVicente,etc.)
Pacificcoast
ElPitalmountain
MontecristoForest

DISADVANTAGESOFTOURISM
Crimetheftoftourists,butalsoextortionoftouristcompanies.
Increasedcongestiononroads
Inflationintouristareas
Privatisationofsomebeaches
Airandnoisepollutionfromincreasedamountofflightsandtouristresorts
Moneydivertedintotourismfromotherservices.

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NationalPark:Anareaoflandandwaterthatisprotectedbylaw.Areasarenormallymadenationalparksbecauseoftheirnaturalbeautyand/orbiodiversity.
Honeypot:Alocationthatattractsalargeamountoftourists.
Secondhomes:Ahousethatisnotaperson'smainresidence.Aperson'ssecondhomeisnormallytheirholidayhome.
Ruraldepopulation:Themovementofpeopleoutofthecountryside.
Servicedecline:Thereductionintheamountofservicesprovidede.g.closureofbusroutes,postoffices,etc.

ThePeakDistrictNationalPark
ThePeakDistrictNationalParkisanuplandarealocatedinCentralEngland.ItbecametheUK'sfirstNational
Parkin1951.ThePeakDistrictcoversanareaof1,440km2.ThePeakDistrictistheworld'ssecondmost
visitedNationalParkafterMountFujiNationalParkinJapan.ThePeakDistrictisvisitedsomuchbecauseit
issurroundedbymanylargeurbanpopulationse.g.Sheffield,Derby,Stoke,ManchesterandNottingham.
ThePeakDistricthasnumeroushumanandphysicalattractions.Attractionsinclude:
HumanAttractions
ChatsworthHose
PeverilCastle
Castleton(beautifulruralvillage)
Bakewell(beautifulruralvillageandhomeofalocaldelicacyBakewelltart)
Reservoirs(includingLadybower)
PhysicalAttractions
Naturalmoorlandenvironment,includingtheparkshighestpeak(Kinderscout)
Limestonefeaturee.g.DovedaleValley
Riverse.gDove
Cavenetworkse.g.BlueJohnCavern(somenetworkshavebeenenlargedbymining)
TheRoaches(limestoneclifffacethatattractsclimbers)
NaturalspringsatBuxton

ProblemscausedbyTourisminPeakDistrict
ThePeakDistrict'sroadsaresmallandhavebecomeheavilycongested.
Sometouristsdroplitteringwhichisunsightlyandcanharmanimals
Manytouristsdonotstayonthefootpathscausingerosioneithersideofthepathanddamagingcrops
Sometouristsleavefarmgatesopenallowinganimalstoescape.
Alotoftheemploymentisonlyseasonal
Manytouristshavepurchasedsecondhomes.Thismeansmanyhousesarevacantforlongperiods
leadingtoruraldepopulationandservicedecline.
Touristscreateair,noiseandwaterpollution
Thelargedemandfromtouristshascausedlocalinflation(increaseinprices)

BenefitsofTourisminPeakDistrict
Jobcreation(itisestimatedtourismcreates14,200jobsin
thePeakDistrict
Income(itisestimatedtourismgeneratesover$600million
inincome)
Improvedinfrastructure(roads,electricity)
Improvedfacilitiese.g.restaurants,golfcourses,etc.
Protectionofhistoricallandmarkse.g.PeverilCastle
Protectionofnaturalbeauty
Improvedreputationandimage

Becausetourismbringadvantagesanddisadvantages,manypeopledisagreeoverhowthelandshouldbeused.Youcanlookatthesedisagreementsbycompletingaconflict
matrix.Ifyouthinkagroupwillagreeonhowtousethelandyoucanputatick,ifyouthinkthattheywilldisagreeyoucanputacross.
NationalParkConflictMatrix.docx
Details Download 15KB
AnumberofsolutionshavebeensuggestedinthePeakDistricttotryandreducetheimpactsoftourism.Thesuggestedsolutionsinclude:

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Achargetobeplacedonpeopleenteringthenationalpark(entrancefee)
Aquotaonthenumberofpeoplevisitingthenationalparke.g.10,000aday.
Improvedfootpathsandimprovedfootpathsigns
Increasedfinesforpeoplelitteringandmorebins.
Improvedpublictransport,especiallyparkandridessopeopleleavetheircarsoutsidethenationalpark
Aredistributionoftourists.Advertisedifferentsiteswithintheparkbettersopeoplearespreadoutmoreevenly.
However,alotofthesesolutionsarehardtoimplementbecausethePeakDistrictNationalParkisaworkingpark.Thismeanspeopleliveandworkwithintheparksoany
restrictionsonmovementorchargeswillbedifficulttoenforce.
Sustainabletourism:Touristactivitiesthataresocially,environmentallyandeconomicallysustainable.
Ecotourism:Holidaysthatinvolveecorelatedactivitiesandaresustainablee.g.hiking,birdwatching,horseriding,etc.
EcologicalFootprint:Thisisameasureofyourdemandontheearth'sresources.
GlobalFootprintNetwork

TambopataEcolodge
TheTambopataNationalReserve(TNR)andtheBahuajaSoneneNationalParkjointocreateanareaofsubtropicalrainforestcovering3,000,000acres.The
originalTambopataCandamoReservedZone(TCRZ)wascreatedbyaministerialresolutionin1990.BothreservesarelocatedintheAmazonrainforestinsouth
eastPeru.

external
image
Map.jpg

Foundedbackin1991,theTambopataEcoLodgeisoneofthemostestablishedecotourismlodgesonthebanksoftheTambopataRiver.Withacapacityofonly
59,itisoneofthesmallestlodgesinthereserve.
Thelodgeemploysabout20localPeruvians.Allbuildingsaremadefromlocalmaterials,woodandthatch.Thereisnomainselectricity,allroomsarelitby
candlelight.However,somebuildingsarenowpoweredbysolarenergy.LocalPeruvianfoodisservedinthediningroomusinglocalproducts.
Alltransportationisbyboatandthelocalguidesaimtoeducateallguestsabouttheimportanceofprotectingthelocalfloraandfauna.
TambopataEcolodge

TypicalEcotourismActivities
Hiking
Kayaking
Birdwatching
Safari(animalwatching)
Cycling
Beachcleaning
Treeplanting
Completingbirdandanimalsurveys

HowEcotouristResortsCanBeEcofriendly
Userenewableenergysourcese.g.windandsolar
Buildusingonlylocalproducts
Serveonlylocalfood,usinglocallysourcedproducts
Employonlylocalstaff
Recycleallwaste
Treatandcleanallwater
Educateguestsabouttheimportanceofprotectingtheenvironment
Promotelocalculture

Despitetheaimsofecotourismcaringfortheenvironmentandthelocalcultureandenvironment,itstillhasitscritics.Criticsarguethatmosttouristsstilltravellongdistancesto
reachecotouristdestinations,thusreleasinglargeamountsofgreenhousegaseswhentheyfly.Criticsalsoarguethatthebuildingofanylodgeswillcausethedestructionofthe
naturalhabitatanddisturblocalfloraandfauna.Alsoguests,howevercarefulwillcreatewastethatneedstobedisposedof.
Tourismticksheet.doc
Details Download 978KB
Tourismdefintions.doc
Details Download 985KB

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