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Class 18

ENME02 Fall 2015

Unit 4: Textos de comprensin lectora, la cohesin por anforas y vocabulario especializado.

Criterio de evaluacin
4.1.2. Comprende referencias anafricas, a fin de establecer las relaciones de significado en la lectura de textos
Activity 1. Look at the texts attached and choose one you consider the most interesting. Then, find 7 words
or expressions related to specific vocabulary about mechanics. Write the sentence in which they appear
and translate them. Follow the example.
Activity 2. Considering the anaphoric references which give coherence to the text and the specific
vocabulary you have learnt, fully translate one of the four texts presented in this worksheet. (The teacher
will assign you text).
Follow the criteria given in the evaluation sheet for translation.
Text N 1 (class 17)

Cohesion shown in the text

Spanish meaning


The pistons are connected to a crankshaft

Los pistones estn conectados a un



The mechanical energy moves pistons upand- down inside cylinders.

La energa mecnica mueve los pistones

arriba y abajo dentro de los cilindros.

Linear motion

Class 18
ENME02 Fall 2015

Text N1

Could anti-lock brakes detect a flat?

e Gallery
Wouldn't it be nice if your braking system could sense a flat before you ended up stranded in the middle of nowhere? See
more brake pictures.
Rubberball Productions/Getty Images

An ABS (anti-lock braking system) is a system that helps a driver to avoid skids during panic stops. In a car with
a normal braking system, all four wheels will lock and cause the car to skid if the driver jams on the brakes in a
panic situation. The problems with skidding are:
1. The car will actually take longer to stop.
2. The driver loses all control of the vehicle.
An anti-lock braking system lets a computer monitor the wheels. If one of them locks, the computer can pulse the
brake on that wheel so that the wheel keeps spinning. Because the wheels continue to spin, the driver can continue
to control the car with the steering wheel.
The computer senses rotation using a rotation sensor on each wheel. If the computer were programmed correctly
and if there were a light on the dashboard, then the computer could detect a flat tire. What the computer could do is
look at different rotational speeds for one out of the four wheels. A flat tire would spin faster than a properly inflated
tire, so the computer would look for one tire spinning faster than the other three, on average, over the course of a
period of time. Then it could warn the driver by activating the light on the dash.
There are several production cars that use this technique. Starting with 2006 models, the NHTSA (National
Highway Transportation Safety Administration) requires that all cars have a tire pressure monitoring system.

Class 18
ENME02 Fall 2015

Text N2

How Brakes Work

by Karim Nice

The layout of a typical brake system. See more pictures of brakes.


Braking Guide

How Emergency Brakes Work

How Disc Brakes Work

Brake Type Differences Quiz

We all know that pushing down on the brake pedal slows a car to a stop. But how does this happen? How does
your car transmit the force from your leg to its wheels? How does it multiply the force so that it is enough to stop
something as big as a car?
When you depress your brake pedal, your car transmits the force from your foot to its brakes through a fluid. Since
the actual brakes require a much greater force than you could apply with your leg, your car must also multiply the
force of your foot. It does this in two ways:

Mechanical advantage(leverage)

Hydraulic force multiplication

Class 18
ENME02 Fall 2015

The brakes transmit the force to the tires using friction, and the tires transmit that force to the road using friction
also. Before we begin our discussion on the components of the brake system, we'll cover these three principles:




Text N3

How Air Brakes Work

by Josh Briggs

Image Gallery: Brakes Think you could move one of these bad boys in a pinch?
Greg Pease/Getty Images

Imagine it's your first week on the job as a dockhand at a rundown trucking company. Everyone is running around
trying to finish loading the last pallet of cargo on the back of a huge tractor-trailer truck bound for the opposite
coast. Suddenly, one of the foremen tells you to move one of the trucks out of the way so another driver can back
up to the loading dock. Assuming you know how to drive such a vehicle, the foreman keeps going, but you pause -because you don't.
Trying to please the higher-ups and to ignore the fact that you don't have a truck driver's license, you hop into the
cab, close the door and turn the key. Before the diesel engine cranks, youre startled by a mind-numbing buzzer
and flashing light on the dashboard. You fire the engine, but the buzzer and light keep grabbing your attention.

Class 18
ENME02 Fall 2015

Youve driven a stick shift before, so you think you have it covered. Despite the sensory overload, you push in
the clutch, grab what you think is the low gear and ease out the clutch. Instead of lurching forward as you expect,
youre greeted with a violent bang, the engine dies and youre almost thrown through the windshield.
You restart the engine, figuring you put the truck in the wrong gear, and select what you think is the right one. Still,
the buzzer and light cause havoc inside the cab. Maybe the emergency brake is still on. You dont see any brake
handle or lever that you would normally see in a car, so you decide to just let the clutch out and give it another
Much to your embarrassment, the same thing happens. Out of the corner of your eye you see that same foreman
hollering at you from the loading dock. Frustrated, you jump out of the cab and throw up your hands in
bewilderment, as the scowling supervisor jogs toward you.
Welcome to the world of air brakes. In this article, youll learn how air brakes and their components work, how to
maintain an air-brake system and why you couldnt move that truck. Next, let's see how George Westinghouse got
you into this situation.

Class 18
ENME02 Fall 2015

Text N4

How Power Brakes Work

by Josh Briggs
by Karim Nice

If you've ever opened the hood of your car, you've probably seen the brake booster. It's the round, black cannister
located at the back of the engine compartment on the driver's side of the car.
Back in the day, when most cars had drum brakes, power brakes were not really necessary -- drum brakes
naturally provide some of their own power assist. Since most cars today have disc brakes, at least on the front
wheels, they need power brakes. Without this device, a lot of drivers would have very tired legs.

Class 18
ENME02 Fall 2015

The brake booster uses vacuum from the engine to multiply the force that your foot applies to the master cylinder.
In this article, we'll see what's inside the black cannister that provides power braking.

Class 18
ENME02 Fall 2015




Cantidad de Palabras

Ingls Mecnica


A establecer de acuerdo con las

caractersticas del texto a traducir.

Error de traduccin

Descuento a partir del puntaje total


Cambios de idea :
Cambio total en el sentido de la traduccin en relacin a la idea en LO

Lnea no traducida

Falta de uso de recursos de traduccin cuando corresponde :

sustraccin, transposicin categora y orden, modulacin, traduccin de
modismos y expresiones fijas, connotaciones, adaptacin cultural, ampliacin,
traduccin de extranjerismos.
Omisin de palabra

Falsos amigos, calcos, prstamos, terminologa especializada, acepcin adecuada,
precisin lxica.
Con Concordancia, redundancia,
cacofona, dequesmos, ultracorreccin, idiotismo e
impropiedad, abuso de voz pasiva sobre-traduccin, perder fidelidad de decodificacin.
Pun Puntuacin, uso de maysculas, singularidad/pluralidad, uso de preposiciones, artculos,


(por cada falta cometida)