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LABORATORIO DE SIMULACIN (Physioex 9.0).

Ejercicio N 2:
FISIOLOGA DEL MSCULO ESQUELTICO-ACTIVIDADES DEL 1 AL 7.

ALUMNO: ANTHONY HUAMN ALAYO


COD: 20120353
CURSO: FISIOLOGA DE ANIMALES DE GRANJA-LABORATORIO
GRUPO: A
CICLO: 2015-I

Exercise 2: Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Activity 1: The Muscle Twitch and the Latent Period Lab Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.
1. Skeletal muscles are connected to bones by
You correctly answered: b. tendons.
2. Skeletal muscles are composed of hundreds to thousands of individual cells called
You correctly answered: c. fibers.
3. The term motor unit refers to
You correctly answered: c. one motor neuron and all of the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates.
4. The motor neuron and muscle fiber intersect at what is called
You correctly answered: d. the neuromuscular junction.
5. A twitch is
You correctly answered: a. one contractile response to a single action potential.

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Experiment Results
Predict Question:
Predict Question: Will changes to the stimulus voltage alter the duration of the latent period?
Your answer : b. No, changing the stimulus voltage will not change the latent period duration.
Stop & Think Questions:
What is the period of time that elapses between the generation of an action potential and the start of muscle tension
development in a muscle fiber?
You correctly answered: c. the latent period
What occurs during the latent period of these isometric contractions?
You correctly answered: b. All the steps of excitation-contraction coupling occur.
Experiment Data:
Voltage
0.0
3.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

Length
75
75
75
75
75
75

Active Force
0.00
1.04
1.32
1.65
1.81
1.82

Passive Force
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

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Total Force
0.00
1.04
1.32
1.65
1.81
1.82

Latent Period
----0.40
----------

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Post-lab Quiz Results


You scored 100% by answering 7 out of 7 questions correctly.
1. An action potential in a motor neuron triggers the release of which neurotransmitter?
You correctly answered: b. acetylcholine
2. The term skeletal muscle fiber refers to
You correctly answered: a. an individual skeletal muscle cell.
3. The graded depolarization in the skeletal muscle fiber that is elicited in response to one action potential from the motor
neuron is called
You correctly answered: c. an EPP (end-plate potential).
4. Which of the following is not a phase of a skeletal muscle twitch?
You correctly answered: b. hyperpolarization phase
5. A skeletal muscle twitch is
You correctly answered: a. one contractile response to a single action potential.
6. Which of the following correctly matches the twitch phase with its definition?
You correctly answered: d. the contraction phase: the time between the end of the latent period and peak muscle tension
7. A sufficiently strong electrical stimulus applied to an isolated, mounted skeletal muscle induces the development of
muscle force, or muscle tension. Which of the following statements concerning this observation is true?
You correctly answered: c. The electrical stimulus mimics acetylcholine release at a neuromuscular junction

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Review Sheet Results


1. Define the terms skeletal muscle fiber, motor unit, skeletal muscle twitch, electrical stimulus, and latent period.
Your answer:
Definiciones:
-Fibra muscular esqueltica: Son clulas musculares estriadas; tienen muchos ncleos dispuestos perifricamente
pudiendo considerarse un sincitio, cuyo origen es la fusin de mioblastos, su regulacin puede ser voluntaria y est
controlada por el sistema nervioso somtico.
-Unidad motora: Es la que emite el impulso que en ltimo trmino hace que la fibra muscular se contraiga lo que quiere
decir que conduce los impulsos del cerebro y la mdula espinal hacia los efectores (msculos).
-Contraccin del musculo esqueltico: Es la fase que comienza al final del perodo de latencia y termina cuando el
msculo alcanza la mxima tensin.
-Estimulo elctrico: Es la aplicacin de electricidad en muy poco o reducidos voltaje, en partes del cuerpo, nervios,
msculos, con el fin de conseguir una respuesta de movimiento.
-Periodo de latencia: Es el tiempo que transcurre entre la generacin de un potencial de accin en la clula muscular y el
comienzo de la contraccin del msculo. Aunque no se genera ninguna fuerza durante el perodo de latencia,
intracelularmente se producen cambios qumicos (incluyendo la liberacin de calcio desde el retculo sarcoplsmico) que
conducen a la contraccin.

2. What is the role of acetylcholine in a skeletal muscle contraction?


Your answer:
La acetilcolina es un neurotransmisor, cuando se libera en la unin neuromuscular produce una despolarizacin del
msculo. En el msculo esqueltico esta despolarizacin permite la entrada de calcio, y en el msculo liso activa un
mensajero secundario que se une a receptores en el retculo endoplasmtico y as ste libera el calcio necesario para la
contraccin muscular.

3. Describe the process of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers.


Your answer:
Acoplamiento entre excitacin y contraccin:
La llegada de un potencial de accin a los terminales de los axones motores causan la liberacin de acetilcolina en la
moto-neurona. La acetilcolina se una a la protena receptora postsinaptica, abriendo los canales inicos de la fibra
muscular. El potencial de accin que se inicia en la placa motora, se propaga en ambas direcciones, excitando as toda la
membrana de la fibra muscular y poniendo en marcha la secuencia de acontecimientos que conducen a la contraccin.
En la placa motora, un solo potencial de accin (PA) de la motoneurona, puede generar un PA en la fibra muscular
postsinaptica, lo que hace a esta sinapsis cuantitativamente distinta de muchas sinapsis entre neuronas, siempre que se
propaga un PA en una fibra muscular, inicia una contraccin breve, denominada contraccin fasica, transcurren varios
milisegundos entre el instante en que se inicia el PA y el comienzo de la contraccin. Durante este periodo de latencia se
produce el acoplamiento excitacin-contraccin. El efecto neto de este acoplamiento es la vinculacin de la concentracin
de calcio libre en el citosol, con un PA de la membrana plasmtica de la fibra muscular.

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4. Describe the three phases of a skeletal muscle twitch.


Your answer:
son 3 fases:
1. Perodo de latencia
Es el tiempo que transcurre entre la generacin de un potencial de accin en la clula muscular y el comienzo de la
contraccin del msculo.
Aunque no se genera ninguna fuerza durante el perodo de latencia, intracelularmente se producen cambios qumicos
(incluyendo la liberacin de calcio desde el retculo
sarcoplsmico) que conducen a la contraccin.
2. fase de contraccin
Comienza al final del perodo de latencia y termina cuando el msculo alcanza la mxima tensin
.
3. La fase de relajacin
Es el perodo de tiempo desde la tensin mxima hasta el final de la contraccin del
msculo.
5. Does the duration of the latent period change with different stimulus voltages? How well did the results compare with
your prediction?
Your answer:
el periodo de latencia no cambia con un incremento de voltaje porque; porque el estimulo ya llego al umbral que se
nesecitaba para abrir los canales ionicos.
6. At the threshold stimulus, do sodium ions start to move into or out of the cell to bring about the membrane
depolarization?
Your answer:
la sustitucin de algunos de sodio por potasio en el liquido extracelular que baa una celula excitable, desplazar el
potencial de membrana hacia la despolarizacion.

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Exercise 2: Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Activity 2: The Effect of Stimulus Voltage on Skeletal Muscle Contraction Lab
Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.
1. Skeletal muscle fibers are innervated (stimulated) by
You correctly answered: c. motor neurons.
2. A single action potential propagating down a motor axon results in
You correctly answered: d. a single action potential and a single contractile event in the muscle fibers it innervates.
3. In resting skeletal muscle, calcium is stored in
You correctly answered: c. the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
4. During the latent period for an isometric contraction
You correctly answered: c. the cellular events involved in excitation-contraction coupling occur.

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Experiment Results
Predict Question:
Predict Question: As the stimulus voltage is increased from 1.0 volt up to 10 volts, what will happen to the amount of active
force generated with each stimulus?
Your answer : c. The active force will first increase and then plateau at some maximal value as the stimulus voltage
increases.
Stop & Think Questions:
What do you see in the active force display when the stimulus voltage is set to 0.0, and why does this observation make
sense?
You correctly answered: a. 0.00 g; there was no activation of skeletal muscle fibers by this stimulus.
What is the lowest stimulus voltage that induces active force in the skeletal muscle?
You correctly answered: b. threshold voltage
6. Enter the threshold voltage for this experiment in the field below and then click Submit to record your answer in the lab
report
You answered: 0.8 volts
12. Enter the maximal voltage for this experiment in the field below and then click Submit to record your answer in the lab
report.
You answered: 10 volts
Experiment Data:
Voltage
0.0
0.2
0.8
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0

Length
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75

Active Force
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.15
0.43
0.66
0.87
1.04
1.19
1.32
1.42
1.51
1.59
1.65
1.70
1.74
1.78
1.81
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82

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Passive Force
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

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Total Force
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.15
0.43
0.66
0.87
1.04
1.19
1.32
1.42
1.51
1.59
1.65
1.70
1.74
1.78
1.81
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82

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Post-lab Quiz Results


You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.
1. Motor unit recruitment refers to
You correctly answered: a. an increase in the number of active muscle fibers to increase the force developed in a muscle.
2. Active tension (or force) in a skeletal muscle fiber results from
You correctly answered: a. activation of cross bridge cycling via increased intracellular calcium levels.
3. The ________ is the minimal stimulus needed to cause a depolarization of the muscle plasma membrane (sarcolemma).
You correctly answered: d. threshold voltage
4. By definition, the ________ is the amount of stimulus required to successfully recruit all the muscle fibers into
developing active force.
You correctly answered: c. maximal voltage
5. Why was a maximal voltage observed in this experiment?
You correctly answered: b. At the maximal voltage, all the muscle fibers contained in this muscle are depolarized and they
all develop active force (that is, they were all successfully recruited).

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Review Sheet Results


1. Describe the effect of increasing stimulus voltage on isolated skeletal muscle. Specifically, what happened to the muscle
force generated with stronger electrical stimulations and why did this change occur? How well did the results compare with
your prediction?
Your answer:
Si se incrementa el voltaje del estmulo por encima del umbral, tambin aumenta la cantidad de fuerza producida por el
msculo entero. Este resultado se produce porque, cuanto mayor es el estmulo que recibe un msculo, ms fibras
musculares se activan y por tanto mayor ser la fuerza producida por el msculo. La mxima fuerza
en el msculo entero se produce cuando todas sus fibras musculares han sido activadas por un estmulo suficientemente
grande (denominado voltaje mximo). La estimulacin con voltajes superiores al voltaje mximo no aumentarn la
fuerza de contraccin ya que todas las fibras musculares han sido activadas.

2. How is this change in whole-muscle force achieved in vivo?


Your answer:
en el experimento se logra aumentando el estimulo de voltaje desde 0.8 hasta 8.5, de ahi en adelante, se aumento el
voltaje hasta 10.0 pero la fuerza generada ya no aumento debido a que todas las fibras musculares ya estaban activadas.
3. What happened in the isolated skeletal muscle when the maximal voltage was applied?
Your answer:
cuando se aplico la tension maxima 8.5, todas las fibras musculares se activaron generando una fuerza de 1.82, a partir de
ahi, los estimulos que se dan a pesar de ser ms fuertes no logran resultado debido a que ya no hay ms fibras celulares
que activar.

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Exercise 2: Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Activity 3: The Effect of Stimulus Frequency on Skeletal Muscle Contraction Lab
Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.
1. During a single twitch of a skeletal muscle
You correctly answered: b. maximal force is never achieved.
2. When a skeletal muscle is repetitively stimulated, twitches can overlap each other and result in a stronger muscle
contraction than a stand-alone twitch. This phenomenon is known as
You correctly answered: c. wave summation.
3. Wave summation is achieved by
You correctly answered: a. increasing the stimulus frequency (the rate of stimulus delivery to the muscle).
4. Wave summation increases the force produced in the muscle. Another way to increase the force produced by a muscle
is to
You correctly answered: d. increase the number of activated motor units.

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page 1

Experiment Results
Predict Question:
Predict Question 1: As the stimulus frequency increases, what will happen to the muscle force generated with each
successive stimulus? Will there be a limit to this response?
Your answer : d. As the stimulus frequency increases, the muscle force generated by each successive stimulus will first
increase and then decrease as the stimulus frequency becomes very high.
Predict Question 2: In order to produce sustained muscle contractions with an active force value of 5.2 grams, do you think
you will need to increase the stimulus voltage?
Your answer : a. yes
Stop & Think Questions:
Was there any change in the force generated by the muscle during the second stimulated twitch?
You correctly answered: c. Yes, the second twitch generated more muscle force.
Is the total muscle force generated by the higher frequency stimulation greater than the force generated in previous
stimulations?
You correctly answered: a. Yes, it is greater than the previous stimulations.
Does the force generated by the muscle change with each additional stimulus?
You correctly answered: b. As the stimulus frequency increased, the muscle tension generated by each successive stimulus
also increased, and a limiting maximum value was observed.
Experiment Data:
Voltage
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
10
8.5

Length
75
75
75
75
75
75

Stimulus
Single
Multiple
Multiple
Multiple
Multiple
Multiple

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Active Force
1.83
1.83
1.83
4.45
4.64
5.72

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Passive Force
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Total Force
1.83
1.83
1.83
4.45
4.64
5.72

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Post-lab Quiz Results


You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.
1. Which of the following is not one of the ways that the body can increase the force produced by a skeletal muscle?
You correctly answered: d. application of higher voltages to the whole muscle
2. When a muscle receives a stimulus frequency that causes non-overlapping twitches to follow each other closely in time
such that the peak tension of each twitch rises in a stepwise fashion up to a plateau value, the result is known as
You correctly answered: c. treppe.
3. In this experiment the isolated skeletal muscle was repetitively stimulated such that individual twitches overlapped with
each other and resulted in a stronger muscle contraction than a standalone twitch. This phenomenon is known as
You correctly answered: c. wave summation.
4. Wave summation is achieved by
You correctly answered: a. increasing the rate of stimulus delivery (frequency) to the muscle.

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Review Sheet Results


1. What is the difference between stimulus intensity and stimulus frequency?
Your answer:
la intensidad de estimulo es la accion que se ejerce sobre el musculo (puede ser quimico o electrico) para hacer que este
se contraiga por un periodo determinado, mientras que la frecuencia de estimulo es aplicar la misma accion( puede ser
mayor o menor a la inicial) pero en un perido de tiempo establecido, por eso hablamos de frecuencia de estimulo.
2. In this experiment you observed the effect of stimulating the isolated skeletal muscle multiple times in a short period with
complete relaxation between the stimuli. Describe the force of contraction with each subsequent stimulus. Are these results
called treppe or wave summation?
Your answer:
incrementando la frtecuencia de estimulos, es decir en periodos ms cortos se obetenia una mayor fuerza generada por
parte del musculo, aun cuando en diferentes experimentos el voltaje era el mismo, los resultados variaban porque la
frecuencia de estimulos habia variado.
3. How did the frequency of stimulation affect the amount of force generated by the isolated skeletal muscle when the
frequency of stimulation was increased such that the muscle twitches did not fully relax between subsequent stimuli? Are
these results called treppe or wave summation? How well did the results compare with your prediction?
Your answer:
al incrementar la frecuencia de estimulos sedio lo que conocemos como "efecto escalera"es decir , cada contraccin
produce una fuerza ligeramente mayor que la anterior siempre y cuando el msculo se pueda relajar completamente entre
estmulos relativamente prximos.Cuando un msculo esqueltico es estimulado repetidaente,de tal manera que los
estmulos lleguen uno tras otro separados por un perodo de tiempo corto, las contracciones pueden superponerse entre
s y dar lugar a una contraccin muscular ms fuerte. Este fenmeno se conoce como sumacin.

4. To achieve an active force of 5.2 g, did you have to increase the stimulus voltage above 8.5 volts? If not, how did you
achieve an active force of 5.2 g? How well did the results compare with your prediction?
Your answer:
s, se logro aumentar la fuerza del musculo, elevando la frecuencia de las estimulaciones pero usando el voltaje maximo
de 8.5
5. Compare and contrast frequency-dependent wave summation with motor unit recruitment (previously observed by
increasing the stimulus voltage). How are they similar? How was each achieved in the experiment? Explain how each is
achieved in vivo.
Your answer:
la frecuencia depende de la la sumacion de impulsos que se pueda dar, estos generaran una fuerza segun sea la
frecuanecia, pero otra variable a tener en cuenta es la intensidad del voltaje para el efecto escalera, por ejemplo al
aumentar el voltaje a 10, este voltaje no dia oportunidad para que el musculo se relaje y continue eficientemente el efecto,
en cambio con un voltaje de 8.5 (voltaje maximo) si dio oportunidad para que el musculo se relaje y siga con el efecto.

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Exercise 2: Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Activity 4: Tetanus in Isolated Skeletal Muscle Lab Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 3 out of 3 questions correctly.
1. Stimulus frequency refers to
You correctly answered: b. the rate that stimulating voltage pulses are applied to an isolated whole skeletal muscle.
2. Which of the following distinguishes a state of unfused tetanus from a state of complete (fused) tetanus?
You correctly answered: d. Muscle tension increases and decreases during a state of unfused tetanus.
3. When the stimulus frequency reaches a value beyond which no further increases in force are generated by the muscle,
the muscle has reached its
You correctly answered: a. maximal tetanic tension.

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Experiment Results
Predict Question:
Predict Question: As the stimulus frequency increases further, what will happen to the muscle tension and twitch
appearance with each successive stimulus? Will there be a limit to this response?
Your answer : b. As the stimulus frequency increases, the muscle tension generated by each successive stimulus will
increase. There will be a limit to this increase.
Stop & Think Questions:
What begins to happen at around 80 msec?
You correctly answered: c. unfused tetanus develops
How does the trace at 130 stimuli/sec compare with the trace at 50 stimuli/sec?
You correctly answered: b. Fused tetanus develops at this greater stimulus frequency.
How do the traces with 146150 stimuli per second compare with the trace at 130 stimuli per second?
You correctly answered: d. Maximal tetanic tension develops with these very high stimulation frequencies.
Experiment Data:
Voltage
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5

Length
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75

Stimuli/sec
50
130
140
142
144
146
148
150

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Active Force
5.12
5.88
5.91
5.94
5.94
5.95
5.95
5.95

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Passive Force
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Total Force
5.12
5.88
5.91
5.94
5.94
5.95
5.95
5.95

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Post-lab Quiz Results


You scored 100% by answering 3 out of 3 questions correctly.
1. The term tetanus refers to
You correctly answered: b. sustained muscle tension due to very frequent stimuli.
2. Which of the following distinguishes a state of unfused tetanus from a state of complete (fused) tetanus?
You correctly answered: d. Muscle tension increases and decreases between different values for an unfused tetanus.
3. When the stimulus frequency reaches a value beyond which no further increases in force are generated by the muscle,
the muscle has reached its
You correctly answered: a. maximal tetanic tension.

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Review Sheet Results


1. Describe how increasing the stimulus frequency affected the force developed by the isolated whole skeletal muscle in
this activity. How well did the results compare with your prediction?
Your answer:
Si se aplican estmulos incluso a mayor frecuencia, las contracciones comenzarn a unirse de tal manera que los picos y
valles de cada contraccin no se distinguirn unos de otros, este estado es conocido como ttanos completos (ttanos
fusionados). Cuando la frecuencia de estimulacin alcanza un valor ms all del cual no aumenta la fuerza generada por el
msculo, decimos que el msculo ha alcanzado su mxima tensin tetnica.
2. Indicate what type of force was developed by the isolated skeletal muscle in this activity at the following stimulus
frequencies: at 50 stimuli/sec, at 140 stimuli/sec, and above 146 stimuli/sec.
Your answer:
indicar qu tipo de fuerza fue desarrollado por el msculo esqueltico aislado en esta actividad en las siguientes
frecuencias de estmulo : a 50 estmulos / seg, a 140 estmulos / seg, y por encima de 146 estmulos / seg a un estimulo
de 50 la fuersa generada fue de 5.12; a 140 fue de 5.91 y 146 genro una fuerza de 5.95; podemos observar que conforme
aumenta el estimulo por segundo aumenta la fuerza generada, pero hasta un tope ya que se da el estado de tetanos
completos.
3. Beyond what stimulus frequency is there no further increase in the peak force? What is the muscle tension called at this
frequency?
Your answer:
Cuando la frecuencia de estimulacin alcanza un valor ms all del cual no aumenta
la fuerza generada por el msculo, decimos que el msculo ha alcanzado su mxima tensin tetnica.

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Exercise 2: Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Activity 5: Fatigue in Isolated Skeletal Muscle Lab Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.
1. When skeletal muscle twitches fuse so that the peaks and valleys of each twitch become indistinguishable from each
other, the muscle is in a state known as
You correctly answered: d. complete (fused) tetanus.
2. When the stimulus frequency reaches a value beyond which no further increase of skeletal muscle force can occur, the
muscle has reached its
You correctly answered: c. maximal tetanic tension.
3. A decline in a muscle's ability to maintain a constant level of force, or tension, after prolonged, repetitive stimulation is
called
You correctly answered: c. fatigue.
4. Which of the following is not thought to be a contributing factor to the development of fatigue?
You correctly answered: a. buildup of Ca2+ in the muscle fibers

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Experiment Results
Predict Question:
Predict Question: If the stimulator is briefly turned off for defined periods of time, what will happen to the length of time that
the muscle is able to sustain maximal developed tension when the stimulator is turned on again?
Your answer : b. The length of the rest period will proportionately increase the length of time for sustained muscle tension.
Stop & Think Questions:
Why does the stimulated muscle force begin to decrease over time despite the maintained stimuli? (Note that a decrease in
maximal force indicates muscle fatigue is developing.)
You correctly answered: d. More than one of these answers could be correct.
Why did the length of the intervening rest period affect the length of time the skeletal muscle can maintain maximum tension
once the stimulator is turned on again?
You correctly answered: c. Intracellular concentrations of ADP and Pi declined during the rest period.
Experiment Data:
Voltage

Stimuli/sec

Rest Period (sec)

Active Force (g)

8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5

120
120
120
120

0
0
8
21

5.86
5.86
5.86
5.86

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Sustained Maximal Force


(sec)
10
10
0.20
5.40

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Post-lab Quiz Results


You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.
1. During cross bridge cycling in skeletal muscle, force is created by the
You correctly answered: c. power stroke of the myosin heads.
2. The term tetanus refers to
You correctly answered: b. sustained muscle tension due to repetitive stimuli.
3. A decline in a muscle's ability to maintain a constant level of force, or tension, after prolonged, repetitive stimulation is
called
You correctly answered: c. fatigue.
4. During fatigue
You correctly answered: c. the number of active cross bridges begins to decline although the rate of stimulus delivery
(frequency) remains constant.
5. If an intervening rest period is imposed on active skeletal muscle
You correctly answered: c. the development of fatigue will be delayed.

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Review Sheet Results


1. When a skeletal muscle fatigues, what happens to the contractile force over time?
Your answer:
Una disminucin en la capacidad del msculo para mantener una fuerza de contraccin constante tras una estimulacin
repetida y prolongada.
2. What are some proposed causes of skeletal muscle fatigue?
Your answer:
Una de las causas de la fatiga en los ejercicios de alta intensidad, es la acumulacin de cido lctico, ADP y Pj en los
msculos.
3. Turning the stimulator off allows a small measure of muscle recovery. Thus, the muscle will produce more force for a
longer time period if the stimulator is briefly turned off than if the stimuli were allowed to continue without interruption.
Explain why this might occur. How well did the results compare with your prediction?
Your answer:
cuando el periodo de descanso se acorta, el musculo al ser estimulado no logra mantener la energia que genera como en
el primer periodo.

4. List a few ways that humans could delay the onset of fatigue when they are vigorously using their skeletal muscles.
Your answer:
-Dandole un periodo adecuado de descanso a los musculos.
-Trabajando la respiracin, para poder llevar oxigeno a la sangre.
-adecuarse a entrenamientos si el ejercicio es para periodos cortos o largos.

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Exercise 2: Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Activity 6: The Skeletal Muscle Length-Tension Relationship Lab Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.
1. During an isometric contraction
You correctly answered: d. the skeletal muscle is generating force, but it remains at a fixed length.
2. The force that results from muscles being stretched is
You correctly answered: a. passive force.
3. Active force
You correctly answered: b. is determined by the amount of myosin bound to actin.
4. When you generate the isometric length-tension curve, which of the following forces will not be indicated on your
screen?
You correctly answered: c. tetanic force
5. Passive force in skeletal muscle is largely caused by
You correctly answered: c. the protein titin.

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Experiment Results
Predict Question:
Predict Question: As the resting length of the muscle is changed, what will happen to the amount of total force the muscle
generates during the stimulated twitch?
Your answer : c. Total force can increase or decrease depending upon the starting resting length.
Stop & Think Questions:
Note the dip in total force at a muscle length of 90 mm. Why does this occur?
You correctly answered: d. At this muscle length, active force has decreased in value and passive force has not yet
increased to a significant value.
Experiment Data:
Voltage
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5

Length
75
70
65
60
55
50
80
90
100

Active Force
1.82
1.75
1.55
1.21
0.73
0.11
1.75
1.21
0.11

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Passive Force
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.25
1.75

Total Force
1.82
1.75
1.55
1.21
0.73
0.11
1.77
1.46
1.86

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Post-lab Quiz Results


You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.
1. When a skeletal muscle is stimulated and generates force but remains at a fixed length
You correctly answered: d. the muscle is contracting isometrically.
2. Which protein is mostly responsible for the development of passive force in a muscle?
You correctly answered: d. titin
3. In skeletal muscle, active force stimulated through a range of muscle lengths
You correctly answered: b. will utilize ATP hydrolysis to drive the cross bridge cycle.
4. Which if the following is not depicted in a typical skeletal muscle isometric length-tension curve?
You correctly answered: a. time
5. Maximal active tension will be produced in a skeletal muscle fiber when
You correctly answered: a. the fiber is at its resting length.

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Review Sheet Results


1. What happens to the amount of total force the muscle generates during the stimulated twitch? How well did the results
compare with your prediction?
Your answer:
a un mismo estimulo (voltaje), la fuerza total que se da, es en base a la longitud del musculo; recordemos que la fuerza
total es la suma de la fuerza pasiva y la fuerza activa.
2. What is the key variable in an isometric contraction of a skeletal muscle?
Your answer:
la clave para que se de una concentracion isometrica es que el msculo intente soportar una carga que es igual a la fuerza
que l genera, el msculo se contrae
isomtricamente. Durante la contraccin isomtrica elmsculo se mantiene con una longitud fija (isomtrico significa
misma longitud.

3. Based on the unique arrangement of myosin and actin in skeletal muscle sarcomeres, explain why active force varies
with changes in the muscle's resting length.
Your answer:
Como podemos observar en los experimentos, a medida que aumenta la longitus del musculo la fuerza activa que genera
va aumentando complementandose con la fuerza pasiva.
4. What skeletal muscle lengths generated passive force? (Provide a range.)
Your answer:
longitudes mayor o igual a 80.
5. If you were curling a 7-kg dumbbell, when would your bicep muscles be contracting isometrically?
Your answer:
en base a los experimentos la fuerza generada sera de 1.86 por cada gramo, osea se generara 13020 unidades de fuerza.

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Exercise 2: Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Activity 7: Isotonic Contractions and the Load-Velocity Relationship Lab Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.
1. During an isotonic concentric contraction, the
You correctly answered: b. force generated by the muscle is greater than the weight of the attached load.
2. During an isotonic concentric contraction
You correctly answered: b. the latent period increases with heavier loads.
3. During the latent period for an isotonic concentric contraction
You correctly answered: c. cross bridges cycle and, when muscle tension exceeds the load, muscle shortening occurs.
4. Muscle shortening velocity
You correctly answered: a. decreases with heavier loads.
5. An isotonic contraction of a muscle is one in which
You correctly answered: a. the length of the muscle changes.

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Experiment Results
Predict Question:
Predict Question: As the load on the muscle increases, what will happen to the latent period, the shortening velocity, the
distance that the weight moves, and the contraction duration?
Your answer : b. The latent period will increase, the shortening velocity will decrease, the distance will decrease, and the
contraction duration will decrease.
Stop & Think Questions:
What kind of contraction did you observe when you attached the 2.0 gram weight to the skeletal muscle and stimulated a
contraction?
You correctly answered: c. isometric
Experiment Data:
Voltage

Length

Weight

8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5

75
75
75
75

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

Velocity
(mm/msec)
0.100
0.057
0.022
0.000

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Twitch Duration
(msec)
78.00
49.00
30.00
0.00

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Distance Lifted
(mm)
4.0
2.0
0.5
0.0

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Post-lab Quiz Results


You scored 100% by answering 6 out of 6 questions correctly.
1. Which of the weights allowed the fastest muscle shortening velocity?
You correctly answered: a. 0.5-g weight
2. Which of the weights induced the longest latent period of the muscle contraction?
You correctly answered: c. 1.5-g weight
3. Which weight did the muscle contraction move the greatest distance?
You correctly answered: a. 0.5-g weight
4. Which of the weights allowed the longest duration of muscle contraction?
You correctly answered: a. 0.5-g weight
5. An isotonic contraction of a muscle is one in which
You correctly answered: a. the length of the muscle changes.
6. When lifting a heavy load
You correctly answered: d. the muscle shortening velocity is decreased in comparison with lighter loads.

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Review Sheet Results


1. If you were using your bicep muscles to curl a 7-kg dumbbell, when would your muscles be contracting isotonically?
Your answer:
si el bicep participa en el levantamiento de 7 kg, el objeto se levantara a una velocidad menor, porque esta en una
condicion isotonica.
2. Explain why the latent period became longer as the load became heavier in the experiment. How well did the results
compare with your prediction?
Your answer:
El perodo de latencia aumenta a medida que aumenta el peso de la carga. Cuando la fuerza generada por el msculo
supera el peso de a carga, el msculo se acorta y esto hace que el peso se mueve.
3. Explain why the shortening velocity became slower as the load became heavier in this experiment. How well did the
results compare with your prediction?
Your answer:
a velocidad se acorta porque aumenta el peso que es levantado.
4. Describe how the shortening distance changed as the load became heavier in this experiment. How well did the results
compare with your prediction?
Your answer:
a medida que el peso aumenta la distancia de acortamiento disminuye .

5. Explain why it would take you longer to perform 10 repetitions lifting a 10-kg weight than it would to perform the same
number of repetitions with a 5-kg weight.
Your answer:
las musculos que levantaran 10 repeticiones de 10kg comparadas con las de 5 kg, tendran una menor velocidad y una
mayor concentracion isotonica.
6. Describe what would happen in the following experiment: A 2.5-g weight is attached to the end of the isolated whole
skeletal muscle used in these experiments. Simultaneously, the muscle is maximally stimulated by 8.5 volts and the platform
supporting the weight is removed. Will the muscle generate force? Will the muscle change length? What is the name for this
type of contraction?
Your answer:
El musculo genera ms fuerza cuando un peso acorta su longitud isotonica; pero si el peso es superior al de la capacidad
de fuerza que puede ejercer el musculo, este no podra ser levantado.

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