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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology

(IRJET)

Bidirectional Rotation of Single Phase Induction Motor


Using Capacitor
M.S.Morey1, Pavan Patil2, Monali Thakare3, Priyanka Tammadwar4
1

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, Government college of Engineering ,


Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India.
2,3,4
Student, Electrical Engineering Department ,Government college of Engineering,
Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India

--------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic


Abstract - The project is designed to drive an
induction motor for the required application in

induction, a voltage is induced between the ends

forward and reverse directions using capacitor.

of a wire loop when the magnetic flux passing

For example, an exhaust fan can be used in

through the loop varies as a function of time. If

both the directions to get fresh air in and throw

the ends of the wire loop are short-circuited

hot air out. This can be used in case of

together, a current flows in the loop. Figure 2

conventional exhaust fan that rotates in one

shows a magnet that is displaced rapidly toward

direction

the right above a group of conductors. The

only.

This

proposed

system

demonstrates a technology to rotate single

conductors

phase induction motor in both clockwise and

extremities by bars A and B and form a structure

anti

document

similar to a ladder. Single-phase motors are

describes a highly cost-effective solution for

widely used in home and industrial appliances.

electronic motor control in domestic appliances

The main advantage of these motors is their

for

washing

ability to operate from a single-phase power

machines, dryers, gate / door openers, awning

supply. Therefore, they can be used wherever

drives and blinds. This solution reduces the

single-phase power is available. There are also

need

other

clockwise

bidirectional

for

direction.

motors

mechanical

This

such

switches

as

and

relays,

aspects

short-

for

circuited

their

at

their

popularity:

low

thereby improving the efficiency and reliability

manufacturing cost, reliability, and simplicity.

of these appliances. It relates to a ceiling fan

Because the single-phase motor is supplied from

with bi-directional rotation control that can be

implemented with relative

produces an alternating magnetic field. At zero

ease and at a

relatively low cost.

Key Words:, Single phase induction motor,


Capacitor, relay, contactor.

1. INTRODUCTION
1

are

About Single phase induction motor:

single-phase

source,

the

motor

speed, the torque produced is zero. To start such


a motor, it is necessary, besides a main winding
to have an auxiliary winding to help to generate
the phase-shifted magnetic field.
Single-phase Motors

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current

Operate on either 120V or 240V

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology


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Most are small horsepower motors


Intended to be started across the line

Can be either single or dual-voltage


rated

Most common type of single-phase AC motor is


the split-phase motor.
Three types of split-phase motors

Resistance start induction run

Capacitor start induction run

Capacitor start capacitor run

1.1.1 Split-phase induction motor:


The split-phase motor operates on the principle
of a rotating magnetic field.
To accomplish this in single-phase systems, the
single-phase is split into two phases so as to
simulate two separate phases.
To split one phase into two, two separate
windings are used, a run winding and a start
winding. The capacitor start induction run and
the resistance start induction run motors must
disconnect their start windings from the circuit
when the motor reaches 75% of its rated speed.

Figure 1: split phase induction motor


The auxiliary winding is placed in quadrature with
the main winding. The current flowing to the
auxiliary winding has to be phase shifted from
the current flowing through the main winding.
There are several ways to do this. Usually there is
a capacitor connected in series with the auxiliary
winding. Thus, we can generate magnetic fields
of main and auxiliary windings shifted 90. Such
a field appears to rotate the same as for a field in
three-phase motors. It causes the motor to start
rotating. The capacitor and auxiliary winding may
be disconnected when the motor reaches 75% of
nominal speed. Usually a centrifugal switch is
used. Then the motor continues running with the

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main winding. This configuration produces high


starting torque.
Standard bidirectional asynchronous induction
motors used in appliances such as economy
washing

machines

have

two

windings:

the

primary winding and the auxiliary. A motor


capacitor is needed to start the motor in the

required
direction by shifting the phase to the necessary
winding.

Conventionally,

Figure 2: Torque speed characteristics

electromechanical

switches have been used to control the motor


(on-off, direction of rotation). Electromechanical

1.1.2 Capacitor start induction run motor:

switches, however, have obvious drawbacks.


They produce noise, have a higher breakdown
risk, and they have a shorter average operating
life than electronic components. There is a large
demand for electronic control solutions to replace
electromechanical

designs

objective

of

increasing

reliability,

reducing

(relays)

with

the

life

and

consumption

and

operating

power

making the drives quieter. Premium appliances


such as top-of-the-line washing machines and
dryers

with

sophisticated

programs

employ

variable speed drives that are controlled by


frequency converters. These solutions achieve a
very high degree of variable motor control and
energy efficiency. The electronics, however, are
complex and require a large number of electronic
parts.

The

subsequent

complexity
assembly

and

costs

of

processes

correspondingly high.

the
are

Figure 3: Capacitor start induction run motor


The capacitor start induction run motor has a
capacitor connected in series with the start
winding, giving the motor good starting torque. In
this the capacitor of suitable value is connected
in series with the auxiliary winding through a
switch such that current in the auxiliary winding
leads the current in the main winding.

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rotating magnetic field produced in the motor


1.1.3 Capacitor start capacitor run:

stator.
However, it is possible to phase shift current by
connecting a capacitor in series with the winding
of electromagnet. The capacitance of capacitor
can be selected so that current leads current by
90 when the motor is starting. As a result, a
rotating magnetic field is created when the motor
is starting. The capacitor creates the equivalent
of a two-phase ac power source and allows the
motor to develop starting torque.

Figure 4: capacitor start capacitor run


Capacitor start capacitor run motors do not
disconnect the start windings from the circuit ,
this motor has good starting and running torque.
Since currents I1 and I2 in the electromagnets
(winding currents) of Figure are in phase, there is
no rotating magnetic field produced in the motor
stator. However, it is possible to phase shift

Figure 5: Waveforms and phasors


when the motor is starting.
2.5 Project layout:

current I2 by connecting a capacitor (C1) in

In order for an induction motor to operate, we

series with the winding of electromagnet 2 as

need to have a rotor with a short circuited

shown in Figure 8. The capacitance of capacitor

winding inside a stator with a rotating magnetic

C1 can be selected so that current I2 leads

field.

current I1 by 90 when the motor is starting. As a


result, a rotating magnetic field is created when

The flux from the rotating field cuts through the

the motor is starting. The capacitor creates the

rotor winding and induces a current to flow. The

equivalent of a two-phase ac power source and

frequency of the current flowing is equal to the

allows the motor to develop starting torque.

difference between the rotational speed of the

Since

stator field and the rotor.

currents

and

in

the

electromagnets

(winding currents) are in phase, there is no

The rotor current causes a rotor magnetic field


which is spinning relative to the rotor at the rotor

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology


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current frequency and relative to the stator, at

This is because the rotor circuit is both resistive

the same frequency as the stator field.

and inductive. If we consider the magnetic field

The interaction between these two magnetic

rotating in the same direction as the rotor, the

fields generates the torque in the rotor. There

frequency of the current will be low, so the rotor

must always be a small difference in speed

current will be primarily limited by the rotor

between the stator field and the rotor in order to

resistance. In the case of the counter rotating

induce a current flow in the rotor. This difference

field, the frequency of the induced current will be

in speed or frequency is known as the slip.

almost

If we take a stator with a single winding, and


apply a single phase voltage to it, we will have an
alternating current flowing and thereby an
alternating magnetic field at each pole.

twice

line

frequency

and

so

the

inductance of the rotor will play a much greater


role in limiting the rotor current. In other words,
once the motor is up to speed, it will lock on to
one field only and the second winding can be
disconnected. If the second winding remains in

Unfortunately, this does not result in a rotating

circuit, the displaced field reduces the magnetic

magnetic field, rather it results in two equal

fluctuations in the gap and therefore provides a

rotating fields, one in the forward direction and

more even torque and less vibration. Some

one in the reverse direction. If we have a short

"start"

circuited rotor within the stator, it will carry rotor

intermittent

current induced by the stator field, but there will

disconnected at the end of the start. Continuous

be two equal and counter rotating torque fields.

operation using these windings would cause a

This will cause the rotor to vibrate but not to

winding failure. Most single phase motors are

rotate. In order to rotate, there must be a

fitted with a centrifugal switch to disconnect the

resultant torque field rotating in one direction

start winding once the motor is close to full

only. In the case of the single winding and a

speed.

windings

are

operation

only
and

designed
they

must

for
be

stationary rotor, the resultant torque field is


2.6 Direction of rotation:

stationary.

The direction that a three phase induction motor


If we now add a second stator winding, physically

rotates is determined by the direction of the

displaced from the first winding, and apply a

rotation of the stator field.

voltage equally displaced in phase, we will

The Direction is therefore determined by the

provide

rotation of the three phases applied to the motor.

second

set

of

counter

rotating

magnetic fields and the net result is a single

To reverse the direction of rotation of an

rotating field in one direction. If we reverse the

induction motor, interchange two phases

phase shift of the voltage applied to the second

connected to the motor.

winding, the resultant magnetic field will rotate in


the reverse direction.
Once the rotor is up to full speed, it will continue
to run with the second winding disconnected.
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Supply
L1
L2
L3
Supply

Motor
R
S
T
Motor

To reverse, change to:

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L2
L1
L3

R
S
T

To reverse the direction of a single phase


winding, reverse the connections to one winding
only. i.e. reverse the connections to the run
winding but not the start winding.

Figure 6: Project layouts

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R-Running Winding
S-Starting Winding
C-Capacitor
2.6.1Forward Operation:

Figure 7: Circuit Connections for forward


direction

As shown in above figures by reversing the


connections of capacitor direction of rotation of
single phase induction motor can be reversed.
During forward rotation capacitor is put in to
series with running winding so that it can
produce a flux leading 90 degree electrical with
starting winding. Initially when forward start
button is pressed the contactor connects the
capacitor in series with running winding and
completes a hold circuit by connecting nc coil
with no coil of second contactor. As the motor
terminals are ready it allows supply terminals to
energies motor circuit. The motor experiences
two torques results in a forward rotation of single
phase induction motor. During forward operation
the second contactor circuit remains steady.
When the STOP button is pressed it disconnects
the entire circuit from supply thereby stops the
motor.
2.6.2 Reverse Operation:

Figure 8: Circuit Connections for Reverse


Direction

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As shown in above figure by reversing the


connections of capacitor direction of rotation of
single phase induction motor can be reversed.
During reverse rotation capacitor is put in to
series with starting winding so that it can
produce a flux leading 90 degree electrical with
running winding. Initially when reverse start
button is pressed the contactor connects the
capacitor in series with starting winding and
completes a hold circuit by connecting nc coil
with no coil of first contactor. As the motor
terminals are ready it allows supply terminals to
energies motor circuit. The motor experiences
two torques results in a forward rotation of single
phase induction motor. During forward operation
the second contactor circuit remains steady.
When the STOP button is pressed it disconnects
the entire circuit from supply thereby stops the
motor.

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology


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[1] Wildi, Theodore, Electrical Machines, Drives, and


Power Systems, 6th Edition, Upper Saddle River:
Prentice Hall, 2005, ISBN 978-0131776913.
[2] Boylestad, Robert L., Introductory Circuit Analysis,
11th Edition, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2006,
ISBN 978-0131730441.
[3] C. Suciu, I. Dafinca, R. Campeanu, I. Margineanu
Expert Phase Angle Control in a Variable RL Load
Circuit Proceedings of PCIM 2001, June, Nurnberg.

4. CONCLUSIONS
In this project we have made single phase
induction motor bi-directional, so that it can
rotate clock wise as well as anti-clockwise
direction with relative ease and at low cost. The
proposed system demonstrate a technology to
rotate motor both forward and reverse direction.
Relay and contactor system is quite reliable than
electronic microprocessor system. A system with
a better power factor and simple operation can
be design using this method.

REFERENCES

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[4] Goodarzi, G. A. and Rush, J. Integrated auxiliary


drives for fuel cell vehicles. IEEE Conference on
Vehicle Power and Propulsion. Chicago, Il, 2005, pp.
619-623.
[5] Fahimi, B. and Sebastian, T., Guest editorial
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Technology.
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56,
no.4,2007,pp.14701476.
[6] Knezevic, J. M. Low-cost low-resolution sensorless
positioning of dc motor drives for vehicle auxiliary
applications. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular
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[7] Krause, P. C., Wasynczuk, O., Sudhoff, S. D. and
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