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# International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology

(IRJET)

## Bidirectional Rotation of Single Phase Induction Motor

Using Capacitor
M.S.Morey1, Pavan Patil2, Monali Thakare3, Priyanka Tammadwar4
1

## Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, Government college of Engineering ,

Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India.
2,3,4
Student, Electrical Engineering Department ,Government college of Engineering,
Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India

## --------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic

Abstract - The project is designed to drive an
induction motor for the required application in

direction

only.

This

proposed

system

conductors

anti

document

for

washing

need

other

clockwise

bidirectional

for

direction.

motors

mechanical

This

such

switches

as

and

relays,

aspects

short-

for

circuited

their

at

their

popularity:

low

ease and at a

## Key Words:, Single phase induction motor,

Capacitor, relay, contactor.

1. INTRODUCTION
1

are

single-phase

source,

the

motor

## speed, the torque produced is zero. To start such

a motor, it is necessary, besides a main winding
to have an auxiliary winding to help to generate
the phase-shifted magnetic field.
Single-phase Motors

current

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## Most are small horsepower motors

Intended to be started across the line

rated

## Most common type of single-phase AC motor is

the split-phase motor.
Three types of split-phase motors

## 1.1.1 Split-phase induction motor:

The split-phase motor operates on the principle
of a rotating magnetic field.
To accomplish this in single-phase systems, the
single-phase is split into two phases so as to
simulate two separate phases.
To split one phase into two, two separate
windings are used, a run winding and a start
winding. The capacitor start induction run and
the resistance start induction run motors must
disconnect their start windings from the circuit
when the motor reaches 75% of its rated speed.

## Figure 1: split phase induction motor

The auxiliary winding is placed in quadrature with
the main winding. The current flowing to the
auxiliary winding has to be phase shifted from
the current flowing through the main winding.
There are several ways to do this. Usually there is
a capacitor connected in series with the auxiliary
winding. Thus, we can generate magnetic fields
of main and auxiliary windings shifted 90. Such
a field appears to rotate the same as for a field in
three-phase motors. It causes the motor to start
rotating. The capacitor and auxiliary winding may
be disconnected when the motor reaches 75% of
nominal speed. Usually a centrifugal switch is
used. Then the motor continues running with the

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## main winding. This configuration produces high

starting torque.
Standard bidirectional asynchronous induction
motors used in appliances such as economy
washing

machines

have

two

windings:

the

## primary winding and the auxiliary. A motor

capacitor is needed to start the motor in the

required
direction by shifting the phase to the necessary
winding.

Conventionally,

## Figure 2: Torque speed characteristics

electromechanical

## switches have been used to control the motor

(on-off, direction of rotation). Electromechanical

## switches, however, have obvious drawbacks.

They produce noise, have a higher breakdown
risk, and they have a shorter average operating
life than electronic components. There is a large
demand for electronic control solutions to replace
electromechanical

designs

objective

of

increasing

reliability,

reducing

(relays)

with

the

life

and

consumption

and

operating

power

## making the drives quieter. Premium appliances

such as top-of-the-line washing machines and
dryers

with

sophisticated

programs

employ

## variable speed drives that are controlled by

frequency converters. These solutions achieve a
very high degree of variable motor control and
energy efficiency. The electronics, however, are
complex and require a large number of electronic
parts.

The

subsequent

complexity
assembly

and

costs

of

processes

correspondingly high.

the
are

## Figure 3: Capacitor start induction run motor

The capacitor start induction run motor has a
capacitor connected in series with the start
winding, giving the motor good starting torque. In
this the capacitor of suitable value is connected
in series with the auxiliary winding through a
switch such that current in the auxiliary winding
leads the current in the main winding.

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## rotating magnetic field produced in the motor

1.1.3 Capacitor start capacitor run:

stator.
However, it is possible to phase shift current by
connecting a capacitor in series with the winding
of electromagnet. The capacitance of capacitor
can be selected so that current leads current by
90 when the motor is starting. As a result, a
rotating magnetic field is created when the motor
is starting. The capacitor creates the equivalent
of a two-phase ac power source and allows the
motor to develop starting torque.

## Figure 4: capacitor start capacitor run

Capacitor start capacitor run motors do not
disconnect the start windings from the circuit ,
this motor has good starting and running torque.
Since currents I1 and I2 in the electromagnets
(winding currents) of Figure are in phase, there is
no rotating magnetic field produced in the motor
stator. However, it is possible to phase shift

## Figure 5: Waveforms and phasors

when the motor is starting.
2.5 Project layout:

field.

## current I1 by 90 when the motor is starting. As a

result, a rotating magnetic field is created when

Since

currents

and

in

the

electromagnets

## The rotor current causes a rotor magnetic field

which is spinning relative to the rotor at the rotor

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almost

## If we take a stator with a single winding, and

apply a single phase voltage to it, we will have an
alternating current flowing and thereby an
alternating magnetic field at each pole.

twice

line

frequency

and

so

the

## inductance of the rotor will play a much greater

role in limiting the rotor current. In other words,
once the motor is up to speed, it will lock on to
one field only and the second winding can be
disconnected. If the second winding remains in

"start"

intermittent

speed.

windings

are

operation

only
and

designed
they

must

for
be

## stationary rotor, the resultant torque field is

2.6 Direction of rotation:

stationary.

## The direction that a three phase induction motor

If we now add a second stator winding, physically

provide

second

set

of

counter

rotating

## winding, the resultant magnetic field will rotate in

the reverse direction.
Once the rotor is up to full speed, it will continue
to run with the second winding disconnected.

Supply
L1
L2
L3
Supply

Motor
R
S
T
Motor

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L2
L1
L3

R
S
T

## To reverse the direction of a single phase

winding, reverse the connections to one winding
only. i.e. reverse the connections to the run
winding but not the start winding.

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## International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology

(IRJET)

R-Running Winding
S-Starting Winding
C-Capacitor
2.6.1Forward Operation:

direction

## As shown in above figures by reversing the

connections of capacitor direction of rotation of
single phase induction motor can be reversed.
During forward rotation capacitor is put in to
series with running winding so that it can
produce a flux leading 90 degree electrical with
starting winding. Initially when forward start
button is pressed the contactor connects the
capacitor in series with running winding and
completes a hold circuit by connecting nc coil
with no coil of second contactor. As the motor
terminals are ready it allows supply terminals to
energies motor circuit. The motor experiences
two torques results in a forward rotation of single
phase induction motor. During forward operation
the second contactor circuit remains steady.
When the STOP button is pressed it disconnects
the entire circuit from supply thereby stops the
motor.
2.6.2 Reverse Operation:

Direction

## As shown in above figure by reversing the

connections of capacitor direction of rotation of
single phase induction motor can be reversed.
During reverse rotation capacitor is put in to
series with starting winding so that it can
produce a flux leading 90 degree electrical with
running winding. Initially when reverse start
button is pressed the contactor connects the
capacitor in series with starting winding and
completes a hold circuit by connecting nc coil
with no coil of first contactor. As the motor
terminals are ready it allows supply terminals to
energies motor circuit. The motor experiences
two torques results in a forward rotation of single
phase induction motor. During forward operation
the second contactor circuit remains steady.
When the STOP button is pressed it disconnects
the entire circuit from supply thereby stops the
motor.

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## [1] Wildi, Theodore, Electrical Machines, Drives, and

Power Systems, 6th Edition, Upper Saddle River:
Prentice Hall, 2005, ISBN 978-0131776913.
[2] Boylestad, Robert L., Introductory Circuit Analysis,
11th Edition, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2006,
ISBN 978-0131730441.
[3] C. Suciu, I. Dafinca, R. Campeanu, I. Margineanu
Expert Phase Angle Control in a Variable RL Load
Circuit Proceedings of PCIM 2001, June, Nurnberg.

4. CONCLUSIONS
In this project we have made single phase
induction motor bi-directional, so that it can
rotate clock wise as well as anti-clockwise
direction with relative ease and at low cost. The
proposed system demonstrate a technology to
rotate motor both forward and reverse direction.
Relay and contactor system is quite reliable than
electronic microprocessor system. A system with
a better power factor and simple operation can
be design using this method.

REFERENCES

## [4] Goodarzi, G. A. and Rush, J. Integrated auxiliary

drives for fuel cell vehicles. IEEE Conference on
Vehicle Power and Propulsion. Chicago, Il, 2005, pp.
619-623.
[5] Fahimi, B. and Sebastian, T., Guest editorial
special section on automotive electromechanical
converters. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular
Technology.
Vol.
56,
no.4,2007,pp.14701476.
[6] Knezevic, J. M. Low-cost low-resolution sensorless
positioning of dc motor drives for vehicle auxiliary
applications. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular
Technology. Vol. 62, no. 9, 2013, pp. 4328 4335.
[7] Krause, P. C., Wasynczuk, O., Sudhoff, S. D. and
Pekarek, S. Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive
Systems, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2013, pp.680

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