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# APTITUDE FORMULA

FORMULAE

## PROFIT AND LOSS -> IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE

Cost Price: The price, at which an article is purchased, is called
its cost price, abbreviated as C.P.
Selling Price: The price at which an article is sold, is called its
Selling Price, abbreviated as S.P.
Profit or Gain: If S.P. is greater than C.P., the seller is said to
have a Profit or Gain.

1. Speed = [Distance/Time],
Time = [Distance/Speed],
Distance = (Speed*Time)
2. x km/hr = [x*5/18] m/sec.
3. If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a:b, then the ratio
of the times taken by them to cover the same distance is
1/a : 1/b or b:a.

Loss: If S.P. is less than C.P., the seller is said to have incurred a
loss.
1. Gain = (S.P.) - (C.P.)
2. Loss or gain is always reckoned on C.P.
3. Gain % = [Gain*100/C.P.]
4. Loss = (C.P.) - (S.P.)
5. Loss% = [Loss*100/C.P.]

## 5. Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/hr and

an equal distance at y km/hr. then, the average speed
during the whole journey is [2xy/x+y] km/hr.

## 7. S.P. = [(100-Loss %) /100] * C.P.

8. C.P. = [100/ (100+Gain %)] * S.P.
9. C.P. = [100/ (100-Loss %)]* S.P.

## VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA -> IMPORTANT FACTS

AND FORMULAE

IV. CONE

I. CUBIOD

1. Slant height, l =

V. SPHERE

3. Diagonal =

+ )

(

+ ) units.

II. CUBE

VI. HEMISPHERE

## Let the radius of a hemisphere be r. Then,

3. Diagonal = 3 a units.

III. CYLINDER

## 2. Curved surface area = (2rh) sq. units.

3. Total surface area = (2rh + 2r sq. units)
= 2r (h + r) sq. units.

FORMULAE

## I. In water, the direction along the stream is called

downstream.
And, the direction against the stream is called upstream.
II. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the
speed of the stream is v km/hr, then:
Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr
Speed upstream = (u - v) km/hr.
III. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed
upstream is b km/hr, then:
Speed in still water = 1/2 (a + b) km/hr
Rate of stream = 1/2 (a - b) km/hr

## I. Partnership: When two or more than two persons run a

business jointly, they are called partners and the deal is
known as partnership.
II. Ratio of Division of Gains:
(i) When investments of all the partners are for the same
time, the gain or loss is distributed among the partners in
the ratio of their investments.
Suppose A and B invest Rs. x and Rs. y respectively for a
year in a business, then at the end of the year:
(As share of profit): (Bs share of profit) = x:y.
(ii) When investments are for different time periods, then
equivalent capitals are calculated for a unit of time by
taking (capital * number of units of time). Now, gain or loss
is divided in the ratio of these capitals.
Suppose A invests Rs. x for p months and B invests Rs. y for
q months, then (As share of profit) : (Bs share of profit) =
xp : yq.
III. Working and Sleeping Partners: A partner who manages
the business is known as working partner and the one who
simply invests the money is a sleeping partner.

## CLOCKS -> IMPORTANT FORMULAE

The face or dial of a watch is a circle whose circumference is divided
into 60 equal parts, called minute spaces.
A clock has two hands, the smaller one is called the hour hand or
short hand while the larger one is called the minute hand or long
hand.
I. in 60 minutes, the minute hand gains 55 minutes on the hour
hand.
II. In every hour, both the hands coincide once.
III. The hands are in the same straight line when they are coincident
or opposite to each other.
IV. When the two hands are at right angles, they are 15 minute
spaces apart.
V. When the hands are in opposite directions, they are 30
minute spaces apart.
VI. Angle traced by hour hand in 12 hrs = 360.
VII. Angle traced by minute hand in 60 min. = 360.

## PROBLEMS ON TRAINS -> IMPORTANT FORMULAE

1. a km/hr = [a * 5/18]m/s.
2. a m/s = [a * 18/5] km/hr.
3. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or a
standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train
to cover l metres.
4. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a stationary
object of length b metres is the time taken by the train to cover (l +
b) metres.
5. Suppose two trains or two bodies are moving in the same
direction at u m/s and v m/s, where u>v, then their relatives speed
= (u - v) m/s.
6. Suppose two trains or two bodies are moving in opposite
directions at u m/s and v m/s, then their relative speed is = (u + v)
m/s
7. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in
opposite directions at u
8. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in the
same direction at u m/s and v m/s, then the time taken by the faster
train to cross the slower train = (a + b)/(u - v) sec.

9. If two trains (or bodies) start at the same time from points A and
B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in

## reaching B and A respectively, then

(As speed):(Bs speed) = (b : a)

## 1. Natural Numbers: Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5..are

called natural numbers.

## 1. Principal: The money borrowed or lent out for a certain

period is called the principal of the sum.

## II. Whole Numbers: All counting numbers together with

zero form the set of whole numbers. Thus,

called interest.

number.

## 3. Simple Interest (S.I.): If the interest on a sum borrowed

for a certain period is reckoned uniformly, then it is called
simple interest.

## Let Principal = P, Rate = R% per annum (p.a.) and Time = T

years, Then,
(i) S.I. = [P * R * T / 100]

## III. Some Important Formulae:

I. (1 + 2 + 3 + .....+ n) = n (n + 1) / 2
II. (1 2 + 22 + 32 + ..... + n2) = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6
III. (1 3 + 23 + 33 + ..... + n3) = n2 (n + 1)2 / 4

## (ii) P = [100 * S.I. / R * T]

R = [100 * S.I / P * T] and T = [100 * S.I. / P * R]

## Complied by: Er. Manit Choudhary

manit.choudhary91@gmail.com