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1. What is a certificate of title?

2. If one of the co-owners decided to mortgage their land and has obtained consent from his
co-owner and these co-owners have their separate duplicate certificates, is it enough that
the mortgagor co-owner annotate the mortgage in his title?
3. Does a certificate of title obtained through fraud create rights?
4. What is the rule when two or more certificate covers the same land?
5. What is the duty of the RD with respect to the registration of OCT? Duplicate Certificate of
6. Where the property is registered in the name of Maria, married to Juan, what is the
character of the property?
7. The subject properties when mortgaged to the ABC Bank were registered in the name of
Maria, widow. Relying on the title covering the said property, the mortgage loan
applications of Marias were granted by ABC Bank and were duly registered in the RD.
Meantime, Juan and Pedro filed an action for partition and reconveyance against Pablo,
special administrator of the intestate estate of Maria who died earlier. How are the rights
of ABC Bank, as mortgagee, affected by the action?
8. Land is owned in common by four brothers, A, B, C, D. The land was sold by D to X. the
other 3 brothers demanded that the contract be declared null and void. Will the annulment
of the sale prosper?
9. What are the statutory liens affecting title? (trans)
10.Distinguish between a direct attach and a collateral attack on the title.
11.Plaintiff ABC Corporation filed against defendants cases alleging that the latter unlawfully
occupied portions of their land. They wanted the defendants to vacate the same and pay
reasonable compensation for their occupation. Defendants sought dismissal of the case on
the ground of lack of jurisdiction relying on 2 grounds: alleged invalidity of the titles of ABC
Bank, and defendants supposed acquisition of the property by adverse possession. Are
defendants contentions valid?
12.X filed a complaint against Y for quieting of title and damages. X alleged that upon his
return from America, their property were occupied and cultivated by Y. As an answer, Y
said, by way of affirmative defense, that the land in questioned was owned by Z which
were sold through series of a series of transfers. Y prayed that the complaint against him
be dismissed and that he be declared as the owner, and that the title of X be cancelled.
But X countered that Ys defense constitute a collateral attack. Is X correct?
13.Consolidation and splitting if titles. Describe and differentiate.
14.Suppose you have a large land and you want to sell a portion of it but it is not subdivided.
How can a buyer protect his right over the portion he bought? (trans 3)
15.The court ordered the cancellation of owners certificates of title even without presentation
of the duplicate certificates of title even without presentation of the duplicate certificates
and the approved subdivision plan and the corresponding technical descriptions. Is the RD
justified in issuing new certificate of title relying only on the technical descriptions
provided in courts order?
16.When can you say a registration of subsequent conveyance or dealing in a property is
already registered? (trans 4)
17.What is the effect if there is an issuance of a new TCT in favor of a party where the
duplicate certificate of title is not surrendered? (trans 4)
18.What is the rule regarding double sales? (trans 3)
19.Where registered land is sold to another who has knowledge of a prior existing but
unregistered lease, is he bound by the lease on the property? (278)
20.Maria, relying on the Torrens title in the name of Alex, loaned money in all good faith to
the latter as a mortgagor on the basis of the title standing in his name, only thereafter to
discover that Alex has forged the signature of the true owner, Ling, which resulted in the

issuance of the title in her name. In an action to foreclose the mortgage, should Marias
mortgage be sustained? (282)
21.Spouses Garcia bought land with full knowledge of the previous sale thereof to another as
well as the notice of lis pendens annotated on the vendors title. Will the registration of the
sale give them preference over the land? (284)
22.In case of refusal or failure of the holder to surrender his owners duplicate certificate of
title, what is the remedy of the interested party? (288)
23.How are dealings less than ownership registered? (293)
24.What is the primary entry book? (295)
25.What is the procedure in registration of conveyances? (trans 5)
26.What is a mortgage and what are its requisites?
27.What if there is a mortgage over the property but the creditor instead of foreclosing the
property, files an action for specific performance. If the creditor wins the collection suit
and the debtor will still not pay, may the creditor now pursue the foreclosure? (trans 6)
28.The execution of the mortgage was done in 2000, demand was made in 2003. There was
no payment, and there was no foreclosure. There was another demand in 2009 but still no
payment. When will prescription of the mortgage end? (trans 7)
29.Distinguish equity of redemption from right of redemption. (313)
30.What are the rights of the buyer in a foreclosure sale where the property is not redeemed
within the period of one year from the registration of the sale? (317)
31.What is the effect of a foreclosure of a prior mortgage in a subsequent lien holder? (318)
32.What are involuntary dealings of a registered land?
33.How is a writ of attachment registered? (334)
34.What is the effect on the non-recording of a writ of attachment? (335)
35.In the event that a judgment regarding recovery of possession and ownership is rendered
in favor of the plaintiff, how is the judgment implemented? (347)
36.In connection to the question above, in the event the owners duplicate certificate of title
is not presented for cancellation, what is the remedy of the party requesting registration?
37.Difference between a judicial and extra judicial foreclosure sale. (trans 7)
38.When is an extrajudicial settlement of estate resorted to? (368)
39.Is there a need of publication of the extrajudicial settlement? (369)
40.Who is charged with the duty to protect the Assurance fund?
41.What are the sources of Assurance fund?
42.What are the requisites for recovery from the Assurance fund?
43.Is there an instance wherein claiming against the insurance fund, you only need to file the
case with the RD and National treasurer? (trans 9)
44.What is the consequence when the Assurance Fund pay you? (trans 9)
45.Where a voluntary instrument cannot be registered by reason of the refusal or failure of
the holder to surrender the owners duplicate certificate of title, what is the remedy of an
interested party? (487)
46.In case of loss of an owners duplicate certificate of title, what is the remedy of the
registered owner? (440)