You are on page 1of 11

Course No:

Course title:
Number of credits:
No of lectures-tutorial-practical:

PPM 188
2
28-0-0

Course coordinator:

Mr Rituraaj Juneja

Cross-Culture Management

Course outline
Given the globalization of businesses and increasing diversity with the workforce of so
many industries and organizations, a cross-cultural component in management
education and training is no longer a useful add-on merely for those who might
consider venturing abroad to pursue their career. Nowadays, more and more
managers are required to work effectively across cultural borders. Even if they are
confined to their offices, they are more and more likely to interact with people from
other cultures. Awareness, education and training in cross-cultural management has
therefore become a must, whatever the type of business education concerned,
whether it is for aspiring graduates at the start of their career or for those senior
managers who wish to increase their effectiveness in their present positions or their
employability in the international markets.
Many experts in their fields have wrecked their brains to come up with what they
consider to be their concept of culture. Those working in the field of cultural
anthropology, alone, for example, have come up with long list of definitions of the
concept, based on their analysis of ethnological, social, physiological and linguistic
data.
This course attempts to communicate the fundamental aspect of culture, something all
humans learn in one way or another. It is not something people inherit, but rather a
code of attitudes, norms and values, a way of thinking that is learnt within a social
environment. Family, the social environment, school, friends, work all these help to
form this code and determine how people see themselves in this world. The national
culture and the particular region the people live in also help to shape a persons
cultural profile.
Although culture is reflected in individual behavior, it is a way of thinking shared by
individuals in a particular society that makes culture what it is.
This course intends to start from the basic understanding of culture, move to crosscultures using many case studies &case lets. The course is divided into three segments
where culture is understood with respect to management, organizations and finally
communications.

While the course delivery is planned in 24 sessions/days, depending on the time


available and understanding of the participants all or selected cases could be
discussed. Some case studies could be removed or some others added depending on
the assessment of the participants by the course coordinator. Additional days/sessions
have been reserved to take up additional case-studies, project work etc. focus being
learning of the practical aspects of the subject so as to let course participants gain
insights into practical cross-cultural situations that they are likely to face in their career
when they are likely to find learning from this course coming in handy for them to
understand and handle different cross-cultural situations and to come on the top.
Evaluation procedure
Marking
Evaluation in this course is based on
Class participation

30%

Case analyses & presentations

30%

Final Examination

40%

Class Participation
Participants are expected to be present, prepared and willing to share their views in
the classroom discussion in every class, both voluntarily and when called upon to do
so. They may be asked to identify key points in the assigned reading for the day (so
reading the assigned papers for each class is essential). Class participation also
includes class exercises and debates and participation in role-plays. The most valuable
contributions provide insightful viewpoints and analyses that build upon the readings
and prior class discussion and move our thinking forward.
The quality, quantity, and consistency of the students contribution will be evaluated
regularly. Should a student has specific or immediate concerns on how to improve
their class presence, please feel free to consult the course coordinator anytime during
the term.
In addition to their individual input into the case study discussions, they will have the
opportunity to participate in several in-class exercises and simulations (role plays in
class assignments and discussions). Most of these exercises will be team-based. Each
team should be ready to explain their stand - what was done, why it was done etc.
Different members of the team may take on different roles (e.g. leadership of the team
discussion, enactment in front of the class, explanation of key points, etc.).

Case Analyses &Presentations


Teams of 3 to 4 students each will be formed. Each team will be given front stage on at
least one case (depending on the number of teams). They will have a few minutes at
the beginning of the class to debrief the salient facts of the case and propose a solution.
The teammay be asked to submit in the beginning of the class a case report not to
exceed 5 pages. This would become part of the overall assessment.
Case assignments will reflect team effort. Thus, each team member will receive the
grade earned by their team, unless team members agree amongst themselves on a
differentgrade allocation and obtain approval from the course coordinator at least one
week prior to the end of classes.
In addition to the assigned readings students are expected to read at least one
management periodical (e.g. Fortune, Business week, The Economist, etc.).

Details of course content and allotted time


Topic
Part I:
Culture & Management
1. Determinants of culture
2. Dimensions of culture in Business
3. Western business cultures
4. Business cultures in the East

Allotted time (hours)


Lectures Tutorials
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

5. Cultural dimensions and dilemmas


2
6. Culture and styles of management
7. Activity 1: Developing Crosscultural effectiveness
8. Activity 2: Galderma A case
study
Part II:
Culture & Organizations
1. Culture & Corporate Structures

1
1
1

Topic
2. Culture & Leadership
3. Culture & Strategy
4. Cultural change in organizations
5. Culture & marketing

Allotted time (hours)


Lectures Tutorials
1
1
1
2
1

6. Cultural diversity in organizations


7. Activity 1: Making cultural profile
of brands
8. Activity 2: Creating chemistry: A
case study

Part III:
Culture & Communication
1. Business communication across
cultures
2. Barriers to intercultural
communication
3. Negotiating internationally
4. Working with international teams
5. Conflicts and cultural differences
6. Developing intercultural
relationships
7. Activity 1: Simulation working
internationally
8. Activity 2: Vechtel: A case study

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

Topic
Total

Allotted time (hours)


Lectures Tutorials
28

Suggested readings
Donaldson, T. (1996). Values in Tension: Ethics away from Home. Harvard Business
Review,
74(5): 48-62.
El Kahal, S. (2001). Business in Asia Pacific. Oxford University Press, pg 125-145.
Elenkov, D.S. (1998). Can American Management Concepts Work in Russia? A CrossCultural
Comparative Study. California Management Review, 40(4): 133-156.
Gundling, E. (1991). Ethics of Working with the Japanese: The Entrepreneur and the
Elite
Course. California Management Review, 33(3): 25-39.
Hodgetts, R.M., Luthans, F. (1997). International Management: Culture, Strategy and
Behavior.
3rd edition. New York: McGrawhill, pp 95-121.
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The West Unique, Not Universal. Foreign Affairs, 75(6): 28-46.
Jung, K.D. (1994). Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asias Anti-Democratic Values.
Foreign
Affairs, 73(6): 189-194.
Krugman, P. (1994). The Myth of Asias Miracle. Foreign Affairs, 73(6): 62-78.
Osland, J.O., Bird, A. (2000). Beyond Sophisticated Stereotyping: Cultural Sensemaking
in
Context. The Academy of Management Executive, 14(1): 65-79.
Puffer, S.M. (1994).Understanding the Bear: A Portrait of Russian Business Leaders.
Academy
of Management Executive, 8(1): 41-54.
Stanbury, W.T. and Vertinsky, I.B. (2004). Economics, Demography and Cultural
Implications
of Globalization: The Canadian Paradox. Management International Review, 2: 131156.
Su, C., and Littlefield, J.E. (2001). Entering Guanxi: A Business Ethical Dilemma in
Mainland
China? Journal of Business Ethics, 33(3); 199-210.
Thomas, D.C. (2002). Essentials of International Management. Thousand Islands,
California:

Sage Publications, pp 115-146.


Zakaria, F. (1994). Culture is Destiny: A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew. Foreign
Affairs,
73(2): 109-126.
Modules
Part I:
Culture & Management
1:
Determinants of culture
Learning outcomes:

2:

3:

The concept of culture and the role of norms and values in determining
culture

The relationship between culture, organizations and management

The concept of culture at various levels, both national and organizational

Case Study 1:

Defining an organizational culture

Dimensions of culture in Business


Learning outcomes:


Understand the concept of cultural dimensions

Be familiar, in particular, with the five-dimensional model developed by


Hofstede as well as the culture construct definitions of more recent research
by GLOBE team

Be acquainted with criticisms of Hofstedes concept

Have some insight into the relationships between societal values and
practices and the culture of organizations working within a society

Case Study 1:

The role of the manager

Case Study 2:

Pulling out all the stops

Western business cultures


Learning outcomes:


Become familiar with the idea of clustering cultures according to their


similarities

Discover which characteristics bring together countries in a number of


clusters with the Western half of this meta-configuration

Gain awareness of some of the problems arising from the cooperation


between and within these clusters

4:

5:

6:

7:

Case Study 1:

Problems at Airbus

Business cultures in the East


Learning outcomes:


Be able to distinguish essential differences and similarities in a number of


clusters.

Have some insight into the cultural factors that have an influence on
business

Case Study 1: Negotiating Dilemma

Case Study 2: To Russia with love

Cultural dimensions and dilemmas


Learning outcomes:


Understand the concept of value orientations

Gain insight into Trompenaars seven dimensions

Explore some cultural dilemmas in business

Learn how cultural differences can be reconciled

Case Study 1:

Statements of commitment

Case Study 2:

In search of status

Case Study 3:

Expatriates first job in Switzerland

Culture and styles of management


Learning outcomes:


Gain a clearer appreciation of the effect cultural values have on the way
managers work

Understand how a number of management practices are shaped according


to the cultural preferences of the managers concerned

Case Study 1:

An own goal

Activity 1: Developing Cross-cultural effectiveness


Learning outcomes:

8:

Analyze the effect of cultural variables in business and management


practices.

Adapt business skills to work across different cultures

Activity 2: Galderma A case study

Part II:
Culture & Organizations
1:
Culture & Corporate Structures
Learning outcomes:

2:

3:

4:

The relation between the structure and the culture of an organization

Forms of organizational structure

The levels and values of corporate cultures

Case Study 1:

Where does the buck stop?

Case Study 2:

Bad blood!

Culture & Leadership


Learning outcomes:


Evolving ideas with regard to leadership, particularly those Western ideas


influenced by Asian concepts of leadership

The notion that there are attributes of leadership shared across all cultures,
even though these are perceived differently in different cultures

Case Study 1:

Define your leader

Case Study 2:

Turnaround

Culture & Strategy


Learning outcomes:


The relationship between strategy and culture

The role of national culture in the formation of company strategy

The effect of strategy on international mergers and acquisitions

Case Study 1:

Shells reorganization

Cultural change in organizations


Learning outcomes:

5:

6:

7:
8:

Evolving ideas with regard to leadership, particularly those Western ideas


diagnosing the changes required

The tensions between national culture and organizational culture in the


change process, particularly the emergence of a so-called international
corporate culture

Case Study 1:
strategy

Michelin in China implementing a human resource

Culture & marketing


Learning outcomes:


Cultural differences in marketing practices in the world

The nature of cross-cultural research in marketing and its components

The role of communication in international marketing

Case Study 1:

What is behind the question?

Case Study 2:

Jif and Cif

Case Study 3:

Skoda transformed

Case Study 4:

Product launch in Uruguay

Case Study 5:

Sensodyne toothpaste

Case Study 6:

Vicks inhaler

Case Study 7: Coping with variables: a comparison of Indian and


European hauliers

Cultural diversity in organizations


Learning outcomes:


The skills managers need to manage cultural differences in global


environment.

The features of management culture required in MNCs

Case Study 1: Diversity versus localization within a telecommunications


company in Latin America

Activity 1: Making cultural profile of brands


Activity 2: Creating chemistry: A case study

Part III:
Culture & Communication
1:
Business communication across cultures
Learning outcomes:

2:

3:

4:

Understanding the different components which have an influence on the


process of communication

Role of communication in business practices

Case Study 1:
a gap with West

English names catch on among Chinese: Young bridging

Barriers to intercultural communication


Learning outcomes:


Understanding those components of communication that can create


obstacles in intercultural communication

The importance of the effects that barriers have on communication in


business

Case Study 1:

Delivery date: two weeks

Case Study 2:

The misunderstood marketing manager

Case Study 3:

Delete stereotypes

Case Study 4:

Meeting a brick wall the Indian experience

Negotiating internationally
Learning outcomes:


Understand how the perception of negotiating can differ from culture to


culture

Be aware of how these different perceptions can affect the negotiating


process between parties from different cultures and the eventual results

Be familiar with strategies of negotiation that are culturally responsive and


which, at the same time, take account of the skills of the individuals
involved

Case Study 1:

Negotiating with the Japanese

Case Study 2:

Selecting a negotiation strategy

Working with international teams


Learning outcomes:


The cultural factors that influence teams working in organizations

5:

6:

7:
8:

The importance of communications in the management of teams

Case Study 1:

Virtual teams: Global harmony is their dream

Case Study 2:

First meeting of teams: A meeting of minds

Conflicts and cultural differences


Learning outcomes:


Be aware how cultural influences the way people communicate in conflict

Understand how different cultural values affect the way people perceive
and manage conflicts

Realize how particular communicative skills can transform the way people
perceive the nature of conflict and the attitudes of those involved

Case Study 1:

Crisis? What crisis?

Developing intercultural relationships


Learning outcomes:


Gain further understanding of the difficulties inherent in the intercultural


communication

Be critically aware of the pre-requisites of successful intercultural


communication

Be able to reflect on the knowledge, motivation and skills required to


become a competent intercultural communicator

Case Study 1:

Should I take the apartment?

Case Study 2:

Ask the experts: Business ethics

Activity 1: Simulation working internationally


Activity 2: Vechtel: A case study