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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

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CONTRIBUTIONS AT THE AMPOI RIVER WATERSHED THERMIC SPECIFIC REGIME

Mihai Buiuc, Mircea Micu

“Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Ecology and Environment Protection, 31 Oituz St., Sibiu, RO - 550160

ABSTRACT

This work prezent the altitudinal distribution of the thermic regime specific parameters with specific diferentiations for slopes and heights and also for valleys and depresions. Based on the thermic gradients study and of the microclimatics measurements made by the author was established the thermic inversions frequency and intensity and implicit the Ampoi Valley pollutants dispersal conditions.

Key words: air thermic regime, thermic inversions, pollutants dispersal conditions.

INTRODUCTION

The Ampoi River, right side tributary of the Mureş River has 59 km length, 576 km 2 surface of the watershed and an average altitude of 700 m, altitudes which vary between 1060 m at the Ampoi River springs and 219 m at its confluence with the Mureş River at Alba Iulia. The highest altitude (1300 m) in the Ampoi River basin, exist at the Vâltori Valley springs. The Ampoi hydrographical basin is situated in the south-east part of the Apuseni Mountains, an area where the föhn efects were frequently registered. In all the Ampoi Watershed frequent thermal inversions were regisered, inversions which determine unfavourable polutants dispersal conditions, conditions highlighted by different researches (Buiuc 1974,

1979).

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

MATERIAL AND METHOD

To characterize the Ampoi River watershed climate were considered the meteorological data of the Ampoi River watershed meteorological stations and posts (Tab. 1), and that ones from the neighboring areas. There were studied also Apuseni Mountains high altitudes meteorological stations data, which analyze allow the

meteorological elements generalization in relation with the altitude, situation in which any interested area can be correctly characterize.

Tab. 1. The studied meteorological stations and posts.

No.

Meteorological

Altitude

Latitude

Longitude

crt.

station or post

m

N

E

 
  • 1. Abrud

 
  • 606 46°17'

23°04'

 
  • 2. Aiud

 
  • 290 46°19'

23°43'

 
  • 3. Alba Iulia

 
  • 248 46°04'

23°35'

 
  • 4. Băişoara

1384

46°34'

23°22'

 
  • 5. Bărăbanţ

 
  • 249 46°03'

23°34'

 
  • 6. Benic

 
  • 300 46°13'

23°35'

 
  • 7. Berghin

 
  • 305 46°04'

23°44'

 
  • 8. Bistra

 
  • 546 46°21'

23°04'

 
  • 9. Câmpeni

 
  • 575 46°22'

23°03'

 
  • 10. Ighiu

 
  • 268 46°09'

23°31'

 
  • 11. Întregalde

 
  • 640 46°14'

23°25'

 
  • 12. Mogoş

 
  • 750 46°16'

23°17'

 
  • 13. Ponor-Geogel

 
  • 742 46°19'

23°22'

 
  • 14. Roşia-Montană

 
  • 850 46°18'

23°08'

 
  • 15. Sebeş

 
  • 254 45°57'

23°34'

 
  • 16. Teiuş

 
  • 239 46°15'

23°50'

 
  • 17. Zlatna

 
  • 423 46°07'

23°14'

Due to the fact that the 17 meteorological stations and posts data present not uniform values rows as duration, these were processed from the climatologically point of view to bring them at a common long period using for this purpose the longest values row - Sibiu, realizing the bringing data at a long common period (1851 - 2006).

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The temperatures data processing was made based on the differences method, and for the precipitations, the ratios and the isopercentages method, in conformity with the methodology elaborated by Katin and Pekrovscaia (1964) and by Dumitrescu and Glăja (1972). After the data were homogenised and bring at a common long period, the specific values were correlated with the altitude and was realized their altitudinal distribution in the Ampoi Watershed. The highest peak in the Ampoi Watershed is Vâlcoi Peak (1348 m) situated at the Vâltori Valley springs (Runc).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Ampoy Valley climate particularities

The climate in this zone is characterised through some particularities which confirm and highlight its geographical individuality in comparison with other areas in Romania. These particularities are generated by the climatic factors, which has in the Ampoi Valley case a series of specific characteristics, determined by the geographical position and the specific phisico- geographical factors characteristics. The subjacent surface present in the Ampoi Valley a high diversity, conditioned by the specific particularities of the relief, hydrography, vegetation and soils, which induce a series of modifications in the regime and the territorial repartition of the radiative sum elements, and the general atmosphere circulation, which influence the appearance here of complex topoclimates in different parts of the basin. The human factors represented by the localities presence, roads and industrial pollution, influence in some degree the climate elements. The relief one of the main components of the subjacent surface has a special role in the solar energy transformation and of the moving air masses influence, therefore in forming the climate of this area. The average altitude of the Ampoi River watershed is 700 m, and has a lower influence then other local factors, yet the climatogenetic importance of the absolute altitudes of the relief is highlighted in this river watershed too through the differentiated repartition of the climatic elements on the different relief levels of this river basin.

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

In the Ampoi River basin the air temperature is inversely proportional distributed with the altitude, dropping with 0.5 - 0.6 °C/100 m, yet in many months, in some moments of the day, some exceptions appear. In the majorities of the nights, due to the relief appear negative thermic gradients, due to the cold air moving from the neighbouring slopes and its accumulation on the bottom of the valley area and of the intense radiation of the subjacent surface. In these conditions temperature inversions are formed, inversions which increases the temperature contrasts from the lower and the higher parts of the basin, which in some cases remain above the temperature inversion layer. These exceptions from the normal thermic regime evolution are so important and frequent so that is reflected even in the multi annual average temperature, which is lower around the river. The vertical zonality affected the precipitations quantities distribution too. The relief exposition and inclination has also important roles in the climatic elements distribution, especially for the thermic regime. The Ampoi Valley relief form, contribute to the dynamisation of the atmosphere and to the thermic inversions long persistence, which accentuate the polluted air stratification over the localities around the pollution sources, with the night periods when mountain breezes move the polluted air masses downstream to Alba Iulia. Also the accentuated air masses stratification induced the air nebulosity presence on the Ampoi River valley and the increasing of water vapours presence, reducing the visibility and diminishing the receipted solar radiation.

The main climatic elements characterization in the Ampoi River watershed

1. Air temperature 1.1. Average annual and monthly temperatures The air temperatures are one of the main factors which allow

the human activities. The Ampoi River watershed main specific relief forms with the general atmospheric circulation and the solar radiation has a very important influence on the territorial distribution and evolution in time of the air temperature.

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Trough the existing data analysis, correlated with the altitude, result the fact that in Ampoi Watershed the average annual temperatures decrease from the confluence of the Ampoi River with the Mureş River (Alba Iulia 9.4 °C) to the mountains peaks river springs area, the lowest annual values of 4.7 °C existing on the Vâlcoi Peak (1348 m) at the Vâltori Valley springs (Runc) (Tab. 2).

Tab. 2. The average monthly and annual temperatures (°C) at different altitudinal levels on the Apoi Valley (1851 - 2005).

Alti

 

months

 

Ann

ual

tude

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

m

 
  • 200 -3.9

 

-1.2

 
  • 4.5 10.4

 
  • 15.6 -1.1

18.8

  • 20.5 19.8

 
  • 15.7 9.9

   
  • 4.2 9.4

 
  • 250 -3.9

 

-1.0

 
  • 5.0 10.5

 
  • 15.7 -0.9

19.0

  • 20.3 19.7

 
  • 15.9 9.9

   
  • 4.5 9.6

 
  • 300 -3.7

 

-0.9

 
  • 4.8 10.3

 
  • 15.5 -0.8

18.3

  • 20.2 19.5

 
  • 15.6 9.7

   
  • 4.2 9.4

 
  • 350 -3.6

 

-1.0

 
  • 4.6 10.1

 
  • 15.2 -0.8

18.0

  • 20.0 19.3

 
  • 15.3 9.6

   
  • 4.0 9.2

 
  • 400 -3.7

 

-1.2

  • 4.2 9.8

   
  • 14.8 -0.9

17.7

 
  • 19.7 19.0

  • 15.0 9.4

   
  • 3.7 9.0

 
  • 450 -4.0

 

-1.5

 
  • 3.8 9.6

 
  • 14.6 -1.2

17.5

 
  • 19.4 18.5

  • 14.5 9.2

   
  • 3.4 8.6

 
  • 500 -4.3

 

-1.9

  • 3.3 8.7

   
  • 14.2 -1.6

16.9

 
  • 18.7 17.9

  • 14.0 8.8

   
  • 3.1 8.2

 
  • 550 -4.0

 

-2.0

  • 3.1 8.3

   
  • 14.0 -1.5

16.5

 
  • 18.3 17.7

  • 13.7 8.5

   
  • 2.8 8.0

 
  • 600 -3.7

 

-2.1

  • 2.9 7.9

   
  • 13.7 -1.3

16.1

 
  • 17.8 17.4

  • 13.3 8.1

   
  • 2.4 7.7

 
  • 650 -3.7

 

-2.2

  • 2.7 7.6

   
  • 13.5 -1.4

15.8

  • 17.5 17.1

 
  • 13.0 7.9

   
  • 2.2 7.5

 
  • 700 -3.7

 

-2.4

  • 2.4 7.2

   
  • 13.2 -1.6

15.4

 
  • 17.1 16.7

  • 12.7 7.6

   
  • 1.9 7.2

 
  • 750 -3.7

 

-2.5

  • 2.2 6.9

   
  • 12.9 -1.7

15.1

 
  • 16.8 16.5

  • 12.4 7.5

   
  • 1.8 7.0

 
  • 800 -3.7

 

-2.7

 
  • 1.9 6.5

 
  • 12.6 -1.9

14.7

 
  • 16.4 16.2

  • 12.1 7.4

   
  • 1.7 6.8

 
  • 850 -3.8

 

-2.8

 
  • 1.7 6.2

 
  • 12.3 -2.0

14.4

 
  • 16.1 15.9

  • 11.9 7.2

   
  • 1.6 6.6

 
  • 900 -3.9

 

-3.0

 
  • 1.4 5.8

 
  • 11.9 -2.1

14.1

 
  • 15.8 15.5

  • 11.6 6.9

   
  • 1.5 6.3

 
  • 950 -3.9

 

-3.1

 
  • 1.1 5.5

 
  • 11.6 -2.2

13.8

 
  • 15.5 15.3

  • 11.4 6.8

   
  • 1.4 6.1

 
  • 1000 -4.0

 

-3.3

  • 0.8 5.1

   
  • 11.2 -2.3

13.5

 
  • 15.2 15.0

  • 11.2 6.6

   
  • 1.3 5.8

 
  • 1050 -4.1

 

-3.5

  • 0.5 4.8

   
  • 10.9 -2.4

13.2

 
  • 15.0 14.8

  • 11.0 6.5

   
  • 1.2 5.6

 
  • 1100 -4.2

 

-3.7

  • 0.2 4.5

   
  • 10.5 -2.5

12.8

 
  • 14.7 14.5

  • 10.8 6.3

   
  • 1.1 5.4

 
  • 1150 -4.3

 

-3.8

  • 0.1 4.2

   
  • 10.1 -2.6

12.5

 
  • 14.4 14.3

  • 10.6 6.2

   
  • 1.0 5.2

 
  • 1200 -4.5

 

-3.8

-0.1

4.1

9.7

12.2

  • 14.1 14.1

 
  • 10.5 6.2

   
  • 1.0 5.1

-2.6

 
  • 1250 -4.6

 

-3.9

-0.5

9.0

9.3

12.0

 
  • 13.9 13.9

  • 10.4 6.1

   
  • 1.1 4.9

-2.7

 
  • 1300 -4.7

 

-4.0

-1.0

3.8

8.9

11.7

 
  • 13.6 13.6

  • 10.3 6.0

   
  • 1.1 4.7

2.7

 

If the normal thermic gradient is 0.65 °C/100 m, in the Ampoi Valley conditions can be observed a lower thermic gradient 0.43 °C/100 m, at this situation contributing also the frequent thermic inversions. Along the studied period of time the highest average annual temperature was 11.2 °C and it was registered at Ighiu (268 m) in 1958, and in the mountainous area 8.0 °C in 1966 at Băişoara (in the vicinity of the interested area). The lowest average annual temperatures were 7.8 °C in 1940 at Alba Iulia (248 m) and 6.2 °C in 1964 in the mountainous area at Băişoara (546 m).

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

In dependence with the baric centres succession, with the radiative sum elements, with the subjacent surface characteristics in different periods of the year, the year average temperature present variations along the year from one month to another (Tab. 2). The winter last around three months in the lower part of the Ampoi River watershed, and at over 1000 m altitude it include also the first half of March, and over 1200 m altitudes the winter last four months (December - March). In this cold season an intensive radiative cooling take place, favoured by the persistence of the anticyclone regime, the long nights period and the presence of the snow layer. Due to these characteristics the cold air is accumulating on the Ampoi River valley, the average winter month’s temperatures being lower on the valley bottom than on the neighbouring mountain peaks, especially in January, when the lowest temperatures were registered between 3.7 °C and - 4.7 °C. In the basin sector between 500 m and 1000 m altitude exist a zone with thermic inversion, a zone which can be observed even from the average monthly temperatures (Tab. 2). In the spring due the solar radiation increasing, and the frequent warm air masses from west and south-west, the air temperature became positive, the average of the season vary between 8.7 and 10.2 °C in the lower part of the basin (200 - 500 m) and decrease in the mountainous area between 5.7 and 3.9 °C (at altitudes of 1000 - 1300 m). In the spring the average temperatures increase with 7.7 - 12.3 °C in comparison with the winter average temperatures. In the first part of the season, the air temperatures remain low on the Ampoi Valley bottom due to the thermic inversions. The highest monthly increasements along the year are registered in March and April when are over 5 - 6 °C (Tab. 2). Starting with April, the valley bottom became warm and the temperatures evolution in relation with the altitude became normal - on the whole altitudinal gradients profile being almost similar with those considered standard (0.65 °C). In the spring as a consequence of the solar radiation increasing, of the thermic convection development, the air temperature register the highest values, varying in average in this season between 19.4 °C at

Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

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Ighiu and 19.6 °C at Alba Iulia. In the mountainous zone the average summer temperature decrease at 18.6 °C at Zlatna (423 m) and at 16.1 °C at Mogoş (750 m). At the level of the mountainous peaks starting with the 1200 m altitude, can be observe a one month delay in the appearance of the maximum monthly values. If till the 1200 m altitude the highest monthly average temperature were recorded in July, at highest altitudes the highest values were recorded in August (Tab. 2). In the autumn, due to the solar energy intensity flux decreasing and the increasing of the number of the days with "cover" sky (5 - 15 days monthly), the air temperature start to decrease, being with 9 - 10 °C lower then in summer, varying in the lower part of the Ampoi Watershed between 9.6 °C at Ighiu and 9.8 °C at Alba Iulia, decreasing at 9.2 °C at Zlatna, and at altitudes higher than 1000 m decrease under 6.3 °C. In the autumn the air temperature is with approximative 1 °C higher than in spring, due to the missing of the snow layers and the presence of the föehnal efects. The annual air temperatures amplitudes present values which vary between 18.3 °C and 24.4 °C, these amplitudes being lower in the mountainous zone and higher in the Mureş River valley. The highest monthly air average temperature of the studied period was registered at Alba Iulia in July 1930 (23.5 °C) and in July 1987 at Ighiu (23.4 °C), and the lowest monthly average air temperature of the studied period was registered in January 1940 at Alba Iulia (- 10.9 °C). In the year round dynamic the monthly average temperatures present a minimum in January and a maximum in July. One exception was registered at altitudes over 1200 m, where the annual maximum was registered both in July and in August - the passing at the distribution type characteristic for the high mountainous areas. 1.2 The average annual and monthly temperatures 1.2.1 The average daily maximum and minimum temperatures The multiannual monthly averages of the daily maximum temperatures (Tab. 3) are positive all over the year in the lower areas, with the exception of January when the maximum averages temperatures decrease at some stations a little under 0 °C (Ighiu, - 0.3 °C).

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

Tab. 3. The daily maximum average air temperatures (°C).

Alti

 

months

 

Ann

 

tude

m

I

II

 
  • III V

IV

   
  • VI XI

VII

VIII

IX

 
  • X XII

 

ual

200

0.3

3.9

10.5

16.8

21.7

 
  • 25.4 9.3

28.1

26.6

 
  • 22.7 15.4

  • 15.9 3.0

   

300

0.3

3.6

 
  • 9.8 21.0

16.2

   
  • 24.5 9.0

26.9

26.1

 
  • 22.2 14.8

  • 15.8 2.9

   

400

0.3

3.2

 
  • 9.0 20.4

15.5

   
  • 23.5 8.6

25.7

25.5

 
  • 21.7 14.3

  • 15.7 2.7

   

500

0.6

3.0

 
  • 8.7 20.1

15.1

   
  • 23.2 8.4

25.3

25.2

 
  • 21.4 14.1

  • 15.2 2.7

   

600

0.7

2.7

 
  • 8.3 19.6

14.6

   
  • 22.8 8.2

24.9

24.6

 
  • 20.9 13.7

  • 14.7 2.6

   

700

0.8

2.3

 
  • 7.6 19.0

14.0

   
  • 22.3 7.9

24.3

24.1

 
  • 20.3 13.3

  • 14.2 2.4

   

800

0.7

1.9

 
  • 7.1 18.4

13.3

   
  • 21.6 7.5

23.6

23.4

 
  • 19.7 12.8

  • 13.6 2.2

   

900

0.5

1.5

 
  • 6.4 17.6

12.5

   
  • 20.9 7.0

22.8

22.6

 
  • 19.0 12.1

  • 12.9 2.0

   

1000

0.3

1.0

 
  • 5.7 16.7

11.6

   
  • 20.0 6.5

22.0

21.8

 
  • 18.2 11.5

  • 12.3 1.8

   

1100

-0.1

0.5

 
  • 4.9 15.8

10.7

   
  • 19.1 6.0

21.1

21.0

 
  • 17.3 10.8

  • 11.6 1.5

   

1200

-0.5

0.0

 
  • 4.1 14.8

9.8

   
  • 18.1 5.4

20.2

20.1

 
  • 16.5 10.0

  • 11.0 1.2

   

1300

-1.0

-0.5

 
  • 3.2 13.8

8.8

   
  • 17.0 4.9

19.2

19.3

 
  • 15.5 9.3

  • 10.3 0.9

   

Through the average maximum temperatures correlation with the altitude (Tab. 3) can be highlight the fact that only at altitudes over 1100 m these values are negative in January, and at altitudes over 1300 m became negative for two months every year (January and February). The multiannual monthly averages of the daily minimum temperatures were differentiated on altitudinal levels for slopes and heights and for valleys and depressions. In the table 4 are presented the multiannual monthly average values for slopes and heights and in the table 5 the same category of values for valleys and depressions.

Tab. 4. The daily minimum average air temperatures (°C) in the Ampoi River watershed; slopes and heights.

Alti

 

months

 

Ann

ual

tude

m

I

II

 
  • III V

IV

   
  • VI XI

VII

VIII

IX

 
  • X XII

 
  • 200 -6.3

 

-2.9

 
  • 1.3 10.4

5.8

   
  • 14.3 2.4

15.4

14.6

 
  • 10.3 5.7

5.6

 

-2.7

 
  • 300 -6.9

 

-3.4

  • 0.4 4.9

 

9.5

 
  • 12.7 2.0

14.8

14.2

 
  • 9.9 -2.5

5.3

   

5.1

  • 400 -7.2

 

-4.1

-0.3

4.1

8.8

 
  • 11.7 1.2

13.8

13.3

 
  • 9.5 -2.3

4.7

   

4.4

  • 500 -7.4

 

-4.6

-0.9

3.9

8.1

 
  • 11.0 0.3

12.5

12.2

 
  • 9.0 -2.2

3.9

   

3.8

  • 600 -7.5

 

-5.1

-1.5

2.9

7.5

 
  • 10.5 3.2

11.5

11.3

 
  • 8.4 -2.3

3.4

-0.2

   
  • 700 -7.6

 

-5.4

-2.0

2.3

7.0

 
  • 10.0 2.9

11.2

11.0

 
  • 8.1 -2.9

3.2

-0.3

   
  • 800 -7.6

 

-5.8

-2.4

1.9

6.6

 
  • 9.6 -3.3

11.0

10.8

 
  • 7.9 -0.4

3.1

   

2.6

  • 900 -7.5

 

-6.0

-2.7

1.5

6.2

 
  • 9.3 -3.7

10.8

10.6

 
  • 7.7 -0.5

3.0

   

2.4

  • 1000 -7.5

 

-6.3

-3.0

1.1

5.8

 
  • 9.1 -4.0

10.7

10.5

 
  • 7.5 -0.5

3.0

   

2.2

  • 1100 -7.4

 

-6.5

-3.2

0.9

5.7

 
  • 9.0 -4.3

10.6

10.5

 
  • 7.5 -0.6

3.1

   

2.1

  • 1200 -7.2

 

-6.3

-3.1

0.8

5.6

 
  • 8.9 -4.5

10.6

10.5

 
  • 7.5 -0.6

3.2

   

2.1

  • 1300 -6.8

 

-6.1

-3.0

0.8

5.6

 
  • 8.9 -4.5

10.6

10.5

 
  • 7.5 -0.7

3.5

   

2.2

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Tab. 5. The daily minimum average air temperatures (°C) in the Ampoi River watershed; valleys and depressions.

Alti

 

months

 

Ann

 

tude

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

ual

m

 
 

-8.1

  • 200 -1.3

-4.7

   
  • 4.0 12.5

8.6

   
  • 13.6 12.8

 
  • 8.5 4.5

3.8

 
  • 0.6 -4.5

 
 

-8.7

  • 300 -1.4

-5.4

   
  • 3.1 10.9

7.7

   
  • 13.0 12.4

 
  • 8.1 3.2

3.5

 
  • 0.2 -4.3

 
 

-9.0

  • 400 -2.1

-5.9

   
  • 2.3 -0.6

7.0

 
  • 9.9 11.5

  • 12.0 -4.1

 
  • 7.7 2.6

2.9

     
 

-9.2

  • 500 -2.7

-6.4

   
  • 1.6 -1.5

6.3

 
  • 9.2 10.4

  • 10.7 -4.0

 
  • 7.2 2.0

2.1

     
 

-9.3

  • 600 -3.3

-6.9

   
  • 1.1 -2.0

5.7

 
  • 8.7 9.5

  • 9.7 -4.1

 
  • 6.6 1.4

1.6

     
 

-9.4

  • 700 -3.8

-7.2

   
  • 0.5 -2.1

5.2

 
  • 8.2 9.2

  • 9.4 -4.7

 
  • 6.3 1.1

1.4

     
 

-9.4

  • 800 -4.2

-7.6

   
  • 0.1 -2.2

4.8

 
  • 7.8 9.0

  • 9.2 -5.1

 
  • 6.1 0.8

1.3

     
 

-9.3

  • 900 -4.5

-7.8

 

-0.3

4.4

 
  • 7.5 -2.3

  • 9.0 -5.5

8.8

 
  • 5.9 0.6

1.2

     
 

-9.3

  • 1000 -4.8

-8.1

 

-0.7

4.0

 
  • 7.3 -2.3

  • 8.9 -5.8

8.7

 
  • 5.7 0.5

1.2

     
 

-9.2

  • 1100 -5.0

-8.1

 

-0.9

3.9

 
  • 7.2 -2.4

  • 8.8 -6.1

8.7

 
  • 5.7 0.3

1.3

     
 

-9.0

  • 1200 -5.1

-8.1

 

-1.0

3.8

 
  • 7.1 -2.4

  • 8.8 -6.3

8.7

 
  • 5.7 0.3

1.4

     
 

-8.8

  • 1300 -4.8

-7.9

 

-0.8

4.1

 
  • 7.1 -2.5

  • 8.8 -6.3

8.7

 
  • 5.7 0.4

1.7

     

After this values examinations, can be reveal the fact that the daily minimum averages air temperatures on slopes and heights had negative values three months a year in the lower part of the basin till 300 m altitudes, and on higher altitudes the time period with the average minimal negative temperatures increase to 4 months by year (till 600 m) and 5 months by year over 600 m altitudes (Tab. 4), where the frozen periods start in November and last till March. In absolute values, the lowest daily minimum averages air temperature (- 7.6 °C) on slopes and heights were registered in January between 700 - 800 m altitudes, and the highest (15.4 °C) were registered in July in the confluence with the Mureş River area and decrease gradually with the altitude till 10.6 °C at 1300 m.

The vertical thermic gradients are small and appear isothermic cases, facts which create unfavourable conditions for the pollutants dispersion.

On the valleys and depressions (mainly the confluence areas of the Ampoi with its tributaries), the daily minimum temperature average prezent negative values five months a year (November - March) till 900 m altitude, and at higher altitudes these values are negative six months a year (November - April). In comparison with the daily minimum temperatures averages on the slopes and heights, those from the valleys and depresions are with 1.5 - 2.0 °C higher. On the Ampoi Valley the freezing periods last with 30 days more then on slopes and hights.

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

In absolute values, the lowest daily minimum temperatures averages in valleys and depresions are registered in January at altitudes between 500 and 1100 m and vary between - 9.2 °C and - 9.4 °C, and the highest (13.0 - 13.6 °C) in July in the lower area of the confluence with the Mureş River. If in the summer time these values decrease with the altitude with lower gradients in the comparison with the standard gradients, in winter months the gradients are very low (0.1 °C/100 m) or izotermic layers can be registered (at 700 - 1000 m). From the table 5 data result the fact that the daily minimum temperatures averages vary along the year bewten the lowest values (- 8.1 °C and - 9.4 °C) in January and highest values between (8.8 °C and 13.6 °C ) in July. 1.2.2 The absolute maximum and minimum temperatures The absolute maximum temperatures in the Ampoi River watershed was 39.4 °C, a registered value in 09.07.1947 at Alba Iulia, folowed by the 39.2 °C value registered at Ighiu in 25.07.1987, and in the mountainous area of the Apusen i Mountains was recorded at Câmpeni (591 m) the 38.7 °C value in 19.07.1987. The monthly absolute maximum values analise highlight the fact that starting with March till November these values are usualy higher then 20 °C, and in May (and even in April) till in Octomber, the absolute maximum temperatures are frequently over 30 °. In June - August period the absolute maximum temperatures are over 35 °C. The absolute minimum temperatures became negative starting with September and remain negative till in May. The absolute minimum temperatures (- 32.4 °C) were registered in 24.01.1963, at the confluence with the Ampoi River with the Mureş River, also - 32,4 °C at Ighiu and - 32.7 °C at Câmpeni. As the absolute extremes are punctual values in table 6 where are presented the absolute maximum temperatures, and in the table 7 the registered minimal absolute values. In the table 7 can be observe that the absolute minimum values decrease for one - two months under - 30 °C. In the cold season, two months (Ighiu), four months (Alba Iulia, Sebeş Alba, Câmpeni, Băişoara) the absolute minimum values decrease under - 20 °C.

Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

11

Tab. 6. The absolute maximum temperatures (°C) of the air and the registration data, in the Ampoi Watershed; m - absolute maximum temperatures (°C), d - day of registration, y - year of registration, A - Alba Iulia, S - Sebeş-Alba, I - Ighiu, C - Câmpeni, B - Băişoara.

Sta

tion

 

months

 

Ann

I

II

III

IV

V

  • VI VII

   

IX

  • VIII XI

X

   
  • XII ual

 

m

15.4

17.5

28.6

31.4

33.2

35.2

39.7

39.4

38.5

32.1

20.4

17.5

39.7

A

d

17

26

30

21

26

19

9

19

7

2

4

3

9.07

y

1948

1948

1948

1950

1950

1952

1947

1946

1946

1952

1960

1947

1947

 

m

15.0

20.6

27.8

29.8

34.3

36.4

38.6

37.7

34.6

29.7

23.6

18.3

38.6

S

d

7

22

31

17

12

16

26

12

14

13

7

17

26.07

y

1988

1966

1968

1956

1958

1972

1965

1961

1987

1964

1963

1989

1965

 

m

15.2

20.7

27.6

31.5

34.0

35.4

39.2

38.4

35.4

32.0

24.5

18.6

39.2

I

d

2

22

30

24

6

27

25

16

14

2

1

11

25

y

1984

1966

1952

1950

1968

1982

1987

1952

1987

1952

1970

1979

1987

 

m

12.6

19.0

24.6

27.3

30.3

32.5

38.7

33.7

32.1

27.0

21.1

16.0

38.7

C

d

7

24

21

24

16

28

19

18

7

2

6

16

19.07

y

1988

1990

1974

1968

1969

1963

1987

1963

1982

1963

1963

1989

1987

 

m

12.8

15.4

17.2

20.6

24.2

26.5

29.6

26.6

25.3

21.1

19.5

14.6

29.6

B

d

16

25

21

25

16

27

6

12

7

2

6

5

6.07

y

1975

1978

1974

1968

1969

1982

1988

1961

1982

1965

1987

1985

1988

Tab. 7. The absolute minimum temperatures (°C) of the air and the registration data, in the Ampoi Watershed; m - absolute maximum temperatures (°C), d - day of registration, y - year of registration, A - Alba Iulia, S - Sebeş-Alba, I - Ighiu, C - Câmpeni, B - Băişoara.

 

II

III

  • VI VII

  • VIII XI

 

Sta

tion

 

months

 

Ann

I

   

IV

V

     

IX

X

   
  • XII ual

 

m

-31.0

-30.0

-21.0

-5.7

-1.6

2.5

6.2

5.1

-1.2

-6.7

-14.7

-24.0

-31.0

A

d

31

1

2

13

21

1

23

26

26

27

30

29

31

y

1947

1947

1932

1954

1952

1960

1951

1952

1952

1966

1948

1939

1947

 

m

-33.9

-27.6

-21.4

-5.1

-0.6

1.2

5.2

3.4

-4.2

-8.5

-14.9

-23.5

-33.9

S

d

24

6

4

3

4; 5

3

10

27

30

29

26

13

24.01

y

1963

1954

1987

1974

1965

1990

1962

1980

1970

1971

1976

1983

1963

 

m

-32.4

-27.6

-19.6

-5.4

-1.5

4.0

6.0

4.1

-3.0

-6.6

-15.5

-19.6

-32.4

I

d

24

6

5

13

21

5

23

13

30

29

30

24

24.01

y

1963

1954

1987

1954

1952

1965

1951

1965

1970

1971

1948

1948

1963

 

m

-32.7

-30.8

-23.0

-6.0

-3.4

0.6

2.3

1.5

-5.5

-9.3

-18.6

-24.1

-32.7

C

d

24

15

1

21

1

2

16

26

28

28

30

4

24.01

y

1963

1964

1965

1984

1976

1977

1969

1980

1968

1988

1987

1973

1963

 

m

-25.3

-22.4

-22.5

-11.0

-5.5

-3.8

1

0.2

-6.7

-10.9

-15.6

-20.4

-25.3

B

d

17

6

1

2

2

7

1

28

29

25

29

15

17.01

y

1964

1965

1963

1965

1962

1962

1962

1981

1970

1979

1989

1961

1964

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

The absolute minimum temperatures remain negative nine months per year, the latest freezing period was registered in 21 May 1952, and the first freezing periods in autumn were registered between

  • 26 and 30 September (1952, 1968 and 1970).

    • 1.2.3 The freezing days frequency

The first autumn day with freezing temperatures is register usualy in the second decade of Octomber, and the last spring day with freezing temperatures is register usualy in the second decade of the April.

If we analise the registered data at the Ampoi River and Mureş River confluence (Alba Iulia) for the first autumn day with freezing temperatures in pluriannual average this one is 17.10, and the last such day is 12.04. The average period of the annual number of days without freezing temperatures is 188 at Alba Iulia, respectively 177 days with probable freezing temperatures. The first autumn freezing at Alba Iulia was in 24.09 and the latest in 14.11. The last spring freezing day at Alba Iulia can appear in the warm springs till 14.03, and in that springs with climatic accidents in 22.05.

  • 1.2.4 The winter days frequency (with maximum temperatures

lower or equal with 0 °C) and of the nights with frosty weather (the minimum temperatures equal or lower than - 10 °C) The winter days number (the maximum air temperatures lower or equal with 0 °C), is lower than the frosty weather days number, varying between 28.2 days at Ighiu, 29.4 days at Alba Iulia and 47 days/year at 1300 m. Winter days distribution studing at diferent altitudinal levels, reveal the fact that these days frequency increase with the altitude with 1.7 days/100 m, being over 30 days/year on altitudes higher than 500 m and over 40 days/year at higher than 1000 m altitudes. The maximum winter days on an year vary between 35 and 60, and the minimum winter days vary between 16 and 25 days. The frosty weather nights number (the minimum temperatures equal or lower than - 10 °C) vary between 21.3 days in the Ampoi and

Mureş rivers confluence area, increasing at 35.0 days in the higher watershed area. It has to be added the fact that in the Inghiu vineyards area the frequency of the frosty nights is lower (15.8 days/year).

Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

13

1.2.5 The summer days number on an year (with maximum temperatures higher or equal with 25 °C) and of the tropical days on an year (with maximum temperatures higher or equal with 30 °C) In the warm season, the annual number of the summer days (with maximum temperatures higher or equal with 25 °C) varies between 76.6 days at Alba Iulia and 80.5 days at Ighiu. The distribution of these categories of days in relation with the altitude show that over 100 m the frequency of these days decrease with 6.8 days, thus at the altitudinal level of 500 m were registered 39.5 summer days, at 800 m 15 summer days, and at 1300 m only 1.5 days. In the analysed period for the lower watershed were registered the years when the number of summer days was over 100 days and in cold years the frequency of these days decrease at 40 - 50 days. The early days with maximum temperatures higher or equal with 25 °C appear (one - two days) in March. In April the summer day’s number were registered usually in two days. Due to the solar radiation intensification starting with the month of June, the summer day’s number in the lower area of the Ampoi Watershed increase at 15 - 20 days\month and sometimes more. The air warming over 25 °C has the highest frequency in July and August when in the area were registered 22 summer days (6 - 8 less such days then in the southern Romanian Plain). In Octomber were registered the last days with maximum temperatures higher or equal with 25 °C, 1 - 1.5 days in the lower area and no such days in the mountanous area. The tropical days number (with maximum temperatures higher or equal with 35 °C), vary in the lower area of the Ampoi River watershed between 19.5 days at Ighiu and 21.8 days at Alba Iulia, decreasing at 10.8 days at 550 - 600 m altitudes, and at higher altitudes these days number strongly decreased till their disapearance at the mountainous peaks level (1200 - 1300 m). 1.2.6 Air daily average temperatures passing through 0 °C level To study the passing of the air daily average temperatures by 0 °C level the histograms method was used. Were determined the beginning, the end and the average period in days of the interval with

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

daily average temperatures equals or higher than 0 °C, values which determine the heat necesity and the posibility of outdoors human activities. In the table 8 are present these data for the altitudinal levels between 200 m in the Ampoi and Mureş rivers confluence area, till the highest area of the basin (1300 m).

Tab. 8. The beginning, the end and the period in days of the interval with daily average temperatures equals or higher than 0 °C and the global thermic resources at different altitudinal levels in the Ampoi Watershed. Global

Altitude

Begining

End

Interval

thermic

m

 

resources

200

 
  • 18.02 11.12

296

3680

300

 
  • 19.02 10.12

294

3645

400

  • 22.02 7.12

 

288

3490

500

  • 28.02 3.12

 

278

3215

600

5.03

29.11

269

2835

700

8.03

27.11

264

2658

800

12.03

25.11

258

2535

900

15.03

23.11

253

2435

1000

19.03

22.11

248

2350

1100

21.03

21.11

245

2275

1200

23.03

20.11

242

2205

1300

25.03

20.11

240

2135

From the presented data in the table 8 it can be observed the fact that the begining of the period with temperatures higher than 0 °C was registered in 18.02 and is later with 35 days to 25.03 at the altitudine of 1300 m. The end of the period with higher or equal with 0 °C values was produced in 11.12 in the Ampoi and Mureş rivers confluence area, and in 20.11 at 1300 m altitudes, thus at the Ampoi River springs it is happened 21 days earlier than in the confluence area. The duration of the period with daily average temperatures higher the 0 °C decrease from 296 days in the Ampoi and Mureş rivers confluence areas to 240 days in the Ampoi River springs area (1500 m), thus with 56 days earlier in the springs area than in the confluence area.

Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

15

It results that the period with positive temperatures decrease in average with 5.1 days for each 100 m. On the bottom of the valleys this value differ with one to two days in comparison with the slopes and the highest points, due to the thermal inversions. The global thermic resources, respectively the summ of the daily positive average temperatures vary between 3680 °C in the area of the Ampoi and Mureş rivers confluences, droping to 2135 °C at the 1300 m altitude at the Ampoi River springs area, resulting a decreasing of the global thermal resources with 140.4 °C/100 m atitude. 1.2.7 The specific thermic inversions for Ampoi Watershed The thermic inversions estimation was made through a careful analyse of the temperature and relative humidity registrations from the meteorological stations which border the area, and through special microclimatic measurements realised in characteristic moments of the day and of the year. This analise and the measurements analises pointed out the frequent temperature inversions existence in 41.4 - 54.1 % of the time (Buiuc, 1979). The thermic inversion frequency is high in cloudless days and low in cloudy days. The maximum period of the thermic inversions were registered in the cloudless days. The termic inversions appear sudenly in afternoons (16 - 17) in a 200 - 300 m thick air layer from the valey bottom, and around the midnight are over the mountainous tops (a 500 m thick air layer). The thermic inversions break up start from the soil surface around 10 - 11 in winter and 8 - 9 in summer, and the end of the termic inversion is hapened around the noon. The dominant winds directions on the Ampoi Valley are the west and the east, at this situation contributing the general atmosphere circulation and the local circulation - valley breeze and mountain breeze. On the valleys the atmospheric calm has a high frequency (40 - 50 % of the cases), fact which induce the stable stratification of the atmosphere and as a consequence the pollutants unfavourable dispersal conditions. At the level of the Metaliferi Mountainous tops increase the wind frequence and speed, registered daily with 4 - 5 m/second.

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

CONCLUSIONS

The monthly average temperatures present a maximum of (136 °C to 205 °C) in July and a minimum (- 3.9 °C to - 4.7° C) in January.

The anual average temperatures decrease from 9.6 °C in the lower area (vine yards area) to 4.7 °C in the mountainous area of the watershed. The maximum daily averages temperatures has the highest values in July (19.2 °C to 28.1 °C) and the lowest values in January (- 1.0 °C to 0.2 °C. The minimum daily averages temperatures has the highest values in July (10.6 °C to 15.4 °C) and the lowest values in January (- 6.3 °C to - 7.6 °C) on slopes and hights. The altitudinal dynamic of these values clearly indicate the existence of some thermic inversions, inversions present over the neighbouring mountaionous tops level too in winter, and in the warm season the temperatures decrease in altitude with very low termic gradients, which induce a stabile stratification of the atmosphere in the warm season too, also frequent being the isotermiies. In the valleys and depresions the average minimum temperatures values are lower with 2 - 3 °C in comparison with the slopes and hights. The absolute maximum temperatures are over 30 °C in the whole Ampoi River watershed 7 months a year (IV - X) and are positive all the year long. The absolute minimum temperatures decrease under - 30 °C in January and February and can have negative values 9 months a year. The temperature inversions are very frequent (41.4 - 54.1 % of the time), and are very accentuated in the cloudless days. Due to the temperatures inversions and of the isotermmies exist very unfavourable dispersal conditions for the pollutants, and the valley and mountain breesees induce the polluted air masses movement upstream and downstream.

Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

17

REFERENCES

  • 1. Buiuc M., 1974, - „Particularităţi microclimatice ale distribuţiei elementelor meteorologice pe văile râurilor din Munţii Apuseni”.

  • 2. Buiuc M., 1979, - „Particularităţi microclimatice ale văii Arieşului în zona Câmpeni - Valea Lupşei”, Studii şi cercetări partea I - a Meteorologie, Institutul de Meteorologie şi Hidrologie, Bucureşti.

  • 3. Dumitrescu E., Glăja M., 1972, - Metodica prelucrării datelor climatologie, Ed. Universităţii, Bucureşti.

  • 4. Katin S, Pekrovskaia T.V., 1964 - Climatologie, metode de prelucrare a datelor climatologice, Editura Ştiinţifică, Bcureşti.

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

19

HIDROLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE AMPOI HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

Vasile Ştef*, Rodica Ciobanu**, Valer Dobros***

* „Tourism Geography Faculty of Sibiu”, 5-7, S. Mehedinţi St., Sibiu, RO -

550182

** ”Natural History Museum”, 1 Cetăţii St., Sibiu, RO - 550160,

rodi_ciobanu2005@yahoo.com

*** “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Ecology and Environment Protection, 31 Oituz St., Sibiu, RO - 550160

REZUMAT Reţeaua hidrografică a râului Ampoi este reprezentată de râul Ampoi şi dintre afluenţii mai importanţi Vâltori, Feneş, Ampoiţa, Ighiu. Pentru analiza proceselor şi fenomenelor hidrografice din bazinul Ampoi s-au prelucrat observaţiile şi măsurătorile efectuate la staţiile hidrometrice (prezentate în detaliu în lucrare), care demonstrează că între parametrii hidraulici şi morfometrici ai albiilor există legături corelative. Bazinul hidrografic al Ampoiului desfăşurat pe unităţi fizico-geografice diferite, alcătuite dintr-o multitudine de roci generează o mare varietate a scurgerii solide. Creşterea debitelor are ca efect reducerea rugozităţii, amplificarea pantelor şi vitezelor de deplasare prin albie. După viitură debitul de apă revine la situaţia de dinainte. Revenirea la situaţia preexistentă reflectă un anumit echilibru între alimentarea cu aluviuni, depunerea la scădere şi cedarea aluviunilor din albie către scurgere, de aluviuni din aval. Este cazul staţiilor hidrometrice Izvorul Ampoiului. Râul Ampoi îşi desfăşoară cursul peste roci dure cu friabilitate redusă de tipul calcarelor, rocilor vulcanice, metamorfice. În aceste secţiuni variaţia este nesemnificativă, compoziţia geologică constituie factorul dominant în realizarea stabilităţii albiei. Fenomenul de adâncire a albiei este specific tuturor staţiilor hidrometrice amplasate în cursurile inferioare, depresiunile intramontane (Depresiunea Zlatna).

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

Scurgerea apei (medie, maximă şi minimă) este sub directa influenţă a climei, a factorilor fizico-geografici al M. Trascău şi Metaliferi. Se evidenţiază o bogată scurgere din zonele înalte care se reduce o dată cu dezvoltarea suprafeţei bazinale în cazul scurgerii medii. Debitele maxime realizate, în special în urma unor precipitaţii maxime, sunt cele mai mari valori, realizându-se în sezonul de vară. Debitele minime sunt influenţate de o bogată scurgere carstică, şi au ca efect menţinerea unor debite minime pe tot parcursul râului chiar dacă în cursurile inferioare predomină infiltraţia în propriile aluviuni.

Key words: Apuseni Mountains, Ampoi Basin, hydrology.

INTRODUCTION

The Ampoi Basin was in the attention of the geologists, in the last decades of the last century, because of its economic importance of the mineral deposits. The research of the area, from a hydrologic point of view, is linked by the setting up of hydrometric stations in hydrographic basins having surfaces over 1000 km 2 , which, constituted basis for extrapolations at a regional level. Ştef makes a well-informed analysis regarding the historic of the research of the Trascău Mountains in which, naturally is studied the Ampoi Basin, too. The activity of hydrometric knowledge upon the hydrographic network of the Trascău and Metaliferi Mountains and, of course, of the Ampoi Basin, took place in two stages, one before 1961 and one after this year. Till 1961 the activity of observations and measurements was regarding only to the records of the levels and these in a limited number of hydrometric stations; sporadically were executed measurements of debits, mostly having an expedition character, in Zlatna Mountains. Observations and measurements, unorganised, were done from ancient times, and they were linked, especially by the use of water in transport and by special hydrologic events: flood and high flood, drying up, etc. After 1960 was done a network of hydrometric stations having a systematic activity and which were distributed in space taking into account the relief units and they permitted and still permit a global characterization of the zone. The hydrometric stations of whose data were used in this present work are presented in the table 1.

Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

21

Tab. 1. Hydrometric station whose data were used in the work.

   

Distance

Catchment

Altitude

 

Hydrometric

from the

   

„0”

Organize

River

station

confluence

(km)

surf. (km 2 )

alt.

(m)

map

level

(m)

date

Ampoi

Iz. Ampoi

42.0

63,0

856

  • 455.203 1980

 

Ampoi

Zlatna

37.6

148

818

  • 403.362 1949

 

Ampoi

Bărăbănţ

5.5

556

716

  • 230.152 1961

 

Vâltori

Zlatna

9.8

34

915

  • 414.330 1967

 

Ighiu

Şard

1.2

105

695

  • 256.941 1983

 

The hydrometric station Izvorul Ampoiului is the first hydrometric station in the Ampoi hydrographic basin. It is at 42 km from the confluence of Ampoi with Mureş, having a surface of 63 km 2 and an altitude of the rod of 455.203 m. In this sector the riverbed is parallel, homogeneous and formed by gravel. The transversal profile is asymmetric, the left bank being better developed. The Zlatna hydrometric station, the Ampoi River, is one of the oldest stations in the Trascău Mountains. The section of the rod is at 100m downstream from the confluence with the Vâltori River. The Zlatna section closes the warning basin Ampoi. The debits measured are influenced by a succession of collecting and deviations in the basins Ampoi, Vâltori, Feneş, this being why at this hydrometric station is executed a program of observations and measurements necessary for a daily, monthly and annual reconstruction. Bărăbănţ hydrometric station, Ampoi River, was founded in 1961, upstream of the confluence with Mureş River, 5.5 km. in the regulated riverbed of the river. The riverbed is formed by medium gravel and sand, the banks being chamfered and stone packed. Zlatna hydrometric station, Vâltori River, is situated in Zlatna, upstream, 8 km of the confluence with Ampoi River. The hydrographic basin is in a carstic relief (approximately 75 % of the surface), this being the reason why the supply of the river is mainly carstic. Şard hydrometric station, Ighiu River, is upstream 1.2 km. by the confluence with the Ampoi River and in downstream 50 m from the confluence Ţelna - Bucerdea.

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The Ampoi Valley comprises 5 sectors different from the

geomorphic and petrography point of view:

  • - The zone between the spring and the confluence with

Trâmpoaiele brook, situated on the development area of the Auriferi Mountains, characterized by abrupt slopes and narrow valley.

  • - Zlatna Depression, develops at the East of the localities

Izvorul Ampoiului and Presaca Ampoiului on a length of 15 km, being

mainly drained by Ampoi River and by its affluent: Trâmpoaiele, Valea

Mare and Valea Mică on the right and Vâltori, Feneş and Bibarţ on the left. The extinction of the depression is limited upstream by the confluence with the Trâmpoaiele brook and downstream by the confluence with the Feneş brook, this being also the limit between Trascău Mountains and Metaliferi Mountains.

  • - The Ampoi narrow path, whose strict delimitation is given by

the localities Presaca Ampoiului and Poiana Ampoiului, this part crosses formations having a high degree of compactness and hardness

which gives the aspect of narrow path to the limit between Trascău and Metaliferi Mountains

  • - The sector of the depressing basins Meteş - Tăuţi, delimited

by the localities Poiana Ampoiului and Gura Ampoiului, sector that is the limit between Trascău and Vinţ Mountains.

  • - The sector of the inferior basin where Ampoi covers a spread

meadow between the Bilag and Mamut Hills. The geomorphic different of the Ampoi sectors is due to the different geologic evolution, belonging to different paleogeographic zones having various characteristics linked to the bathymetry of the basin, the characteristics of the sedimentation process, the lithologic nature of the sedimentary material, etc. The paleogeographic evolution of the Ampoi Valley is linked to the evolution of the entire area. In the Zlatna depression zone, the hydrographic organism was carved within the levelling surface Râmeţi - Ponor. Subsequently the forming state (Pliocene), in Quaternaries the hydrographic network deepened gradually due to the low basic level of the Mureş River. That’s why the Ampoi River was forced to cross,

epigenetically, the ophiolits downstream of Presaca Ampoiului. Within

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the depression there are 4 levels of terrace: the terrace of 60 - 80 m and 30-40m which are to be found in the contact sector to the proper mountain zone, broken up by the lasting hydrographic network as well as by the torrential one. The lower terraces (15 - 20 m and 6 - 10 m) have a larger developing area being the base of the depression. The Ampoi Valley presents an asymmetry, in the Zlatna Depression Area, the left bank of the Ampoi River being more developed, here being situated the settlements: Zlatna, Feneş, Presaca Ampoiului. The Ampoi River, is the second affluent of the Mureş River, from the size point of view (F = 559kmp, L = 60km 2 ), on the right side there is its reception basin beginning with the spring zone under the Pietricica peak (1.144 m) and Dealul Mare (1.044 m) in the Metaliferi Mountains. The hydrographic basin is asymmetrically developed, on the left side being the most advanced and richer flow through the affluences. The Grohaş River, in the hydrologic literature Vâltori, is the first affluent on the left. The Vâltori River gathers the waters from a calcareous relief complex with rich karstic debits. Till 1900 this hydrographic basin was watched through Zlatna hydrometric station. The Feneş River, the next affluent comes down under Negrileasa Mogoşului from Metaliferi Mountains. In Piatra Craiului zone it crosses, epigenetically, the calcareous rocks, and afterwards the slope grows suddenly (from 1.5 m/km to 150 - 200 m/km) and there are numerous thresholds and waterfalls. From the hydrographic basin is collected a part of the debits and is transferred to Ampoi River after it was used in the industry of Zlatna town. Bibarţ, is the smallest of the effluents but having a rich debit due to its supplying from the karst. In its inferior course it presents a waterfall of about 25m high. As a matter of fact on its road it met calcareous rocks which, instead of avoiding it, the river approached directly through the erosion of the friable rocks. The Meteş River, is developing its hydrographic basin in a region rich in calcareous rocks (especially in Isca Valley). The river has torrential character; it presents the draying up phenomenon, too.

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Acta oecologica, vol. XIII, 1-2, 2006

The Ampoiţa River, is one of the greatest hydrographic underbasins of the Ampoi River; it has its spring in Corabia massif and mostly in Ciumerna Plateau (through Valea Muntelui). Many karstic springs, rich in debits (Topliţa, Hăldăhaia), give it an abundant flow all over the year. After the locality Lunca Mureşului it cuts epigenetically the Ampoiţa Key through the moment bearing the same name. The Ighiu River, is the biggest affluent of the Ampoi River (F = 105kmp) with which it joints in Şard. Its origin is in Ciumerga, in the Ighiu Lake and the springs under this lake (the spring debit - 100l/s). In the Şard zone it gets like effluents the Ţelna and Bucerdea Rivers, both having the origin in the spring under the Ciumerna Plateau. Data regarding the morphometry of the hydrographic basins (length in km., the surface of the hydrographic basins in km 2 , the average altitude of the basins, the positions of the confluences to the banks) are presented for the Ampoi and its affluences in the table 2.

Tab. 2. Morphometric data regarding the hydrographic basins of the affluences of the Ampoi River; u.c. / upstream confluence.

Waterway

Confluence

Length

Surface

Average

position

(km)

(km 2 )

altitude (m)

Ampoi

right

53

579

700

u.c. - Trâmpoaiele

 

13

65

855

 

right

6

20

750

- Trâmpoaiele u.c. - Vâltori

 

17

107

795

 

- Vâltori

left

12

41

982

u.c. - Feneş

 

24

201

763

-

Feneş

left

16

61

934

u.c. - Ampoiţa

 

40

366

744

 

left

15

64

777

- Ampoiţa u.c. - Ighiu

 

46

432

739

 

left

17

107

695

- Ighiu u.c. - Ţelna

 

13

52

772

-

Ţelna

left

13

29

670

-Bucerdea

left

14

21

630

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The hydrologic regime of the surface flow is influenced by the subterranean flow through the full storages, which can supply the

surface ones. So, taking into account the geologic structure within the Ampoi basin they can be separated, by the hydrogeologic characteristics, as follows: Prequaternary and Quaternary deposits. A. Prequaternary subterranean deposits

  • 1. The Complex of the Metamorphic and Igneous Rocks. Parts of this

complex are: sericite - chlorite schist, micaschist, paragneiss, etc. They represent the foundation rocks. The geologic structure, the compactness of the rocks doesn’t allow the formation of water deposits. The accumulation of water on the clefts, interstices, in small quantity, is due to the rainfalls. The soil, itself, can be a wet reserve depending on its development degree. At the edge zones there can appear springs, even permanent ones. The category of igneous Mesozoic rocks is present in the Ampoi hydrographic basin, left slope, where the basalt, diabase, are

less aqueous.

  • 2. The Calcareous aquatic Complex. It consists of limestone as

plateaus, storages covered by actual vegetation, all of Jurassic age. The karstic zone represents an important source for the subterranean waters whose existence and evolution is determined by the geologic

characteristics of the limestone and of the environment factors and the chemistry of waters.

  • 3. The Cretacic aquatic Complex consists of a series of geologic

formations, known in the literature of specialty as the Fene