Lecture Time Domain Analysis of Control Systems

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Lecture Time Domain Analysis of Control Systems

© All Rights Reserved

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Lecture

Time Domain Analysis of Control systems

Introduction

In time-domain analysis the response of a dynamic system to

an input is expressed as a function of time.

It is possible to compute the time response of a system if the

nature of input and the mathematical model of the system are

known.

Usually, the input signals to control systems are not known

fully ahead of time.

For example, in a radar tracking system, the position and the

speed of the target to be tracked may vary in a random fashion.

It is therefore difficult to express the actual input signals

mathematically by simple equations.

The characteristics of actual input signals are a

sudden shock, a sudden change, a constant

velocity, and constant acceleration.

The dynamic behavior of a system is therefore

judged and compared under application of

standard test signals an impulse, a step, a

constant velocity, and constant acceleration.

sinusoidal signal.

Impulse signal

The impulse signal imitate the

sudden shock characteristic of

actual input signal.

A

(t )

0

t0

(t)

t0

0

called unit impulse signal.

Impulse signal

Step signal

The step signal imitate

the

sudden

change

characteristic of actual

input signal.

A

u( t )

0

t0

t0

called unit step signal

u(t)

A

Ramp signal

r(t)

the constant velocity

characteristic of actual

input signal.

At

r (t )

0

t0

t0

is called unit ramp

signal

r(t)

r(t)

p(t)

Parabolic signal

The

parabolic

signal

imitate

the

constant

acceleration characteristic

of actual input signal.

At 2

p(t ) 2

0

0

p(t)

t0

t0

signal is called unit

parabolic signal.

p(t)

A

(t )

0

Impulse

Step

Ramp

Parabolic

A

u( t )

0

At

r (t )

0

At 2

p(t ) 2

0

t 0

t0

d

dt

t0

t0

d

dt

t0

t0

t0

t0

d

dt

Impulse

A

(t )

0

t0

t0

L{ (t )} ( s ) A

Step

A

u( t )

0

t0

t0

A

L{u(t )} U ( s )

S

Ramp

At

r (t )

0

t0

t0

L{ r(t )} R( s )

Parabolic

At 2

p(t ) 2

0

A

s2

t0

t0

L{ p(t )} P( s )

2A

S3

Time response of a dynamic system response to an input

expressed as a function of time.

System

Transient response

Steady-state response.

When the response of the system is changed from rest or

equilibrium it takes some time to settle down.

equilibrium to steady state.

-3

Step Response

x 10

Step Input

4

Amplitude

system after the transient

response is called steady

state response.

Response

3

Transient Response

10

Time (sec)

12

14

16

18

20

Transient response is dependent upon the system poles only and

not on the type of input.

It is therefore sufficient to analyze the transient response using a

step input.

The steady-state response depends on system dynamics and the

input quantity.

theorem.

END...........

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