Psych 205 Review

Qualities of Locke and Boyle Primary – extension, shape, motion/rest, number, solidity Secondary – color, tonality, warmth, taste, smell Molyneux’s Paradox The visive faculty takes no notice of its parts, but uses as an instrument only. The brain doesn’t invert the image, it only uses it to sense the world. Metaphors Tenor – What we want to know Vehicle – To understand it (like an analogy) Mind-Body Problem 1. Dualism – Mind separate from brain 2. Behaviourism – There is no mind, and no free will 3. Central State Identity Theory – Neural states is neural percepts – Assumptions: Our percepts are close enough to being the same 4. Functionalism – Percepts functionally the same – Different instantiations gives same function – Issue: Neurons aren’t necessary (why not silicon?) Gustaf Fechner Elements of Psychophysics – beginnings of empirical psychology and psychophysics How do we measure? 1. Nominal: classifications (gender) 2. Ordinal Classifications with order 3. Interval: classify, order, and measured differences (Celsius, F) 4. Ratio: classify, order, measured diff, and has a true zero (kg, K, m, s) Anisomorphism Four cases: Similar physical stimuli 1. Similar percept 2. Different percept Different physical stimuli 3. Similar percept 4. Different percept Broca-Sulzer effect Testing brightness of light versus the duration of light. There is a peak when it is the brightest, but afterwards, the brightness diminishes to a flat line with increasing duration.

Detection Thresholds When there is not enough energy in the stimuli, all insufficient stimuli are alike. 1. 2. 3. Method of Limits – Start above and below the threshold and come to it and ask if the person detects it Method of Adjustment – Ask the person to adjust until they can just detect Method of Constant Stimuli – Give a constant stimuli and ask if it is detected (most common)

Definitions from Reading
Day 2 Psychophysics The enterprise of relating physical stimulation to perceptual events. Charles Bonnet Syndrome Complex hallucinations that are received in individuals with visual impairments Materialism Perceptual experience depends on the operation of the nervous system, with no requirements for the involvement of some noncorporeal force. Naïve Realism The view that what we know about the world is both unadulterated and unexpurgated with respect to even its most subtle details. The world is always exactly as it appears. Subjective Realism Physical world is entirely the product of the mind: mental fiction only. Solipsism: only your mind exists, not the world. Anton’s Syndrome Complete blindness coupled with denial: brain makes up the percepts. Day 3,4 Absolute Threshold The stimulus intensity defining the transition between undetectable and detectable. Difference Threshold

The minimum amount by which stimulus intensity must be changed in order to produce a noticeable change in the sensation. Intrinsic Light Light that is percepted even in total darkness. Criterion Implicit rule that the observer uses to translate sensory information into overt responses. Day 5 Odor Constancy Perceived strength of an odor remains constant despite sharp variations in flow rate. Nasal Cycle Nostrils work in alternating shifts: one nostril is more engorged than that of the other. Olfactory Epithelium Patch of tissue on the ceiling of nasal cavity (on the cribiform plate) that the receptor cells sit on. Olfactory Sensory Neuron Bipolar nerve cell that captures odorant molecules and initiates the neural signals for smell. One end has a single dendrite that terminates in tiny cilia. At the opposite end, the nerve cell terminates in a single axon that, with other neighbor axons, thread through one of the perforations in the ethmoid bone. Then form a synapse with neurons in olfactory bulb. Unlike other receptors, these are actually neurons, and do both the transducing and carrying of signals to brain. Anosmia The total loss of capability to smell. Specific anosmia restricts to a certain set of smells. Absence of specific receptor proteins. Olfactory Brain Cluster of neural structures receiving projections from the olfactory bulb. Pathway of Olfactory System Nostrils  Baffles (Turbinate Bones)  Olfactory Sensory Neuron  Olfactory Bulb  Olfactory Cortex  (NO Thalamus), Limbic System, Orbito-frontal Cortex Odor Detection - Females are better at odor identification.

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Odor detection is worse at old age and with people that smoke. It is easier to tell if two odors are different, but more difficult to identify a specific odor Intensity of odor grows gradually in increasing concentration

Common Chemical Sense Feeling that accompanies certain smell – menthol, ozone in mountain air Odor Hallucinations Experiencing odors when there are none: brain tumors, cold, flu… Vomeronasal Organs Embedded in the vomer bone, their signals bypass the olfactory bulb, may have something to do with sexual arousal. Day 6 Anatomy Papillae, little bumps on your tongue, are lined with taste buds, which contain the receptor cells. Cross-fiber Theory Taste quality is represented in the pattern of activity across a population of taste fibers. Pathway to brain Taste buds  Nerve fiber (facial glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves)  Thalamus  Frontal Operculum, Insula Supertasters People who have a high sensitivity to taste. Adaptation/Modification 1. The taste of a substance may be weakened by prior exposure to that same substance 2. The taste of a substance may be altered in quality by another subtance Conditioned Taste Aversion Extreme nausea after eating something will cause you to be conditioned to have an aversion towards that food. Sensory-Specific Satiety Reduction in the pleasurable sensory quality of a particular food as it is being eaten.

Day 7 Mechanoreceptors Receptors sensitive to mechanical pressure on the skin. Touch Acuity Usually uses the two-point threshold test by using a compass to stimulate neighboring regions on the skin, and seeing how close you can bring them together to seem like they are only one point perceptually. Localization Ability When a stimulus is applied to the skin within an area with high touch acuity, the location touched can be judged quite accurately. Touch Fibers Temporal Properties Slowly Adapting Fibers – Responds when first touched and continues to respond more or less constantly. (when stimulated electrically gives a light sensation) Rapidly Adapting Fibers – Gives brief, strong responses when a stimulus is changed. (when stimulated electrically gives a buzzing sensation) Spatial Properties Punctate Fibers – small receptive fields with sharply defined boundaries. Diffuse Fibers – Large receptive fields with ill-defined boundaries. Touch Receptors (from nearest to skin to farthest) Meissner Corpuscles - Lies just below the surface of skin - Responds best to transient stimulation (RA fibers) - Encapsulated - Responds to transient stimulation Merkel Disks - enervated by SA fibers - Steady pressure of an object Ruffini Endings - Share single fibers - SA fibers - Active when fingers and joints move (sensitive to stretching of skin) Pacinian Corpuscles - Largest, least numerous, deepest - RA fibers - Spatially diffuse sensitivity

Free nerve endings These wrap around hair follicles so that slight bending of a hair will trigger neural impulses Pathways Spinal Reflex Arc Touch receptor  Sensory neuron  Interneuron (in spinal cord)  motor neuron  muscle Ascending Lemniscal Somatosensory pathway Touch receptor  Spine (dermatones)  Brainstem nuclei  Medial Lemniscus  Thalamus  Parietal lobe (somaosensory cortex) Tactile Agnosia Person can feel an object fine, but cannot identify it. Homunculus Caricature that proportions body parts to the area in represented in the somatosensory cortex. Day 8 Kinesthesis Information about movement and position of our limbs. Proprioception Positional information about the different parts of our body. Haptics Sensory info that depends upon both touch and kinesthesis. Unilateral Neglect In this condition a patient may fail to attend to one side of the body. Phantom Limb Amputee has the compelling sense that an amputated limb is still attached to the body. Nociceptors Found among the free nerve endings located near the surface of the skin as well as within the subcutaneous fat below the skin’s surface, they get stimulated by extreme pressures and temperatures. Gate Control Theory of Pain The idea that there are T cells and Gate cells that control the path that generates a pain percept.

Day 9 Pinna Shell-like flap gracing the side of your head. Auditory Canal Slightly bent tube approx. 2.5 cm long and 7mm in diameter. Resonant frequency around 3kHz. Eardrum (tympanic membrane) Thin oval-shaped membrane that vibrates when sound pressure waves strike it. Ossicles 3 bones that bridge the gap between the eardrum and the oval window. Consists of the Hammer (malleus), Anvil (incus), and the Stirrup (stapes). It is attached to the Oval Window. Eustachian Tube Connects the middle ear and the throat to maintain equivalent air pressures. Acoustic Reflex The tensor tympani, a small muscle attached to the eardrum, and the stapedius, attached to the stapes, contract to stiffen the eardrum, thus dampening the sound vibrations. Cochlea (1) (2) (3) A coiled, fluid-filled cavity containing the audio receptors. Has three chambers Vestibular canal Cochlear duct Tympanic canal The basilar membrane separates the tympanic and cochlear duct Organ of Corti – the receptor organ where neural impulses are generated in response to vibrations passing through the fluid environment of the inner ear. Tectorial Membrane – an awninglike membrane that arches over the hairs in the organ of corti Inner Hair Cells – situated on the basilar membrane close to where the tectorial membraine is attached; makes most of the contact with the auditory nerve Outer Hair Cells – line up anywhere from three to five rows; only make sparse contact with the auditory nerve

Temporal Theory

Proposes that the temporal structure defining sound is represented in temporal fluctuations in firing rates of auditory nerve fivers. Place Theory Says that different frequencies of vibration of the cochlear fluid disturb different regions of the basilar membrane. There is a traveling wave that goes down the cochlear, and where it reaches the peak represents the frequency of the sound heard. Tono-topic organization The orderly layout of frequency over the length of the basilar membrane. Cochlear Emissions This is when the cochlear actually generates sounds. Tinnitus When people experience a sort of humming or ringing sound coming from within their ears. Neural pathway Cochlear  Auditory Nerve  Cochlear nucleus  Superior olivary nucleus  inferior colliculus  Medial Geniculate Nucleus  Auditory Cortex Threshold Intensity The threshold for an auditory fiber where anything lower would not be heard. Frequency Tuning Curve Describes the relationship between frequency and intensity thresholds. Binaural Cues Cues that help the binaural system of hearing locate a sound. Interaural time differences tests for delays between the two sounds coming in. Interaural Intensity Difference tests for intensity differences between the two sounds. Sound Shadow A weakening of the intensity of sound at the more distant ear. Day 10 Conduction Loss Stems from some disorder within the outer or middle ear,, typically involve an overall reduction in sensitivity to sounds of all frequencies. Sensory/Neural Loss

Originates within the inner ear or in the auditory portion of the brain. May extend to only a portion of the frequency range. Otosclerosis Gradual immobilization of the stapes. Bone Conduction When sound travels through the skull and vibrates the cochlear in that fashion. Presbycusis The gradual loss of sensitivity to high frequencies. Temporary Threshold Shift Transitory reduction in hearing sensitivity following noise exposure. Cochlear Implant Seris of tiny electrodes that are surgically implanted in the cochlea itself and used to activate auditory nerve fibers directly. Masking Whenever some background noise makes it more difficult for you to hear a weak sound. Timbre The unique harmonic patterns that an instrument has. Interaural Intensity Difference Intensity varies with the azimuth of a sound source. Interaural Time Difference The difference in time arrival of a sound to the individual ears. Cone of Confusion For any given IID or IIT, there is a family of potential spatial locations which could generate that interaural difference, and these points of ambiguity lie on a cone. Duplex Theory Listeners use one source of information (IIT) to localize low frequency sounds and a different source of info (IID) to localize high frequency sounds. Cocktail Party Effect The skill of being able to easily attend to one sound from among many in a noisy environment. Phenome

The distinctive features in speech. A sound that can produce a change in meaning in an utterance. Spectrogram Graph showing the amount of acoustic energy at various frequencies. McGruk Effect The influence of vision on the percepted speech phenomes. Phonagnosia Deficits in voice perception. Understands what is being said, but cannot identify the speaker. Language-Based Learning Impairment Experience difficulty distinguishing two brief tones occurring close temporal proximity, and have problems segregating tone signals from noise even when the tone and noise are presented successively in time. Day 11 Extraocular Muscles 6 muscles for each eye that swivel the eye in its sockets Rectus Muscles The extraocular muscles that run straight back from the eye. Conjunctive When both eyes move in the same direction. Vergence When eyes move in opposite directions. Orbit A bony depression in the skull. 3 Layers of Eye Fibrous Tunic - Protects the eyeball - Also called the sclera - The cornea is the small bulge in the front of the eye that is transparent Vascular Tunic - Consists mostly of a heavily pigmented spongy structure called the choroid - Reduces Scattering - Towards the front of the eye, becomes parallel and is called the ciliary body, which produces aqueous humor

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From out of the ciliary body comes the iris, the circular section of tissue that gives color. Retina Pupil Opening with two sets of muscles that can make the pupil larger or smaller. Depth of Field The range of sharp vision that varies inversely with the size of the pupil. Crystalline Lens Lies right behind the iris. Accommodation Variation in optical power from varying the flatness of the lens. Sclerosis The old fibers in the lens become more densely packed, and hardens the lens. Cataract Opacity of the lens. Vitreous A transparent fluid that fills the Vitreous Chamber Retina Innermost layer of the eye, contains the photoreceptors, collector cells (bipolar, amacrine, and horizontal), and retina ganglion cells. Macula The most acute vision is centered here, and is the nearly circular area in the center of retina. Pigment Epithelium The outermost sheath of the retina, a single layer of cells. Transfers oxygen, nourishment, and vitamins from the choroidal circulation to the photoreceptors. Myopic Near sighted. Hyperopic Far sighted. Emmetropic Normal sighted.

Fovea The region in the center of the macula that is thinner than its neighboring areas.

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