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R Smr,pit
r Gaura-Govindrcana-Smaraa-Paddhati
By rpda Dhynacandra Gosvm

Translation by Haridhma dsa

Third Edition
1993 All Rights Reserved
ISBN 1-889756-26-1


r Gaura-Govindrcana-Smaraa-Paddhati
Smaraa-krama............................................................................................................ 9
Bhmi-prama........................................................................................................... 11
r Navadvpa Dhyna.................................................................................................11
r Guru Dhyna.......................................................................................................... 13
rman Mahprabhu Dhyna....................................................................................14
r Vndvana Dhyna and Ninta-ll-smaraa................................................14
r Guru Prama.........................................................................................................16
r Gauracandra Prama.......................................................................................... 16
r Nitynanda Prama............................................................................................17
r Advaita Prama....................................................................................................17
r Gaddhara and r rvsa Pramas.................................................................17
r Rdh-Ka Prama.......................................................................................... 18
r Anaga Majar Prama...................................................................................18
Aa-sakh, etc. Prama.............................................................................................19
Vaiava Prama.......................................................................................................19
Snna.............................................................................................................................. 20
Tilaka Dhraa.............................................................................................................22
r Jaganntha Mirera Mandira Dhyna...............................................................23
r Guru-smaraa and tma-dhyna.......................................................................25
r Gaurga, etc. Dhyna, Pj, Mantra and Gyatr..........................................26
r Gaurgas Aa-kla-sev.....................................................................................36
Serving r Rdh-Ka in the Siddha-deha..........................................................38
Meditation on the Siddha-deha..................................................................................39
Ekdaa-bhva............................................................................................................... 41
Attachment for the Majars......................................................................................44
Ll-smaraa and Gokula-dhyna............................................................................ 46
r Kas Age, Dress, etc...........................................................................................48
r Rdhs Age, Dress, etc., and Mantra-gyatr...................................................55
Descriptions of the Aa-sakhs...................................................................................68
r Lalit Sakh.........................................................................................................68
r Vikh Sakh...................................................................................................73
r Citr Sakh..........................................................................................................76
r Indulekh Sakh............................................................................................... 80

r Campakalat Sakh...........................................................................................83
r Ragadev Sakh...............................................................................................85
r Tugavidy Sakh............................................................................................88
r Sudev Sakh...................................................................................................... 92
Descriptions of the Aa-majars..............................................................................95
r Rpa Majar.................................................................................................... 95
r Rati Majar...................................................................................................... 96
r Lavaga Majar.............................................................................................. 97
r Rasa Majar.....................................................................................................99
r Gua Majar....................................................................................................100
r Majull Majar........................................................................................... 102
r Vilsa Majar..................................................................................................103
r Kaustr Majar...............................................................................................105
Smaraa in the Siddha-deha......................................................................................106
Yugala-mantra and Dhyna.......................................................................................107

r r Rdh-ka-klya-ll-smaraa-krama-paddhati
Pj and Mantra-japa................................................................................................... 111
Aa-klya-stra........................................................................................................... 113
Sev in the Siddha-deha.............................................................................................. 113
Aa-kla-sev................................................................................................................ 116
Discussion on Rdh-Ka Rasa..............................................................................136
Mantra-japa after Aa-kla-sev.................................................................................142
The Fruit of Accepting Gop-bhva............................................................................143
The Fruit of Aa-kla-sev..........................................................................................145
The Eight Time Periods.............................................................................................. 149

amn mnada ha ka-nma sad labe
braje rdh-ka-sev mnase karibe
Be humble and give all respect to others. Always chant the holy name of Lord
Ka, and within your mind render sev to Rdh-Ka in Vraja. (CC. Antya 6.237)

mane nija-siddha-deha kariy bhvan

rtri-dine kare braje kera sevan
In his mind, the sdhaka contemplates his own siddha-deha. Day and night he
serves r Ka in Vraja. (CC. M. 22.157)

siddha-dehe cinti kare thi sevan

sakh-bhve pya rdh-kera cara
While deep in meditation, the sdhaka performs sev within his siddha-deha. By
adopting this sakh-bhva, he will attain the lotus feet of r r Rdh-Ka. (CC. M.

The r Gaura-govindrcana-smaraa-paddhati by rpda Goplaguru Gosvm, the r

Gaura-govindrcana-smaraa-paddhati by rpda Dhynacandra Gosvm, and the r
Gaura-govindrcana-paddhati by rpda Siddha Kadsa Bb are collectively known
as paddhati-traya, and are the bhajana-paddhatis of the r Caitanya Vaiava
Sampradya. Following the format established by r Goplaguru Gosvm, r
Dhynacandra composed his book and included the Aa-klya-ll-smaraa-krama.
A paddhati is a handbook or manual meant to aid a sdhaka in performing bhajana
successfully. This particular paddhatis focus is to help the sdhaka attain majar-bhva.
Among the five chief disciples of r Vakrevara Paita, Goplaguru was the special object of Mahprabhus mercy. He was the son of Murri Paita, and his name
was Makaradhvaja Paita, although Mahprabhu called him Gopla. When r
Gaura lived in Nlcala, Gopla engaged in His service. Even though he was still a
child, he was very skillful in his sev. The Lord showed very strong vtsalya affection
for him, and personally gave him the title Goplaguru.

One day, Caitanya Mahprabhu went outside the village to tend to his bodily
needs. Gopla was standing some distance away with a waterpot in his hand ready to
serve the Lord. He noticed that the Holy Name, which always blissfully danced on
Mahprabhus tongue, was not to be heard. Wondering how this could be, he then saw
that the Lord was holding his tongue with his hand. After a short while, Gopla, being
full of curiosity, inquired from the Lord, Prabhu! Why are you holding your tongue
like that? Mahprabhu answered, The words ka ka always dance on my
tongue, and even when Im unclean they dont stop. One is forbidden to chant the
ka-nma mah-mantra when he is unclean. Transgressing that injunction is an
offense. For this reason, I hold my tongue to keep it still.
Gopla replied, Prabhu! Elegant words dont adorn my little mouth, but still, in order to understand, I am asking. Your beautiful body doesnt have a trace of uncleanliness. It is sac-cid-nanda-maya and always pure. Your going to the bathroom is an illusion. Thats just your pretending to be human. You are independent, but if an ordinary
jva should die while evacuating, without chanting the Holy Name, how will he attain
the transcendental state?
Hearing these profound words from the boy, the Lord replied, Gopla, you have
spoken correctly. In chanting the r-ka-nma there is no consideration of cleanliness or uncleanliness. Chanting is always auspicious for the jva. You have caused me
to remember the highest injunction. From today, you shall bear the title guru.
Mahprabhu told the devotees this story, and the news quickly spread everywhere.
Soon all the Vaiavas began to call Gopla r Goplaguru.
Goplaguru Gosvm became the crya of the Gambhr Maha, and when he became old, he wanted to arrange for someone to continue the worship of r r RdhKnta. To obtain a suitable sevaka, he offered a mental prayer to the lotus feet of rman
Mahprabhu. One night, the Lord appeared to Goplaguru and said, Gopla! The sevaka you seek will be the first person you see tomorrow morning. Accept him without
hesitation. Like you, he will be learned in all the transcendental stras. He will preserve well the worship of r r Rdh-Knta and reveal my glories to the whole
Hearing this order from Mahprabhu in his dream, Goplaguru became ecstatic.
The next morning, after his morning duties, he went to his doorway. The first person
he saw was a very peaceful young brhmaa who had been standing there waiting to
see him. When the youth approached, he offered daavats to Goplagurus lotus feet.
The Gosvm remembered his dream and blissfully offered the young man his blessings. Seeing his peaceful nature and absorption in ka-bhakti, Goplaguru gave him
mantra-dk, etc., and named him r Dhynacandra.
After receiving initiation, rpda Dhynacandra served his guru with great devotion. Goplaguru Prabhu engaged him in caring for r r Rdh-Knta. After a short
while in govinda-sev, he received the dress of a Vaiava ascetic from his guru, and
was then ordered to visit r Vndvana-dhma.

rla Bhaktivinoda hkura often referred in his books to r Goplaguru and r

Dhynacandra, and in several cases quoted from their paddhatis. In his Jaiva-dharma,
practically the last third of the book is devoted to them as they converse with the characters Vijaya-kumra and Vrajantha. In the beginning of chapter 26, Bhaktivinoda
Bbj Mahaya says, In the house of K Mira at r Puruottama, r
Goplaguru Gosvm, the disciple of r Vakrevara, nowadays occupies the
honored seat of rman Mahprabhu. Have darana of his holy feet and take his
instruction respectfully. He is now the custodian of the teachings of r Rpa
Gosvm. 1
At the end of chapter 30, we find the following:
One afternoon Vijaya and Vrajantha, sitting on the seashore, were looking
to the sporting waves of the sea and thought within themselves that human life
was also full of waves like that. Nobody knows what shall come to pass the next
moment. We must learn the process of worship through the way of love from
r Gurugosvm. Vrajantha said, I have seen the method that r
Dhynacandra Gosvm has propounded. If we can get some instruction from
our preceptor, it may perhaps produce good results. I shall make a copy of that
method. Having thus resolved, he prayed to r Dhynacandra Gosvm to let
him have a copy of that method. r Dhynacandra said, I am not in a
position to give you any copy of that. You shall have to secure permission from
r Gurugosvm. When both of them proposed to r Gosvm about the
matter, he said, Well, come to me with the copy. According to that
permission, Vijaya and Vrajantha both took the copy of that method. They
thought that at leisure moments they would go to Gurugosvm and make the
matter clear from him.
r Dhynacandra Gosvm was a past master in all subjects. Especially in the
matter of worship of Hari he was second to none. He was the first and foremost
of all the disciples of r Goplaguru Gosvm. He taught Vijaya and
Vrajantha all the truths about hari-bhajana, considering them quite competent to
learn all the matters about worship. From time to time Vijaya and Vrajantha
used to have all their doubts about the matter removed. They at first made the
relation between the daily conduct of life and the daily character of rman

Srila Thakura Bhaktivinoda, Jaiva-dharma, trans. Bhakti Sadhak Nishkinchana

Maharaj (Madras: Sri Gaudiya Math, 1975), 383.

Mahprabhu clear from r Gurugosvm and engaged themselves

enthusiastically to aa-klna-bhajana, or worship in eight different ways during
the eight praharas (three hours making a prahara) of the whole day and night.2
As Jaiva-dharmas story continues, r Goplaguru Gosvm instructs his students extensively in the matters of rasa and ll-tattva. Then later on, he elaborates on the
ekdaa-bhva3 they had received from their guru at the time of dk. Bhaktivinoda also
includes a discussion of these eleven items in his Harinma-cintmai and Caitanyaikmta.
Near the end of Jaiva-dharma, Goplaguru Gosvm says:
rman Mahprabhu entrusted r Svarpa Dmodara Prabhu with the work
of writing a treatise on the rasa-tattva and its method of practice. On the order of
the Lord he divided this treatise into two parts. In one part he has described the
most sophisticated esoteric method, and in the other the gradual course. And
again he instituted this esoteric method in r Raghuntha dsa Gosvm, who
illustrated it in his writings. He taught the gradual course to rmad Vakrevara
Gosvm, who is the very treasure of this maha. I spoke that method to r
Dhynacandra, who has kept a note of it, which you have already collected
from him.4

manera smaraa pra,

madhura madhura nma,
jugala-bilsa smti-sra
sdhya sdhana ei,
ih boi ra ni,
ei tattva sarva-siddhi-sra
Chanting these sweet names and practicing smaraa in the mind is my very life.
Contemplating this rdh-ka-yugala-vilsa is the essence of ll-smaraa. This tattva is
both the means and the goal, and is the cream of all mystic siddhis. Other than this,
there is no other way. (Prema-bhakti-candrik 61)

Ibid., 429
3 The eleven items pertaining to their siddha-dehas
4 Jaiva-dharma, 568.

Translators note:
The book from which I made this translation was published by Paita r
Vndvana dsa of Navadvpa, in Gaurgbda 482.

Haridhma dsa

If you like this book, please send a donation to:

Haridhma dsa
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r Gaura-Govindrcana-Smaraa-Paddhati
By rpda Dhynacandra Gosvm
Translation by Haridhma dsa

sdhako brhma-muhrte cotthya nijea-nmni smaret krtayed v---sa jayati viuddha-vikrama
kanakbha kamalyatekaa
bahudh bhakti-rasbhinartaka
The auspicious system of smaraa is here being described: Arising from sleep during the brhma-muhrta, the sdhaka should either perform smaraa or krtana of his
Deity's numerous names. All glories to the golden-complexioned Gaurahari, who has
large lotus-like eyes and beautiful arms that hang down to His excellent knees. He
continually dances in movements saturated with bhakti-rasa, and He possesses great
transcendental power.
r-rmeti janrdaneti jagat ntheti nryaety
nandeti daypareti kamalknteti keti ca
rman nma-mahmtbdhi-lahar-kallola-magna muhur
muhyanta galad-aru-netram avaa m ntha nitya kuru
O r Rma! r Janrdana! r Jaganntha! r Nryaa! r nanda! r Daypara! r Kamalknta! r Ka! r Svm! Please make tears fall uncontrollably
from my eyes, free me from illusion and submerge me repeatedly in the waves of the
great ocean of nectar that is Your holy names.
r-knta ka karumaya kajanbha
kaivalya-vallabha mukunda murntaketi

nmval vimala-mauktika-hra-lakmlvaya-vacana-kar karavi kahe

rknta, Ka, Karumaya, Kajanbha, Kaivalyapati, Mukunda and
Murntaka---- this list of transcendental names reproaches the beauty of even a string
of spotless pearls. I shall wear this garland of holy names around my neck.
ka rma mukunda vmana vsudeva jagadguro
matsya kacchapa narasiha varha rghava phi mm
deva-dnava-nraddi munndra-vandya daynidhe
devak-suta dehi me tava pda-bhaktim acacalm
O Ka! Rma! Mukunda! Vmana! Vsudeva! Jagadguru! Matsya! Kacchapa!
Narasiha! Varha! Rghava! Please protect me. O Deva-dnava-nraddi-munndravandya (to be saluted by the demigods, demons and Nrada Muni)! Daynidhi!
Devak-suta! Give me unflinching devotion to Your lotus feet.
he goplaka he kp-jala-nidhe he sindhu-kany-pate
he kasntaka he gajendra-karu-pra he mdhava
he rmnuja he jagattraya-guro he puarkka m
he gop-jana-ntha playa para jnmi na tv vin
O Goplaka! Kp-jala-nidhi! Sindhu-kany-pati! Kasntaka! Gajendrakarukr! Mdhava! Rmnuja! Jagattraya-guru! Puarkka! Gopjana-ntha! I
know no one but You. Please protect me.
r-nryaa puarka-nayana r-rma st-pate
govindcyuta nanda-nandana mukundnanda dmodara
vio rghava vsudeva nhare devendra-cmae
sasrrava-kara-dhraka hare r-ka tubhya nama
O Nryaa! Puarka-nayana! r Rma! St-pati! Govinda! Acyuta! Nandanandana! Mukunda! nanda! Dmodara! Viu! Rghava! Vsudeva! Nhari!
Devendra-c mai! Sasra-sindhu-kara-dhra! Hari! Ka! I offer my obeisance
unto You.


bhrea ikhaa-maana vara rkhaa-liptga he
vndraya-purandara sphurad-amandendvara ymala
klind-priya nanda-nandana parnandravindekaa
r-govinda mukunda sundara-tano m dnam nandaya
O Bhravaevara! Mayura-piccha-bh aa! reha! Candana-carcitga!
Vndvanendra! Dedpyamna-utka-indvara-tulya-ymala (effulgent and dark
blue like a lotus flower)! Klind-priya! Nandanandana! Paramnanda!
Aravindekaa! Govinda! Mukunda! Sundara-tanu! I am very miserable. Please make
me happy.

After that, the sdhaka shall offer his obeisance to Mother Earth, saying:
samudra-mekhale devi
viu-patni namas tubhya
pda-spara kamasva me
O Samudra-mekhal! Parvata-stana-maal! Devi Viu-patni! I offer my
obeisance unto you. Please forgive me for touching you with my feet.

r Navadvpa Dhyna
tato bahir gatv maitra-ktydi-vidhi kuryt, danta-dhvandim caret, uddhsane prvbhimukh upaviya nicala-man
smaret rmad gaura-candra
svardhuny dakie tae
Then, going outside, the sdhaka will pass urine and stool, and brush his teeth according to his regulation (or stra). After that he will sit on a purified seat facing the

east and will meditate with a steady mind on r Navadvpa-dhma. He will do llsmaraa of r Gauracandra in cintmai-maya Navadvpa, which lies on the southern
bank of the Gag.
svardhuny cru-tre sphuritam atibhat-kurma-phbha-gtra
ramyrmvta sanmai-kanaka-mah-sadma-aai partam
nitya pratylayodyat-praaya-bhara-lasat-ka-sakrtanya
r-vndavy abhinna tri-jagad anupama r-navadvpam e
That dhyna is as follows: On the bank of the beautiful Gag lies r Navadvpadhma. It is covered with delightful garden groves and resembles the surface of a tortoise shell in shape. There are rows of great palaces, and in each one a prema-filled
ka-krtana is going on. I pray to that Navadvpa-dhma, which is non-different from
r Vndvana-dhma and unequalled in the three worlds.
phullac chrmad druma-vall-tallaja-lasat-tr taragvalramy manda-marum-marla-jalaja-reiu bhgspadam
sad-ratncita-divya-trtha-nivah r-gaura-pdmbujadhli-dhsaritga-bhva-nicit gagsti sampvan
The banks of the Gag are adorned with beautiful blossoming trees and creepers,
and are cooled by a gentle breeze that arises from her waves. Groups of black bees happily sport in four kinds of lotus flowers, and in the water swans, cakravkas and other
birds play. The bathing ghas on her banks are made of precious gems. She exhibits
various ecstasies due to her waters being purified and turned grayish by the dust of r
Gaurga's lotus feet.
tasys tra-suramya-hema-suras-madhye lasac chr-navadvpo bhti sumagalo madhu-ripor nanda-vanyo mahn
nn-pupa-phalhya-vka-latikramyo mahat sevito
nn-vara-vihagamli-ninadair ht-kara-hr hi ya
The soil of this holy land on the banks of the Gag is a beautiful golden color.
This most auspicious r Navadvpa has been inundated by a flood of ka-prema and
is being worshipped by multitudes of devotees. There are various kinds of fruits and


flowers in the trees and creepers. Groups of multicolored birds lost in prema make
sweet sounds that steal away the hearts and ears of everyone.
ka mrakata prabhta-viap-kh suvartmik
patrli kuruvinda-komala-may prvlik korak
pup nikara suhraka-mayo vaidryaky phalare yasya sa ko pi khi-nikaro yatrtimtrojjvala
The opulence of Navadvpa-dhma is transcendentally extraordinary. There are
trees there that have trunks made of emeralds, branches of gold, delicate leaves of sapphires and rubies, buds of coral, diamond flowers and cat's-eye (vaidrya) fruits. These
indescribable trees are eternally self-effulgent.
tan madhye dvija-bhavya-loka-nikargrli-ramyganam
rmopavanli-vilasad ved-vihrspadam
sad-bhakti-prabhay virjita-mah-bhaktli-nityotsava
praty gram aghri-mrti-sumahad-bhtha yat pattanam
Within that great ever-existing city lives a group of mild-natured brhmaas. Their
houses have pleasant courtyards attached, along with beautiful pleasure gardens and
groves. Here and there among the groves are sporting areas with platforms for sitting.
These effulgent devotees are always having great festivals and celebrations, because in
each of their houses a mrti of r Ka resides.

r Guru Dhyna
eva bhte r-navadvpa-madhye manasi nivsa ktv tatra r-gurudevasya ayyotthnamukha-praklana-danta-dhvandi-kramea yath-yogya sev kuryt sevnantara
dhyyet yath ymale---tatra r-guru-dhynam---kp-marandnvita-pda-pakaja
vetmbara gaura-ruci santanam
anda sumlybharaa gulaya
smarmi sad-bhaktam aha guru harim


Thus, in his mnasa-deha, the sdhaka should meditate on himself as a resident of

Navadvpa and an eternal associate of r Gaurasundara. He should make all arrangements for when his gurudeva awakens and then help him with his morning duties,
such as washing his face, brushing his teeth, or whatever the appropriate service
might be.
Then he will meditate on his gurudeva as described in the Ymala: I meditate upon
r Hari who has assumed the form of r Guru. He has an eternal body filled with
pure devotion and His lotus feet are full of the nectar of mercy. He has a golden complexion, wears pure white cloth and is adorned with a fragrant garland. He is the
abode of all good qualities and the bestower of good fortune.

rman Mahprabhu Dhyna

r-guru-parama-guru-partpara-guru-paramehi-gurum anugmitvena rman mahprabhor
mandira gacchet. tatra tad-jay r-navadvpa-candrasya ayyotthna suvsita-jalena rmukha-praklandi-kramea sev kuryt.
tatra rman mahprabhor dhyna yath rddhvmnye (3.15)---dvi-bhuja svara-rucira
varbhaya-kara tath
ganta hari-nmakam
Then, in his mnasa-deha, the sdhaka will follow his guru, parama-guru, partparaguru and paramehi-guru to the temple of rman Mahprabhu. By their order, he will
awaken the Lord and offer Him scented water for washing His lotus face, etc., and do
other sev as is appropriate. Then he will meditate upon the Lord as described in the
rddhvmnya-sahit: Absorbed in prema, the golden Lord Gaura stands holding one
hand in the benediction pose and the other in the pose for awarding fearlessness,
while He incessantly chants the holy names.

r Vndvana Dhyna and Ninta-ll-smaraa

anantara r-vndvana dhyyet----


vndvana divya-lat-parta
lat ca pupa-sphuritgra-bhja
pupyapi sphta-madhu-vratni
madhu-vrat ca ruti-hri-gt
Then he will meditate on r Vndvana-dhma as follows: r Vndvana is covered with many varieties of celestial creepers, and these creepers are fully adorned
with beautiful flowers. Hovering around these flowers are large swarms of black bees
whose humming sounds are sweeter than the songs of the Vedas.
madhye vndvane ramye
kalpa-vka-nikuje tu
divya-ratna-maye ghe
Fifty kujas full of wish-fulfilling trees decorate the center of this delightful
Vndvana forest. In one of these groves is a cottage made of heavenly gems.
tatra siddha-dehena r-rdh-kayor ninta-ll smared yath---nivasne r-rdh-kau r-vnd-niyukta-rasamaya-parama-vidagdha-uka-ri-vndapadya-pahana-janita-prabodhv api ghopaghana-sukha-bhagd asahiu tay kaam
avakyamna-jgarau tat-tat-padya-prapahita-nivasna-stakau pupamaynanda-talpotthitau sva-sva-kujt tat-klgata-rmal-lalit-vikhdi-priya-sakh-vnda-sanarma-vg-vilsena
sntarnandau kakkhay udita-jail-ravat saakau saga-tyga-bhayam asahamnau tau
bhtyotkahkulau sva-sva-gha gacchata.
In his siddha-deha, the sdhaka will meditate on the ninta-ll of r r RdhKa as They rest in this cottage of jewels. At the end of night, under the order of r
Vnd, a group of transcendental male and female parrots awaken Rdh and Ka
by reciting poetry. Although the parrots are unable to bear disrupting Rdh-Ka's
happiness and close embrace for even a moment, still they must awaken Them.
As that excellent poetry is being recited, Yugala Kior-Kiora awaken and,
alarmed that the end of night has already come, quickly arise from Their pleasure
bed of flowers. Then Lalit, Vikh and other priya-sakhs arrive from their respective
kujas full of jokes and laughter, making the Divine Couple very blissful. But then
They hear the monkey Kakkhat speak Jail's name and become afraid. What a


dilemma! They are afraid of being caught by Jail, but They also can't bear the
thought of sepa-rating! Overcome by fear and anxiety, Rdh and Ka then return to
Their respective homes.

r Guru Prama
eva kramea r-gauracandrasya r-rdh-kayor ll smaret. ninta-llsmaranantara gurvdn daavat praamet yath---In this way, the sdhaka will meditate on the lls of Gauracandra and RdhKa. At the end of his ninta-ll-smaraa, he will offer daavats to his guru and the
other Vaiavas as follows:
cakur unmlita yena
tasmai r-gurave nama
I offer my respectful obeisance unto r Guru. My eyes were blinded by the darkness of ignorance, and he has opened them with the torchlight of knowledge.

r Gauracandra Prama
iti mantra pahitv r-guru daavat praamya eva parama-guru-partpara-guruparamehi-guru-gosvmi-caran kramea daavat praamet. tata r-gauracandra
praamet---Reciting the previous mantra he will offer daavats to his guru, parama-guru, partpara-guru, paramehi-guru and the Six Gosvms. Then he will offer obeisance to r
Gauracandra with the following mantra:
vivambharya gaurya
caitanyya mahtmane
ac-putrya mitrya
lakmya namo nama
I offer my humble obeisance again and again to that great soul who is known as
Vivambhara (maintainer of the universe), Gaura, Caitanya, ac-putra, the Husband
of Lakm and the Friend of All.


r Nitynanda Prama
nitynandam aha vande
kare lambita-mauktikam
I offer my humble obeisance unto r Nitynanda Prabhu, who has a single pearl
dangling from one of His ears. He is the elder brother of r Caitanya Mahprabhu,
and the purifier of the earth.

r Advaita Prama
nistritea-jana daylu
premmtbdhau parimagna-cittam
caitanya-candrdtam arcita tam
advaita-candra iras nammi
With my head at His feet, I offer my humble obeisance unto the merciful r
Advaitacandra, whose heart is drowned in the ocean of prema. He delivers infinite
numbers of devotees, and is honored and worshipped by r Caitanyacandra.

r Gaddhara and r rvsa Pramas

gaddhara namas tubhya
yasya gaurgo jvanam
namas te r-rnivsapaita prema-vigraha
O r Gaddhara! r Gaurga is your very life. I offer my humble obeisance unto
you. r rvsa Paita! You are the very form of prema. I also offer my humble
obeisance unto you.


eva kramea gaura-bhakta-gan daavat praamet.
In the same way as previously mentioned, the sdhaka will offer daavats to all the
devotees of r Gauracandra.
r-navadvpa-dhmne nama
r-gagyai nama
r-sakrtanya nama
r-gaua-maalya nama

r Rdh-Ka Prama
namo gopendra-snave
I offer my humble obeisance unto Nandanandana r Ka, who is more charming than millions of Cupids, whose bodily splendor resembles the blue lotus, and who
enchants the universes by His alluring pastimes.
rdhe vndvanevari
vabhnu-sute devi
praammi hari-priye
I offer my humble obeisance unto r Rdh, whose bodily complexion is like
molten gold, and who is the Queen of Vndvana. She is the daughter of King
Vabhnu and is very dear to r Ka.

r Anaga Majar Prama

r-rdhik-pra-sam kanyas

anaga-purv praammi majarm
I offer my most humble obeisance to rmat Anaga Majar, whose body overflows with the sweetness of llmta. She has learned from Vikh how to serve carefully and gracefully. She is identical to the life-force of r Rdh, and she is r
Rdh's younger sister.

Aa-sakh, etc. Prama

lalitdi-parama-preha-sakh-vndebhyo nama
kusumikdi-sakh-vndebhyo nama
kastrydi-nitya-sakh-vndebhyo nama
aimukhydi-pra-sakh-vndebhyo nama
kuragkydi-priya-sakh-vndebhyo nama
r-rpdi-majarbhyo nama
rdmdi-sakhi-vndebhyo nama
sarva-gopa-gopbhyo nama
vraja-vsibhyo nama
r-vnd-vipinebhyo nama
r-rsa-maalya nama
r-yamunyai nama
r-rdh-kua-yma-kubhy nama
r-govardhanya nama
r-dvdaa-vipinebhyo nama
r-vraja-maalya nama
r-mathur-maalya nama
sarvvatrebhyo nama
ananta-koi-vaiavebhyo nama

Vaiava Prama
vch-kalpa-tarubhya ca
kp-sindhubhya eva ca
patitn pvanebhyo
vaiavebhyo namo nama
I offer my respectful obeisance unto all the Vaiava devotees of the Lord. They are
just like desire trees who can fulfill everyones dreams, and they are full of compas19

sion for the fallen conditioned souls.

atha snnam caret yath----nady dau pravhbhimukhe tagdiu prvbhimukh trthni
hvayed yath---Then, one's bath shall be done as follows:
At a river or stream, facing in the direction of the current, or at a pond or lake, facing the easterly direction, one shall invoke the holy rivers thus:
gage ca yamune caiva
godvari sarasvati
narmade sindho kveri
jale 'smin sannidhi kuru
O Gag, Yamun, Godvar, Sarasvat, Narmad, Sindhu, Kver! Please become present in this water.
mah-ppa-bhage daylo nu gage
maheottamge lasac citta-rage
drava-brahma-dhmcyutghryabjaje m
punhna-kanye pravhormmi-dhanye
O merciful Gag, destroyer of great sins! With a joyful heart, you always sport
on the head of Lord iva. You are pure spirit in a liquid form, born from the feet of Lord
Viu. O daughter of the Lord! You create a garland of continuous waves. O holy one,
please make me pure!
vior nbhy-ambu-madhyd vara-kamalam abht tasya nl-sumeror
madhye nisyandamn tvam asi bhagavati brahma-lokt prast
khd-bhra rudra-mrdhni praipatita-jal g gatsti gag
kas tv yo nbhivanden madhu-mathana-hara-brahma-samparka-ptm
O Bhagavat Gag! You have descended from the spiritual world. After being


born from the water in Lord Vius navel, you flowed through the stem of the beautiful lotus growing there and fell from the heavens onto the head of Lord Rudra. You
have been purified by the touch of Lord Hari, Lord iva, and Lord Brahm. Who could
not praise you?
gag gageti yo bryt
yojann atair api
mucyate sarva-ppebhyo
viu-loka sa gacchati
O Gagdev! You have descended a great distance from the spiritual world.
Whoever calls out your holy name is liberated from all sins and goes to Viuloka.
After invoking the Gag, the sdhaka will invoke the Yamun as follows:
cidnanda-bhno sad nanda-sno
para-prema-ptr drava-brahma-gtr
aghn lavitr jagat-kema-dhtr
pavitr-kriynno vapur mitra-putr
r Yamundev is a transcendental manifestation of r Nandanandana. She is a
vessel of prema and has a body of liquid spirit. She is the destroyer of all sins, and she
brings good fortune to the whole universe. O Daughter of the Sun, please make our
bodies pure.
Then, he will invoke the blessings of r Rdh-kua:
prasda rdhik-kua
snmi te salile ubhe
O r Rdhik-kua, you have obtained good fortune equal to that of r Rdh,
and you are highly praised among all the holy places. I am bathing in your sacred
waters. Please be gracious toward me.


Tilaka Dhraa
tata ukla-vastre paridhya r-hari-mandira-dhraa ktv r-hari-nmkaram akayed
gtre---Then, after dressing himself in pure, white cloth, the sdhaka shall write the
names of Hari on his body. He shall also apply tilaka to the appropriate 12 places as described in this mantra from the Padma Pura, Uttara-khaa:
lale keava dhyyen
nryaam athodare
vaka-sthale mdhava tu
govinda kaha-kpake
viu ca dakie kukau
bhau ca madhusdanam
trivikrama kandhare tu
vmana vma-prvake
rdhara vma-bhau tu
hkea ca kandhare
phe tu padma-nbha ca
kay dmodara nyaset
tat praklana-toya tu
vsudeveti mrdhani
On the forehead----Keava; on the belly----Nryaa; on the chest----Mdhava; on the
hollow of the throat----Govinda; on the right side of the abdomen----Viu; on the right
arm----Madhus dana; on the right shoulder----Trivikrama; on the left side of the abdomen----Vmana; on the left arm----rdhara; on the left shoulder----Hkea; on the
upper back----Padmanbha; on the lower back----Dmodara.
Then, after washing his hands, he shall place the remaining water on his head,
while uttering o vsudevya nama.


r Jaganntha Mirera Mandira Dhyna

prvavat sthirsane sthira-citta tatrdau r-navadvpa-madhye r-ratna-mandire ratnasihsanopari bhakta-vnda-parisevita r-r-ka-caitanya-deva gurvdi-kramea dhytv
tatrdau r-jaganntha-mirasya mandira dhyyet---yath caitanyrcana-candrikym---r-jaganntha-mirasya
mandirganam uttamai
Then, in the same way he previously meditated on his gurus, the sdhaka will sit
quietly and do his pj. With a steady mind he meditates on r Ka Caitanyadeva
in a temple of jewels in Navadvpa-dhma. The Lord sits on a jewelled throne, and
devotees serve Him on all sides. Before doing this dhyna and pj, however, he will
first meditate on r Jaganntha Mira's mandira as described in the book r
Caitanyrcana-candrik: Along with the home of r Jaganntha Mira Mahaya are a
beautiful temple and courtyard that are decorated with various kinds of fine gemstones.
tan-madhye ravi-knti-nindi-kanaka-prkra-satoraa
r-nryaa-geham agra-vilasat sakrtana-prgaam
lakmy-antapura-pka-bhoga-ayana-r-candrala pura
yad-gaurga-harer vibhti sukhada svnanda-savhitam
In the middle of this compound there is a temple for r Nryaa that has arched
doorways and golden walls more splendid than the rays of the sun. In front of the
nryaa-mandira there is a courtyard where krtana is performed. In the inner portion
of the mandira are the kitchen of r Lakmdev, a dining room, a bedroom and a candral5 that are all very beautiful. r Gaurga resides in this delightful compound,
completely absorbed in His own ecstasy and possessing a form of extraordinary splendor.

A candral is a small room at the top of a house for viewing the surrounding

tan-madhye nava-ca-ratna-kalasa vrajendra-ratnntarmukt-dma-vicitra-hema-paala sad-bhakti-ratncitam
A temple adorned with the jewel of pure devotion sits in the middle of this estate.
Around the top of that temple are nine very beautiful jewelled pots. Sapphires decorate
the interior, and strings of pearls hang from the golden ceiling. There are four doors,
each divided into eight panels studded with eight types of jewels. From the ceiling, a
canopy hangs from four ropes, with fringe made of rubies and moonstone dangling
from it.
tan-madhye mai-citra-hema-racite mantrra-yantrnvite
a-kontara-karikra-ikhara-r-kearai sannibhe
krmkra-mahiha-yoga-mahasi r-yoga-phmbuje
rkevali-srya-laka-vimale yad-bhti sihsanam
In this mandira is a yoga-pha lotus (yantra) made of gold, decorated with jewels, and
containing the letters of the six-syllable gaura-mantra. It is shaped like a tortoise shell
and is very beautiful. This is the place where the majestic meeting of bhagavn and
His bhaktas always takes place. The center of this yoga-pha is a hexagram that resembles the karik, or seed-vessel, of a lotus. This phmbuja is as brilliant as millions of
suns and moons, and is very pure and holy.
citra-chdvalambi-pravara-mai-mah-mauktika knti-jlam
tlnta cna-celsanam-uupa-mdu-prnta-phopadhna
svarnta citra-mantra vasu-hari-caraa-dhyna-gamya-koam
In this yoga-phmbuja there is a throne with its lower sides inlaid with rubies,
columns made of sapphires, and a backrest made of vaidurya stone (lapis-lazuli). It has
a splendid canopy with clusters of gems and pearls suspended from it. This throne
has a cotton-stuffed cloth seat, a beautiful soft moon-shaped bolster, and eight legs. The
letters of the mantra (kl gaurya nama) on this octagonal phmbuja are made of gold
and jewels.


tan-madhye r-gaura-candra
vme rla-gaddharam
tad-dakie vadhtendra
rldvaita tata smaret
tad-dakie rnivsa
smaret r-paitottamam
smaret r-bhakta-vnda ca
catur-diku suveitam
sva-gaa-sthn gurn smaret
Then the sdhaka shall meditate on r Gaura in the center of that throne, with r
Gaddhara to His left. Nitynanda Prabhu stands to His right, r Advaita is just to the
right of Nitynanda Prabhu, with r rvsa Paita to the left of r Gaddhara. Then
he shall meditate on Gaurgas bhaktas, who surround the Lord on all sides. They are
divided into groups headed by different gurus, beginning with the group of R pa
Gosvm and Svarpa-Dmodara.

r Guru-smaraa and tma-dhyna

tatrdau r-guru-smaraa yath sanat-kumra-sahitym---akyuta-saka
uklmbara-dhara divyaukla-mlynulepanam
prasanna-vadana nta
divya-rpa-dhara dhyyet
varada kamalekaam


rpa-prva-guru-ganugata sevanotsukam
eva rpa guru dhyyen
manas sdhaka uci
Before meditating on all the bhaktas, first guru-smaraa should be done as described
in the Sanat-kumra Sahit: The guru is as radiant and cooling as 10,000 moons. His
beautiful hands display the mudras of benediction and awarding fearlessness. He
wears white cloth and is decorated with candana and a transcendental white garland.
He has a very happy face, is peaceful and delights in his bhajana. He has a sac-cidnanda form, readily gives his blessings, and has lotus eyes. He is very handsome,
with two arms and a golden complexion, and is radiant with youth (kaiora). He very
faithfully follows his guru-gaa, beginning with rla R pa Gosvm, and is very eager
to serve the Lord. In this way, with a pure mind, the sdhaka shall meditate on his gurudeva.
tat-sampe sevotsukam tmna bhvayed yath---divya-r-hari-mandirhya-tilaka kaha sumlnvita
vaka r-hari-nma-vara-subhaga rkhaa-lipta puna
uddha ubhra-navmbara vimalat nitya vahant tanu
dhyyec-chr-guru-pda-padma-nikae sevotsuk ctmana
The sdhaka shall meditate on himself as wearing tilaka on his forehead, a fragrant
garland around his neck, with beautiful holy names and prasd-candana on his chest.
On his body he always wears a fine, new white cloth. In this pure transcendental
body he shall approach the lotus feet of his guru, very eager for service.

r Gaurga, etc. Dhyna, Pj, Mantra and Gyatr

rman-mauktika-dma-baddha-cikura susmera-candrnana
rkhaguru-cru-citra-vasana srag-divya-bhcitam
ntyvea-rasnumoda-madhura kandarpa-veojjvala
caitanya kanaka-dyuti nija-janai sasevymna bhaje
Then he shall meditate on r Caitanya as such: I worship the golden-hued r
Caitanya, whose beautiful hair has been bound with a string of pearls. His moonlike


face bears a gentle, sweet smile, and His body is anointed with candana, aguru and a
beautiful cloth. He is decorated with a transcendental garland and ornaments of the
same nature. Absorbed in dancing, He is ecstatic from tasting the sweetness of rasa.
He is more brilliant than the god of love, and is always being served by His devotees.
kajrendra-vinindi-sundara-gati r-pdam indvarare-yma-sad-ambara tanu-ruc sndhyendu-samardakam
nitynandam aha smarmi satata bhojjvalga-riyam
Then, the dhyna of r Nitynanda Prabhu: Let me always remember that
brightly smiling face of r Nitynanda Prabhu, whose beautiful movement ridicules
the graceful gait of an elephant. His cloth resembles a cluster of blue lotus flowers and
His bodily effulgence conquers the splendor of the rising moon at sunset. His premasaturated rolling eyes defeat the pride of a restless khajana bird (wagtail).
sad-bhaktli-nievitghri-kamala kundendu-uklmbara
uddha-svara-ruci subhu-yugala smernana sundaram
r-caitanya-da varbhaya-kara premga-bhcitam
advaita satata smarmi paramnandaika-kanda prabhum
In this way, the dhyna of r Advaita Prabhu is done: I meditate upon that root of
transcendental joy, r Advaita Prabhu, whose lotus feet are always served by the bhaktas. He wears cloth as white as the moon or a kunda flower (jasmine). He has a pure
golden complexion, beautiful arms and a smiling face. His eyes always lovingly gaze
upon the lotus face of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. He readily grants benedictions and
fearlessness to the devotees, and His lustrous body is ornamented with prema.
kruyaika-maranda-padma-caraa caitanya-candra-dyuti
tmblrpaa-bhagi-dakia-kara vetmbara sad-varam
premnanda-tanu sudh-smita-mukha r-gaura-candrekaa
dhyyec chrla-gaddhara dvija-vara mdhurya-bhojjvalam
Then r Gaddhara Paita Gosvms dhyna: I meditate on r Gaddhara
Paita Gosvm, whose lotus feet are full of the nectar of compassion. He has a luster


like that of r Caitanyacandra. With His outstretched right hand, He offers tmbula to
the mouth of r Caitanya. He dresses in fine white cloth, is the best of the sdhus, and
is the very form of blissful love. He has a sweet, smiling face, and His eyes are addicted to gazing at the form of r Gaura. He is adorned with the mood of mdhuryarasa, and is the best of the twice-born.
ri-caitanya-padravinda-madhu-p sat-prema-bhojjval
uddha-svara-ruco dg-ambu-pulaka-svedai sad-aga-riya
sevopyana-paya smita-mukh uklmbar sad-var
rvsdi-mahayn sukha-mayn dhyyema tn pradn
Then: We meditate upon r rvsa hkura and his companions, who, like
black bees, drink the honey from the lotus feet of r Caitanya. They are radiant with
prema and have pure golden complexions. Their beautiful bodily limbs are decorated
with tears of joy, trembling, and perspiration, and their hands are always rendering
sev. They are smiling and very happy, and are wearing white cloth. They are the
best of sdhus.
iti smaranantara r-guror jay rman-mahprabhu oaopacrdibhi tan-mlamantreaiva pjayet.
rman-mahprabhu-mantroddhro yath rddhvmnye r-vysa prati r-nrada-vkyam
aho ghatama prano
bhavat parikrtita
mantra vakymi te brahman
mah-puya-prada ubham
Then, by the order of his guru, the sdhaka shall offer pj to rman Mahprabhu
with the sixteen articles of worship 6 and the six-syllable gaura-mantra. In the

The sixteen upacras are sana, svgata, pdya, arghya, camanya, madhuparka,
camanya, snna, vasana, bharaa, gandha, pupa, dhpa, dpa, naivedya, vandan.
The ten upacras are arghya, pdya, camana, madhuparka, punar camana, gandha, pupa,
dhpa, dpa, naivedya.
The five upacras are gandha, pupa, dhpa, dpa, naivedya.


rddhvmnya-sahit, there is a statement concerning this gaura-mantra, wherein r

Vedavysa says to r Nrada: O Brhmaa, you have asked which mantra is used in
worshipping Bhagavn r Gaurga. This question is very profound. I shall speak of
this greatly pious and auspicious mantra to you.
kl gaurya nama iti
sarva-lokeu pjita
vg-bjena ca pjita
aakara krtito ya
mantra-rja sura-druma
mantro yath----kli gaurya nama; hr, r, kl, ai gaurya nama
This gaura-mantra (gaurya nama) is worshipped using the bja-mantras of My,
Ram, Anaga and Sarasvat. For example, just as we say kl gaurya nama, similarly we may also say hr gaurya nama, r gaurya nama, etc. In this way, this sixsyllable mantra is honored. When the people of the world combine gaurya nama with
the kma-bja and chant kl gaurya nama, they receive the gift of divine love. I have
chanted to you this aakara-mantra-rja, which is like a kalpa-druma because it fulfills
all ones desires.
etat pdyam, etad arghyam, etad camanyam, ea gandha, etat pupam, ea dhpa, ea
dpa, etan naivedyam, etat pnya-jalam, idam camanyam, etat tmblam, etad gandhamlyam, ea pupjali itydi.
eva r-nitynanda-prabhu pjayet, rman-nitynanda-prabhor mantroddhro yath
(brahma-pure dhara-ea-samvde)---iti nma-ataka
mantra nivedita u
may tvayi pur prokta
kma-bjeti sajakam
vahni-bjena ptnte
cdau deva namas tath


jhnav-pada tatraiva
vallabhya tata param
iti mantro dvdara
sarvatraiva manohara
mantro yath----kli deva-jhnav-vallabhya svh
Saying etat pdya kl gaurya nama, footwash is offered, and in a similar way,
all the other articles of worship may be offered. In the same manner, r Nitynanda
Prabhus pj shall be done. Concerning Nitynanda Prabhus mantra, a statement is
made in the Brahma Pura during a conversation between ea-nga and Mother
Earth. The purport of that statement is such: At the beginning of the mantra, the kmabja shall be joined with the word deva and serve as a salutation. Then, in the middle
will be jhnav, followed by vallabhya and ending with svh. This twelve-syllable
mantra of r Nitynanda Prabhu is very charming to everyone. Using this mantra, r
Nitynanda Prabhus pj shall be done.
The mantra is thus: kl deva-jhnav-vallabhya svh.
iti mantreaiva pjayet, eva r-advaita-prabhu pjayet. atha r-advaita-prabhor
mantroddhro yath pdme---aho ghatama prano
nrada muni-sattama
na prakyas tvay hy etad
guhyd guhyatara mahat
e nt vai i-varo ya
mantra sarvtidurlabha
mantro yath----klm advaitya svh
Then, in the same way, r Advaitas pj shall be performed using the r-advaitamantra. In the Padma Pura it is said: O Nrada, Best of the Munis, you have asked a
very profound question concerning the r-advaita-mantra. You should not reveal my reply at just any place, because this is very confidential knowledge. You shall know that
this seven-syllable mantra, which is composed of the kma-bja joined with advaita in


the dative case and followed by svh (the wife of Agni), is very difficult to obtain.
The mantra is thus: klm advaitya svh.
tad-anantara rman-mahprabho ea-nirmlyena r-gaddhara-paita pjayet tanmantreaiva, r-gaddhara-paita-mantro yath----r gaddharya svh.
atha tathaiva r-rvsdi-bhaktn guru-vargdn mahprabhu-nirmlya-prasdena pjayet,
sva-sva-nma-caturthyantena r-guru-deva tu tan-mla-mantreaiva pjayet.
r-guru-mantroddharo yath bhad-brahma-pure sta-aunaka-samvde---r gum ity eva bhagavadgurave vahni-vallabh
dara-mantra-rja ca
sarva-kryeu rakit
mantro yath----r gu bhagavad-gurave svh
tato vaea-nirmlydika ghyt; sthnntare ca sasthpya prabhupda-padme pupjali dattv rtrika kuryt. tad-antara cmara-vyajandika ktv r-guru-prve tihan
dhynnukramea nirkaa ktv tato bahi-pjayet. bahi-pj ktvnantara sva-svagyatr-mantrn japet kramt---tatrdau r-guru-gyatr yath pdme---r gurudevya vidmahe gaura-priyya dhmahi tan no guru pracodayt
prathama mantra-guro pj
pacc caiva mamrcanam
kurvan siddhim avpnoti
hy anyath niphala bhavet
dhyndau r-guror mrti
pjdau ca guro pjm
japdau ca guror mantra
hy anyath niphala bhavet
Then, after r Advaita Prabhus pj, using the prasd flowers, etc., from the worship of rman Mahprabhu, the pj of r Gaddhara Paita Gosvm shall be done


using the following mantra:

r gaddharya svh
Then, in the same way (using the prasda from Mahprabhu), the sdhaka shall
perform the pj of r rvsa Paita, the bhaktas, and his guru-parampar (down to his
parama-guru). Speaking their individual names in the dative case, he shall offer the
various articles to them. For example: ea prasd gandha rvsya nama.
For his guru, however, he shall use the guru-mantra. In the Bhad Brahma Pura,
in the conversation between S ta Gosvm and aunaka i, this guru-mantra is described: The bja is r gu, then bhagavad gurave, and at the end svh. This twelvesyllable mantra is the giver of all auspiciousness and protection.
The mantra is thus: r gu bhagavad gurave svh
Then he shall accept that flower prasda, etc., for himself. Putting that prasda
aside, he shall offer pupjali and rati to the prabhus. Then, while standing beside his
guru and fanning the prabhus with a cmara, he shall sequentially meditate on each of
them. (Everything described thus far is mnasa-pj.)
After that, with his external body, he shall offer pj to the mrtis of rman
Mahprabhu, etc. After completing the pj, he shall chant the respective gyatrmantras. First, the guru-gyatr shall be chanted as given in the Padma Pura:
r gurudevya vidmahe gaura-priyya dhmahi tan no guru pracodayt
In Padma Pura r Bhagavn says, If, when doing pj, you first worship your
mantra-guru and then Me, you will attain perfection. Otherwise pj is fruitless.
Concerning dhyna, pj and mantra-japa, the guru must always be considered first.
Otherwise, all these activities are useless.
tato japa-lakaa yath (r-hari-bhakti-vilsa 17.143, 129)---na kampayec chiro grv
dantn naiva prakayet
mana-saharaa auca
mauna mantrrtha-cintanam
Then, the characteristics of japa are described: The sdhaka shall not move his
head and neck about, nor show his teeth. He shall sanctify his mind by withdrawing


it from the objects of the senses, pondering the meaning of the mantra, and maintaining silence.
mano-madhye sthito mantro
mantra-madhye sthita mana
mano-mantra samyuktam
etad dhi japa-lakaam
If the mantra remains within the mind and the mind remains within the mantra
(in other words, the mind and mantra are joined), then the characteristics of japa (japalakaa) are revealed to the chanter.
atha japgulydi-niyama (r-hari-bhakti-vilsa 17.116-120)---tatrguli-japa kurvan
sguhgulibhir japet
aguhena vin karma
ktas tad aphala bhavet
Then the regulations concerning the fingers used during japa are described:
During japa, both fingers and thumb are used. If the thumb is not used, the japa is fruitless.
kanihnmik madhy
caturth tarjan mat
tisro gulyas tri-parv syur
madhyam caika-parvik
On three fingers----the little finger, the ring finger and index finger----the three
joints are touched (by the thumb), and on the middle finger, only one joint is used,
thus totalling ten. This is the proper way of chanting using the joints of the fingers.
parva-dvaya madhyamy


japa-kle vivarjayet
eva meru vijnyd
brahma dita svayam
During japa, those two joints of the middle finger should be excluded. Know those
two joints to be Mount Meru, which Lord Brahm himself has previously defiled.
pradakiam anukramt
kramd daasu parvasu
Japa shall be done using the ten finger joints beginning with the middle joint of
the ring finger and proceeding clockwise, ending at the root of the index finger.
agulir na viyujta
kicit sakocayet talam
aguln viyoge tu
chidreu sravate japa
madhym caika-parvik ity ukte kecit madhyam-madhya-parva ghanti tan na.
While performing japa, the fingers must be kept together and slightly contracted at
the base. If the fingers are separated, the japa will leak out through the holes. Some people say that the middle joint on the middle finger should be used, but that is not
atha japa-kramo yath---prathama gurudevasya
mantra-gyatr sasmaret
tata r-gauracandrasya
gyatry uccraa tath
Concerning the process of japa, first the r-guru-mantra and gyatr should be contemplated, and then the gyatr of r Gauracandra.


rlvadhtendrdvaitamantra-gyatr sasmaret
tata r-gaddharasya
rvsa-paitasya ca
In that way, the mantras and gyatrs of r Nitynanda Prabhu, r Advaita Prabhu,
r Gaddhara Paita and r rvsa Paita shall be contemplated.
r-gurudevasya mantro yath----r gu bhagavad-gurave svh
atha gyatr----r gurudevya vidmahe, gaura-priyya dhmahi, tan no guru pracodayt.
iti r-guru-gyatr-smaranantara guru-vargn smaret; smaraa-kramo yath---r-guru-parama-gurur itydi-kramea sva-sva-praly-anusrea sva-sva-parivrevaraparama-paramehi-guru-paryanta dhyna ktv svya-svya-nmni caturthyanta ktv
japnantara r-r-caitanya-mahprabhor mantra gyatr ca smaret.
The r-guru-mantra is r gu bhagavad-gurave svh.
The guru-gyatr is r gurudevya vidmahe gaura-priyya dhmahi tan no guru
The meaning of the guru-gyatr is that although the guru is actually a direct form of
r Hari, he is to be meditated on as being a dear one of r Gauracandra. May that gurudeva engage us in the service of his lotus feet.
Then the sdhaka shall do smaraa of the other gurus of his parampar, beginning
with his parama-guru, and going up through his paramehi-guru and the head of his
parivra (family), chanting their individual names in the dative case. (parama-gurave
partpara-gurave itydi rpe)
After that, he shall meditate on the mantra and gyatr of rman Mahprabhu as
mantra: kl gaurya svh
gyatr: kl caitanyya vidmahe vivambharya dhmahi tan no gaura pracodayt
Then, r Nitynanda Prabhu:
mantra: kl deva-jhnav-vallabhya svh
gyatr: kl nitynandya vidmahe sakaraya dhmahi tan no bala pracodayt


r Advaita Prabhu:
mantra: klm advaitya svh
gyatr: klm advaitya vidmahe mah-viave dhmahi tan no advaita pracodayt
r Gaddhara Paita:
mantra: r gaddharya svh
gyatr: g gaddharya vidmahe paitkhyya dhmahi tan no gaddhara pracodayt
r rvsa Paita:
mantra: r rvsya svh
gyatr: r rvsya vidmahe nradkhyya dhmahi tan no bhakta pracodayt
r r Gaura-Gaddhara mantra: kl r gaura-gaddharya svh
anantara stava-pramdi ktv r-gauracandra-klya-strnusarea smaret---gaurasya ayanotthnt
punas tac-chayanvadhi
nnopakaraai kuryt
sevana tatra sdhaka
Then, after offering various stavas and pramas, he shall meditate on the aaklya-ll of r Gauracandra. In his mnasa-deha, he shall offer sev with various articles from the time of r Gaurgas awakening in the morning until the Lord falls
asleep at night.

r Gaurgas Aa-kla-sev
caritmtam adbhutam
cintyat cintyat nitya
The nectarous pastimes of r Navadvpa-candra are very wonderful. Eager to serve
the Lord, the sdhaka shall always think of these pastimes.
ninte gauracandrasya


ayana ca nijlaye
prta-kle ktotthna
snna tad-bhojandikam
At the end of night (ninta), he shall meditate on the Lord sleeping in His own
home. In the early morning (prta-kle), the Lord rises from His bed, bathes and takes
His meal.
prvhna-samaye bhaktamandire paramotsukam
madhyhne paramcaryakeli sura-sarit-tae
In the forenoon, the Lord becomes deeply absorbed in ka-ll-smaraa and experiences intense feelings of separation. In the middle of the day, Mahprabhu performs
astonishing pastimes on the bank of the Gag. The sdhaka shall meditate on Lord
Gaurga in this way.
aparhne navadvpabhramaa bhri-kautukam
syhne gamana cruobhana nija-mandire
In the afternoon, Gaurahari very joyfully roams about r Navadvpa-dhma. In
the early evening, He returns to His own home, revealing His enchanting beauty.
pradoe priya-varghya
rvsa-bhavane tath
niy smared nanda
In the late evening, He meets His dear associates at the home of rvsa hkura,
where they perform a great sakrtana festival far into the night. The sdhaka shall thus
blissfully meditate on r Gauracandra.


Serving r Rdh-Ka in the Siddha-deha

eva r-caitanya-deva nievya siddha-dehena r-ka-sevga vidadhyt. atra krik---tac cintandi-samaye
kuryt tad anusrata
cintana tu tayos tatra
vasan guru-ganvita
puna ckua-lle smin
siddha-dehena sdhaka
manas mnas sevm
aa-klocit vrajet
sdhaka siddha-dehena
kuryt ka-priy-ghe
lalitdi sakh-gae
nivsa yvae nitya
r-yvaa-pure rmadvabhnu-pure pi ca
nandvara-pure rdhka-kua-taa-dvaye
rmad-vndvane ramye
prtar dyaa-samaye
sevana tu kramea ca
nnopakaraair divyair
bhakya-bhojydibhi sad
cmara-vyajandyai ca
In the same way, the sdhaka shall perform mnas-sev to r r Rdh-Ka during the eight periods of the day. He shall dwell amongst his guru-gaa and perform llsmaraa according to their instructions. In his mind, in his siddha-deha, he shall visual-


ize himself rendering appropriate services during the various times. In his siddha-deha,
he (she) shall always live in Yvaa and Vabhnu-pura, serving in the home of r
Rdh alongside her guru-rp-sakh and the other sakhs such as r Lalit, Vikh,
etc. At Nandvara-pura, on the banks of Rdh-kua and yma-kua, and in the
beautiful Vndvana forest, beginning from the early morning and continuing
throughout the day, she shall offer meals and other services (such as fanning with a
cmara and massaging the feet) to r r Rdh-Ka.

Meditation on the Siddha-deha

kior gopa-vanit
The sdhaka shall contemplate his Vndvana siddha-deha in this way: She is a
kior-gop (under 15 years old), fully decorated with ornaments, having large raised
breasts, and endowed with the sixty-four qualities.
nigha-bhv govinde
nn-rasa-kallpalin divya-rpin
She has a secret love for r Govinda that is bewildering even to Cupid himself. She
speaks very sweetly and has a divine form.
div-nia mano-madhye
dvayo prem-bharkul
By nature she brims with the joy of singing, playing musical instruments and
dancing. Day and night her heart is filled with love for Rdh and Ka.


She has all pleasant characteristics and is adorned with feminine gestures that excite feelings of love. She is born from the mercy of her guru, and she always follows
her guru-rp-sakh. She remains in r Rdhs own party (ytha) in the company of
Lalits group (gaa).
cintanykti s ca
She is very devoted to r Rdh, is a resident of Yvaagrma, and a follower of
kma-rp-bhakti (having an intense desire to serve in transcendental madhura-rati).
Her body is made of cid-nanda-rasa and is radiant like molten gold. She wears very
beautiful blue clothing and is nicely decorated with various kinds of ornaments.
r-rdh-kayo prvavartin nava-yauvan
guru-dattasya nmno sy
mt vargdya-majar
pit varga-ttykhyo


vargnthvayaka pati
She always stays alongside r Rdh and Ka, and she is in the prime of youth.
The names of her mother, father and husband are determined in this way: The mothers name is derived from the first syllable of the sdhakas guru-given name. The fathers name is derived from the third syllable, and the husbands comes from the last.
nivso yvae tasy
daki mdvik hi s
Her home is in the village of Yvaa, and she has a very graceful and delicate
form. She is decorated with various lovely ornaments, and she assists in the dressing
of r Rdh.

asyaiva siddha-dehasya
sdhanni yath-kramam
lakyante timanoharam
nma rpa vayo vea
sambandho ytha eva ca
j sev parkh
plya-ds nivsaka
The eleven aspects of this siddha-deha are well known. They are as follows: name
(nma), complexion (or form, rpa), age (vayas), dress (vea), relationship (sambandha),
group (ytha), order (j), service (sev), divine cherished ambition (parkh),
maintainer (plyads) and residence (nivsa).

ete viea-lakany ucyante----


cintanya yath-yogya
svanma vraja-subhruvm
The particular characteristics of all these are now described, beginning with the
Nma----Her name shall be one similar to that of r R pa Majar and the other
rpa ythevar-rpa
bhvanya prayatnata
trailokya-mohana kmoddpana gopik-pate
Rpa----Her complexion (or form) is like that of r Rdh, who excites kma in r
Ka and enchants the three worlds. This meditation should be done with diligence.
vayo nn-vidha tatra
yat tu tridaa-vatsaram
vikhyta vraja-subhruvm
Vayas----The beautiful vraja-gops are of various ages, but the thirteenth year is an especially sweet time of youth, so that is the age to be contemplated.
veo nla-padyai ca
vicitrlaktais tath
svasya dehnurpea
Vea----One should meditate on the gop-deha as being dressed in beautiful blue garments that are adorned with multicolored ornaments.


prtyaye pi sambandha
na kad parivartayet
Sambandha----The relationship between the majar and r r Rdh-Ka is that of
servant and served. The majar would not give up that relationship even in exchange
for her own life.
yath ythevar-ytha
sad tihati tad-vae
tathaiva sarvath tihed
bhtv tad-vaa-vartin
Ytha----Just as Rdhiks sakhs always remain near Her in great devotion, similarly the majar is enchanted by r Rdh and always remains near to Her.
ythevary irasy jm
dya hari-rdhayo
yathocit ca ur
kuryd nanda-sayut
j----Taking the order of her group leader on her head, she very happily renders
appropriate services to r r Rdh-Ka.
iti sev parijey
yath-mati vibhgaa
Sev----The sev is divided into two classes: (1) obeying all kinds of orders (doing
the needful), and (2) more specifically, a particular service like fanning with a cmara, etc., which the sdhaka personally desires.


r-rdh-kayor yadvad
prpta nitya-sakhtva ca
tath sym iti bhvayet
Parkh----The meditation shall be: Just as r R pa Majar and the other gops
are nitya-sakhs of Rdh and Ka, I, too, am a nitya-sakh.
plya-ds ca s prokt
pariply priyavad
y nitya-paricrik
Plyads----The sdhaka-majar remains always under the shelter of a nitya-sakh
who is similar in nature to herself, who speaks very sweetly, and who maintains her
in every respect.
nivso vraja-madhye tu
rdh-ka-sthal mat
va-vaa ca r-nandvara cpy atikautuka
Nivsa----Those delightful places such as Vaivaa, Nandvara and Vraja, which
are the sites of Rdh-Kas daily pastimes, are the dwelling places of the siddhadeha.

Attachment for the Majars

anaga-majar prokt
vilsa-majar tath
aoka-majar ceti
rasa-majarik tath


rasla-majar nmn
tath kamala-majar
karu-majar khyt
vikhyt gua-majar
eva sarv ca vikhyt
sva-sva-nmkarai par
majaryo bahua rpagua-la-vayo nvit
nma-rpdi tat sarva
guru-datta ca bhvayet
tatra tatra sthit nitya
bhajet r-rdhik-har
Then, the sdhaka-majar shall contemplate her devotion to her majar-gaa (group)
as follows: Anaga Majar, Vilsa Majar, Aoka Majar, Rasa Majar, Rasla
Majar, Kamala Majar, Karu Majar, Gua Majar and others are all very
famous. They possess beautiful forms, pleasing qualities, sweet personalities, and
blooming youth. The sdhaka shall meditate on them as they have been described by
his guru, and shall remain among them rendering sev to Rdh and Ka.
bhvayan sdhako nitya
sthitv ka-priy-ghe
tad j-plako bhtv
klev aasu sevate
The sdhaka shall render sev in the home of r Rdh, carrying out the orders of
her majar-gaa, during the eight time periods of the day.
sakhn sagin-rpm
tmna bhvan-maym
tata ca majar-rpn
gurvdn api sasmaret


Being decorated with the ornaments of (1) her personal order (concerning her
sev), (2) her cherished desire for sev, and (3) the mercy of the sakhs, and deeply absorbed in the conception of herself as a companion (sagin) of the sakhs, she shall
meditate on her guru-varga in their majar forms.

Ll-smaraa and Gokula-dhyna

atha prta-prvhna-ll smtv madhyhne saga-mitau rdh-kau paraspara-sagajanita-nn-sttvika-vikra-bhitau lalitdi-priya-sakh-vnda-sanarma-vg-vilsena janitaparamnandau nn-rasa-vilsa-cihnau sammagna-mnasau vihitraya-llau vndraye
sumahruha-mle yoga-phopari upaviau evambhtau rdh-kau sasmaret.
prathama a-dala padma
tad-bahir vasu-patrakam
tad-bahir daa-patra ca
Then, after contemplating the morning and forenoon lls, the sdhaka shall meditate on the midday ll. Rdh and Ka meet then, and due to the ecstasy of this
meeting, both of Their bodies erupt with sttvika-vikras (external manifestations of inner emotional transformations). Very happily They joke with Lalit and the other
sakhs and majars. When They see last night's love marks on each other, Their
minds and hearts drown in prema-rasa. In this way, They very blissfully perform
Their vana-vihra-ll. After that, They sit upon a jewelled throne at the base of a kalpadruma.
Absorbed in this ll, the sdhaka shall thoroughly meditate on the midday pastimes of Rdh-Govinda. The meditation on this lotus-shaped yoga-pha is as such:
First, there is a six-petalled lotus; then on the outside of that are eight more petals; after
that, ten more, and then ten partial petals.
tat-tad-icch-vaenaivonmlita bhti mudritam
The body of this yoga-pha lotus is full of rdh-ka-ll-rasa. It blooms and contracts
by the desire of Kior-Kiora.


prkrs tad-bahis tatra
diku dvra-catuayam
catu-ko ca a-daly
At the corners of the four sides surrounding the lotus are four gateways. On the
eight petals are eight kujas, and on the six petals are the 18 syllables of the goplamantra.
yath brahma-sahitym (2-4)
sahasra-patra kamala
gokulkhya mahat padam
tat-karikra tad-dhma
karikra mahad yantra
a-koa vajra-klakam
a-aga a-pad-sthna
prakty puruea ca
premnanda-mahnandarasenvasthita hi yat
jyot-rpea manun
kma-bjena sagatam
tat-kijalka tad-anm
tat-patri riym api
evambhta yoga-phe r-r-rdh-kau smaret.
The Brahma-sahit describes a wonderful place known as Gokula that is shaped
like a thousand-petalled lotus. The karik (seed-pod) of the lotus is the abode of r
Ka. That lotus is manifested by a portion of the jyoti of r Baladeva. This karik is a
great hexagonal yantra, wherein the kma-bja is a diamond peg in the center, accompanied by Rdh and Ka. They are surrounded by the ka-mantra, then the 18-syllable gopla-mantra, and then the kma-gyatr. Surrounding that hexagonal karik (as


the filaments of the lotus) are the aa-majars, and beyond that the petals of the lotus
are the abodes of the sakhs. In this way, the yoga-pha-smaraa of r r Rdh-Ka is

r Kas Age, Dress, etc.

atha r-ka-candrasya
vayo-vedayo khil
nirpyante yathmati
After the yoga-pha has been established, the age, dress, etc., of r Ka is ascertained according to information in the rasa-stras.
(bhakti-rasmta-sindhu 2.1.308, 9)---vaya kaumra-paugaakaioram iti tat tridh
kaumra pacambdnta
paugaa daamvadhi
oac ca kaiora
yauvana syt tata param
Age is divided into three periods----kaumra, paugaa and kaiora. The period up to
the fifth year is called kaumra. Age five to ten is paugaa, ten to sixteen is kaiora, and
after that, yauvana.
kaumrdni ca tridh
aa-msdhika vara
bhgatvena ca krtitam
The ages of kaumra, etc., are also divided into dya (beginning), madhya (middle)
and anta (end). Each part of kaumra and paugaa is made up of about one year and


eight months.
tad yath----dya-kaumram aa-msdhikam eka-varam eva madhya-kaumram, eva
ca ea-kaumram; eva pacama-vara-paryanta kaumra jeyam. dya-paugaam aamsdhikam eka-varam; eva madhya-paugaam; eva ca ea-paugaam; eva ca
kramea aha-varam rabhya daa-vara-paryanta paugaa jeyam. dya-kaiora
srdha-dina-dvayottaraikdaa-msdhikam eka-varam; eva madhya-kaioram; eva eakaioram; krameaikdaa-varam rabhya paca-daa-vara-nava-msa-srdha-sapta-dinaparyanta kaiora jeyam.
atha r-kasya vraja-ll----tatra r-kasya vraja-ll paca-dinottara-a-msdhikadaa-vary jey (10-6-5) atha ca (bhg. 3.2.26)---ekdaa-sams tatra
ghrci sabalo vasat
Each part of the kaumra age is 1 year and 8 months. Altogether this equals five
years. From the sixth year to the tenth (paugaa), the divisions are of the same duration. In the kaiora age, the divisions each last 1 year, 11 months, and 2 1/2 days.
Kaiora begins at age 11 and lasts up to the age of 15 years, 9 months, 7 1/2 days. The
vraja-ll of r Ka lasts up to the age of 10 years, 6 months, and 5 days. In rmadBhgavatam it is said: Along with r Baladeva, r Kacandra lived in Vraja up to
the age of 11, all the while concealing His divine power.
mahrja-kumratay bhogtiayena samddhy vara-msa-dinn srdhatay srdhasapta-dinottara-nava-msdhika-paca-daa-vara-parimita r-kasya vayo jeyam (15-9-7
atraiva ea-kaiore
oaa-hyane sad
vraje vihra kurute
rman nandasya nandana
va-pi pta-vs
kahe kaustubha-obhhyo


vana-ml-dharo nika
karayor makarkrakualbhy virjita
ratna-kakana-yug ghasta
kaukuma tilaka dadhat
mlat-mallike jtiyth ketak-campake
ngakeara itydi
iti vea-dhara rmn
dhyeya r-nandanandana
Because of having too much fun being the vraja-rja-kumra, Ka extended His ll
in Vndvana half again the number of years He already lived there (10 years, 6
months, 5 days), making His age 15 years, 9 months, 7 1/2 days. r Nandanandana
eternally sports in Vraja (near the end of kaioras 16 years) as a kiora-gopa.
The ka-dhyna is as follows: In His hand He holds a flute (va), He wears yellow clothing, is effulgent like a sapphire, and has the beautiful kaustubha jewel on His
neck. The top of His head is adorned with a peacock feather, and jewelled and gujseed necklaces hang on His chest. A garland of forest flowers (such as mlat, mallik,
jt, yth, ketak, campaka, ngakeara, etc.) hangs down to His lotus feet. He wears a
gleaming gold ornament on His neck, and has a golden line of hair on the left side of
His chest, along with the vaijayant-ml. Dangling from His nose is a valuable pearl
said to come from the head of an elephant. His ears are decorated with dolphin-shaped
earrings, and He wears bangles on His hands. Tilaka made of kukuma beautifies His
forehead. He wears kiki bells round His waist, with ankle bells on His lotus feet.


ga vmodara-parisare tunda-bandhntara-stha
dake tadvan nihita-mural ratna-citr dadhna
vmensau sarala-lagua pin pta-vara
llmbhoja kamala-nayana kampayan dakiena
Then, when Ka goes to herd the cows, He is decorated like this: On the left side
of His abdomen, the lotus-eyed r Ka has a buffalo horn stuck in His belt, and on
His right side He has placed His jewelled mural flute. In His left hand He carries a
straight wooden stick, and in His right He playfully twirls a yellow lotus.

asyaiva ka-candrasya
mantr santi trayo mal
siddh kasya sat-premabhakti-siddhi-kar mat
There are three ka-mantras that are very pure and powerful; they are famous for
bestowing prema-bhakti on their chanters.
tatrdau mantroddhro yath sanat-kumra-sahitym---hare-kau dvir vttau
ka tdk tath hare
hare rma tath rma
tath tdg ghare manu
A reference for the first mantra is from the Sanat-kumra-sahit: The words hare
ka are repeated twice, and then ka and hare are both separately twice repeated. In
the same way, hare rma, rma and hare are twice repeated.
The mantra is thus:


hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare

hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare
asya dhyna yath tatraiva---dhyyed vndvane ramye
gopa-gobhir alakte
rdhay sahita ka
tribhaga-lalita deva
The dhyna that accompanies this mah-mantra is also found in the Sanat-kumrasahit: r Ka is sporting in the cooling waters of the Yamun, or in the shade of a
kadamba tree in the beautiful Vndvana forest. He is ornamented (surrounded) by the
cows and gopas, and is accompanied by r Rdh. He is very skillful at playing the
flute as He stands in a charming tribhaga pose, bestowing mercy and kindness upon
the bhaktas.
vieato daro ya
japa-mtrea siddhi-da
pacgny asya mantrasya
vijeyni manibhi
Then, the 10-syllable mantra is described. By merely chanting this mantra, siddhi is
attained. It should be known by the paitas that there are five parts to this mantra.

iti gautamya-tantra-vkyt rga-mrge dakara-gopla-mantrasya prasiddhi; tad-uddhro
likhyate, sa yath gautamya-tantre----


khntkara samuddhtya
pra turya-svara-yuta
chnta dhnta tath dvayam
amtra msa-yugma
mukha-vttena sayutam
bhra tu mukha-vtthya
pavanra tathaiva ca
mantro ya samudhta
dara khalu kathyate
brahmra turya-sayukta
jagad-bjam udhtam
ukrram amtrena
mukha-vttena sayutam
gagana mukha-vttena
prokt akti partpar
In the Gautamya-tantra, the ten-syllable gopla-mantra used in the rga-mrga is described: The letter that follows kha (ga) is joined with the thirteenth vowel (o) forming
go. The fourth vowel () is then joined with pa, making p. These are followed by the
letters ja, na, va, lla, bh and ya. The bja (klm) and akti (svh) are then added.
10-syllable mantra----kl gopjana-vallabhya svh
18-syllable mantra----kl kya govindya gopjana-vallabhya svh

phullendvara-kntim indu-vadana barhvatasa-priya
rvatskam udra-kaustubha-dhara ptmbara sundaram
gopn nayanotpalrcita-tanu go-gopa-saghvta


govinda kala-veu-vdana-para divyga-bha bhaje

The dhyna that is to accompany the chanting of these two mantras is also described
in the Gautamya-tantra: I worship Govinda, whose beautiful complexion resembles a
fully blossomed blue lotus. He has a moonlike face and is very fond of wearing a peacock feather in His hair. He bears the golden rvatsa line of hairs on His chest along
with the splendid kaustubha jewel. He wears yellow cloth, is extraordinarily handsome, and His body is adored by the lotus eyes of the gops. He is adorned with celestial ornaments and surrounded by the cows and His gopa friends. He loves to play His
sweet-toned flute.

atha kma-gyatr-mantroddhro yath svyambhuvgame---kl tata kma-devya
vidmahe ca pada tata
tata ca pupa-bya
dhmahti pada tata
tatas tan no naga iti
tata caiva pracodayt
e vai kma-gyatr
caturvikar mt
The reference for the kma-gyatr-mantra is found in the Svyambhuva-gama: first
kl, then kmadevya, then vidmahe, then pupa-bya, then dhmahi tan no naga,
then pracodayt. This is the 24-syllable kma-gyatr.
The mantra is thus:
kl kmadevya vidmahe pupa-bya dhmahi tan no naga pracodayt

krsakto madana-vaa-go rdhayligitga
sabhru-bhaga smita-suvadano mugdha-nepathya-obha
vndraye prati-nava-lat-sadmasu prema-pra
prnando jayati mural vdayno mukunda


In the Svyambhuva-gama-stra the dhyna for the kma-gyatr is described: Full of

ecstasy, r Mukunda triumphantly plays on His mural flute as He roams from grove
to grove in the Vndvana forest. His beautiful body is dressed in charming clothing
and is being embraced by r Rdh. Her love completely subjugates Him, and He is
addicted to His sporting with Her. He is full of love for Her, and sometimes He contracts the eyebrows on His smiling, handsome face in a way that reveals His lustful

r Rdhs Age, Dress, etc., and Mantra-gyatr

yath bhad-gautamya-tantre---dev ka-mayi prokt
rdhik para-devat
sarva-lakm-may sarvaknti sammohin par
Then, the age, form, dress, etc., of r Rdh is determined. In Bhad-gautamyatantra it is said: r Rdh is known as Dev, Kamay, Supreme Goddess in whom
all Lakms reside; Her beauty and charm defeat that of all others.
k-pariie ca---rdhay mdhavo devo
mdhavenaiva rdhik
vibhrjante janev
mtsye ca---vrasy vilk
vimal puruottame
rukmi dvravaty tu
rdh vndvane vane
pdme ca (u. n. 4.5)---yath rdh priy vios
tasy kua priya tath
sarva-gopu saivaik
vior atyanta-vallabh


In a supplement to the g-veda it is said: Among all people, Rdhik and Mdhava
together are the most beautiful. In the Matsya-pura: In Vras, She is known as r
Vilk, and in Puruottama-ketra, She is called r Vimal. In Dvrak, She is r
Rukmi, and as the queen of the Vndvana forest, She is called r Rdh.
In the Ujjvala-nlamai, a statement taken from the Padma-pura says: Just as r
Rdh is the most beloved of r Ka, similarly r Rdh-kua is also very dear.
Among all the gops, r Rdh is the dearest lover of r Ka.
(u. n. 4.3-4, 6-7)---mah-bhva-svarpeya
guair ativaryas
yad gndharveti virut
hldin y mah-akti
iti tantre pratihit
sarvad vrabhnav

In the Rdh-prakaraa of Ujjvala-nlamai it is said: r Rdhiks body is composed

of mah-bhva. The greatest of all aktis is the hldin-akti. Therefore it is called mahakti. Of that, the essence is mdana, which is the zenith of mah-bhva. r Rdh is the
embodiment of that highest mah-bhva. This conclusion is well established.
In the Goplottara-tpan, She is glorified as Gndharv. This daughter of Vabhnu
has a very beautiful form and wears 16 items of beautification (gra) and 12 types of
ornaments (bharaa).
tatra suhu-knta-svarp, yath r-ka-vkyam (u. n. 4.8)---kacs tava sukucit mukham adhra-drghekaa
kahora-kuca-bhg-ura kraima-li madhya-sthalam
nate irasi dorlate karaja-ratna-ramyau karau


vidhnayati rdhike tri-jagad ea rupotsava

An example concerning Her beautiful form is given in Ujjvala-nlamai, wherein
r Ka says, O Rdhe! The locks of Your hair curl beautifully, and You have a lotus-like face with elongated restless eyes. Your chest is adorned with lovely large and
firm breasts. Your waist is attractively slender, Your head is bowed slightly in modesty, and Your fingernails are like rows of jewels. Your beautiful form is a festival of
elegance and sweetness that crushes the vanity of the three worlds.
dhta-oaa-gr yath (u. n. 4.9)---snt nsgra-jgran-mai-rasita-pa stri baddha-ve
sottas carcitg kusumita-cikura sragvi padma-hast
tmblsyoru-bindu-stavakita-cibuk kajjalk sucitr
rdhlaktojjvalghri sphuriti tilakin oa-kalpinyam
Concerning Her sixteen items of beautification, Subala says to r Ka, After
bathing, r Rdhik decorates the tip of Her nose with an effulgent jewel. She dresses
in blue clothing, with a sash (nvibandhana) around Her waist. Her hair is plaited and
She wears ornaments on Her ears. Her limbs are smeared with camphor, musk and
sandal paste. She wears flowers in Her hair and a garland around Her neck. In Her
hand She playfully carries a lotus flower. In Her mouth She has tmbula, and on Her
chin a dot of musk. She wears kajjala around Her eyes and on Her cheeks are muskpaintings of dolphins, etc. The bottoms of Her lotus feet are painted red and She wears
tilaka on Her forehead.
dvdabhararit yath (u. n. 4.10)---divya cmandra puraa-viracit kuala-dvandva-kcinik cakr-alk-yuga-valaya-gha kaha-bhormik ca
hrs trnukra bhuja-kaaka-tulkoayo ratna-klpts
tug pdgurya-cchavir iti ravibhir bhaair bhti rdh
Concerning Her twelve ornaments, Subala says, r Rdhik wears a diamond on
Her head, golden earrings on Her ears, and tiny golden bells around Her hips. A


golden locket hangs around Her neck. She wears a cakr-alk7 over Her ears, bangles
on Her hands, and a necklace around Her throat. There are rings on Her fingers and
a group of star-like necklaces on Her bosom. She is adorned with jewelled armlets,
jewelled ankle bells and radiant toe rings. She is very beautiful wearing these twelve
madhye vayasi kaiora eva tasy sthiti. prvavad divasa-gaanay viati-dinottarapaca-msdhika-nava-vara-parimita madhya-kaiora vaya (9-5-20); rja-kumrtvd
bhogtiayena samddhy vara-msa-dinn srdhatay paca-daa-dinottara-msa-dvaydhika-caturdaa-vara parimita vayo sy jeyam (14-2-15).
asy madyat-bhvo
madhu-snehas tathaiva ca
majihkhyo bhaved rga
samarth keval rati
kandarpa-kautuka kuja
gham asys tu yvae
mtsy krtid prokt
vabhnu pit smta
abhimanyu patis tasy
durmukho devara smta
jailkhy smt varur
nanand kuil mat
yath syur nyakvasth
nikhil eva mdhave
tathaiva nyikvasth
rdhy pryao mat
r Rdhs age is in the middle of the kaiora period. Just as previously, Kas age
was increased by half again, so Rdhs age is increased to 14 years, 2 months and 15
days. She has a strong feeling that Ka belongs to Her (madyat-bhva), as well as
madhu-sneha (a very sweet affectionate mood). Her love for Ka is pure, powerful and
lasting, and She has various kujas for Her pastimes with Him. Her home is in

A cakr-alk is an elaborate ornament that encircles the entire ear and fastens at the

Yvaagrma, Her mothers name is Krtid, and Her fathers Vabhnu. Her husbands name is Abhimanyu, Durmukha is Her brother-in-law, Jail is Her mother-inlaw, and Kuil is Her sister-in-law. Just as r Ka always exists as the nyaka (heroic
lover), r Rdhik is forever the principal nyik (heroine).
(u. n. 4.50-54)---tasy vndvanevary
sakhya paca-vidh mat
sakhya ca nitya-sakhya ca
pra-sakhya ca kcana
priya-sakhya ca paramapreha-sakhya ca virut
sakhya kusumik-vindhydhanihdy prakrtit
nitya-sakhya ca kastrmai-majarikdaya
pra-sakhya aimukhvsant-lsikdaya
gat vndvanevary
pryeem svarpatm
priya-sakhya kuragk
sumadhy madanlas
kamal mdhur majuke kandarpa-sundar
mdhav mlat kmalat aikaldaya
parama-preha-sakhyas tu
lalit sa-vikhik
sa-citr campakalat
ragadev sudev cety
aau sarva-gagrim
(u. n. 3.61)---ythdhiptve py aucitya


dadhn lalitdaya
lobht sakhya-ruci dadhu
r Rdhs sakhs are of five types: sakh, nitya-sakh, pra-sakh, priya-sakh, and
parama-preha-sakh. Kusumik, Vindhy, Dhanih and others are known as sakhs.
Kast rik, Mai Majar, etc., are known as nitya-sakhs. aimukh, Vsant, Lsik,
etc., are known as pra-sakhs. These gops usually have forms (or natures) similar to
r Rdh.
Kuragk, Sumadhy, Madanlas, Kamal, Mdhur, Majuke, Kandarpasundar, Mdhav, Mlat, Kmalat and aikal, etc., are priya-sakhs.
Lalit, Vikh, Citr, Campakalat, Tugavidy, Indulekh, Ragadev and
Sudev are the parama-preha-sakhs. These eight gops are chief amongst them all.
They are worthy of being yhevars (group leaders) themselves, but because they love
Rdh so much, they would rather be Her sakhs.
madyat-bhva-lakaa yath---gra-rasa-sarvasva
ka priyatamo mama
iti ya prauha-nirbandho
bhva sa syn madyat
The characteristic of madyat is such: r Ka, whose mood is very romantic, is
my all-in-all. This unwavering bhva is called madyat.
udharaa yath
muralvn mama jvanevara
kva gato tra vihya mm ito
vada nryaa sarva-vittama
An example is such: r Rdhik says, O Nryaa, Knower of Everything! r
Ka, who wears an array of peacock feathers in His hair, plays a flute, and has a
very beautiful lotus face, is the Lord of my life. He has now disappeared from this
place. Please tell me where He has gone!


bhuja-catuaya kvpi
narma darayann api
dvi-bhuja kriyate hari
One day, just for fun, r Ka displayed His four-armed form before r Rdh,
but Her pure love forced Him to resume His two-armed form.
yath (u. n. 5.7)---rsrambha-vidhau nilya vasat kuje mgk-gaair
da gopayitu samuddhura-dhiy y suhu sadarit
rdhy praayasya hanta mahim yasya riy rakitu
s aky prabhaviunpi hari nsc catur-bhut
One day, in the Spring season, r Ka was performing rsa-ll with the doeeyed gops near Govardhana Hill. Wanting to begin a different pastime, He entered
the forest and hid from them in a kuja. Suddenly, as He was watching for them, He
discovered that the gops had surrounded Him on all sides and He had no way of escape.
Being very clever, He decided to trick them by displaying His four-armed form.
He did this and then remained motionless. Seeing that the object of their love had
transformed into a nryaa-mrti, the gops offered obeisance and prayed that they
may see Ka again.
Then, because of the wonderful power of Rdhs love, He revealed His two-armed
form to Her alone. In the presence of Her love, He was unable to retain His four-armed
madhu-sneha-lakaa yath (u. n. sthyibhva-prakarae 14.93-94)---madyattiaya-bhk
priye sneho bhaven madhu
svaya prakaa-mdhuryo
mattatoma-dhara sneho
madhu-smyn madhcyate


The characteristics of madhu-sneha are now described: That type of affection

wherein the lover says of the beloved, He is mine is called madhu-sneha. This bhva
has no comparison in sweetness. It is the meeting place of various rasas, and is characterized by a passionate drunkenness and pride. Madhu (honey) is by nature very sweet
and is mixed with the nectars of various flowers; when swallowed, it produces both
heat and drunkenness. Thus, this type of sneha (affection) is known as madhu-sneha.
udharaa yath (u. n. 14.95)---rdh snehamayena hanta racit mdhurya-srea s
saudhva pratim ghanpy uru-guair bhvoma vidrut
yan-nmany api dhmani ravaayor yti prasagena me
sndrnandamay bhavaty anupam sadyo jagad-vismti
r Ka said to Subala, Alas, r Rdh is so full of the sweetest affection that She
is like a mrti made of nectar. Possessing very deep transcendental qualities, She has
melted like butter in the fire of eagerness for Me. If I simply hear Her name, I swoon
with rapture and forget everything.
mjiha-rga-lakaa yath (u. n. 14.139)---ahryo nanya-speko
ya knty varddhate sad
bhaven mjiha-rgo sau
rdh-mdhavayor yath
The type of rga (attachment) that is never destroyed (like the blue safflower never
withers) and is completely independent is mjiha-rga. This is the rga shared by
Rdh and Ka.

udharaa yath (u. n. 14.141)---dhatte drg anupdhi janma vidhin kenpi nkampate
ste ty hita-sacayair api rasa te cen mitho vartmane


ddhi sacinute camatkti-karoddma-pramodottar

rdh-mdhavayor aya nirupama premnubandhotsava
r Paurams said to r Nndmukh: The love between Rdh and Mdhava
is a festival of endless and unwavering bliss. Its equal does not exist in either the spiritual or material worlds. It appears instantly and is never disturbed by anything. Due to
so much grief from fear of Their elders, They have had to devise various clever
means for meeting together, and a very special flavor of ever-increasing rasa has
samarth-rater lakaa yath (u. n. 14.52)---kacid-viea-mynty
sambhogecch yaybhita
raty tdtmyam pann
s samartheti bhayate
sva-svarpt tadyd v
jt yat kicid anvayt
samarth sarva-vismrigandh sndratam mat
The characteristics of samarth-rati are as follows: Among samarth-rati, samajasrati and sdhra-rati, samarth-rati has an indescribable quality----namely, the ability to
bring r Ka completely under its control. This rati and the desire for union with
Ka are inseparable. From the faintest aroma of this rati, the gops who have attained
it (as a result of their own natures or from hearing about Ka) completely forget their
shyness and family traditions. This mood is so intense that no other bhva has a
chance to enter their minds.
udharaa yath (u. n. 14.54, 55, 57)---prekyee jagati madhur sv vadh akay te
tasy prve gurubhir abhitas tvat-prasago nyavri
rutv dre tad api bhavata s tul-koi-nda
h kety aruta-caram api vyharanty unmadst


An example of samarth-rati is such: r Vnd told r Ka about a certain young

newlywed girl in Vraja who, upon hearing the jingling of Kas ankle bells for the
first time, became completely maddened with love. Vnd said, In order to protect
their beautiful newlywed daughters, all the elders in Vraja-maala have prevented
them from hearing any discussion about You. Even so, when that certain newlywed
first heard the sound of Your ankle bells from a distance, She cried H Ka and became mad.
sambhogecch-vieo sy rater jtu na bhidyate
ity asy ka-saukhyrtham eva kevalam udyama
There is never any perceivable difference between samarth-rati and the desire for
union. It is astonishingly profound and wonderful in its ability to subdue Ka by its
waves of deep pleasure. A gop having this rati totally dedicates her mind, body and
words to Kas happiness. She hasnt even the slightest tinge of desire for her own
iyam eva rati prauh
mahbhva-da vrajet
y mgy syd vimuktn
bhaktn ca varyasm
When samarth-rati has fully matured, it enters the state of mah-bhva. For this reason, the chiefs among the muktas and bhaktas are constantly striving for it (but rarely
attain it).
yath r-daame (10.47.58)---et para tanu-bhto bhuvi gopa-vadhvo
govinda eva nikhiltmani rha-bhv
vchanti yad bhava-bhiyo munayo vaya ca
ki brahma-janmabhir ananta-kathrasasya
When r Uddhava Mahaya first witnessed the mah-bhva of the gops, he


loudly proclaimed, Among all births one could take on this earth, that of a vraja-gop
is the most fruitful. Why? Because these young girls have obtained mah-bhva for the
Soul of the Universe, r Govinda! Those desiring liberation because of fear of this material world, the munis who are already liberated, as well as we bhaktas are always trying to attain this loving mood, but none of us are able. Alas, without having an attachment for the nectar of ka-kath, what is the use of occupying even the post of
Lord Brahm?
r-rdh-mantroddhro yath gaur-tantre---r-nda-bindu-sayukt
tathgnir mukha-vtta-yuk
caturth vahni-jynt
rdhikkaro manu
In the Gaur-tantra a description of the r-rdh-mantra is given: r is joined with
anusvara (r); then the letter a is joined with anusvara and the letter ra (r). Rdhik
in the dative case (rdhikyai) follows, and then it ends with svh. This is the eightsyllable r-rdh-mantra.
The r-rdh-mantra is:
r r rdhikyai svh
The r-rdh-gyatr is:
r-rdhikyai vidmahe, prema-rpyai dhmahi, tan no rdh pracodayt
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---smer r-kukumbh sphurad-arua-paa-prnta-klptvaguh
ramy veena ve-kta-cikura-ikhlambi-padm kiorm
tarjjany-aguha-yukty hari-mukha-kamale yujat ngavallpara karyatk tri-jagati madhur rdhikm arcaymi
The r-rdh-dhyna is described in the Gaur-tantra as follows: I worship r
Rdhik, whose lotus mouth is slightly smiling, and who has a beautiful saffron-col-


ored complexion. She is attractively clothed in a crimson dress, the border of which
serves as Her veil. From Her plaited hair a lotus flower dangles, and with Her thumb
and forefinger She offers tmbula to the lotus mouth of r Ka. She has lovely elongated ears and eyes, and is the sweetest person in all the three worlds.
tapta-hema-prabh nlakuntala-baddha-mallikm
arac-candra-mukh ntyacakor-cacalekam
ka-prva-sthit nitya
kiorm raye vane
In another stra, a different type of r-rdh-dhyna is described: I take shelter of
that youthful kior-gop r Rdhik in the forest of Vndvana. She has a beautiful
bodily color like molten gold, and in Her bluish-black hair a chaplet of mallik flowers
(jasmine) is tied. Her face is like the autumn moon, and Her restless eyes are like
dancing cakor birds. Her lips are beautifully red like the bimba fruit, and from them a
sweet smile shines like moonlight. She is the giver of life to the whole world. A string
of pearls rests on Her lovely breasts, and around the lower part of Her body She wears
a blue dress, with a kiki-ml adorning Her hips. On Her lotus feet She wears jewelled ankle bells. She is very graceful and all parts of Her body are extremely beautiful. She is the very form of love of Ka and is always alongside Him, completely
drowned in nanda-rasa.


saur raktmbar ramy
sunetr susmitnanm
ym ymkhilbh
rdhikm raye vane
Elsewhere that dhyna is as follows: I take shelter of r Rdhik, the daughter of r
Vabhnu, in the delightful forest of Vndvana. She wears a beautiful crimson
dress, has lovely eyes, a smiling face, and a dazzlingly bright cream-colored complexion. The whole world adores Her beautiful features.
vin rdh-prasdena
ka-prptir na jyate
tata r-rdhik-kau
smarayau susayutau
Without pleasing r Rdh, it is impossible to obtain r Ka. Therefore, we
should always remember Rdh and Ka together.
yath bhaviyottare---prema-bhaktau yadi raddh
mat-prasda yadcchasi
tad nrada bhvena
rdhyrdhako bhava
In the Bhaviyottara-pura, r Ka says, O Nrada, if you have strong faith in
prema-bhakti and you truly want to satisfy Me and obtain My mercy, then you please
become a loving devotee of r Rdh.
tath ca nradye---satya satya puna satya
satyam eva puna puna
vin rdh-prasdena


mat-prasdo na vidyate
Similarly, in the Nradya-pura, r Ka says, O Nrada, I solemnly declare to
you again and again and again that without the mercy of r Rdh, My mercy does
not arise.
r-rdhiky kruyt
tat-sakh-sagatim iyt
tat-sakhn ca kpay
yoid-agam avpnuyt
By the mercy of r Rdhik, the sdhaka gets the association of Rdhiks sakhgaa. By the mercy of that sakh-gaa, one obtains birth as a young girl in Vraja.

Descriptions of the Aa-sakhs

r Lalit Sakh
anaga-sukhadkhyo sti
kujas tasyottare dale
vijeyo ya taid-varo
lalitnandado nityam
uttare kuja-rjaka
gorocanbh lalit
tatra tihati nityaa
mayra-picha-sadavasan ka-vallabh
khait-bhvam pann
rati-yukt harau sad
sapta-viaty-aho yukta-msa-manu-hyan (14-8-27)

asy vaya-prama yat

pit mt viokaka
rad ca patir yasy
bhairavkhyo mato budhai
prpt gaura-rase tv iyam
iya tu vma-prakhar
gham asys tu yvae
Next, the particular characteristics of the aa-sakhs are given, beginning with r
Lalit Sakh. On the northern petal of Anaga-sukhada Kuja, there is a beautiful kuja
covered with various kinds of flowers and trees. This place is known as Lalitnandada
Kuja and is the color of lightning. The lovely Lalit Sakh always lives here. She has
a beautiful bright yellow (gorocan) complexion and wears a dress the color of peacock
feathers. She is adorned with celestial ornaments and personifies the type of bhva
known as khait. She and r Ka are very, very dear to each other and her sev is
to bring camphor and tmbla to Him. Her age is 14 years, 8 months and 27 days. In
the opinion of the paitas, her fathers name is Viokaka, her mothers rad, and
her husbands Bhairava Gopa. Her home is in Yvaa and her nature is vma-prakhar.
In gaura-ll, she has assumed the form of r Svarpa Dmodara Gosvm.
khait-lakaa yath (u. n. 5.85-86)---ullaghya samaya yasy
preyn anyopabhogavn
bhoga-lakmkita prtar
gacchet s hi khait
e tu roa-nivsat-bhvdi-bhg bhavet
The characteristics of khait-bhva are: When the time for the pre-arranged meeting has passed, and the nyaka arrives in the morning bearing the love marks from
another girl, the nyiks condition at that time is called khait. Her behavior is
marked by anger, long and deep breathing, refusing to speak, etc.
yvair dhmalita iro bhuja-ta taka-mudrkit


sakrnta-stana-kukumojjvala-muro ml parimlpitm
ghr-kumalite dau vraja-pater dv prage ymal
citte rudra-gua mukhe tu sumukh bheje munn vratam
For example, one morning, after spending the night with a certain vraja-dev, r
Ka was seen by ymal in the following condition: His head was a purplish color
from the crimson lac on the gops feet. The impressions of her earrings marked His
shoulders. The bright kukuma from her breasts covered His chest, His garland was
crushed, and His half-closed eyes were rolling. Seeing Ka in this way, ymal
became very angry in her mind, though externally she maintained a pleasant face
and said nothing.
vma-prakhar-lakaa yath (u. n. 6.2-5)---saubhgyder ihdhikyd
adhik smyata sam
laghutvl laghur ity ukts
tridh gokula-subhruva
The characteristics of vma-prakhar are now described. The good fortune of the
gops (such as prema, beauty, sweetness, wit, etc.) is divided into three categories----adhik (abundant), sam (moderate) and laghu (slight).
pratyeka prakhar madhy
mdv ceti punas tridh
pragalbha-vky prakhar
khyt durlaghya-bhit
tad natve bhaven mdv
madhy tat-smyam gat
tatra laghu-prakhar (u. n. 8.31)---s laghu-prakhar dvedh
bhaved vmtha daki
Moreover, each of these categories is again divided into prakhar (acute), madhy
(moderate) and mdv (mild). She whose speech is very bold and sometimes impudent, and whose statements no one can refute, is called prakhar. One possessing this


intensity in a lesser degree is called madhy, and in the least degree, mdv. Laghuprakhar is also of two kinds, namely vm (left-wing, or contrary) and daki (rightwing, or compliant).
tatra vm (u. n. 8.32)---mna-grahe sadodyukt
tac chaithilye ca kopan
abhedy nyake prya
krr vmeti krtyate
(u. n. 8.37)---ythe tra vma-prakhar
lalitdy prakrtit
vma-prakharodharaa yath (u. n. 8.36)---amr vraja-mgeka catur-ati-lakdhik
pratisvam iti krtita savayas tavaivmun
ihpi bhuvi virut priya-sakh mahrghyety asau
katha tad api shas aha! jighkur enm asi
Now the characteristics of vm: The nyik who always maintains her pride and
becomes angry when her nyaka neglects her is called vm. Her resolve cant be broken by the nyaka and, at times like this, she is very hard on him. In this ytha
(group), Lalit and others are celebrated as being vma-prakhar. An example is such:
One day, bringing fresh ghee for a yaja, r Rdh and Her sakhs went to the place
called Dna-gha, where r Ka pretended to be a tax collector. As r Rdh was
talking with Lalit-sakh, Ka began touching Her. Then Lalit proudly stepped up
and stopped Him, saying, Each of these beautiful vraja-gops is worth more than 84
lakhs, Your dear friend Madhumagala has said. Among all of them my priya-sakh
is the most precious and hard to get. O Crooked One! In spite of that, why do You still
try to grab Her, huh?
asy ytho yath (r-ka-gaoddea-dpik 1.242)---ratnarekh (-prabh) ratikal
subhadr candra (bhadra-) rekhik
sumukh ca dhanih ca


kalahas kalpin
The chief sakhs in Lalits group are Ratnarekh (or Ratnaprabh), Ratikal,
Subhadr, Candrarekhik (or Bhadrarekhik), Sumukh, Dhanih, Kalahas and
asy mantroddhro yath sammohana-tantre---lakm ll ca lalit
e tato vahni-nyik
eo ro mah-mantro
lalitys tu rga-da
mantro yath----r l lalityai svh
There is a quotation from the Sammohana-tantra about the r-lalit-mantra: Lakm-bja
and ll-bja, lalit in the dative case, and svh comprise the 8-syllable r-lalit-mantra.
This mah-mantra bestows rga for r Kas lotus feet.
The mantra is thus: r l lalityai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---gorocan-dyuti-viambi-tan suve
mayra-picha-vasan ubha-bhahym
tmbla-sevana-rat vraja-rja-sno
r-rdhik-priya-sakh lalit smarmi
r Lalits dhyna is: I meditate upon the lovely r Lalit, whose beautiful bright
yellow (gorocan) complexion rebukes the luster of a precious jewel. She has long
beautiful plaited hair and wears a dress the color of peacock feathers. She serves r
Ka by offering tmbla to Him, and she is a very dear friend of r Rdh.


r Vikh Sakh
na-dala nandanmaka kujam asti hi
megha-vara r-vikh
yatrste ka-vallabh
pann hi harau sad
gaurg trakmbar
pakhar-yug-yugma-msasayukta-manu-hyan (14-2-15)
asy vaya pit mt
pvano daki kramt
patir yasy bhukkhyo
py asau gaura-rase puna
vikhytbht kalau yuge
iya tv adhika-madhy hi
gham asys tu yvae
Next, r Vikh is described: On the northeast petal of Anaga Sukhada Kuja
lies nanda Kuja, which is cloudlike in color, and is the residence of r Vikh.
She is very dear to r Ka and has the bhva known as svdhna-bhartk. Her sev is
dressing and decorating. Her dress resembles the stars in the evening sky, and her
complexion is cream-colored with a tinge of red (gaurg). Her age is 14 years, 2
months and 15 days. Her fathers name is Pvana, her mothers Daki and her husbands Bhuka. She is adhika-madhy, and her home is in Yvaa. She appears in gaurall as r Rmnanda Rya.

svdhna-bhartk-lakaam (u. n. 5.91)----


bhavet svdhna-bhartk
Svdhna-bhartk----The nyik who has brought her lover under her control and
keeps him always close by is known as svdhna-bhartk. Her activities are sporting in
the water, dallying in the forest, picking flowers, etc.
udharaa yath (u. n. 5.92)---mud kurvan patrkuram anupama pna-kucayo
ruti-dvandve gandhhta-madhupam indvara-yugmam
sakhela dhammillopari ca kamala komalam asau
nirvdh rdh ramayati cira kei-damana
An example from Ujjvala-nlamai: On r Rdhs beautiful plump breasts, Keidamana joyfully painted tiny decorative pictures with sandalwood paste. On Her ears
He placed two blue lotuses that were so fragrant they attracted a group of black bumblebees. Upon Her dhammilla,8 He playfully placed another soft lotus flower. In this
way, Ka freely dallied with Rdh for a long time.
(u. n. 8.19)---atra ythe vikhdy
bhavanty adhika-madhyam
In the party of r Rdh, r Vikh and others are known as adhika-madhy.

adhika-madhyodharaa yath (u. n. 8.17)---dmrpyat priya-sakh-prahit tvayaiva

A dhammilla is the braided and ornamented hair of a woman, tied over her head and
intermixed with flowers, pearls, etc.

dmodare kusumam atra mayvaceyam

nha bhramc caturike sakhi scany
ka kadarthayati mm adhika yad ea
An example of adhika-madhy: r Vikh says to her friend Caturik, O Sakh!
You please take this ml that Rdh sent and give it to Dmodara. Ill stay here and
pick flowers. I just get confused and cant say anything to Him. If He sees me, He
causes me so much trouble.
asy ytho yath (ka-gaoddea-dpik 1.243)---mlat mdhav candrarekh cpi ubhnan
kujar hari caiva
surabhi capalpi ca
In r Vikhs ytha the chief sakhs are Mlat, Mdhav, Candrarekh, ubhnan, Kujar, Hari, Surabhi and Capal.
asy mantroddhro yath bhad-gautamye---vg-bhava sau tato e nt
vikh vahni-jyik
akaro vikhy
mantro ya prema-vddhi-da
r Vikhs mantra is described in the Bhad-gautamya-tantra as such: Sarasvat-bja,
sau, vikh in the dative case and svh comprise the eight-syllable r-vikh-mantra,
which increases the prema of the chanter.
The mantra is thus: ai sau vikhyai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---sac-campakvali-viambi-tanu sul


trmbar vividha-bhaa-obhamnm
r-nandanandana-puro vasandi-bhdne rat sukutuk ca bhaje vikhm
r Vikhs dhyna is also described in the same book: I eagerly worship r
Vikh, whose bodily luster is more beautiful than a bouquet of campaka flowers. Her
charming dress is like a cluster of stars, and she is very gentle and good-natured. She
is very beautiful and nicely decorated, and her sev is to offer cloth and ornaments to
r Nandanandana.

r Citr Sakh
citra prva-dale kuja
r-citr svmin tatra
vartate ka-vallabh
abhisriktvam pann
harau rati-samanvit
kca-tulymbar csau
sad citra-gunvit
asy caiva vayomna
i-msdhika akrahyana ceti virutam (14-7-14)
caturo sy pit prokto
janany asy ca carccik
pati pharaka csy
asau gaura-rase puna
govindnandat prpt
iya tv adhika-mdv ca
gham asys tu yvae


Next, a description of r Citr Sakh is given: On the eastern petal of Madana

Sukhada Kuja lies the multicolored Padma Kijalka Kuja, where r Citr resides.
She and r Ka are very affectionate toward each other, and she is very devoted to
her sev of bringing cloves and garlands. She possesses the abhisrik-nyik-bhva, has
a beautiful saffron complexion, wears a dress that resembles crystal, and has many
wonderful qualities. Her age is 14 years, 7 months and 14 days. Her fathers name is
Catura, her mothers Carccik, and her husbands Pharaka. She is an adhika-mdvnyik, and her home is in Yvaa. In gaura-ll she appears as r Govindnanda.
abhisrik-lakaa yath (u. n. 5.71-72)---ybhisrayate knta
svaya vbhisaraty api
s jyotsn tmas ynayogya-vebhisrik
lajjay svga-lneva
ktvaguh snigdhaikasakh-yukt priya vrajet
The characteristics of the abhisrik are: The nyik who causes her lover to make a
journey to meet her, or who makes such a journey herself to meet him, is called abhisrik. Abhisriks are of two kinds: (1) the jyotsn-abhisrik, who, during the fortnight
of the bright moon travels to meet her lover wearing a white dress and suitable ornaments, and (2) the tmas-abhisrik, who meets her lover during the fortnight of the
dark moon wearing a dark blue dress and matching ornaments. When this nyik
comes near to her nyaka she becomes very shy. Out of modesty she covers her entire
body and silences her waist-bells and ankle-bells. Wearing her veil, she makes the
abhisra (lovers journey) accompanied by only one of her affectionate sakhs.
udharaa yath tatra (1) jyotsny-abhisriky (u. n. 5.74)---indus tundila-maala praayate vndvane candrik
sndr sundari nandano vraja-pates tvad vthim udvkate
tva candrcita-candanena khacit kaumea clakt
ki vartmany aravinda-cru-caraa-dvandva na sandhitsasi


An example of a jyotsn-abhisrik is as follows: r Vnd said to r Rdhik, O

Sundari! Today the moon is full, and as the bright moonlight fills the sky, Vrajendranandana waits in the Vndvana forest, watching for You to come on the path. So, being anointed with sandalwood paste mixed with camphor, and wearing a beautiful
white dress, why not move those two captivating lotus feet of Yours on that path?
(2) tmasy-abhisriky (u. n. 5.75)---timira-masibhi savtgya kadamba-vanntare
sakhi baka-ripu puytmna saranty abhisrik
tava tu parito vidyud-vars tanu-dyuti-scayo
hari hari ghana-dhvntnyet svavairii bhindate
An example of a tmas-abhisrik is: r Vnd said to abhisri r Rdh, O
Sakh! All the pious gops have covered their limbs with dark kajjala and are on their
way to a forest of kadamba flowers to meet with the enemy of Baka. Your lightninglike effulgence, however, pierces the darkness in all directions, and thus You are Your
own enemy.
(u. n. 8.21)---adhik mdava ctra
citr madhurikdaya
In r Rdhs ytha, Citr, Madhurik and others are adhika-mdv.
adhika-mdvy udharaa yath (u. n. 8.20)---darpi na dg-arpit sakhi ikhaa-ce may
prasda bata m kth mayi vth purobhgitm
naan-makara-kuala sapadi cai ll-gati
tanoty ayam adrata kim iha savidheya may
An example of adhika-mdv: r Citr said to her priya-sakh, O Sakh! Youll be
pleased to know that I dont even cast a slight glance at Ka. Theres no need to be
jealous of me. But O Cai! When He approaches me to increase His ll, with His


dolphin-shaped earrings dancing, what am I supposed to do?

asy ytho yath (r-ka-gaoddea-dpik 1.245)---raslik tilakin
aurasen sugandhik
vman vmanayan
ngar ngavallik
The chief gops in r Citrs ytha are Raslik, Tilakin, aurasen, Sugandhik,
Vman, Vmanayan, Ngar and Ngavallik.
asy mantroddhro yath sknde---lakm citr caturthyant
vahni-jy aakara
mantro ya citrik-nmny
ka-sakhy udrita
mantro yath----r citryai svh
A description of the r-citr-mantra is given in the Skanda Pura: Lakm-bja, citr in
the dative case and svh form the six-syllable mantra of Kas dear sakh named
The mantra is thus: r citryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---kmra-var sahit vicitraguai smit-obhi-mukh ca citrm
kcmbar ka-puro lavagaml-pradne nitar smarmi
r Citrs dhyna is also described in the Skanda Pura: I always remember r


Citr, who has many wonderful qualities. She has a saffron complexion and a beautiful smiling face. She wears a crystal-colored dress, and serves r Ka by bringing
cloves and garlands for Him.

r Indulekh Sakh
gneya-patre prendukuja-svarbha-varake
r-indulekh vasaty atra
dimba-kusumodbhsivasan ka-vallabh
pann rati-yug-gharau
ysau nandtmajasya vai
vayomna bhavet tasy
sarva-streu sammatam
srdha-dig-vsarair yukt
dvi-msa-manu-hyan (14-2-10 1/2)
asau tu vma-prakhar
hare cmara-sevin
gham asys tu yvae
pit sgara-sajaka
asy mt bhaved vel
patir asys tu durbala
khyt gaura-rase hy asau
Then, r Indulekh is described: On the southeastern petal of Madana-sukhada
Kuja lies the golden-colored P rendu Kuja, where r Indulekh lives. She has a
lemon-yellow complexion and wears a dress that is radiant like a pomegranate flower.
She has a deep love for r Ka and possesses the proita-bhartk-bhva. She often
serves Ka by bringing Him nectar-like delicious meals. Her age is 14 years, 2


months and 10 1/2 days. She is vma-prakhar and her principal sev is fanning with a
cmara. Her home is in Yvaa, her fathers name is Sgara, her mothers Vel and her
husbands Durbala. In gaura-ll she appears as Vasu Rmnanda.
proita-bhartk-lakaa yath (u. n. 5.89)---dra-dea gate knte
bhavet proita-bhartk
priya-sakrtana dainyam
asys tnava-jgarau
mlinyam anavasthna
jya-cintdayo mat
The characteristics of proita-bhartk are now described: That nyik whose lover
has gone to a distant place is called proita-bhartk. Her behavior is marked by praising
of her beloved, humility, weakness and thinness, sleeplessness, melancholia, instability, stupor, anxiety, etc.
udharaa yath (u. n. 5.90)---vils svacchanda vasati mathury madhu-ripur
vasanta santpa prathayati samantd anupadam
dureya vairiy ahaha mad-abhodyama-vidhau
vidhatte pratyha kim iha bhavit hanta araam
An example: When r Ka went to Mathur, r Rdh, with a sad heart and
missing Him deeply, spoke these words: While the amorous enemy of Madhu resides happily in Mathur, the springtime in every way only increases my suffering!
My longing for immediate death is impeded only by a hope against hope!! Alas, in
this dilemma, whose shelter shall I receive?

vma-prakhar-lakaodharae tkte; asy ytho yath r-ka-gaoddea-dpikym
(1.247)---tugabhadr citralekh


surag ragavik
magal suvicitrg
modin madanpi ca
The characteristics and an example of vma-prakhar were given previously. In r
Indulekhs ytha the chief gops are Tugabhadr, Citralekh, Surag, Ragavik,
Magal, Suvicitrg, Modin and Madan.
asy mantroddhro yath na-sahitym---vg-bhava cendulekh ca
caturth vahni-jyik
mantra syc cendulekhy
ara samudrita
mantro yath----aim indulekhyai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---haritla-samna-deha-knti
amta dadat mukunda-vaktre
bhaja lm aham indulekhikkhym
Her mantra is described in the na-sahit: Sarasvat-bja, indulekh in the dative
case and svh comprise the eight-syllable mantra.
The mantra is thus: aim indulekhyai svh
r Indulekhs dhyna is also described in that book: I worship r Indulekh
Sakh, whose complexion resembles the color of yellow orpiment. Her dress is the hue
of a blooming pomegranate flower, she is very beautiful, and she offers nectar to the
mouth of r Ka.

r Campakalat Sakh
dakie smin dale kma-


lat-nmsti kujakam
atyanta-sukhada taptajmbnada-sama-prabham
r-campakalat tihaty
amumin ka-vallabh
asau vsaka-sajjtvam
pann rati-yug-gharau
vma-madhy campakbh
tat-sev ratna-mly
dna cmara-clanam
manu-sakhy-hyan ca
vayomna bhavet puna (14-2-13 1/2)
mtsy vik khyt
pit crma-sajaka
asy ca bhart cakhyas
tath gaura-rase hy asau
ivnandatay khytim
gat hi kalau yuge
Then r Campakalat is described: On the southern petal of Madana-sukhada
Kuja lies Kmalat Kuja, the home of r Kas beloved r Campakalat. This extremely blissful kuja is the color of molten gold. Campakalat, who loves Ka very
much, personifies the stage of a nyik known as vsaka-sajj. Her complexion is the
color of a yellow campaka flower and her dress the color of a ctaka bird (swallow). Her
nature is vma-madhy, and her sev is to offer jewelled necklaces and to fan with a
cmara. Her age is 14 years, 2 months and 13 1/2 days. Her mothers name is Vik,
her fathers rma, and her husbands Caa. In gaura-ll she appears as r
vsaka-sajj-lakaa yath (u. n. 5.76-77)---svavsaka-vat knte


sameyati nija vapu

sajj-karoti geha ca
y s vsaka-sajjik
cesy smara-sakrsakalpa-vartma-vkaam
sakh-vinoda-vrtt ca
muhur dti-kadaya
udharaa yath (u. n. 5.78)---rati-kr-kuja kusuma-ayanyojjvala-ruci
vapu slakra nijam api vilokya smita-mukh
muhur dhyya dhyya kim api hari sagama-vidhi
samddhyanti rdh madana-mada-mdyan matir abht
The characteristics of vsaka-sajj are now described. That nyik who, expecting
her lover to come at his leisure, has nicely decorated her body and her residence is
known as a vsaka-sajj. Her behavior is like this: She has a strong desire for amorous
pleasure; she watches the pathway for her beloved; she looks repeatedly for a messenger to come while she talks with her sakhs, etc. An example: A certain sakh of
Rdhiks said to another sakh, Look Sakh! Seeing that Her house in the kuja, with
its flower-petal bed, was so ideal for rati-kr (lovemaking), and that Her own radiant
body was so nicely decorated, r Rdh began to gently smile. As She repeatedly
remembered a particular indescribable method of lovemaking She had experienced
with Ka, She became overwhelmed with ecstasy and delirious due to amorous desire for Him.
vma-prakhar-lakaodharae tkte; asy ytho yath (ka-gaoddee 1.244)---kuragk suracit
maal maimaan
caik candralatik
kandukk sumandir
The characteristics and an example of vma-prakhar were given before. The chief
gops in Campakalats ytha are Kuragk, Suracit, Maal, Maimaan,
Caik, Candralatik, Kandukk and Sumandir.


asy mantroddhro yath grue---dau ca campakalat
e nt vaivnara-priy
mantro ya campakalatpremado vasu-varaka
mantro yath----campakalatyai svh
r Campakalats mantra is described in the Garua Pura as follows: first, campakalat in the dative case, followed by svh. This 8-syllable mantra bestows the gift of
love for the lotus feet of r Campakalat.
The mantra is thus: campakalatyai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---campakvali-samna-kntik
ctakbha-vasan subham
cru-campakalat sad bhaje
r Campakalats dhyna is also described in the Garua Pura: I always worship
r Campakalat Sakh, whose bodily complexion is just like a cluster of campaka flowers (yellow magnolias). Her dress is the color of a ctaka bird, and she is decorated
with beautiful ornaments. She lovingly serves r Ka by offering jewelled necklaces and by fanning with a cmara.

r Ragadev Sakh
rakodale yma-vare
kuje r-ragadevik
sukhadkhye nivasati
nitya r-hari-vallabh
Then, the particulars of r Ragadev are given: On the southwest petal of


Madana-sukhada Kuja lies the dark blue, cloudlike Sukhada Kuja, where r
Kas beloved r Ragadev always resides.
r-ke rati-bhk sad
asau candana-sevhy
vma-madhy bhavet puna
gham asy yvae tu
vayomna bhavet puna
srdha-veda-dinair yukta
dvi-msa manu-hyanam (14-2-4 1/2)
mt r-karu prokt
pit r-ragasgara
patir vakrekaa prokto
hy asau gaura-rase puna
pann hi kalau yuge
Her complexion is the color of a lotus stamen, and her dress is red like a jab
flower. She possesses the utkahit-bhva, and in every way she is very attached to r
Ka. Her sev is offering candana, and her nature is vma-madhy. Her home is in
Yvaa, and her age is 14 years, 2 months and 4 1/2 days. Her mothers name is
Karu, her fathers Ragasgara and her husbands Vakrekaa. In Kali-yuga she
appears in gaura-ll as Govindnanda Ghoa.
utkahit-lakaa yath (u. n. 5.79-80)---angasi priyatame
cirayaty utsuk tu y
virahotkahit bhvavedibhi s samrit


asys tu ce ht-tpo
vepathur hetu-tarkaam
aratir vpa-moka ca
udharaa yath (u. n. 5.81)---sakhi kim abhavad baddho rdh-kaka-guair aya
samaram athav ki prrabdha surribhir uddhurai
ahaha bahulamy prc-mukhe py udite vidhau
vidhu-mukhi! na yan m sasmra vrajevara-nandana
The characteristics of utkahit-bhva are now described: When the nyik has
waited for a long time, but her lover has still not arrived, she begins to feel anxious.
This bhva has been named virahotkahit by the scholars. The behavior of one with
this mood is marked by a burning heart, trembling, anxiety that he may not come,
sorrow, weeping, talking about her lamentable condition, etc. Here is an example: r
Candrval said to r aiby, O Sakh! Has Ka become ensnared by the ropes of
Rdhs sidelong glance today? Or has He begun battle with a fierce army of demons?
Alas, the moon has risen and half the night has passed. O Vidhu-mukhi! 9 Still He
doesnt remember me! What could be the reason?
vma-madhy-lakaodharae tkte; asy ytho yath (r-ka-gaoddee 1.248)---kalakah aikal
kamal prema-majar
mdhav madhur kmalat kandarpa-sundar
asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---lakmr agni-ragadev
e nt vahni-priy tata
ragadevys tu mantro yam
aro rga-bhakti-da
mantro yath----r r ragadevyai svh


asy dhyna ca tatraiva---rjva-kijalka-samna-var

rkhaa-sev-sahit vrajendrasnor bhaje rsa-ga-ragadevm
The characteristics and an example of vma-madhy were given previously. The
chief gops in r Ragadevs ytha are Kalakah, aikal, Kamal, Prema Majar,
Mdhav, Madhur, Kmalat and Kandarpa-sundar. An explanation of her mantra is
given in the Kior-tantra as follows: Lakm-bja and agni-bja, ragadev in the dative case
and svh comprise the r-ragadev-mantra. This 8-syllable mantra bestows the gift of
The mantra is thus: r r ragadevyai svh
Her dhyna is also described in that Kior-tantra: I worship r Ragadev, whose
bodily complexion is the color of a lotus stamen. Her dress is red like a jab flower, her
sev is to offer candana to r Ka, and she loves to dance in the rsa-ll.

r Tugavidy Sakh
kujo sti pacime dale
rua-vara suobhana
tugavidynandado nmneti vikhytim gata
nitya tihati tatraiva
tugavidy samutsuk
vipralabdhtvam pann
r-ke rati-yuk sad
medhy paukarjt
patir asys tu blia


gham asys tu yvae
dvviati-dinair yukt
dvi-msa-manu-hyan (14-2-22)
asy vaya-prama syd
asau gaura-rase puna
vakrevara iti khytim
pann hi kalau yuge
Next, r Tugavidy Sakh is described. On the western petal of Madana-sukhada
Kuja lies the extremely beautiful crimson-colored Tugavidynandada Kuja,
where r Tugavidy Sakh always resides. She loves r Ka very much and,
filled with eagerness for that prema, she exhibits the bhva known as vipralabdhtva.
Her complexion is radiant like saffron mixed with camphor and sandalwood paste,
and her dress is pu-maana (pale yellow). Her mood is dakia-prakhar. Her mothers name is Medh, her fathers Pukara, and her husbands Blia. She is very devoted to her sev of dancing and singing, etc. Her home is in Yvaa, and her age is 14
years, 2 months and 22 days. In gaura-ll she appears as r Vakrevara Paita.
vipralabdh-lakaa yath (u. n. 5.83-84)---ktv saketam aprpte
daivj jvita-vallabhe
vyathamnntar prokt
vipralabdh manibhi
The characteristics of a vipralabdh-nyik: The sages have said that the nyik who
is very distressed at heart because her lover has not arrived for their secret meeting is
known as a vipralabdh-nyik. Her behavior is marked by despondency, anxiety,
lamentation, weeping, fainting, sighing, etc.
udharaa yath---vindati sma divam indur indir-


nyakena sakhi vachit vayam

kurmahe kim iha dhi sdara
drg iti klamamagn mgeka
An example: A certain vrajadev said to her sakh, O fawn-eyed Sakh! As surely
as the moon has risen, have we not been deceived by the Lord of Lakm? In this situation, what shall I do? You please give me some advice. Saying this, she became depressed.
daki-lakaa yath (u. n. 8.38, 42)---asah mna-nirbandhe
nyake yukta-vdin
smabhis tena bhedy ca
daki parikrtit
The characteristics of a dakia-nyik are now given: That nyik who is intolerant
in protecting her dignity, who speaks in a very reasonable and logical way to her
lover, but who is enchanted and appeased by his sweet words of praise is called a
tugavidydik ctra
dakia-prakhar bhavet
In r Rdhiks group, r Tugavidy and others are dakia-prakhar.
udharaa yath (r-gta-govinde 9.10)---snigdhe yat parusi yat praamati stabdhsi yad rgii
dvea ysi yad unmukhe vimukhat ytsi tasmin priye
tad yukta viparta-krii! tava rkhaa-carc via
tus tapano hima hutavaha kr-mudo ytan
An example occurred when a certain prakhar priya-sakh of r Rdh repri-


manded Her like this: O Sakh! When Ka has shown affection to You, Youve
been very hard on Him. When He offers obeisance to You, You are arrogant. When
He tries to show You His love, You act inimically toward Him. When He is eager to be
with You, You are indifferent to Him. O Difficult One! When You try to argue with
Him, He speaks very reasonably. Now He has truly seen the contrary nature in You.
Because of it You take sandalwood paste to be poison, the moon to be the sun, snow as
fire, and pleasurable pastimes as pain.
asy ytho yath (r-ka-gaoddee 1.246)---majumedh sumadhur
sumadhy madhureka
tanmadhy madhusyand
guac vargad
Some of the s a k h s in Tugavidys ytha are Majumedh, Sumadhur,
Sumadhy, Madhureka, Tan madhy, Madhusyand, Guac and
asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---lakm-prv tugavidy
caturth huta-bhuk-priy
mantro ya tugavidyy
vasu-vara samrita
mantro yath----r tugavidyyai svh
Her mantra is described in the Kior-tantra thus: Lakm-bja, tugavidy in the dative
case, and svh combine as the r-tugavidy-mantra.
The mantra is thus: r tugavidyyai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva----


candryhair api candanai sulalit r-kukumbha-dyuti

sad-ratnnvita-bhacita-tanu ombarollsitm
sad-gtvali-sayut bahu-gu amphasya abdena vai
ntyant purato hare rasavat r-tugavidy bhaje
Her dhyna is also described in that Kior-tantra: I worship the very rasika r
Tugavidy, who is adorned with sandalwood paste mixed with camphor. Her beautiful saffron-colored body is decorated with many fine jewelled ornaments, she delights in wearing a lovely red dress, and she has many wonderful qualities. She
knows many transcendental songs, and she dances before r Hari to the beat of a
ampha drum.

r Sudev Sakh
vyavya-dalake kujam
ste harita-varakam
vasanta-sukhadam atra
sudev vartate sad
pann rati-yug-gharau
asau ca jala-sevhy
vm prakharik mat
veda-vsara-sayuktadvi-msa-manu-hyan (14-2-4)
asy vaya-parima
yvae tu niketanam
mtsy karu prokt
janako ragasgara
bhrtr vakrekaasyeyam
parit kanyas
pt gaura-rase tv asau


Next comes a description of r Sudev Sakh: On the northwest petal of

Madannanda Kuja lies the beautiful emerald-colored Vasanta-sukhada Kuja, the
residence of r Sudev. She is very loving toward r Hari, has a complexion the color
of a lotus stamen, and wears a dress the color of a red jab flower. She possesses the
bhva known as kalahntarit and her sev is to bring water. She is vma-prakhar. Her
age is 14 years, 2 months and 4 days. Her home is in Yvaa, her mother is Karu,
her father Ragasgara, and she is married to the younger brother of Vakrekaa
(Ragadevs husband). In gaura-ll she appeared as r Vsudeva Ghoa.
kalahntarit-lakaa yath (u. n. 5.87)---y sakhn pura pdapatita vallabha ru
nirasya pact tapati
kalahntarit hi s
asy pralpa-santpaglni-nivasitdaya
The characteristics of kalahntarit are as follows: That nyik who, in the presence
of her sakhs, rejects her lover who has fallen at her feet is known as a kalahntarit.
Afterward, she regrets her behavior and experiences delirium, fever caused by grief,
fatigue, long and deep breathing, resignation, etc.
udharaa yath (u. n. 5.88)---sraja kipt dre svayam upaht kei-ripu
priya-vcas tasya ruti-parisarnte pi na kt
namann ea kaun-viluhita-ikha praiki na may
manas teneda me sphuati puapkrpitam iva
An example: r Rdh said, O Sakhs! I have thrown far away those garlands
which Keiripu personally gave me. I dont listen to anything He has to say. Even if
He places His head at my feet, I dont even glance at Him. Alas, because of what Ive
done, my heart is bursting from the intense heat of sorrow, like the substances in
puapka. (Puapka is a method of preparing drugs in which the various substances
are wrapped in leaves, covered with clay, and heated in fire.)


vma-prakhar-lakaodharae tkte; asy ytho yath (r-ka-gaoddee 1.249)---kver crukavar
suke majukeik
hrahir hrakah
hravall manohar
asy mantroddhro yath rudra-ymale---dve vg-bhave ram e nt
sudev dahana-priy
ukta sudevy mantro yam
ara prema-bhakti-da
mantro yath----ai sau r sudevyai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---ambhoja-keara-samna-ruci sul
raktmbar rucira-hsa-virji-vaktrm
r-nandanandana-puro jala-sevanhy
sad-bhavali-yut ca bhaje sudevm
An example and the characteristics of vma-prakhar have already been given. The
principal gops in r Sudevs ytha are Kver, Crukavar, Suke, Majukeik,
Hrahir, Hrakah, Hravall and Manohar.
Her mantra is described in the Rudra-ymala: two different sarasvat-bjas, then
lakm-bja, followed by sudev in the dative case, and ending with svh. This 8-syllable r-sudev-mantra bestows the gift of prema-bhakti.
The mantra is thus: ai sau r sudevyai svh
Her dhyna is also described in the same book: I worship r Sudev Sakh, whose
beautiful body is the color of a lotus stamen. She is very gentle, wears a red dress, and
is adorned with a beautiful bright smile. She is nicely decorated with fine jewelry,
and her sev is to bring water to r Ka.


Descriptions of the Aa-majars

r Rpa Majar
kujo sti rpollskhyo
sad tihati tatraiva
suobh rpa-majar
sundar rpa-majar
srdha-tridaa-varsau (13-6)
vma-madhytvam rit
ragaa-mlik ceti
pravadanti mania
iya lavaga-majary
ekenhn kanyas
kalau gaura-rase rpagosvmitva samgat
Next, a description of r R pa Majar is given: In the northern part of r Lalit
Sakhs kuja lies R pollsa Kuja, where the very beautiful and graceful r R pa
Majar resides. She is the foremost among the gops known as priya-narma-sakhs. Her
complexion is the color of gorocan,10 and she delights in wearing a dress the color of
peacock feathers. Her age is 13 years 6 months. The paitas call her Ragaa-mlik.
In age, she is one day younger than Lavaga Majar. In gaura-ll she appears as rla
Rpa Gosvm.
asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---r-bjena samyukt
e nt vai rpa-majar

A bright yellow pigment secreted from a cows kidney.


ayam akaro rpamajary mantra rita

mantro yath----r rpa-majaryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---gorocan-nindi-nijga-knti
rpkhyak majarik bhaje ham
r R pa Majars mantra is described in the Kior-tantra as such: Lakm-bja, followed by rpa-majar in the dative case, ending with svh. In this way, her 8-syllable
mantra is spoken.
The mantra is thus: r rpa-majaryai svh
Her dhyna is also described in that book: I worship r R pa Majar, whose beautiful bodily complexion discredits the color of gorocan. She wears a dress made of fine
cloth which resembles peacock feathers, and she has attained the service of r
Rdhs lotus feet.

r Rati Majar
ratyambujkhya kujo sti
tatraiva tihati sad
surp rati-majar
daki mdvk khyt
tulasti vadanti ym
asy vayo dvi-mshyahyans tu trayodaa (13-2)
iya r-raghunthkhy
prpt gaura-rase kalau


asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---nda-bindu-yuto vahnir

svhnt majar e nt
mantro yath----r rati-majaryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---trlivso-yugala vasn
tait-samna-svatanu-cchavi ca
r-rdhiky nikae vasant
bhaje surp rati-majar tm
Next, the particulars of r Rati Majar are given: In the southern part of r
Indulekhs kuja lies Ratyambuja Kuja, where the beautiful r Rati Majar always
resides. Her dress is covered with stars, her complexion is like lightning, and she is
daki-mdv in nature. The paitas also call her Tulas. Her age is 13 years 2
months. In Kali-yuga, in gaura-ll, she is known as Raghuntha dsa Gosvm.
Her mantra is described in the Kior-tantra as such: vahni-bja joined with and ndabindu (), followed by rati-majar in the dative case, ending with svh. The 8-syllable
r-rati-majar-mantra is thus.
The mantra is: r rati-majaryai svh
Her dhyna is also in that Kior-tantra: I worship the beautiful r Rati Majar,
whose dress bears designs of coupled stars, whose bodily luster is like lightning, and
who always stays near to r Rdhik.

r Lavaga Majar
kujasya tugavidyy
kuja prvatra vartate
lavaga-sukhado nmn
sud sumanohara


lavaga-majar tatra
mud tihati sarvad
s tu rpkhya-majary
ekenhn varyas
r-knandad nitya
daki mdvik mat
vaya eka-dina srdhahyans tu trayodaa (13-6-1)
khyt gaura-rase kalau
asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---r-llbhy samyukt
e nt lavaga-majar
svh lavaga-majary
mantro ya daa-varaka
Next, r Lavaga Majar: In the eastern part of r Tugavidys kuja lies
Lavaga-sukhada Kuja, which is very enchanting to all the beautiful-eyed gops. In
that kuja, r Lavaga Majar always blissfully resides. In age, she is one day older
than r R pa Majar, and she is very famous for her pleasant nature. Her complexion is like lightning, and she wears a dress marked with stars. She gives much happiness to r Ka, and her nature is always daki-mdv. Her age is 13 years 6
months and 1 day. In Kali-yuga, in gaura-ll, she is known as r Santana Gosvm.
Her mantra is described the Kior-tantra as such: The 10-syllable r-lavaga-majarmantra is composed of the r and ll bjas, followed by lavaga-majar in the dative
case, and ending with svh.
mantro yath----r l lavaga-majaryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---capal-dyuti-nindi-kntik


prabhaje t ca lavaga-majarm
The mantra is: r l lavaga-majaryai svh
Her dhyna is also described in that Kior-tantra: I worship r Lavaga Majar,
whose bodily luster reproaches the splendor of lightning. Her lovely dress is decorated with auspicious clusters of stars, and she is very pleasing to r Ka.

r Rasa Majar
rasnanda-prado nmn
citr-kujasya pacime
kujo sti tatra vasati
sarvad rasa-majar
r-rpa-majar-samyagjivtu s prakrtit
pryea gua-sampad
atva priyat prpt
sandhna-catur seya
dautye kaualam gat
trayodaa-arad-yukt (13)
daki mdvik mat
s kalau raghunthkhyyukta-bhaatvam gat
Next, the particulars of r Rasa Majar are given: In the western part of r Citr's
kuja lies Rasnanda Kuja, where the beautiful Rasa Majar always resides. She is
famous as being in all respects the life of r R pa Majar. Her dress is like the feathers of a swan, and her complexion is like a fully blossomed campaka flower. She is
rich in qualities much like those of r Lavaga Majar. Because she has taken shelter of r R pa Majar, she has become very dear to her. She serves as a messenger


between Rdh and Ka, and she is very clever in arranging Their meeting. Her
age is 13 years, and in gaura-ll, she is known as Raghuntha Bhaa Gosvm.
asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---mukha-vtta-yuto vahninda-bindu-samanvita
mantro vai rasa-majar
mantro yath----r rasa-majaryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---hasa-paka-rucirea vsas
sayut vikaca-campaka-dyutim
sarvadpi rasa-majar bhaje
Her mantra is described in the Kior-tantra as such: vahni-bja joined with and
anusvara, followed by rasa-majar in the dative case, and ending with svh. In this
way, the 8-syllable r-rasa-majar-mantra is known.
The mantra is thus: r rasa-majaryai svh
Her dhyna is also in the same book: I always worship the beautiful r Rasa
Majar, whose dress is like the feathers of a swan, whose complexion is fair like a
blossoming campaka flower, and who is rich in charming qualities.

r Gua Majar
ainye campakalatkujt kujo sti obhana
gunanda-prado nmn
tatrste gua-majar


rpa-majarik-saukhybhil s prakrtit
kaniheya bhavet tasys
tulasys tu tribhir dinai
rit prakharodit
vayo sy eka-mshy
hyans tu trayodaa
sapta-viatibhir yukta
dinai ca samudritam (13-1-27)
khyt gaura-rase kalau
Next, the particulars of r Gua Majar are given: In the northeastern part of r
Campakalats kuja lies the beautiful Gunandaprada Kuja, where r Gua
Majar always resides. Her complexion is bright like lightning, and she wears a fine
silk dress the color of a red jab flower. She is famous for her strong desire to make
R pa Majar happy. She is three days younger than r Tulas (Rati Majar) and is
the delight of r Ka. She is described as being daki-prakhar in nature. Her age is
13 years, 1 month and 27 days. In gaura-ll she is known as r Gopla Bhaa
asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---gaeo mukha-vtthyo
e nt vahni-priynt ca
mantro vai gua-majar
mantro yath----g gua-majaryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---jab-nibha-duklhy


bhaje ha gua-majarm
Her mantra is described in the Kior-tantra: gaea-vara (ga) joined with and ndabindu (), followed by gua-majar in the dative case, and ending with svh. In this
way the 8-syllable r-gua-majar-mantra shall be known.
The mantra is thus: g gua-majaryai svh
Her dhyna is also described in the same book: I worship r Gua Majar, whose
dress is the color of a red jab flower, whose bodily color is like lightning, and who is
always eager to please r Ka.

r Majull Majar
llnanda-prado nmn
sudevy kujakottare
tatraiva tihati sad
majull sumajar
rpa-majarik-sakhyapry s gua-sampad
ll-majar nmsy
vma-madhytvam rit
srdha-tridaa-hyan (13-6-7)
kalau gaura-rase lokantha-gosvmit gat
Next, the particulars of r Majull Majar are given: In the northern part of r
Sudevs kuja lies the beautiful Llnandaprada Kuja, where the charming r
Majull Majar always resides. She is full of pleasant qualities and is very dear to
r R pa Majar. Her dress is red like a jab flower, and her complexion is like
molten gold. She is also known as r Ll Majar. Her nature is vma-madhy, and


her age is 13 years, 6 months and 7 days. In gaura-ll she is known as r Lokantha
asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---lakm-yukt majull
majar vahni-jyik
caturthyant bhaven mantro
dara khalu kathyate
mantro yath----r majull-majaryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---pratapta-hemga-ruci manoj
ombar cru-subhahym
t majull niyata bhajmi
Her mantra is described in the Kior-tantra: lakm-bja, joined with majull-majar
in the dative case, and ending with svh.
The mantra is thus: r majull-majaryai svh
Her dhyna is also described in that book: With deep love, I worship r Majull
Majar, whose enchanting body is the color of molten gold, who wears a red dress
and beautiful ornaments, and who serves the lotus feet of r Rdhik.

r Vilsa Majar
vaikha-kujd gneye
kujo sti sumanohara
vilsnandado nmntrste vilsa-majar
vilsa-majar rpamajar-sakhyam rit
svaknty sad cakre


y divy svara-ketakm
vm mdvtvam rit
kanih rasa-majary
caturbhir divasair iyam (12-11-26)
jva-gosvmit prpt
kalau gaura-rase tv asau
Next, the particulars of r Vilsa Majar are given: In the southeast part of r
Vikhs kuja lies the very beautiful Vilsnandada Kuja, where r Vilsa
Majar always remains as one of r R pa Majars sakhs. She has a bodily color
like that of a golden ketak flower, and her dress is the color of a bumblebee. Her nature
is vma-mdv, and she is 4 days younger than r Rasa Majar, making her age 12
years, 11 months and 26 days. In gaura-ll she is known as r Jva Gosvm.
asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---riy pracetas caiva
nda-bindv sya-vtta-g
vilsa-majar e nt
svhnto manur rita
mantro yath----r v vilsa-majaryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---svara-ketaka-vinindi-kyak
arcaymi suvilsa-majarm
Her mantra is described in the Kior-tantra: r joined with nda-bindu (), followed
by varukara (va), with kra () and nda-bindu (); then vilsa-majar in the dative
case, and ending with svh.
The mantra is thus: r v vilsa-majaryai svh
Her dhyna is also given in the same book: I worship r Suvilsa Majar, whose


bodily color is like a golden ketak flower, whose dress derides the color of a bumblebee, and who is very attached to serving r Kas lotus feet.11

r Kaustr Majar
nairte r-ragadevkujt kujo sti pacima
kaustrynandado nmn
tatrste kaustr-majar
kca-tulymbar csau
vayas tridaa-varsau
vm mdvtvam rit
prpt gaura-rase kalau

A discussion of the father, mother, husband, mother-in-law and sev for each of the
Six Gosvms siddha-svarpas has not been given in the paddhatis of either r
Goplaguru Gosvm or r Dhynacandra Gosvm. It is said that in the original
handwritten manuscripts all these were given. The following is taken from Siddha
Kadsa Bb Mahayas guik:
(1) r Rpa Majar: father---- Ratnabhnu, mother---- Yamun, husband---Durmedhaka, mother-in-law---- Jail, sev---- massaging feet
(2) r Rati Majar: father---- Vabha, mother---- rad, husband---- Divya,
mother-in-law---- Sannik, sev---- cmara
(3) r Lavaga Majar: father---- Ratnabhnu, mother---- Yamun, husband---Maalbhadra, mother-in-law---- Suil, sev---- decorating with ornaments
(4) r Rasa Majar: father---- Subhnu, mother---- Prema Majar, husband---Viaka, mother-in-law---- Rambhvat, sev---- dressing
(5) r Gua Majar: father---- Candrabhnu, mother---- Yamun, husband---Gobhaa, mother-in-law---- Trval, sev---- bed-making
(6) r Vilsa Majar: father---- Svarbhnu, mother---- Durbal, husband---Viambaka, mother-in-law---- Ram, sev---- bringing water (It is sometimes said that
her sev is kukuma and collyrium.)
(It is also mentioned that r Kaustr Majars sev is making sandalwood paste, and
r Majulls sev is dressing.)


asy mantroddhro yath kior-tantre---r-bjena samyukt

e nt kaustr-majar
svhnta iti vai prokto
navra-mantra ucyate
mantro yath----r kaustr-majaryai svh
asy dhyna yath tatraiva---viuddha-hembja-kalevarbh
r-rdhiky nikae vasant
bhajmy aha kaustr-majarikm
Next, the particulars of r Kaust r Majar are described: In the southwest corner
of r Ragadevs kuja lies one more kuja, which is known as Kaust rynandada
Kuja, the residence of r Kaust r Majar. She wears a dress that resembles crystal,
and her complexion is like pure gold. Her age is 13 years, and her nature is vmamdv. In Kali-yuga, in gaurga-ll, she is known as r Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm.
Her mantra is described in the Kior-tantra as such: r-bja, r-kaustr-majar in the
dative case, and svh comprise the nine-syllable mantra.
The mantra is thus: r kaustr-majaryai svh
Her dhyna is also described in the Kior-tantra: I worship r Kaust r Majar,
whose complexion is like a spotless golden lotus, whose charming dress is lustrous
like crystal, and who always stays near to r Rdh.

Smaraa in the Siddha-deha

atha vndvandhau
dhyyet priya-sakh-vtau


sayutau sumanoharau
sasmaret siddha-dehena
sdhaka sdhanair yuta
Being intensely engaged in his sdhana, the sdhaka shall then meditate, in his
siddha-deha, on r r Rdh-Govinda. They are more charming than millions of
Cupids, and are surrounded by Their dearest sakhs, who stand like the filaments of a
lotus around Them. The sdhaka shall meditate on the captivating Divine Couple by
incorporating the above-mentioned descriptions of Their ages, dress, forms, etc., in his

Yugala-mantra and Dhyna

tatrdau majar-rpn gurvdn tu svyn svyn praly-anusrea sasmaret r-guruparama-guru-krameeti tata r-rdhik dhyyet. tata r-nandanandanam.
atha yugala-mantroddhro yath sanat-kumra-sahitym---gopjana-vallabheti
caran iti ca kramt
araa ca prapadye ca
tata etat pada-dvayam
pada-traytmako mantra
oara udhta
namo gopjanety uktv
vallabhbhy vadet tata
pada-dvaytmako mantro
dara khalu kathyate
mantro yath----g gopjana-vallabha-caran araa prapadye,
namo gopjana-vallabhbhym
Concerning that dhyna, before anything else, the sdhaka should perform smaraa
of the majar forms of his guru-pral, beginning with his guru, then parama-guru, etc.
Then he shall meditate on r Rdhik, and after that r Nandanandana.
Next, a reference for the yugala-mantra is cited from the Sanat-kumra Sahit: The
sixteen-syllable mantra is composed of gopjana-vallabha, etc. The ten-syllable mantra is
composed of namo gopjana and vallabhbhym.


The mantras are thus: g gopjana-vallabha-caran araa prapadye

namo gopjana-vallabhbhym
Gopjana-vallabha-caran means the feet of those two who are very dear to the gops,
namely Rdh and Ka. Gopjana-vallabhbhym means rdh-kbhym.
asya dhyna yath tatraiva---atha dhyna pravakymi
mantrasysya dvijottama
ptmbara ghana-yma
dvi-bhuja vana-mlinam
abhita candanentha
madhye kukuma-bindun
vicitra-tilaka bhle
vibhta maalktim
taruditya-sakakualbhy virjitam
priy-mukhe ktpgallay connata-bhruvam
daana-jyotsnay rjatpakva-bimba-phaldharam
vibhta mural vme


pau padma tathottare

npurbhy lasat-padam
rati-keli-rasveacapala capalekaam
hasanta priyay srdha
hsayanta ca t muhu
ittha kalpa-taror-mle
vndraye smaret ka
sasthita priyay saha
The dhyna of this yugala-mantra is found in the Sanat-kumra Sahit: O Best of the
Twice-born, please listen to the dhyna of this yugala-mantra as I describe it to you. r r
Rdh-Ka sit peacefully on a jewelled sihsana beneath a kalpa-taru in the
Vndvana forest. He wears yellow clothing, has a beautiful complexion the color of a
dark cloud, has two arms, and wears a garland of wild flowers. His head is bedecked
with a peacock feather, and His face is radiant like a million moons. His eyes are
rolling, and on His ears are ornaments made of yellow flowers. On His forehead is
beautiful tilaka made of a round spot of candana with a dot of kukuma in the middle.
From the bottom of His ears hang a pair of earrings effulgent as the newly risen
sun. His face is beautified by tiny mirror-like drops of perspiration, and He playfully
raises His eyebrows as He casts a sidelong glance at the face of His beloved. A pearl
dangles from the tip of His nose, His teeth glisten like moonlight, and His lips are red
like a ripened bimba fruit. His hands are adorned with bracelets and a jewelled sealring. In His left hand He holds His mural flute, and in His right, a lotus. Around His
waist is a sash with small bells, and His feet are decorated with beautiful ankle bells.
Being obsessed with rati-keli-rasa, He trembles and looks about while He laughs and
jokes with r Rdh.
vma-prve sthit tasya
rdhik ca smaret tata


knta-vaktre nyasta-ntyaccakor cacalekam

aguha-tarjjanbhy ca
arpayant nga-vall
ka-madhy pthu-roi
prasann nava-yauvanam
sakhya ca tasy viprendra
tat-sevana-par bhvy
Then the sdhaka shall meditate on r Rdhik standing on r Kas left side.
She wears a fine blue dress, and Her complexion is like molten gold. She half-covers
Her beautiful, smiling lotus-like face with the border of Her garment, and on that
charming face Her restless eyes dance like cakor birds. With Her thumb and forefinger, She offers tmbla to the lotus mouth of Her beloved. Her plump, raised breasts are
adorned with a pearl necklace. Her waist is slender, and Her wide hips are ornamented with a kiki-ml. She wears jewelled earrings, armlets and bracelets. On
Her lotus feet She wears tinkling golden ankle bells, with jewelled rings on Her toes.
Every part of Her graceful and charming body is transcendentally beautiful. She is
completely drowned in nanda-rasa, is in the prime of youth, and is very happy and
satisfied. O King of Brhmaas! r Rdhs sakhs are similar to Her in age and qualities. They are very devoted to their sevs of fanning with a cmara and so on.


atha ca---dvyad-vndraya-kalpa-drumdharmad-ratngra-sihsana-sthau
prehlbhi sevyamnau smarmi
In the Caitanya-caritmta it is said: I remember r r Rdh-Govindadeva seated
on a jewelled throne beneath a kalpa-vka, in the transcendentally beautiful forest of
Vndvana. They are continually served there by Their dearest sakhs.
smared eva krameaiva
siddha-dehena sdhaka
sa-sdhanena padmasya
vrajeau keara-sthitau
By the method previously described, in his siddha-deha, the sdhaka shall diligently
meditate on r r Rdh-Govinda situated in the keara of the yoga-pha lotus.
Thus ends the r r Gaura-govindrcana-smaraa-paddhati by r Dhynacandra

r r Rdh-ka-klya-ll-smaraa-krama-paddhati
Pj and Mantra-japa
eva padmopari dhytv
rdh-kau tatas tayo
aa-klocit sev
vidadhyt siddha-dehata

guru-vargjay tatra
pjayed rdhik-har
In this way, the sdhaka shall meditate on r r Rdh-Ka situated upon a lotus.
After that, in his siddha-deha, he shall by the order of his guru-varga offer pj to the
Divine Couple as They stand on that lotus.
bhya-pj tata ktv
pdyam arghya kramea ca
vidhi-prvaka-urnantara sdhaka kramt
japen mantrn atandrita
Then, he shall do external pj by offering the upacras such as pdya, arghya, etc.,
according to the previously described method. After that, the sdhaka shall very diligently perform japa of the 32-syllable pradhna-mantra.
mah-mantra japed dau
dara tad-antaram
tata r-rdhik-mantra
gyatr kmik tata
tato yugala-mantra ca
japed rsa-sthal-pradam
tato n sakhn ca
japen mantrn yath-kramam
tato a-majar ca
sva-sva-mantrn kramj japet
He shall first chant the mah-mantra, then the ten-syllable mantra, the r-rdhmantra and the r-rdh-gyatr, which will satisfy his highest desire to attain prema.
After that, he shall chant the yugala-mantra, which reveals the rsa-sthal, and then the
respective mantras of the aa-sakhs and aa-majars.


aa-klya-stram ha, yath---ninta prta prvhno
madhyhna cparhnaka
sya pradoo rtri ca
kl aau yath-kramam
madhyhno ymin cobhau
a-muhrta-mitau smtau
tri-muhrta-mit jey
ninta-pramukh pare
The Aaklya-stra says: The eight time periods of the day shall be known in this
sequence----ninta (end of night), prta (morning), prvhna (forenoon), madhyhna
(midday), aparhna (afternoon), sya (early evening), pradoa (nightfall), and rtri
(night). The madhyhna and rtri time periods each last for six muhrtas (1 muhrta = 48
minutes, so 6 muhrtas = 4 hours, 48 minutes) and the others all last for three muhrtas
each (2 hours, 24 minutes).

Sev in the Siddha-deha

teu siddha-dehena sevana yath sanat-kumra-sahitym, r-nrada uvca---bhagavan sarvam khyta
yad yat pha tvay guro
adhun rotum icchmi
rga-mrgam anuttamam
In his siddha-deha, the sdhaka shall perform sev to r r Rdh-Govinda during
all these time periods. In the Sanat-kumra Sahit, r Nrada says to r Sadiva, O
Bhagavan! O Guru! You have kindly given replies to all of my questions. Now I want
to hear about the best of all paths, rga-mrga-bhajana.


r-sadiva uvca---sdhu pha tvay vipra
rahasyam api vakymi
tan me nigadita u
Sadiva replied, O Brhmaa! Desiring to benefit the whole world, you have
asked a beautiful question. Even though it is a great secret, I shall describe it to you.
Please listen.
tathsya ca priy jan
pracureaiva bhvena
ramayanti nija-priyam
r Kas gop-gaa, possessing the mood of paramours, always lovingly engage
in amorous sport with Him.
tmna cintayet tatra
ts madhye manoramm
kior pramadktim
The sdhaka shall meditate upon himself as being among that gop-gaa and possessing the form of a beautiful and charming young adolescent girl.
prrthitm api kena
tato bhoga-par-mukhm
That charming kior is very expert in the various fine arts and is very pleasing to
r Ka. If, however, Ka desires intimate enjoyment with her, she will not agree.


rdhiknucar nitya
kd apy adhika prema
rdhiky prakurvatm
prtynudivasa yatnt
tayo sagama-krim
ity tmna vicintyaiva
tatra sev samcaret
brhma-muhrtam rabhya
yvat snt mah-ni
She is one of r Rdhiks companions and is always devoted to serving Her. She
has more love for Rdh than for Ka. With great affection and care she daily arranges for Their union, and because of her tasting the happiness of this sev, she is
abundantly satisfied. Meditating in this way, beginning from the brhma-muhrta
through the eight time periods up to the dead of night, the sdhaka shall lovingly render sev.
r-nrada uvca---harer atra gat ll
rotum icchmi tattvata
llm ajnat sevyo
manas tu katha hari
r-sadiva uvca---nha jnmi t ll
harer nrada tattvata
vnd-dev samgaccha
s te ll pravakyati
avidre ita sthnt


sakhbhi savt sste

r Nrada said, I truly want to hear about the aa-kla-ll of r Hari, because
without knowing the ll, how can anyone perform mnas-sev? r Sadiva replied,
Actually, I dont really understand hari-ll. You should approach r Vnddev; she
can describe it to you. She is a maidservant of r Govinda, and is nearby in a place
close to Ke-trtha, along with the other sakhs.

r-sanat-kumra uvca---ity uktas ta parikramya
guru natv puna puna
vnd-sthna jagmsau
nrado muni-sattama
vndpi nrada dv
praamypi puna puna
uvca ta muni-reha
katham atrgatis tava
r-nrada uvca---tvatto veditum icchmi
naityika carita hare
tad dito mama bruhi
yadi yogyo smi obhane
r-vnd-devy uvca---rahasya tv pravakymi
ka-bhakto si nrada
na prakya tvay hy etad
guhyd guhyatara mahat
After hearing the words of his guru, that most virtuous sage r Nrada circumambulated him and repeatedly offered his obeisance. Then he went to see r Vnddev.
Upon seeing Nrada, Vnddev offered her obeisance and said to him, Why have
you come here? Nrada answered, I want to hear about r Haris nitya-ll from you.
O Beautiful One, if I am worthy to know it, please describe everything to me. r


Vnd replied, O Nrada, you are a ka-bhakta. You are certainly worthy to hear. I
shall describe this secret to you, but you must not repeat it at just any place, because it
is most confidential and sublime.
atha ninta-sev---madhye vndvane ramye
kalpa-vka-nikuje tu
divya-ratna-maye ghe
nidritau tihatas talpe
nibiligitau mitha
mad-j-kribhi pact
pakibhir bodhitv api
ptau tad-bhaga-ktarau
na manas kurutas talpt
samutthtu mang api
tata ca rik-saghai
ukdyair api tau muhu
bodhitau vividhai padyai
sva-talpd udatihatm
upaviau tato dv
sakhyas talpe mudnvitau
praviya cakrire sev
tat-klasyocit tayo
puna ca rik-vkyair
utthya tau sva-talpata
gacchata sva-sva-bhavana
bhty-utkahkulau mitha
iti ninta-sev
First, the ninta-sev: r Vnd said, The center of the beautiful Vndvana forest
is adorned with fifty charming kujas. In one of those kujas filled with kalpa-vkas, in


a cottage made of transcendental gems, r r Rdh-Ka lie asleep on a bed,

closely embracing each other. After being awakened by my order-carrier birds, They
feel distressed at the thought of breaking Their close embrace and have no desire to
rise from bed. Finally, after the uka-rik-gaa (male and female parrots) recite various poems to Them, They arise and sit blissfully together on the bed. Then the sakhs
enter and perform various sevs that are suitable for the occasion. After hearing more
from the rik-gaa, They get up, and with Their minds full of fear and anxiety, They
secretly return to Their respective homes. Thus ends the ninta-ll.
atha prta-sev---prta ca bodhito mtr
talpd utthya satvaram
ktv ko danta-kha
mtrnumodito yti
gol dohanotsuka
rdhpi bodhit vddhavayasybhi sva-talpata
utthya danta-khdi
ktvbhyaga samcaret
snna-ved tato gatv
snpit lalitdibhi
bh-gha vrajet tatra
vayasy bhayanty api
bhaair vividhair divyair
Next comes the morning (prta) sev: In the morning r Ka is awakened by
Mother Yaod, and after quickly rising from bed, He brushes His teeth along with r
Baladeva. Then, with His mothers permission, He eagerly goes to the gol to milk
the cows.
r Rdh is awakened by some of the older sakhs and rises from bed. Then She
brushes Her teeth, and after being massaged with oil, etc., She goes to the snna-ved
(bathing platform). She is bathed by Lalit and the other sakhs, and then enters the
dressing room, where She is adorned with a beautiful dress and ornaments, delightful
perfume, garlands and ointments.


tata ca sva-janais tasy
var samprrthya yatnata
paktum hyate tra
sa-sakh s yaoday
After that, Mother Yaod sends one of her maidservants to ask Rdhs motherin-law to allow rmat and Her sakhs to come quickly and cook.
r-nrada uvca---katham hyate devi
pkrtha s yaoday
satu pka-kartru
rohi-pramukhv api
r-vndovca---durvsas svaya datto
varas tasyai mahari
iti ktyyan-vaktrc
chrutam sn may pur
tvay yat pacyate devi
tad-anna mad-anugraht
mia svdv-amta-sparddhi
bhoktur yukara tath
ity hvayati t nitya
yaod putra-vatsal
yumn me bhavet putra
svdu-lobht tath sat
r Nrada said, O Dev, why does Mother Yaod call for r Rdh when r
Rohi is known as the foremost of all cooks?
r Vnd replied, Mahari Durvs has personally given a boon to r Rdh. I
previously heard this from the mouth of r Ktyyan. Durvs has said, O Dev
(Rdhe), by my grace, whatever food You cook shall be very delicious and challenge
the taste of nectar. Whoever eats this food will have his longevity increased. For this
reason, Mother Yaod always calls r Rdhik for cooking. She considers, By my


son eagerly eating the delicious and pure food prepared by the hand of r Rdh, He
shall have a long life.
varvnumodit spi
h nandlaya vrajet
sa-sakh-prakar tatra
gatv pka karoti ca
After receiving the permission of Her mother-in-law, r Rdh and Her sakhgaa proceed in ecstasy to the home of Nanda Mahrja to do the cooking.
ko pi dugdhv g kcid
dohayitv janai par
gacchati pitur vkyt
sva-gha sakhibhir vta
abhyaga-mardana ktv
dsai sasnpito mud
dhauta-vastra-dhara sragv
dvi-phla-baddha-keai ca
grv-bhlopari sphuran
muhur krito mtr
pravied bhojanlaye
avalambya kara mtur
baladevam anuvrata
Ka and the others milk all the cows, and then, by the request of Nanda


Mahrja, Ka returns to His home surrounded by His sakhas. There, some of the
servants blissfully massage Him with oil, etc., and assist Him with His bath. Then, after the bath, they offer Him clean clothing, a fresh garland, and sandalwood paste. In
this way, He looks very beautiful. Then, the hair above His forehead and neck is tied
into a topknot, and on His forehead tilaka in the shape of a glowing moon is painted.
His beautiful hands and arms are adorned with bangles, bracelets, armlets, and a jewelled seal-ring. He wears an attractive necklace on His chest, as well as makara-shaped
earrings. After being repeatedly called by His mother, He takes her hand and enters
the dining hall along with r Baladeva and the sakhas.
bhuktv ca vividhnnni
mtr ca sakhibhir vta
hsayan vividhair vkyai
sakhs tair hsita svayam
ittha bhuktv tathcamya
divya-khaopari kat
viramet sevakair datta
tmbla vibhajann adan
rdhpi bhojannanda
dv yaodayhta
bhukte nna lajjaynvit
iti prta-sev
Surrounded by His mother and the sakhas, Ka eats various kinds of food preparations. At this time, Ka and the sakhas crack funny jokes and make each other
laugh. Submerged in this hsya-rasa, they gradually finish their meals. After rinsing
His mouth, Ka rests for a short while, lying comfortably on a soft bed. Then He
and the sakhas divide and eat the tmbla offered by the servants. r Rdh secretly
watches while Ka blissfully eats His meal, and then, when called by Mother
Yaod, She shyly takes Her meal while surrounded by r Lalit and the other sakhs.
In this way, prta-sev is performed.
atha prvhna-sev----


gopa-vea-dhara ko
vraja-vsi-janai prty
sarvair anugata pathi
pitara mtara natv
netrntena priy-gan
yathyogya tath cnyn
sannivartya vana vrajet
vana praviya sakhibhi
kritv ca kaa tata
vacayitv ca tn sarvn
dvi-trai priya-sakhair yuta
saketaka vrajed dhart
spi ke vana yte
dv ta gham gat
vacayitv gurn yti
priya-sagecchay vana
iti prvhna-sev
Then comes the prvhna-sev. Dressed as a cowherd boy, r Ka departs for the
forest with many, many cows in front of Him. All the Vrajavss lovingly follow
Him, and as He offers obeisance to His father and mother, He also casts a loving sidelong glance toward the gop-gaa. Then He offers appropriate respects to the rest of the
Vrajavss, persuades them to go back, and then continues to the forest. He enters the
forest along with the sakhas, and for some time they play together. Then, by some deception, He and two or three of His priya-sakhas sneak away. With great eagerness to
see r Rdh, He blissfully proceeds to the saketa-kuja (pre-arranged meeting place).
After seeing r Ka enter the forest, r Rdh returns to Her home. Under the
pretense of collecting flowers, etc., for performing srya-pj, She then enters the forest
to meet with Her beloved. In this way, prvhna-sev is performed.


atha madhyhna-sev---ittha tau bahu-yatnena
militv sva-gaair vtau
vihrair vividhais tatra
vane vikrato mud
sakhbhir dolitau kvacit
kvacid veu kara-srasta
priyay corita hari
anveayann uplabdho
vipralabdha priy-gaai
hsito bahudh tbhir
hta-sva iva tihati
Then, madhyhna-ll: In this way, with much effort, r Rdh and r Ka are
united. In that forest, surrounded by Their dear friends, They blissfully sport in various amorous pastimes. At one place, They are both seated on a swing and pushed by
the sakhs. Sometimes, r Rdh snatches the flute from Kas hand and hides it.
When He searches and cant find it anywhere, He becomes depressed like a person
robbed of all his belongings. Not only is He deceived by His priy-gaa, but He also becomes the object of their laughter.
vasanta-tun jua
vana-khaa kvacin mud
praviya candanmbhobhi
kukumdi-jalair api
viicato yantra-muktais
tat-pakenpi tau mitha
sakhyo py eva viicanti
t ca tau sicata puna
tathnyartusu jusu
krato vana-rjiu


tat-tat-klocitair nnvihrai sa-gaau dvija

rntau kvacid vka-mlam
sdya muni-sattama
upaviysane divye
madhu-pna pracakratu
At another place, Rdh and Ka enter a part of the forest that is especially displaying the pleasant signs of Springtime. There They spray each other using an implement filled with candana, kukuma, water and mud. Then the sakhs spray both of
Them, and Rdh-Ka spray the sakhs.
O Nrada! In this way, Rdh and Ka return to the forest throughout the various pleasant seasons and, along with Their sakhs, engage in pastimes that are appropriate for the time. O Best of the Munis! At one place, being exhausted from Their
sporting, They sit down on a beautiful sana beneath a kalpa-vka and drink too much
tato madhu-madonmattau
nidray mlitekaau
mitha pi samlambya
rirasu viata kuja
skhalat-pdbjakau pathi
tato vikratas tatra
kari-ythapau yath
sakhyo pi madhubhir matt
nidray pihiteka
abhita kuja-pujeu
srv eva vililyire
pthag ekena vapu
ko pi yugapad vibhu
sarvs sannidhi gacchet
priy parito muhu


ramayitv ca t sarv
kari-gajar iva
priyay ca tath tbhi
sarovaram athvrajet
After drinking so much honey, They become intoxicated. With Their eyes closing due to drowsiness, They hold each others hands and are soon enchanted by
Cupids arrows. Overcome by desire, They stumble off the path into a kuja, where
They make love like a lordly elephant and his mate.
Like Rdh and Ka, the sakhs also drink too much honey and become intoxicated. They, too, become drowsy-eyed, stumble into kujas in every direction and disappear. Then the powerful r Ka expands Himself into many identical forms and
simultaneously makes love to all the sakhs again and again. Just as the king of elephants dallies with his group of she-elephants, r Ka sports with all of His sakhs.
Then Rdh-Ka and the sakh-gaa all go to r Rdh-kua for water sports.
r-nrada uvca---vnde r-nanda-putrasya
mdhurya-krane katham
aivaryasya prako bhd
iti me chindhi saayam
r-vndovca---mune mdhurya-mayy asti
ll-aktir harer dh
tay pthak-kta kred
gopikbhi sama hari
rdhay saha rpea
nijena ramate svayam
iti mdhurya-lly
aktir neaty hare
r Nrada says, O Vnd, why does r Nandanandana display this aivarya of
expanding Himself while He is engaged in the mdhurya sport of making love to the
gops? Please dispel my confusion.
r Vnd replies, O Muni, the ll-akti of r Hari is mdhuryamay (full of sweetness). By that akti He expands Himself and individually sports with the gops, but He
enjoys with r Rdh in His own original form. By the action of this mdhuryamay-


ll-akti, no one knows of His being God.

jala-sekair mithas tatra
kritv sa-gaau tata
vsa-srak-candanair divyabhaair api bhitau
tatraiva sarasas tre
divya-ratna-maye ghe
anta phala-mlni
kalpitni mayaiva hi
haris tu prathama bhuktv
kntay pariveitam
dvi-trbhi sevito gacchec
chayy pupa-vinirmitm
tmblair vyajanais tatra
sevyamno bhantbhir
modita preyas smaran
After that, Rdh-Ka and the sakhs sport in r Rdh-kua by splashing water on each other. Then Kior-Kiora are decorated with beautiful clothing, ornaments, candana and garlands. After that, in a cottage made of celestial gems, They eat
a meal of fruits and roots which I gathered for Them. r Ka first eats the fruits and
roots served to Him by r Rdh, and then He lies down on a bed of flower petals,
where He is served by two or three of the sakhs. They offer Him tmbla, fan Him and
massage His lotus feet, and all the while He remains lost in pleasant thoughts of r
r-rdhpi harau supte
sa-ga muditntar
knta-datta prta-man
ucchia bubhuje tata
kicid evo tato bhuktv
vrajec chayy-niketanam


drau knta-mukhmbhoja
cakorvan ni-karam
tmbla-carvita tasya
tatratybhir niveditam
tmblny api cnti
vibhajanti priyliu
Then, while r Ka is lying down, r Rdh sits blissfully with Her sakhs
and eats the remnants affectionately left for Her by Her lover. Just as a cakor bird flies
with great speed to view the moon, r Rdh eats just a small amount and then goes
quickly to the ayana-mandira (sleeping room) to see the moonlike face of r Ka.
There, Kas dss give to Rdh the chewed remnants of His tmbla, some of
which She gives to Her priya-sakhs, and some of which She eats Herself.
ko pi ts uru
svacchanda bhita mitha
prpta-nidra ivbhti
vinidro pi pavta
t ca kvel kaa ktv
mitha knta-kathray
vyja-nidr harer jtv
kutacid anumnata
vimya vadana dgbhi
payantyo nyonya-mnanam
ln iva lajjay syu
kaam ucur na kicanam
Although awakened by the gops freely talking about Him, Ka pretends to remain asleep, covered by His cloth. Absorbed in ka-kath, the gops joke and laugh
for awhile. Then, someone realizes that Kas sleeping is bogus. Looking at each
other, they become completely silent and drown in embarrassment.
kad eva tato vastra
dr-ktya tad agata


sdhu nidr gato sti

hsayantyo hasanti tam
After a moment, they pull the cloth from Kas body and say, Ka! Youve
had a very good sleep. Saying this, they all laugh at Him, and He laughs too.
eva tau vividhair hsai
ramamau gaai saha
anubhya kaa nidrsukha ca muni-sattama
upaviysane divye
sa-gaau vistte mud
pa-ktya mitho hracumblea-paricchadn
akair vikrita prem
parjito pi priyay
jitam ity avadan m
hrdi-grahae tasy
pravttas tyate tay
tayaiva tita ka
viaa-vadano bhtv
gata-sva iva nrada
jito smi ca tvay devi
ghyat yat pa-ktam
cumbandi may dattam
ity uktv ca tathcarat
kauilya tad-bhruvor drau
rotu tad-bhartsana vaca
In this way, along with the sakhs, Rdh and Ka enjoy this hsya-rasa, and in
a short time they all fall into a very pleasant sleep. After that, they all sit down on a
large, beautiful sana to play p-khel (dice), wherein the wagers are a necklace, a


kiss, an embrace and clothing. Absorbed in prema, their conversation is full of jokes
and laughter. In that game, Rdh defeats Ka, but He refuses to admit it. He vainly
says, I have won, and takes Her necklace, etc. Then Rdh lightly bops Him with
the lotus from Her ear and the ll-kamala12 She carries in Her hand. O Nrada! Then
Ka, with a sad face like a person just robbed of all his possessions, says, O Dev! Its
true; Ive lost. Im now going to give You that kiss and embrace that you wagered.
Please accept it. Ka says this just to see Rdh frown and to hear Her scold Him.
tata r-ukn ca
rutv vghava mitha
nirgacchatas tata sthnd
gantukmo gha prati
ka kntm anujpya
gavm abhimukha vrajet
s tu srya-gha gacchet
Then, after hearing a group of male and female parrots in a battle of words, Rdh
and Ka decide They should go home, so They leave that place. Taking leave of
Rdh, Ka then goes toward the herd of cows, while Rdh goes with Her sakhs to
the srya-mandira for performing pj.
kiyad-dra tato gatv
parvtya hari puna
vipra-vea samsthya
yti srya-gha prati
srya ca pjayet tatra
prrthitas tat-sakh-janai
tad eva kalpitair vedai
tatas t api ta knta
parijya vicaka
nanda-sgare ln
na vidu sva na cparam

A ll-kamala is a lotus flower held in the hands as a plaything.


After going a short distance, Ka then returns dressed as a brhmaa and enters
the srya-mandira. The gops ask Him to perform the srya-pj and He complies. Seeing
Ka disguised as a brhmaa, and hearing Him chant some ridiculous, contrived
Vedic mantras (as He laughs inside), Rdh and the other clever gops soon realize
who He really is. Then they all melt into an ocean of bliss and can no longer recognize themselves or anyone else.
vihrair vividhair eva
srdha-yma-dvaya mune
ntv gha vajeus t
sa ca ko gav vrajet
iti madhyhna-sev
O Nrada Muni! After enjoying various pastimes in this way for 1 1/2 or 2 ymas
of time (1 yma = approximately 3 hrs.), r Rdh and Her sakhs go home, and r
Ka goes back to the herd of cows. Thus, madhyhna-sev.
athparhna-sev---sagamya tu sakhn ko
ghtv g samantata
gacchati vraja karann
Next, the aparhna-sev. In the late afternoon, r Ka reunites with His sakhas.
Attracting the cows from all directions by the sweet sounds of His mural flute, Ka
leads everyone back to Vraja.
tato nanddaya sarve
rutv veu-rava hare
go-dhli-paalair vypta
dv cpi nabha-sthalam
visjya sarva-karmi
striyo bldayo pi ca


kasybhimukha ynti
Hearing the sound of Kas flute and seeing the twilight sky filled with dust
from the hooves of the cows, Nanda Mahrja, the gopas, women and children all stop
whatever they are doing and eagerly go to see Ka.
rdhikpi samgatya
gha sntv vibhit
sampcya knta-bhogrtha
dravyi vividhni ca
sakh-sagha-yut ynti
knta drau samutsuk
rja-mrge vraja-dvri
yatra sarve vrajaukasa
ko py etn samgamya
yathvad anuprvaa
daranai sparanair vpi
gopa-vddhn namaskrai
kyikair vcikair api
sga-ptai pitarau
rohim api nrada
vinayena priys tath
After arriving home, r Rdh is bathed and decorated. Then, after cooking
many delicious preparations for r Kas enjoyment, She joins Her sakh-gaa.
Eager to see their beloved, they assemble on the main road at the gateway to Vraja
along with all the other Vrajavss. When Ka arrives, He duly greets them all one
by one by coming before them, by touching, or with smiling sidelong glances. O
Nrada! With His body and His words He offers respects to the elder gopas. By touching the eight parts of His body to the ground He honors His father, mother and
Rohi-dev. And with subtle and modest glances from the corners of His eyes He expresses His affection for His priy-gaa.


eva tai ca yath-yogya
vrajaukobhi prapjita
gavlaya tath g ca
sampraveya samantata
pitbhym arthito yti
bhrtr saha nijlayam
sntv pitv tath kicid
bhuktv mtrnumodita
gavlaya punar yti
dogdhu-kmo gav paya
ity aparhna-sev
In this way, r Ka is warmly received by all the Vrajavss. Then, after causing the cows to enter the gol, at the request of His father and mother, He and r
Balarma return to Their own home. There, He takes a bath and has a little something
to eat and drink. Then, desiring to milk the cows, with His mothers permission He
again goes to the gol. Thus, aparhna-sev.
atha sya-sev---t ca dugdhv dohayitv
pyayitv ca kcana
pitr srdha gha yti
Then, sya-sev: After Ka and the others milk the cows, they give them water
to drink. Then, Ka and His father return home, followed by hundreds of persons
carrying milk.
tatrpi mt-vndai ca
tat-putrai ca balena ca
sabhukte vividhnnni
carvya-cydikni ca


iti sya-sev
After arriving home, He joins His mothers, their sons and r Balarma in eating
various delicious preparations, some meant to be chewed, some to be sucked, etc. Thus,
atha pradoa-sev---tan-mtu prrthant prva
rdhaypi tadaiva hi
prasthpyante sakh-dvr
pakvnnni tad-layam
lghaya ca haris tni
bhuktv pitrdibhi saha
sabh-gha vrajet tai ca
jua vandi-jandibhi
Next, pradoa-sev: Because Mother Yaod had previously asked Her to do so, at
the time of Kas meal r Rdh has some of Her sakhs bring to Kas house all
the preparations She has cooked. While eating, Ka praises all of those foods again
and again. Then, accompanied by His father and the others, He goes to the assembly
hall where He is delighted by groups of singers and storytellers.
pakvnnni ghtv y
sakhyas tatra samgat
bahni ca punas tni
pradattni yaoday
sakhy tatra tay datta
kocchia tath raha
sarva tbhi samnya
rdhikyai nivedyate
spi bhuktv sakh-vargayut tad-anuprvaa
sakhbhir maita tihed
abhisartu mudnvit


The sakhs who had taken the food preparations to Nandlaya return. In their
hands are many remnants of that food, sent by Mother Yaod for r Rdh and Her
friends. One sakh (Dhanih) secretly places in the other sakhs hands Kas adharmta,13 which they offer to Rdh. She and Her sakhs eat all those foods one by
one, and after their meal, the sakhs blissfully decorate r Rdh in preparation for
Her abhisra (journey to meet Her lover).
prasthpyate nay kcid
ita eva tata sakh
taybhisrit s tha
yamuny sampata
kalpa-vksa-nikuje smin
divya-ratna-maye ghe
sita-ka-niyogyavea yti sakh-yut
Rdh then sends one sakh to Nandlaya to inform Ka where the saketa-kuja
(secret meeting place) shall be. After notifying Him, that sakh returns and induces
Rdh to begin Her abhisra to a place near the Yamun. Dressed in either white or
dark blue, according to what is appropriate for the particular night, Rdh and Her
sakhs arrive at a cottage made of celestial gems, in a kuja full of kalpa-vkas in the
Vndvana forest.
ko pi vividha tatra
dv kautuhala tata
kavitvni manojni
rutv ca gtakny api


Adharmta means the nectar of His lips, that is, the food which Ka personally
tasted and then left on His plate.


dhana-dhnydibhis t ca
prayitv vidhnata
janair krito mtr
yti ayy-niketanam
mtari prasthityntu
bhojayitv tato ght
saketaka kntaytra
samgacched alakita
iti pradoa-sev
In the sabh-gha (assembly hall), Ka sees various curious things and hears
charming poetry and songs. Afterwards, He satisfies the performers with money,
rice, etc., according to the traditional custom. Then, being called by His mother and
others, He goes to His ayana-gha (sleeping room). When His mother feeds Him and
then leaves, Ka stealthily sneaks out of the house and goes to the saketa-kuja to
meet Rdh. Thus, pradoa-sev.
atha rtri-sev---militv tv ubhv atra
krato vana-rjiu
vihrair vividhair hsyalsya-gta-purasarai
srdha-yma-dvaya ntv
rtrer eva vihrata
suups viata kuja
paca-bhir alakitau
nirvnta-kusumai klpte
keli-talpe manorame
suptvatihat tatra
sevyamnau priylibhi
iti rtri-sev
Next rtri-sev: After being united, Rdh and Ka sport throughout the forest in
various pastimes full of laughing, dancing and singing. Enjoying in this way, 1 1/2


or 2 ymas of the night elapse (4 1/2 to 6 hours). Desiring to go to sleep, They sneak
into a kuja along with five or six of Their sakhs. Then, being served by the sakhs,
Rdh and Ka fall asleep on a pleasure-bed of stemless flowers. Thus, rtri-sev.

Discussion on Rdh-Ka Rasa

r-nrada uvca---rotum icchmi bho deva
vraja-rja-sutasya ca
vndvane rasa divya
rdhayaikntika saha
r-sadiva uvca---u nrada vakymi
rdh-ka-rasa uci
su-gopya paramodra
na vaktavya hi kasyacit
kartu vndvane mune
vraja-rja-kumra ca
bahu-klam abhvayam
mayi prasanna r-ko
mantra-yugmam anuttamam
yugalkhya dadau mahya
samabravt tad ka
sva-iya m svaka rasam
bravmi tv uvdya
brahmdnm agocaram
vraja-rja-suto vndvane pratamo vasan
vihra kurute sad


vsudeva prataro
mathury vasan puri
kalbhi paca-daabhir
yuta krati sarvad
dvrakdhipatir dvravaty pras tv asau vasan
viharaty eva sarvad
After hearing about ll from r Vnddev, r Nrada approaches r Sadiva
and says, O Deva! I want to hear about the divine rasa of r r Rdh-Ka in
r Sadiva replies, O Nrada! The ujjvala-rasa of r r Rdh-Ka is the highest and most confidential subject, but I shall speak about it. You shouldnt reveal this to
just anyone. O Muni! To taste this aikntika-vndvana-rasa, I meditated on r
Nandanandana for a very long time. Being pleased with me, r Ka gave to me the
mantras known as yugala-mantra, which are overflowing with His own ujjvala-rasa. I became His disciple, and then He described this rasa to me. O dya (Best of Persons)! I
shall now describe to you that which is unknown even to Brahm. Please listen. r
Ka is perfect in Dvrak with fourteen traits (kals), more perfect in Mathur with
fifteen traits, and most perfect in Vndvana with sixteen traits.
ekay kalay dvbhy
vndvana-pate rpau
prau sve sve pade rase
mathur-ntho vndvandhippekay svarpea llay ca ekay kalay na. mathurlly mathury ca sampra-oaa-kala. tath dvrak-ntho vndvandhippekay
svarpea llay ca. dvbhy kalbhym na. dvraky dvrak-lly ca praoaa-kala.
rr bh-ll yogamy
cintycinty tathaiva ca
mohin kaualty aau
bahirag ca aktaya
ll prema-svarp ca
sthpany kara tath


sayogin viyoginyhldinty antaragik

vraje r-ka-candrasya
santi oaa-aktaya
poik madhurasyaiva
tasyait vai santan
Compared to the ll of Ka in Vndvana, in His ll as Mathurntha He has
one fewer trait, and as Dvrakntha He has two fewer traits. r, bh, ll, yogamy, cinty, acinty, mohin and kaual comprise Kas bahirag-akti (external energy). Ll
(mdhuryamay-ll-akti), prema, svarp, sthpan, kara, sayogin, viyogin and hldin
comprise His antarag-akti (internal energy). In Vraja, these sixteen eternal aktis of
r Kacandra serve to nourish the madhura-rasa.
hldin ya mah-akti
tat-sra-bhva-rp rrdhik parikrtit
tay r-ka-candrasya
kriy samaye mune
tad-via vsudeva
saha krbdhi-nyakam
antarkya-gata kuryc
chaktir kara hare
krnte sthpayet tantu
sthpan ka-dehata
kevalo nanda-nandana
vikran rdhay srdha
labhate parama sukham
The akti known as hldin is the mah-akti, and is greater than all the others. r
Rdhik is the form of that quintessential bhva. O Muni! At the time of r RdhKas sporting, the ka-akti known as kara arises. It attracts Krbdhiy and
Vsudeva, who are merged in Kas body, and then takes Them off into the sky.


Only Rdh-Kas ll remains. At the conclusion of Kas sporting with Rdh,

the akti named sthpan brings Krbdhiy and Vsudeva back from the sky and
places Them inside Kas body. For sixteen full years, as r Nandanandana alone,
r Ka enjoys transcendental happiness sporting with r Rdh.
r-nrada uvca---gate madhu-pur ke
vipralambha-rasa katham
vsudeve rdhiky
saaya chindhi me prabho
r-sadiva uvca---akti sayogin km
vm aktir viyogin
hldin krtid-putr
caiva rdh-traya vraje
r Nrada replies, O Prabhu! When r Ka goes to Madhupur (Mathur), how
can r Rdh feel the vipralambha-rasa (separation) toward Him in His Vsudeva
form? In other words, r Rdh has nih in r Ka, but not in the Vsudeva form
which exists within Ka. When Ka goes to Mathur, He assumes the form of
Vsudeva, so how is it possible that the vipralambha-rasa can arise in Rdh at this
time? Please explain this mystery to me.
r Sadiva answers, In Vraja, r Rdh exists in three forms: as Km
(sayogin-akti), Vm (viyogin-akti) and Krtid-putr (hldin-akti).
mama prevara kas
tyaktv vndvana kvacit
kadcin naiva ytti
jnte krtid-sut
km-vme na jnta
iti ca brahma-nandana
rsrambha ivntardhi
gatavn nanda-nandana


mathur mathur-ntho
vsudevo jagma ha
antar-hite nanda-sute
rmad-vndvane mune
pravskhya rasa lebhe
rdh vai krtid-sut
tato vadanti munaya
pravsa saga-vicyutim
Krtid-sut knows that, My Prevara r Ka never leaves Vndvana at any
time or for any reason. But Km and Vm dont know this. O Brahma-nandana! r
Nandanandana disappears from Vndvana in the same way He disappears at the beginning of the rsa-ll. Mathurntha r Vsudeva goes to Mathur.14 O Muni!
When Nandanandana disappears in Vndvana, Krtid-sut r Rdh experiences a
type of vipralambha-rasa known as pravsa (a feeling that the lover has gone to a distant
land). For this reason, the munis call this type of separation pravsa.
mama jvana-net ca
tyaktv m mathur gata
iti vihvalit vm
rdh y virahd abht
yamuny nimagn s
praka gokulasya ca
golaka prpya tatrbht
km rdh ca mathurvirahea nipit
kuruketra gat trthaytr-parama-llas
The hero of My life has abandoned Me and gone to Mathur. Thinking in this
way, Vm Rdh becomes overwhelmed by feelings of separation from Ka and
drowns in the Yamun. Then She enters the celestial sphere of Gokula and obtains
sayoga-rasa (union) with Ka. But Km Rdh, being terribly afflicted by Kas
leaving, and longing to see Him again, goes to Kuruketra under the pretense of mak14

See Caitanya-caritmta, Antya-ll 1.66.


ing a trtha-ytr (holy pilgrimage).

uddhavo vrajam gata
sntvayiyan krtidy
sut msa-dvaye gate
rdhm svdaymsa
kathy bhgavatyntu
jty muni-pugava
vrajendra-nandana rms
tad pratyakat gata
ataeva pdmottara-khaokta dvrakdhipater vndvana prati-gamana krbdhiyy
viatvt krbdhiyino drodn labdha-vara-tvt, te puna sva-sthna-prpartham
evety avagantavyam. rmad-bhgavata-vkynm eva vicro vagantavya padmottarakhae tu klindi-puline ramye ity atra r-dvrak-nthasya r-nanda-nandana-madhura-llsadarane sotkahatvd vyoma-ynair etya r-vndvane msa-dvayam uvsety abhipryo
jeya. tad yath r-lalita-mdhave (8.34)----apari-kalita-prva itydi.
Knowing r Nandanandanas mind, r Uddhava arrives in Vraja to give solace
to Krtid-sut r Rdh. For two months he remains there causing Rdh to taste the
true meaning of rmad-Bhgavatam. O Best of Munis! When She hears that bhgavatkath, r Vrajendra-nandana appears directly before Her.
In the aforementioned Uttara-khaa of the Padma Pura, this prama is given: r
Dvrakntha, with Krbdhiy Viu merged in His body, then returned to
Vndvana to send Droa and others back to their places in the devaloka. They had
previously received a boon from Krbdhiy Viu that enabled them to enter the
bodies of r Nanda, etc., to taste the manifest ll of r Ka. The fact that Ka eternally resides in Vraja is confirmed by statements in the rmad-Bhgavatam. The
meaning of klindi-puline ramye, etc., from the Padma Pura is that r Dvrakntha,
being very eager to see r Nandanandanas madhura-ll, flew in a celestial car to r
Vndvana, where He remained for two months. This is also described in r Lalitamdhava-naka (8:34), where it says apari-kalita-prva, etc.


iti te sarvam khyta
naityika carita hare
ppino pi vimucyante
smarad yasya nrada
O Nrada! I have described to you all of r Kas daily pastimes. By remembering these lls even sinners will be liberated.

Mantra-japa after Aa-kla-sev

aa-klokta-urnantara sdhaka kramt
japen mantrn atandrita
mah-mantra japed dau
dara tad-anantaram
tata r-rdhik-mantra
gyatr kmak tath
tato yugala-mantra ca
japed rsa-sthal-pradam
tato n sakhn ca
japen mantrn yath-kramam
tata a-majar ca
sva-sva-mantrn kramj japet
After engaging in this aa-kla-sev, the sdhaka shall diligently chant (according
to the previously described method) the thirty-two-syllable mukhya-mantra (hare ka
mah-mantra). Then he shall chant the ten-syllable mantra, 15 then the r-rdhik-mantra,
followed by the prema-giving rdh-gyatr. After that, he shall chant the yugala-mantra,
which reveals the rsa-sthal (the site of the rsa-ll). Then he shall chant the respective
mantras of the eight principal sakhs and the six principal majars, as well as the mantras
of r Majull and r Kaustr Majars.


kl gopjana-vallabhya svh

The Fruit of Accepting Gop-bhva

yath di-pure---gop-bhvena ye bhakt
mm eva paryupsate
teu tsv iva tuo smi
satya satya dhanajaya
gopik-bhvam rit
bhvuky ca tad-bhva
ynti pda-rajo rcant
The fruit of the sdhakas acceptance of gop-bhva is described in the di Pura,
where r Ka says, O Dhanajaya! Those bhaktas who worship Me in gop-bhva
make Me very happy. Because they worship the dust of the lotus feet of the gops and
adopt the gop-bhva in their dress, decorations, age and form, they are able to obtain
yath ekmra-pure---aho bhajana-mhtmya
vndvana-pater hare
pumn yoid bhaved yatra
In the Ekmra Pura it is said: The wonderful sweetness of worshipping
Vndvanevara r Ka is astonishing. Even a male person who performs bhajana
in gop-bhva attains the body of a vraja-gop.

pdme ca (uttara-khae)---pur maharaya sarve
rma dv hari tatra
bhoktum aicchan su-vigraham


te sarve strtvam pann

samudbht ca gokule
hari samprpya kmena
tato mukt bhavravt
bhad-vmana-siddh ca
rutayo pi yath pur
gop-bhvena sasevya
samudbht hi gokule
yad-ukta r-rpa-gosvmi-caraai---hari su-rga-mrgea
sevate yo narottama
kevalenaiva sa tad
gopiktvam iyd vraje
In the Padma Pura it is said: Formerly, after many days of seeing the beauty of
r Rmacandra, the sages living in the Daakraya Forest were fortunate to have
rati arise in their hearts toward the beautiful form of r Ka. Having engaged in
sdhana, they attained bhva and took birth in Vraja as gops. In this way, they
achieved ka-prema and were liberated from the ocean of material life.
The Bhad-vmana Pura states: In ancient times, the ruti-gaa (personified rutis)
worshipped r Ka in gop-bhva and obtained births as vraja-gops.
r R pa Gosvm Prabhupda states: The best of men perform r-hari-sev by exclusively following the rga-mrga. At the time of attaining bhva and siddhi, they become
gops in Vraja.
bhakti-tattva-kaumudym---ekasmin vsan-dehe
yadi cnyasya bhvan
tarhi tat smyam eva syt
yath vai bharate npe
In the Bhakti-tattva-kaumud it is said: If, while occupying one body, a person meditates on a different type of body, he will attain a body like that. For example, after meditating on a deer, King Bharata obtained the body of a deer.


The Fruit of Aa-kla-sev

yath sanat-kumra-sahitym---r-nrada uvca---dhanyo smy anughto smi
tvay devi na saaya
harer me naityik ll
yato me dya prakit
In the Sanat-kumra Sahit the fruit of aa-kla-sev is described thus: r Nrada
says to r Vnddev, O Dev! Today, by your mercy, I have been blessed because
you have revealed to me the daily ll of r Ka.
r-sanat-kumra uvca---ity uktv t parikramya
tay cpi prapjita
antardhna gato rjan
nrado muni-sattama
maypy etad nuprvya
sarva tat parikrtitam
japan16 nitya prayatnena
mantra-yugmam anuttamam
r Sanat-kumra says, O King! Speaking in this way, r Nrada circumambulated r Vnddev and was then offered pj by her. After that, muni-sattama r
Nrada disappeared. Very carefully I regularly chanted that best of all mantras, the yugala-mantra, and everywhere proclaimed its glories.
ka-vaktrd ida labdha
pur rudrea yatnata


ra-prayoga-hetu japat sthne japan haiyche baliy mane haya.


tenokta nradytha
nradena mayoditam17
maypy etat tavoditam
tvay caitad gopanya
rahasya paramdbhutam
r-ambara uvca---kta-ktyo bhava skt
tvat prasdd aha guro
rahasytirahasya yat
tvay mahya prakitam
In ancient times, r Rudra very carefully obtained this knowledge from the
mouth of r Ka. Then he spoke it to r Nrada. r Nrada then told me, and in order to relieve you from the fire of material life, I revealed it to you. You shall keep this
most wonderful mystery hidden within your heart.
r Ambara replies, O Guru! By your direct mercy I have attained the fulfillment of my hearts desire, because you have revealed to me that most secret of all secrets.
r-sanat-kumra uvca---dharmn etn updio
japan mantram ahar niam
acird eva tad-dsyam
avpsyasi na saaya
etn dharmn----aa-kla-sev-rpn; mantram----yugala-mantram; tad-dsyam----tayo rrdh-kayor dsya ds-bhvam iti.
maypi gamyate rjan
guror yatana mama
vndvane yatra nitya
gurur me sti sadiva
r Sanat-kumra says, I have instructed you in this aa-kla-sev-dharma. By con17

mama sthne may prayogao ra.


tinually chanting this yugala-mantra day and night, you will no doubt very soon attain
the service of r Rdh-Ka in ds-bhva. O King! I am now going to r
Vndvana, where my gurudeva r Sadiva always resides.
dvtriad-akardn mantr kramea phala yath pdme---dvtriad-akara mantra
prajapan vaiavo nitya
rdh-ka-sthala labhet
The fruit of chanting the thirty-two-syllable mantra (hare ka) is described in the
Padma Pura: Those Vaiavas who always chant the mantra composed of sixteen
names divided into thirty-two syllables attain r Vndvana, the abode of r RdhKa.
gautamya-tantre ca---ahar-nia japen mantra
mantr niyata-mnasa
sa payati na sandeho
gopa-rpiam varam
In the Gautamya-tantra it is said: A person who is disciplined in his mind, and who
chants the ka-mantra day and night, shall no doubt see the Lord in His gopa form.
gaur-tantre ca---rmad-akara mantra
rdhy prema-siddhi-dam
prajapet sdhako yas tu
sa rdhntikam pnuyt
In the Gaur-tantra it is said: The sdhaka who chants the prema-giving eight-syllable
r-rdh-mantra shall obtain the lotus feet of r Rdh.


sanat-kumra-sahitym---japed ya kma-gyatr
tasya siddhir bhavet prema
rdh-ka-sthala vrajet
et paca-pad japtv
raddhay raddhaysakt
vndvane tayor dsya
gacchaty eva na saaya
In the Sanat-kumra Sahit it is said: Whoever chants the kma-bja combined with
the kma-gyatr attains prema-siddhi and goes to r Vndvana. Whoever with faith or
without faith chants this five-part gyatr-mantra again and again will without a doubt
obtain the service of r Rdh-Ka in Vndvana.
kior-tantre ca--etn sakhnm an
mantrn ya sdhako japet
r-rdh-kayo kipra
vihra-sthalam pnuyt
In the Kior-tantra it is said: The sdhaka who chants the mantras of r Lalit and
the rest of the aa-sakhs shall very quickly attain the place of Rdh-Kas pastimes
in Vndvana.
tatraiva---mantrn etn majarm
an yo japet sad
prema-siddhir bhavet tasya
r-vndvanam pnuyt
In the same book it is also said: Whoever always chants the mantras of r R pa and
the rest of the aa-majars shall, upon attaining siddhi, go to r Vndvana.


smaranantara siddhadehasyaiva ca sdhaka
aa-klodit ll
sasmaret sdhakgaka
The sdhaka who has performed the various components of bhakti shall, after meditating on his own siddha-deha, meditate on the aa-kla-ll.

The Eight Time Periods

klau ninta-prvhnv
vijeyau tri-tri-ghaikau
prta sya dvaya dvayam
dvi-dvi-praghaikau jeyau
madhyhna-rtrikv iti
Those eight time periods are measured as follows: The ninta, prvhna, aparhna
and pradoa-lls each last for three hours, for a total of twelve hours or thirty daas.
The prta and sya-lls each last for two hours, totalling four hours or ten daas.
The madhyhna and rtri-lls each last for four hours, for a total of eight hours or twenty
eteu samayev eva
y y ll purodit
t tm eva yath-kla
sasmaret sdhako jana
These aa-kla-lls have been previously described. The sdhaka shall meditate on
them at the proper times.
Thus ends the r r Rdh-ka-klya-ll-smaraa-krama-paddhati by r
Dhynacandra Gosvm.