8 views

Uploaded by Benjamin Basow

stats terminology

- 2nd sem
- 214534 1 Statistics
- Workshop on Data analysis using SPSS and AMOS
- BiostatFinalsWithANSWERS KEY
- 4.Kaleab Kebede_39-47
- Guided-Discovery Learning Strategy and Senior School Students Performance in Mathematics in Ejigbo, Nigeria
- Risk Tolerance
- q.t mcqs
- Hypothesis Testing.docx
- Hypothesis Testing
- Cp & Pp
- SampleFinal Islam
- All Exams-For IIMR (1)
- Hypothesis
- The T
- iet 603 700 forum 9
- Stat Report
- Introduction to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing
- How to Do It by Hand
- lecture 8

You are on page 1of 2

A hypothesis test is a common statistical procedure. A conjecture is made

based on a model, data is obtained, and a conclusion is made using statistical

techniques. Several standard tests are derived in Stat 430, but we introduce

the concepts here. During the semester we can combine probability ideas

with hypothesis testing ideas to provide examples of how probability is used

by statisticians.

The Hypotheses: There are always two hypotheses in a statistical

test. The null hypothesis is the status quo, the nothings happening, or the no difference hypothesis. This is labeled as H0 . The

alternative hypothesis is the claim that we are testing. It is labeled

Ha , or sometimes as H1 .

The Decision: We take some data, do some calculations, and come

up with a decision. This is traditionally phrased in terms of the null

hypothesis, so that we can either reject the null hypothesis, or accept

the null hypothesis.

The Decision Rule: Usually phrased as we reject H0 if .....

Errors: If there are two possible decisions, then there are two possible

mistakes we can make. A Type I Error is rejecting the null hypothesis

when it is really true. A Type II Error is accepting the null hypothesis

when it is really false.

The Test Size: The size of the test is the probability of making a

Type I Error. This is represented by the Greek letter .

Statistically Significant: Results are called statistically significant

if the null hypothesis is rejected.

p-value The p-value is the probability of seeing our data or more extreme, given that the null hypothesis is true, where more extreme

means supports the alternative hypothesis more.

Power: The power of a test is the probability that the null hypothesis

is rejected, given that the alternative is true.

Suppose a six-sided die is used in a gambling game, and you suspect the die

is not fair. For a fair die, the probability of attaining any of the six faces

on a given roll is 1/6. Suppose you think that the die might be weighted

and sixes will come up too often. You want to test H0 : p = 1/6 versus

Ha : p > 1/6 where p is the true probability of getting a six.

Note that the null hypothesis corresponds to the die being fair. The idea is

that we want to have strong evidence against the null hypothesis before we

will reject it and claim that the die is not fair. Otherwise, we accept the null

hypothesis even if there is some evidence against it.

A Type I Error occurs if we reject H0 and claim that the die is not fair, when

the die really is fair. The consequences of a Type I Error might be to make

a false accusation. A Type II Error occurs if we accept H0 and decide that

the die is fair, when it is not. The consequences of a Type II Error might be

to let people get away with cheating.

Now we need to design the experiment, which can be as simple as rolling the

die 30 times and counting the number of sixes. Our decision rule might be

reject H0 if we get at least 8 sixes.

The test size will be the probability that we see at least 8 sixes when the die

is really fair. Typically we want the test size to be small. If this is large we

might want to change the decision rule.

Suppose we perform the experiment and we see that 10 out of the 30 rolls are

sixes. The p-value would be the probability of at least 10 sixes (our data or

more extreme) when the die is fair. The smaller the p-value is, the stronger

the evidence against the null hypothesis.

- 2nd semUploaded byRj Yash
- 214534 1 StatisticsUploaded byAbbi Yudha Mahendra
- Workshop on Data analysis using SPSS and AMOSUploaded byRamanathan KV
- BiostatFinalsWithANSWERS KEYUploaded byRodin Paspasan
- 4.Kaleab Kebede_39-47Uploaded byiiste
- Guided-Discovery Learning Strategy and Senior School Students Performance in Mathematics in Ejigbo, NigeriaUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Risk ToleranceUploaded byAshok Venkata
- q.t mcqsUploaded byWaseem Ahmed
- Hypothesis Testing.docxUploaded byFarzana Alamgir
- Hypothesis TestingUploaded byPriyank Gupta
- Cp & PpUploaded bydvprajapati454539334
- SampleFinal IslamUploaded byTriMapTrimapcase
- All Exams-For IIMR (1)Uploaded byahujadeepti2581
- HypothesisUploaded byVenkatachalam Mohanasundaram
- The TUploaded byNurul Rizal
- iet 603 700 forum 9Uploaded byapi-285292212
- Stat ReportUploaded bymukul
- Introduction to Null Hypothesis Significance TestingUploaded bymaenfadel
- How to Do It by HandUploaded bytheone1989
- lecture 8Uploaded byJung Yoon Song
- analytical reportUploaded byapi-249020821
- hypothesis testing lecture4.pptxUploaded byYasir Khan
- Statistical_Analysis_Using_JASP_Frequent.pdfUploaded bymbfreesdb
- Ch14Uploaded byVighnesh Vel
- is_3_ex.pdfUploaded byZairah Francisco
- GRAPH 2Uploaded byFatin Nurina Mohd Nazemi
- sw652 course goals evidence by backward design 2junel2010Uploaded byapi-97308101
- c Bo 9781139542326 a 003Uploaded byMeron Moges
- sr introdUploaded byChristine Rose Orbase
- A Bootstrap Based SpaceUploaded byAnna Ayala

- Dissertation TopicsUploaded byApollo Institute of Hospital Administration
- 3. the Pultrusion ProcessUploaded byFrank John
- Disruptive technolo.pdfUploaded byjimmyfam
- Engineering 2010Uploaded bySahand Hussain
- UPR-RP Academia and Industry Job Search for PhD Women in STEM Fields_ProgramUploaded byNatural Sciences
- E-BUSINESS – APPLICATIONS AND GLOBAL ACCEPTANCEEUploaded bygreenwind007
- Syllabus.pp106.Econ154.f15.Draft 2Uploaded byJirapat James Taechajongjintana
- Chinese Conflict Management and ResolutionUploaded byAdi Ta
- FinkelsteinUploaded byEdiawati Kusuma Devi
- Ict in Banking in UgandaUploaded byJames Baguma
- Reflection Swanson.docxUploaded byRhiza Pinto
- rational number assessment task 1- template 1Uploaded byapi-286644928
- Trends in Lab DesignUploaded bysaileesuwarnkar
- Road to Improved Tax Compliance (Philippines)Uploaded byCathyPasco
- Marketing Plan GuidelinesUploaded byrajeshiipm08
- digital unit plan- kelsey dixonUploaded byapi-256265435
- IOB PO 2011Uploaded bynrpindia
- NicolaeM PaperE RevUploaded byCătălin Șoșu
- 121410_IS_LMS2011_DM_FinalUploaded byRicha Singh
- Byungmu Ahn_Managing the Efficiency of Foreign Engineering Contracts_Managing the Efficiency of Foreign Engineering ContractsUploaded byKevin Ahn
- An_introduction_to_Carteation_Techniques_and_Degrees.pdfUploaded byespacotempo
- balcoUploaded bySumith Suresh
- 517 assessment task 1 course outlineUploaded byapi-286865403
- Nordic innovation policies for the future (Eng)/ Las políticas de innovación nórdicas para el futuro (Ing)/ Etorkizunerako berrikuntza politikak Europako iparraldean (Ing)Uploaded byEKAI Center
- Sarkar Resume NetUploaded byPartho Sarkar
- Ethics Based IssuesUploaded bystruggling_student
- week 10 lesson plan- types of writingUploaded byapi-29831576
- Project Report on Marketing Strategies oUploaded byManikanta Chintala
- Book Review - The Political Economy of Media - 11.23.09Uploaded bydaniel_c_green
- The Influence of Packaging Attributes on Consumer’s Purchase DecisionUploaded byBilal Nazeer