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April—June, 2003
Vol. XLVI, No. 1
I. S. S. N.—0002—1555
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Directorate of Marketing & Inspection
Ministry of Agriculture
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2 Agricultural Marketing
/ws4/My Documents/228M&I-Cov 2 28 M & I/2003 Mahabir Singh Fresh 1
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2. DR. G. R. BHATIA,
1. Economics of Wheat Cultivation at village Badayal
Brahaman of R. S. Pura Block in Jammu district of Jammu
and Kashmir State.
—Arun Kumar, Jagdeep Kaur Gill & Manish Sharma. 2
2. Basic Requirements for Popularizing Apiary Honey—
Consumers’ Viewpoints.
—S. K. Chauhan & S. K. Sharma 6
3. Economics of Production, Post-harvest Management and
Price Behaviour of Cole crops in Western UP—An Empirical
—M. K. Wadhwani & T. S. Bhogal 10
4. Price Spread and Marketing of Green Chillies—A case study
in Andhra Pradesh.
—G. Sunil Kumar Babu, 21
Sri Hari Naidu & Y. Eswara Prasad.
5. Marketing of Soybean in Sehore district of Madhya
—K. N. S. Banafar, A. K. Gauraha 24
V. K. Choudhary, G. N. Singh & B. C. Jain
6. Marketable Surplus of Rice and Wheat and Benefits of
Storage to the Farmers in India.
—B. R. Atteri and Geeta Bisaria. 27
7. Rearing of Male Buffalo Calves as a Meat Producer.
—Kamal Chakrabarti. 32
8. Cumin Seed Marketing in Rajasthan.
—A. L. Agrawal and Narendra Singh. 36
9. HOME NEWS: 43
(i) National sample survey: 56th Round 2000-01. House
hold consumer expenditure and Employment situa-
tion in India: Key results.
(ii) Modernization of Trade marks registry makes rapid
(iii) Shri Ajit Singh calls for correcting inadequacies in
farm education.
(iv) All Exim policy notification issued simultaneously.
(v) Workshop on extension reforms inaugurated.
The Journal may be had by sending subscription to the Controller of
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2 Agricultural Marketing
:/ws4/My Documents/228M&I-2 228 M&I/2003 Mss. 2 to 86 Page No. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh
Economics of wheat cultivation at village Badayal Brahaman of
R. S. Pura Block in Jammu district of Jammu & Kashmir State
f the 1980’s witnessed India attain self-sufficiency in food,
it was the 1990’s that earned a place for it among the major
foodgrain exporting countries. Alongwith wheat, rice has
contributed substantially to attain such an enviable position
(E. A. Siddiq, 2002).
The native Indian wheat grain is globally recognized for
its quality and has always been in demand from overseas
clients. During the later half of the 19th century, several
Indian wheat varieties were used as parental lines in Aus-
tralia, Kenya and in many countries. During the crop year
2001, India harvested 68.46 million tonnes of wheat and
for the last few years is the second largest producer of
wheat in the world. India alone produces about 13 percent
of the world wheat production. During the year 1999-2000
India exported 2,00,000 tonnes of wheat which increased to
2.37 million tonnes during the last year and it may cross 3
million tonnes this year mainly due to the growing demand
in our neighbourhood (S. Nagarajan, 2002).
Wheat is the second most consumed foodgrain of India.
It is grown in almost every state of India and the state of
Jammu & Kashmir is among one of them. During the year
2000-2001, in J & K state the total area under wheat crop
was 280.96 “000” ha and production was 1487 “000” Qts
(Digest of statistics, 2000-01).
Although the wheat crop is predominant in all districts
of the state yet Jammu is famous from the point of view of
total production. Jammu district comprises of five tehsils.
The tehsil Ranbir Singh Pura was selected purposely as it
has leading position with respect to area and production of
wheat in the district. Tehsil R. S. Pura has all the character-
istics of wheat cultivation and has considerable potential to
increase its production and yield per hectare by the intro-
duction of new inputs and improved practices of cultiva-
In order to open up new yield and income possibilities
on the farms, one needs detailed information on the level
and distribution of farm resource, their utilization pattern
and the production and income levels. This is essential for
identification of structural weaknesses needing ameliora-
tion. Similarly, information on cropping pattern cost and
returns from wheat crop on farms of different sizes is
essential for evaluating the scope of introducing new crop
production technologies in the area. Therefore an attempt
has been made to study and analyse the economic profit-
ability (cost structure and return obtained) from wheat
cultivation on different categories of sampled farm of
village Badayal Brahaman of R. S. Pura tehsil of district
Limitation of the study: The present study is based on
some limitations that there is no influence of farm size on
the cost of cultivation and cost of production of wheat crop.
2) The farm size has no influence on the crop yield, total
return and net return and input-output ratio is directly
related to size of farm.
The study is based on primary data collected from the farm-
ers of Village Badayal Brahaman of tehsil Ranbir Singh Pura
by personal interview method, related to the year 2000-2001.
The farm-size holding groups in this study were:
I. Below 2 hectare of land, small farmer,
II. 2-4 hectare of land, medium farmer.
III. Above 4 hectare of land, large farmer.
Simple statistical tools like percentage and averages
were employed on the collected data to achieve the stipu-
lated objectives of the present investigation.
Results & Discussion
The details of land use pattern regarding the number of
farms selected, total cultivated area in hectares average size
of the farm, average irrigated area etc. of farm size groups
of Village Badayal Brahaman of R. S. Pura Block of
Jammu district are depicted in Table 1. According to the
results of the study, the average size of the farm worked out
to be 2.62 ha, it being 1.94 ha, in small, 2.67 ha, in medium
and 4. 17 ha, in large.
Table 1
Average land use pattern of farm size groups in the study area
Particulars Small Medium Large All farms
1 2 3 4 5
No. of selected farm 25 15 5 45
Total cultivated area in 48.5 40.5 20.81 109.36
different size groups (ha)
Average size of the farm (ha) 1.94 2.67 4.17 2.62
Average irrigated area 48.5 40.05 20.81 109.36
*From Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra and **Assistant Professors, Division of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, S.K.U.A.S.T.-
J, R.S. Pura, Jammu.
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1 2 3 4 5
Average un-irrigated area — — — —
Total % of irrigated area 100 100 100 100
Percentage of area under
different sources
a. Tubewell/pumpset 14.98 19.77 16.82 17.13
b. Canal 85.02 80.23 83.18 82.87
Cropped area per farm (ha) 3.90 5.98 8.84 5.55
Cropping intensity 201.03 223.97 211.99 210.47
The total cultivated acreage in the study area was worked
out to be 48.5, 40.05 and 20.81 ha. in case of small
medium and large size groups respectively. All the culti-
vated area under different size groups is irrigated. There
were no un-irrigated areas in any of the size groups. It
means all farms have their area fully irrigated. The table 1
further showed that the percentage of total irrigated area
covered by canal comes out to be 82.87 per cent. It is 85.02
per cent in small, 80.23 per cent in medium and 83.18 per
cent in large group. The tubewell/pumpset covered 17.13
per cent of the total irrigated area on the all farms. It was
14.98, 19.77 and 16.82 per cent on small, medium and
large farms sizes respectively due to the cheap source of
irrigation more then 82 per cent farmers irrigated their
farms by the canal. Where canal water irrigation is not
available for irrigation some farmers irrigated their farms
by the tubewell/pumpset.
The average cropping intensity on all the farms came
out to be 210.47 per cent, which was maximum 223.97
per cent in medium size groups and lowest 201.3 per
cent in small size group of farms. The cropping intensity
is highest on the medium size farm because farmers of
this group made use of all the available resources more
efficiently than others.
Cropping pattern
The information regarding area under different crops
and their percentage to the total cropped area is pre-
sented in Table-2. The above table shows that the aver-
age cropped area on all the farms during the study pe-
riod was 555 hactare. Out of the total cropped area Kharif,
Rabi and Zaid crops occupied about 37.95, 49.56 and
12.56 per cent of the total cropped area respectively.
Within the different farm size groups the total cropped
area came to 3.90 in small size groups, 5.98 in medium
and 8.84 ha in large size farm groups. Paddy and wheat
were the main crops of the respective season occupied
about 27 per cent and 39 per cent of the total cropped
area. In Kharif season overall per farm area under maize
0.05 hactare which shows downward trend with the farm
size. While the cash crops indicated the reverse trend
area under these crops varies with the farm size. In Rabi
season wheat occupied about 38% of crop area in overall
farms while it was 39.49, 37.46 and 37.78 percent of
total cropped area in small, medium and large farms re-
Table 2
Distribution of crops and their percentage of the total cropped
Crop Small Medium Large Overall
Maize 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.05
(1.03) (1.00) (0.90) (0.90)
Paddy 1.05 2.14 3.34 1.86
(26.92) (35.79) (37.78) (33.51)
Other cash crops 0.39 0.53 0.85 0.53
(10.00) (8.86) (9.62) (9.55)
T. Kharif 1.48 2.73 4.27 2.44
(37.95) (45.65) (48.30) (43.96)
Wheat 1.54 2.24 3.34 2.12
(39.49) (37.46) (37.78) (38.20)
Oilseeds 0.31 0.40 0.63 0.40
(7.95) (6.69) (7.13) (7.21)
Others 0.08 0.08 0.13 0.09
(2.05) (1.37) (1.47) (1.62)
T. Rabi 1.93 2.72 4.10 2.61
(49.56) (45.48) (46.38) (47.03)
Zaid Moong 0.49 0.53 0.47 0.50
(12.56) (8.86) (5.32) (9.01)
Total 3.90 5.98 8.84 5.55
(100) (100) (100) (100)
Note. Figures in the parentheses indicate percentage.
About 9 per cent of the overall cropped area occupied
by the moong in Zaid season. The percentage area under
moong decreases as the farm size increases.
Per hectare item-wise cost of wheat cultivation
Table 3 gives the per hectare expenditure on various
inputs used in the production of wheat crop, the table
reveals that the per hectare overall total cost (Cost C)
was Rs. 13362.31, which varies from Rs. 12993.53 on
small farms to Rs. 13577.39 on medium farm size group.
There was not much difference in the overall cost in
between large and medium farm size groups. Rental value
of land, value of human labour were the items occupy-
ing maximum share in total cost followed by value of
machine labour and value of manure and fertilizers, value
of seed and interest in fixed capital.
4 Agricultural Marketing
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Table 3
Item-wise break-up cost of cultivation of wheat crop.
Size groups Overall
Item Small Medium Large
Value % Value % Value % Value %
(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)
1. Human labour
a. Family 1214.58 9.35 1408.75 10.38 678.00 5.03 1110.79 8.31
b. Hired 354.58 2.73 558.50 4.11 1424.00 10.57 761.17 5.70
Total 1569.16 12.08 1967.25 14.49 2102.00 15.60 1871.96 14.01
2. Bullock 427.00 3.29 450.76 3.32 177.81 1.32 357.32 2.67
3. Seed 971.41 7.48 671.87 4.95 852.09 6.33 834.37 6.24
4. Manure & fertilizers 1572.14 12.10 1476.52 10.87 1209.00 8.98 1428.35 10.69
5. Machinery 1346.08 10.36 1487.50 10.96 1655.50 12.29 1493.93 11.80
6. Irrigation charges 287.00 2.21 290.00 2.04 272.00 2.02 283.83 2.12
7. Interest on working 185.18 1.43 184.02 1.36 188.05 1.40 186.10 1.39
Total variable cost 6357.97 48.93 6527.92 48.08 6456.45 47.94 6455.86 48.31
Land revenue 20.40 0.16 40.40 0.30 50.50 0.37 36.09 0.27
Interest on fixed capital 590.06 4.54 712.22 5.25 669.35 4.97 657.46 4.92
Depreciation on fixed 525.10 4.04 626.85 4.62 591.13 4.39 581.30 4.35
Rental value of land 5500 42.33 5670 41.76 57.00 42.33 5631 42.16
Total fixed cost 6635.56 51.07 7049.47 51.92 7010.98 52.06 6906.45 51.69
Total cost 12993.53 100 13577.39 100 13467.43 100 13362.31 100
Wheat crop is a labour intensive crop, therefore, besides
rental value of land, value of human labour ranked second
in the total cost. Cost of family labour was found maxi-
mum in medium farm size group i.e. 1038 per cent, while
or small and large farms it was 9.35 and 5.03 per cent
respectively. While values hired human labour was maxi-
mum on large farms in comparison to other two categories
of farms and varies inversely with the farm size. Similarly,
value of machine labour use was highest Rs.1655.50 on
large farms and lowest on small farm size group, which
indicate the extent of mechanization on different farm size
groups in the production of wheat crop. Percentage share of
seed to the total cost varies inversely with the farm size
with exception in medium farm size group where it was
found minimum. the fixed costs such as land revenue,
rental value of land and depreciation on fixed costs capital
showed increasing trend with the farm size.
Table 4
Cost concept-wise break-up of per hectare cost of cultivation
Category Cost A Cost B Cost C Cost C
Small 5688.89 11778.95 12993.53 14292.88
Medium 5786.42 12168.64 13577.39 14935.13
Large 6420.08 12789.43 13467.43 14814.17
Overall 5963.06 12251.52 13362.31 14698.54
The table shows the cost concept-wise break-up of
hectare cost of cultivation of wheat crop. It reveals from
the table that the overall expenditure C
(total cost + mana-
gerial cost) of wheat crop in the study area worked out to
April—June, 2003 5
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Rs. 14698.54, it being Rs. 5963.66, Rs. 122251.52 and
Rs.13362.31 on small, medium and large farms respec-
tively. An overall average total cost (cost C) was found
maximum Rs. 13577.39 on medium farms followed by
large (Rs. 13467.43) and small (Rs. 12993.53) farm size
group. It can also be observed from the table that cost C
and C
were highest on medium farms as compared to
small and large farms size group. While on the other hand
cost A, cost B varies with the farm size.
Table 5
Per hectare value of production
(in Rs.)
Size group Value of main Value of bye Total value
product product
Small 18698.40 5379.00 24077.40
Medium 20020.00 5622.00 25642.00
Large 19404.00 5536.50 24940.50
Overall 19443.20 5529.00 24972.20
It can be observed from the above table that the total
value of the production of wheat crop per hectare was
highest on medium farms i.e. Rs. 25642 while the overall
average value of produce, main as well as bye-product
came to Rs. 19443.20 and Rs. 5529 respectively.
It can be observed from the table that medium size
group obtained maximum gross returns from the cultivation
of wheat followed by large and small farm size groups.
Income Pattern of Wheat Crop
The relevant criteria of success or failure of the farm
business from farmer’s point of view is cost of cultivation
incurred and the returns that he is earning from his own
resources. In fact, profit and loss in the farm business can
be estimated by comparing the cost and return farm income
of wheat crop from different farm size groups is presented
in the following table.
Table 6
Income Pattern of Wheat Crop on differnt farm size groups
Farm size group Small Medium Large Overall
Cost of production 332.39 326.16 332.67 330.00
Gross income (Rs./ha.) 24077.40 25642.00 24940.50 24972.20
Farm Business income 18338.51 19855.58 18520.42 19009.14
Family labour income 12298.45 13473.36 12151.07 12720.68
Net income (Rs./ha) 9784.52 10706.87 10126.33 10273.66
Farm investment income 15874.58 17089.09 16495.68 16562.12
Input-output ratio 1:1.68 1:1.72 1:1.68 1:1.70
The overall cost of production of wheat crop worked out
to Rs. 330 per quintal on overall farms, being Rs. 332.39,
Rs. 326.16 and Rs. 332.67 on small, medium and large
farm size group respectively looking into per hectare farm
business income, family labour income, net income and
farm investment income. These were highest on medium
farm size group followed by large and small farm size
groups, except family labour income which was higher on
small farms than large farm size group.
The input-output ratio was also found to be highest on
medium farm size group that is 1:1.72 while it was just
same on the large and small farm size groups. The overall
average input-output ratio was estimated 1:1.70.
Agriculture is still an unorganized sector consisting
mainly of small and marginal farmers and agricultural
labourers. The benefit of technological advancement in
agriculture in respect of increased productivity and
profitability have not been evenly distributed among various
category of farmers. The difference in the above parameters
among the different category of farms are mainly due to
differences in their availability to apply technology
efficiently. According to the results of the study average
size of the farm in village Badayal Brahaman is 2.62
hectare. Large farms are not large enough. Average size of
a large farm is only 4.17 hectare. The farms of the village
are privileged because of having 100 per cent of their area
irrigated and most of it having assured irrigation by canal
(area irrigated by canal is 82.87 and tubewell/pumpset is
17.13 per cent of the total irrigated area). Average cropping
intensity in the village is 210.47 per cent. Thus the cropping
intensity is very high, because of 100 per cent irrigated
area. The average area under wheat comes to about 38.20
per cent of the total cultivated area. The average cost of
production per quintal of wheat in the study area is
Rs. 330. The average yield of wheat (main product) came
to 34.72 quintals and by products (straw) is 36.86 quintal
per hectare in the village. The average net income came
to Rs. 10273.66 per hectare, farm labour income came to
Rs. 12720.68 per hectare and farm business income came
to Rs. 19009.14 per hectare in the study area.
1. E. A. Siddiq (2002) “Exploring means to adopt GM
rice”. The Hindu survey of Indian Agriculture, pp:
2. Government of Jammu & Kashmir (2002) Digest of
Statistics published by Directorate of Economics &
Statistics Planning and Development Department.
3. S. Nagarajan (2002) “Now a global commodity” The
Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture, pp: 53—62.
6 Agricultural Marketing
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Basic Requirements for Popularizing Apiary Honey—
Consumers’ Viewpoints
oney has held a high place in the esteem of mankind,
all over the world, from time immemorial. Honey is
sacred substance. It is used in all religious ceremonies,
from birth till the death as a food and as a medicine. It is
not possible to give an account even in brief, the substance
of these ancient beliefs. Therefore, this signifies the impor-
tance of honey in human life. Daily use of honey as food
ensures long and good health. Just as good manure is
essential for a good crop, quality honey is essential for a
good health and good living. Honey is sweet, refreshing,
soothing and sedative, relieves and stimulates digestion of
those with weak stomachs and loose bowels. It removes the
poisonous effects in the body.
Honey as food has been mentioned in the mythical
saying in Bible and Quran. Honey has certain nutritive and
energetic advantages like:
• better energizing action
• a mild appetizing effect
• an easier assimilation and digestion of other foods
• a desirable influence on the assimilation of cal-
cium in children
• An action of preferential retention of magnesium
which explains why children nourished with honey
Honey consists essentially of different sugars, predomi-
nantly glucose and fructose. It also contains protein, amino
acids, enzymes, organic acids, minerals, pollen and other
substances and may include sucrose, maltose, melezitose
and other oligosaccharides (including dextrin) as well as
traces of fungi, algae, yeast and other solid particles result-
ing from the process of obtaining honey.
The colour of honey varies from nearly colorless (trans-
parent) to dark brown. The consisting may be fluid, viscous
or partly to entirely crystallized. The flavour and aroma
vary, usually derived from its plant origin. According to
Kaur (1993) the average consistency of honey contain
water (17%), sucrose (1.30%), fructose (38%), glucose
(31%), other sugars (9%), total acids (0.57%), ash (0.17),
nitrogen (0.04%) and undetermined (2.92%).
Honey is standardised by Agmark authorities of Govern-
ment of India. This standard honey is called “Agmark”
honey, and is sold with sealed packed bottles with Agmark
label. The three types of grades as specified by the Agmark
authorities are Special, Grade A and standard. In all cases,
the presence of methyl furfuryl should be negative by
aniline chloride test. However, before giving the details of
properties of standardised honey it may be mentioned that,
Agmark signifies a specific period for consumption or there
is specification of expiry date. This raises certain eyebrow
since it is generally believed in India that older the honey
better for health. There is, however, no specific base behind
this belief. Ayurvedacharya Shibkali Bhattacharyaa in his
famous book Chiranjeeb Banoushadhi mentioned that older
honey normally warms up the body quickly due to the
presence of alcohol. Therefore, fixing date for honey while
packing obviously has reasoning. The chief characteristics
of three grades of honey prevalent in India are depicted in
Table 1. However, the characteristics required for table
honey in some advanced countries are shown in Table 2.
At the instance of feeeling of research team, it was
proposed to have consumers’ attitude survey covering the
important bee-keeping areas of Chamba, Kangra, Una,
Kinnaur, Shimla and Solan in Himachal Pradesh. The
results based on small sample of 25 honey consumers are
shown in Table 3. The socio-personal and economic profile
of the target group of consumers is important factor in this
regard. It can be observed from the table that larger chunk
(44%) of honey consumers fell in the middle age group of
26-40 years. The education variable showed that, honey
consumption increased with the level of education. Major-
ity (52%) of the honey consumers had graduation and
above qualification. People with no formal education also
consumed honey but their proportion was low (41%) . On
occupational front the study observed that majority of
honey consumers were agriculturists (48%), followed by
service class (40%) and businessmen (12%).
The frequency and amount of honey consumed de-
pends on several factors such as climate, health of family
members, age, educational status, nutritional status, eco-
nomic status and availability of honey in a particular
area. As far as honey consumption is concerned three
types of honey consumers were found. The table shows
that majority (56%) of the respondents consumed honey
once a week followed by 28% the daily consumers. The
proportion of honey consumers was 16 who consumed it
*Department of Agricultural Economics, H. P. Agril. University, Palampur, 176 062.
April—June, 2003 7
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once in a month. The per capita per annum honey con-
sumption on all types of households was estimated at
517 gm. The quantity consumed at a time or in one
goes, however, ranged between 5-10 gm in each and every
selected district.
The next important question was to find out the prefer-
ential traits of respondents for honey consumption. The
data in respect of preference for form, colour and type of
flora (base of honey) were collected and analysed. It is
evident from the Table 3 that 52% of consumers’ preferred
liquid honey. The proportion stood at 48% for granulated
honey. Most liking for liquid honey was due to the reason
that it can be easily taken out of the containers especially
in winter in comparison to freeze or granulated honey
which is not palatable to many consumers, It is interesting
to note that very less proportion (4%) of the sample
respondents reported its use in religious activity. This ob-
servation was in contradiction with the general feeling
where, as in every religious activity honey is used. This
response came in the context of quality of honey being
used for religious purposes; the respondents explained that
since honey is used on rare occasions in small quantity and
thus they did not count for its use significant one. On the
other hand the use of honey whatever was reported mainly
meant for maintaining good health by way of protecting
themselves against certain diseases.
Table 1
Characteristics of Agmark Honey
Sl. Characteristies Grade of Honey
No. Special Grade ‘A’ Standard
1. General Characteristies Well ripened natural pro- Natural ripened product, extract- Natural well ripened product ex
duct, extracted with mach- ed with machine/extractor, free tracted with machine/ extractor,
ine (extractor) free from from objectionable flavour/aroma free from objectionable flavour/
objectionable flavour/aroma,
free from foreign matter
2. Colour Light to dark brown
3. Specific gravity at 27°C 1.40 1.40 1.35
4. Sucrose per cent (Max) 5.00 5.00 5.00
5. Ash per cent (Max) 0.50 0.50 0.50
6. Moisture per cent (Max) 20.00 22.00 25.00
7. Total reducing sugars per cent (Min) 65.00 65.0 65.00
8. Fructose/Glucose ratio (Max) 0.00 0.95 0.95
9. Acidity (calculated as formic acid) 0.20 0.20 0.20
per cent (Max)
10. Fiche’s test Negative Negative Negative
11. Aniline chloride Negative Negative Negative
12. Hydroxyl-methyl furfural ppm (Max) 30 40 40
The colour of honey is another important trait contribut-
ing towards its preference. The honey was normally avail-
able with four colours: the transparent, red, brown and yel-
lowish. The analysis reveals that on an average brown colour
was largely (44%) preferred. Regarding the choice for type
of honey, multiflora base honey preferred most by 76% of
honey consumers. Mono flora based honey was hardly avail-
able with the beekeepers as this is to be obtained mostly un-
der controlled conditions, yet 24% of the honey consumers
expressed their choice for mono flora honey.
Table 2
Characteristics Required for Table Honey in Some countries*
Sl. Component or test Value acceptable
1 2 3
1. Moisture content 18% or less
2. Sucrose content 3% or less
1 2 3
3. Reducing sugar as invest sugar 7% or more
4. Dextrin’s 5% or less
5. Acidity or meg/Kg 5% or less
6. Ash Between 0.1 and 0.25%
7. Water-insoluble in the solids 0.1% or less
8. Diastege, Gothe test Between 8 and 10
9. Fiche reaction Negative
10. HMF 40 ppm or less
11. Lund reaction, precipitate Between 0.6 and 3%
12. Lugol reaction Negative
13. Trace metals Below certain limits
14. Polarimetry Laboratory between-21
and 2
*Values acceptable in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Latin America,
New Zealand, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Spain, france, U.S.A.,
Italy, Mexico, Sweden and United Kingdom.
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The price of honey is an important issue in the policy
decisions. The price of honey depends on various factors of
which cost of production, demand and supply situations
and cost of production plus mark up margin are important.
The information gathered on these aspects reveal that 44%
of consumers held their view in favour of fixing price
which may take care of cost of honey production and mark
up margin. Strong opinion with regard to this factor was
given by consumers of Kangra district (H. P.) from where
most of the bee-keepers formed part of detailed study
conducted on economic aspects of 200 sample migratory
and stationary bee-keepers.
Table 3
Socio-Personal and Economic Characteristics of Honey Consumers
Sl. Characteristics Category No. of Percentage
No. respondents
1. Age (i) Young (upto 25 years) 6 24.00
(ii) Middle (26-40 years) 11 44.00
(iii) Semi old (41-60 years) 5 44.00
(iv) Old (Above 60) 3 12.00
2. Education (i) Illitrate 1 4.00
(ii) Primary School 3 12.00
(iii) Middle School 3 12.00
(iv) High School 5 20.00
(v) Graduate and above 13 52.00
3. Occupation (i) Agriculture 12 48.00
(ii) Service 10 40.00
(iii) Business 3 12.00
4. Consumption of Frequency
honey (i) Daily 7 28.00
(ii) Weekly 14 56.00
(iii) Monthly 4 16.00
(i) Curing cough 12 48.00
(ii) Curing asthma 1 4.00
(iii Other ailments 12 52.00
5. Preferential trait for Form of honey
honey consumption (i) Granulated 12 48.00
(ii) Liquid 13 52.00
Colour of honey
(i) Transparent 5 20.00
(ii) Red 2 8.00
(iii) Brown 11 44.00
(iv) Yellow 7 28.00
Type of honey
(i) Mono-flora 6 24.00
(ii) Multiflora 19 76.00
6. Factors governing haney’s price (i) Cost of production 5 20.00
(ii) Demand and supply 9 36.00
(iii) Cost of production plus 11 44.00
markup of profit margin
7. Consumer’s view points (i) advertisement 2 8.00
for raising the demand (ii) Creation of Awareness 22 88.00
for honey (iii) Provision of subsidy 2 8.00
(iv) Quality standard 3 12.00
(v) Marketing in suitable packs 3 12.00
Demand for a commodity depends on various factors
which includes beside prices, the income, price of related
goods, advertisement, subsidy, quality standard and pack-
ing in convenient/suitable packs etc. the information on
such variables was collected and views of honey consumers
were analysed. It can be seen from Table 3 that majority
(88%) of the consumers favoured to go in for creating
awareness vigorously among the people about its uses
through personal motivations. This means that creating
awareness should be accorded the top most priority to
raise the demand for honey which may lead to dispose of
the unsold stocks of honey if any quickly thus stimuli to
April—June, 2003 9
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bee-keepers. Supply of honey at subsidised rates to con-
sumers was also addressed by 8% consumers. advertise-
ment, quality standard (Agmark honey) and packing in
suitable packs of 100 gms, 500 gms and 1 kg were the
other suggestions put forth by honey consumers in ulti-
mately raising demand for honey locally and nationally.
Since in India the honey consumption is too low (2-3 gms/
capita/annum) in comparison to about 1Kg in certain deve-
loped nations like Germany.
Ghose, G K (1994). Bee-keeping in India. Ashish Publish-
ing House, New Delhi.
Kaur, S (1993). Honey and other bee products marketing
& exports potential. In first national conference on bee-
keeping, 75-78.
Mishra, R. C. (1995). Honey bees and their management in
India. ICAR, New Delhi.
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Economics of Production, Post-Harvest Management and Price
Behaviour of Cole Crops in Western U.P.—An Empirical
ndia is the second largest producer of vegetables in the
world.The present level of production (82.7 MT) is not
sufficient to meet our domestic demand. According to an
estimate we require to produce about 160 MT of vegetables
by the end of X five year plan. The projections are quite
optimistic considering the climatic variations and adoption
of different vegetable crops to diverse agro-climatic condi-
tions, availability of wide genetic resource of resistance,
varying production system and a strong research network
which have to create the plateform for raising their produc-
tion and productivity. The vegetables being perishable in
nature, post-harvest management is vital to reduce the gap
between production and net availablity.
The vegetable production of late has become very spe-
cialised and commercial due to their increasing export
potential, rising domestic demand, providing better em-
ployment and income opportunities in view of being labour
intensive and remunerative. Production of most of the
vegetables is seasonal and highly localised is favoured
agro-climatic situation. The seasonal gluts are, therefore,
common phenomenon in the assembling markets during
normal production seasons resulting in price fluctuation
which has definite bearing upon the rationality of decisions
by growers as well as traders.
The cole crops reduce the risk of cancer, particularly
cancer of alimentary canal and respiratory tract. The cole
crops, a very important group of winter season vegetables,
includes cauliflower, cabbage, Khol rabi, broccoli, Brussels
sprouts and chinese cabbage. Of these, cauliflwer and
cabbage are the two most important winter vegetables
grown in India. In India, the total area under cauliflower
and cabbage was 220 and 218 thousand hactares with the
annual production of 2474 and 3861 thousand tonnes,
respectively in the year 1996-97.
In view of the above situation, the study had been
conducted with following specific objectives :
1. To study the cost of cultivation and production of
cauliflower and cabbage.
2. To study the temporal price behaviour and price-
quantity relationship of the two vegetables.
The study pertains to the crop year 1997-98.
Methodological framework
The primary as well as secondary data were used to
accomplish the objectives. the time series secondary data
on arrivals and prices were collected from the APMC,
Bareilly, the representative vegetable market of the Western
region of U. P. Whereas, the primary data were collected
from the sample vegetable growers selected randomly us-
ing multi-stage random sampling technique. At the first
stage, one principal vegetable market namely, APMC
Bareilly, based on annual arrival of vegetables, was
selected. At the second stage of sampling, two important
primary markets namely Naryawal and Devehara were
selected from the nine primary feeding markets. Further at
the third stage of sampling, 4 villages (2 near the road and
2 atleast 3 kms away from road) were selected purposively
from the area of each primary markets. considering the
status of vegetable production. Thus 8 villages were se-
lected for present investigation. Finally 80 sample vegeta-
ble growers were selected randomly at the rate of 10
growers from each village. The growers were selected in
proportion to their size group. The cross-sectional data
were collected from the sample vegetable growers through
personal interview with the help of specific pre-tested
schedules and questionnaires.
Analytical procedure
For the analysis of economics of production, cost of
cultivation and return were computed. The net return were
worked out over various cost concepts viz., Cost A
Cost B
, Cost B
, Cost C
Cost C
, and Cost C
by the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices
(CACP), Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Govt. of
The profitability level in farming business is largely
determined by the efficiency with which the farmers are
able to allocate and utilize the resources at their command.
The resource use efficiency in vegetable production was
estimated by the following Cobb-Douglas model of pro-
duction function.
Y = £.x
. x
. x
. x
. x
. x
. x
Jr. Scientist-cum-Asstt. Prof. (Agril. Econ.), Bihar Agril. College, Sabour.
Associate Professor (Agril. Econ.), GBPUA &T, Pantnagar.
April—June, 2003 11
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where, Y = Yield (per ha)
= human labour (days/ha)
= expenses on land preparation (Rs/ha)
= Farm yard manure (qtl./ha)
=Chemical fertilizer (kgs/ha)
= Plant protection (Rs/ha)
= Seedling (Rs/ha)
= Irrigation (nos)
£ = Constant
bi = Elasticity of ith resource (i = 1, 2,----7)
u = random disturbance term, N (0, 6
The function was estimated using the Ordinary Least Squares
(OLS) technique. The marginal value products (MVPs) of
the resources were estimated as—
The partial derivative of Y with respect to X
= a.b
– – – – – –x
= (a b
– – – – x
= a.Y/X1
By definition, dY/dX
= Marginal
Physical Product of X
Y/X1 = Average Physical Product of X
∴ MVPx
= MPPx
= In general, for the i
The efficiency of resource use was estimated by comparing
the MVPs of resources with their respective acquisition
costs and the statistical significance as–
t cal = (MVP
Where, SE (MVP
) = √AVP
Post-Harvest Management
The level of profitability of commercial vegetable
production depends much on proper harvesting, handling
and marketing. The post-harvest managment was analysed
in terms of grading, packing, storage, transportation and
sale pattern of cauliflower and cabbage at growers’ level.
The post-harvest losses were also analysed. These were
estimated at farm level, wholesale & retail level.
The Price Behaviour
The analysis was carried out on monthly statistics on
wholesale prices of cauliflower and cabbage obtained from
APMC, Bareilly for a period of ten years, i.e. from 1988 to
1997 using a multiplicative model of following form—
= S
. T
. Ct . I
Where, P
= time seried statistics on prices.
= Seasonal variation.
= Trend component.
= Cyclical variation.
= Irregular variation.
The seasonality was decomposed using moving average
method. Then the trend equation was decomposed estimated
from the deseasonalised series by estimating the following
trend equation—
Y = a + b.t
Where, Y = Deseasonal price series
t = Time (t = 1,2,3,...120).
The trend values were estimated with the help of trend
equations obtained. Finally the deseasonalised series was
divided by the trend values to have cyclical variations as a
residual therein.
Results and Discussion
The cost of cultivation and economics of production of
cauliflower and cabbage has been worked out separately
and presented in tables 1 & 2, respectively. It has been
estimated categorywise.
The cost of cultivation and economics of production of
cauliflower has been illustrated in table 1(a) and table 1(b),
respectively. The table 1(b) reveals that the cost of production
of cauliflower was highest (Rs. 155.00 per qtl) on large
farms followed by medium and small farms. The overall
average cost of cultivation (cost C
) was estimated as Rs.
22835 per ha. the average yield was found to be maximum
(Rs. 158 qtl/ha) on small farms and the minimum (Rs. 130
qtl/ha) on large size farms.
The analysis for cabbage has been presented in tables
2(a) and 2(b). It was found to be grown by the sample
small and medium farmers only. The table reveals that the
small farmers could obtain higher yield (Rs. 226 qtls/ha)
than the medium farmers (Rs. 216 qtls/ha). The table 2(a)
shows that on an average about 76 per cent of Cost C
incurred on material cost out of which the operational cost
accounts for 41 per cent. On an average, the crop yielded
a net profit of Rs. 36366 per ha at the cost of production
of Rs. 22786 per ha at Cost C
Table 2(b).
Resource use Efficiency
The Cabb-Douglas form of production function was
estimated taking per hectare yield as dependent variable
and per hectare use of human labour, land preparation,
FYM, chemical fertilizers, seed/seedling and number of
irrigations as independent variables. The results of estimated
function and MVPs of input used in production of
cauliflower and cabbage are presented in the table 3.
The coefficient of multiple determination (R
) of the
Cauliflower and Cabbage shows that 33 and 36 per cent
variability in production of these two crops is explained by
the variables included in the model. The human labour and
FYM was found influencing the production of both crops
12 Agricultural Marketing
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Table 1 (a)
Cost of cultivation of Cauliflower
Category of vegetable growers Overall
Sl. No. Particulars Small Medium Large average
1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Operational cost
(i) Family labour 6946.89 1543.75 771.88 5398.42
(ii) Hired labour 132.03 5403.15 6946.90 1771.82
(iii) Machinery 385.94 385.94 385.94 385.94
Total Operational Cost 7464.86 7332.84 8104.72 7551.18
(37.79) (32.92) (33.96) (36.40)
2. Material Cost
(i) Seed 1659.53 1559.53 1459.53 1559.53
(ii) Manure & Fertilizers 3187.37 4723.88 5495.76 3716.72
(iii) Plant protection chemicals 1507.19 1543.75 1389.38 1480.79
(iv) Irrigation 1421.05 1235.20 1930.00 1438.83
Total Material cost 7775.14 9162.36 10274.67 8195.87
(39.36) (41.13) (43.05) (39.48)
3. Total Working Cost 15240.00 16495.20 18579.39 15752.05
(77.15) (74.14) (77.85) (75.88)
4. Other Costs
(i) Depreciation 716.66 1763.16 1265.42 992.56
(ii) Interest on working cost. 883.92 956.72 1077.60 919.42
(iii) Land revenue 17.33 17.33 17.33 17.33
(iv) Rental value of land 2666.67 2666.67 2666.67 2666.67
(v) Interest on value of own capital 247.10 367.39 277.54 328.62
Total Cost 4531.68 5771.27 5304.56 4924.74
(22.94) (25.94) (22.22) (23.72)
5. Total cost of cultivation
(i) Cost A
= A
9911.02 17688.66 20167.86 12382.94
(ii) Cost B
10158 18056.05 20445.40 12711.56
(iii) Cost B
12807.46 20705.39 13094.74 15360.90
(iv) Cost C
17105.01 19599.80 21217.28 18109.98
(v) Cost C
19754.35 22249.14 23866.62 20759.32
(vi) Cost C
21729.79 24474.05 26253.28 22835.25
Figures in parenthesis show per cent of Cost C
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Table 1 (b)
Economics of production of Cauliflower
Category of vegetable growers Overall
Item Unit Small Medium Large average
Yield Qtl/ha 158.13 138.94 129.85 149.65
Average price received Rs/qtl 268.45 325.00 325.00 281.52
Marketing cost Rs/qtl 30.15 36.11 35.67 33.79
Net price received Rs/qtl 238.30 288.89 289.33 247.73
Cost of production Rs/qtl.
= A
62.68 127.31 155.32 82.74
64.24 129.96 157.45 84.95
80.99 149.02 177.86 102.65
108.17 141.07 163.40 121.01
124.93 160.14 183.80 138.72
137.42 176.15 202.18 152.59
Net return over Rs/qtl
= A
175.62 161.58 134.01 164.99
174.06 158.93 131.88 162.78
152.31 139.87 111.47 145.08
130.13 147.82 125.93 126.72
113.37 128.75 105.53 109.01
100.88 112.74 87.15 95.14
Net return over Rs/ha
= A
27770.79 22449.93 17401.20 24690.75
27524.11 22081.73 17124.62 24360.03
24875.43 19433.54 14474.38 21711.22
20577.46 17888.53 13703.07 16313.35
17927.20 20538.11 16352.01 18963.65
15952.15 15664.10 11316.43 14237.70
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Table 2 (a)
Cost of cultivation of Cabbage (Rs./ha.)
Category of vegetable growers Overall
Sl. No. Particulars Small Medium Large average
1. Operational cost
(i) Family labour 6632.96 6946.89 — 6803.19
(ii) Hired labour 1195.16 1531.46 1363.31
(iii) Machinery 383.06 385.94 384.61
Total Operational Cost 78211.18 8864.29 8554.11
(41.08) (41.16) (41.29)
2. Material Cost
(i) Seedling 1647.18 1659.53 1666.72
(ii) Manures & Fertilizers 2938.19 2671.31 2933.35
(iii) Plant protection chemicals 1379.03 1389.38 1395.39
(iv) Irrigation 1281.52 1235.20 1260.47
Total Material Cost 7245.92 6955.60 7255.93
(36.25) (32.30) (35.03)
3. Total Working Cost 15457.10 15819.89 15810.04
(77.34) (73.46) (76.32)
4. Other Costs
(i) Depreciation 716.66 1763.16 992.56
(ii) Interest on working cost. 896.51 917.55 916.98
(ii) Land revenue 17.33 17.33 17.33
(iv) Rental value of land 2666.67 2666.67 2666.67
(v) Interest on value of own capital 247.10 367.39 328.62
Total Cost 4544.27 5732.10 4005.18
(22.74) (26.62) (19.33)
5. Total cost of cultivation
(i) Cost A
= A
10457.64 11570.86 10933.72
(ii) Cost B
10704.74 11938.25 11262.34
(iii) Cost B
13354.08 14587.59 13911.68
(iv) Cost C
17337.70 18885.14 18065.53
(v) Cost C
19987.64 21534.48 20714.87
(vi) Cost C
21985.74 23687.93 22786.36
Figures in parenthesis show per cent of Cost C
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Table 2 (b)
Economics of production of Cabbage
Category of vegetable grower Overall
Item Unit Small Medium Large average
Yield Qtl/ha 225.85 216.13 — 220.95
Average price received Rs/qtl 277.93 300.00 — 280.84
Marketing cost Rs/qtl 13.29 12.00 — 13.12
Net price received Rs/qtl 264.64 288.00 — 267.72
Cost of production Rs/qtl.
= A
46.30 53.54 — 49.49
47.40 55.24 — 50.97
59.13 67.49 — 62.96
76.77 87.38 — 81.76
88.50 99.64 — 93.75
97.35 109.60 — 103.13
Net return over Rs/qtl.
= A
218.34 234.46 — 218.23
217.24 232.76 — 216.75
205.51 220.51 — 204.76
187.87 200.62 — 185.96
176.14 188.36 — 173.97
167.29 178.40 — 164.59
Net return over Rs/qtl.
= A
49312.09 50673.84 — 48217.92
49063.65 50306.42 — 47890.91
46414.43 47658.83 — 45241.72
42430.44 43360.00 — 41087.86
39781.22 40710.25 — 38438.67
37782.45 38557.59 — 36366.16
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Table 3
Estimated production function and MVPs of Cauliflower and Cabbage in Western U.P.
Crop Item Constant Regression Coefficients (bi) of
Human Land FYM Chemical Plant Seed/ Irrigation
labour preparation (qha
) fertilizer protection seedling (nos)
(days/ha) (Rs.ha
) (Rs.ha
) (Rs.ha
) (Rs.ha
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Cauliflower b -632.95 0.3719** — 0.2561** -0.5552** — — —
SE(b) 0.2931 0.2464 0.2323
MVP 116.5741** 89.3571** -159.8637**
ASC 50.00 10.00 1.00
= 0.33 n = 33
Cabbage b -4529.80 0.3315** — 0.2102** 626.55 — -13.9656** —
SE(b) 0.2503 0.1217 699.99 6.577
MVP 106.7914** 61.8176*** — -2797.2808**
AC 50.00 10.00 1.0
= 0.36 n = 22
AC = Acquisition cost of input (Rs. ha
*, ** and *** denote 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 per cent level of significance.
significantly. The MVPs were also significant thereby
implying that the per ha yield of these could be increased
economically by increasing the use of these inputs. this
shows the labour intensive nature of these crops. the chemical
fertilizers were also found significantly influencing the
yield of both the crops, though the sign was negative in
cauliflower, indicating excessive use of it. The coefficient
of cost of seedling was found influencing negatively the
yield of cabbage. The MVP was also negatively significant,
indicating its excessive use.
Post-Harvest Management
The vegetables come in different forms in terms of parts
consumed thereof. They are living organisms which
contribute to their gradual deterioration. Therefore, the
skillful post-harvest management by the vegetable growers
is of great importance. The post-harvest management
practices such as grading, packing, transportation etc.
performed by the sample growers have been analysed and
presented in tables 4(a), 4(b) & 4(c) respectively.
The scientific grading in vegetables except potato is yet
to be popularised in our Country. The growers were found
grading Cauliflower, Cabbage according to the variety,
size, insect-pest affected etc. before disposing to the market.
The table 4(a) reveals that most of the quantity (above 95
per cent) of the two vegetables was graded by the growers.
The cost of grading of Cauliflower was estimated as about
Rs. 20.00 per quintal with the maximum cost of Rs. 23.00
per quintal on large farms, while that of the Cabbage it was
estimated as about Rs. 17.00 per quintal.
The cost of packing has been presented in table 4(b).
The Cauliflower & Cabbage were transported in open as
well as in thin gunny bags depending upon the distance of
the market. The table indicates the maximum cost of
packing of cauliflower as about Rs. 25 per qtl on small
farms followed by large farms (Rs. 23 per qtl) with the
overall average cost of packing as Rs. 20 per qtl. The cost
of packing of Cabbage was estimated as about Rs. 17 per
The transportation is the most important Post-harvest
activity which involves movement of the produce from the
farm to the consuming areas. The analysis on cost of
transportation of Cauliflower & Cabbage is shown in table
4(c). The table reveals the cost of transportation of
Cauliflowers varies from about Rs. 24 (large farms) to Rs.
18 (small farms) with an average of Rs. 20 per quintal-
while it was about Rs. 18 per quintal in case of Cabbage.
The most of the smaple growers (78 per cent) were
found selling their produce to the Wholesaler-cum-
Commission agents. None of the growers was reported to
sell either of the two vegetables to the processors in the
study area.
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Table 4 (a)
Cost of grading Cauliflower and Cabbage
Category of Production Quantity Percent Cost of grading total
vegetable qtls. graded quantity (Rs/qtls) cost of
grower qtls. graded Family Hired grading
(of production) labour labour Rs/qtls
Small 6.48 6.17 95.22 17.81 — 17.81
Medium 4.45 4.20 94.38 20.51 — 20.51
Large 45.02 44.34 98.49 9.13 20.06 23.19
Average 7.19 6.88 95.69 3.33 16.25 19.58
Small 9.49 9.16 96.52 17.19 — 17.19
Medium 2.16 2.04 94.44 18.75 — 18.78
Large — — — — — —
Average 8.34 8.04 96.40 17.47 — 17.47
Table 4 (b)
Cost of packing Cauliflower and Cabbage
Category of No. of packages Qty. per Cost of Labour cost total
farms used package packing Family Hired Total cost of
per qtl (Kgs) (Rs/qtl) packing
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Small 2.85 35.04 17.39 7.81 — 7.81 25.20
Medium 2.22 45.05 13.10 8.13 — 8.13 21.23
Large 2.63 38.02 14.47 3.12 5.94 9.06 23.53
Average 2.62 38.12 15.37 4.03 4.81 8.84 24.21
Small 2.38 42.02 13.09 7.50 — 7.50 20.56
Medium 2.50 40.00 14.38 7.81 — 7.81 22.19
Large — — — — — — —
Average 2.40 41.63 13.50 7.56 — — 21.06
Table 4 (c)
Cost of transportation
Category of Quantity Distance of Transpor- Labour used total
farm sold (qtls.) market (Km) tation (Rs/qtls) transpor-
cost Family Hired tation
(Rs/qtl) cost (Rs/qtl)
Small 6.17 3.68 10.53 7.85 — 18.46
Medium 4.20 10.00 15.00 8.30 — 23.80
Large 44.38 10.00 15.00 — 9.37 24.37
Average 6.88 4.29 10.95 1.52 7.59 20.06
Small 9.16 4.04 10.85 7.85 — 18.70
Medium 2.04 5.00 10.00 8.30 — 18.30
Large — — — — — —
Average 8.04 4.11 10.79 7.93 — 18.72
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Post-Harvest Losses
The post-harvest losses differ from region to region
depending on various climatic factors as well as the post-
harvest status. It has been estimated at producer and trader
level and presented below—
Post-Harvest Losses (per cent)
Vegetable Category of growers Trader’s Total
Small Medium Large Average level losses
Cauliflower 7.56 6.37 6.93 7.72 5.16 12.88
Cabbage 6.21 5.09 — 6.12 3.32 19.44
The results show that the total post-harvest losses of
cauliflower was 12.88 per cent with 7.72 per cent of
growers’ level and 5.16 per cent at traders’ level. The
maximum losses (7.56 per cent) were found on small
farms. The post-harvest losses of cabbage were estimated
as 6.12 per cent at growers level and 3.32 per cent at trader
level with the total of 9.44 per cent losses. In this case also
the small farms were found with more post-harvest losses.
The temporal price behaviour
The price of agricultural commodities in general and
vegetables & fruits in particular have attracted the attention
of research, planners and policy makers. The four temporal
components viz. seasonality, trend, cyclical and irregularty
are associated with variations in the prices of agricultural
commodities. The seasonal fluctuations and secular trend
play an important role in guiding the producers and the
traders in managing their production and marketing strategy.
The irregular variation in prices are mostly caused by
drought, excessive rains flood and during the festivals.
The time series data on cauliflower and cabbage were
maintained together by the APMC, Bareilly. Therefore, the
analysis was performed jointly for the two vegetables. The
prices of these two vegetabes were found maximum in the
month of September and started declining from October
onwards. The prices were again found increasing from the
month of May. The lowest prices were indicated in the
month of March (Figure 1).
Seasonal price indices of Cauliflower-Cabbage in Western U.P.
July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May June
103.75 184.64 208.53 106.35 110.54 58.94 56.63 51.02 50.25 62.78 73.83 77.92
The secular trend—It has been estimated after removing
the seasonal variations from the wholesale prices of
califlower-cabbage. The trend equation for these two P
vegetables was estimated as—
P = 3.1847 + t. (–0.0032) (r
= 0.002)
The Cyclical fluctuations
The cyclical variations in price have been esti-
mated on wholesale prices after deseasonalising and
detrending the price series. The results of the analysis
are as below—
1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
64.91 94.50 93.22 140.40 113.43 91.36 93.71 129.97 86.61 91.87
(–35.09) (–5.50) (–6.78) (+40.40) (+13.43) (–8.64) (–6.29) (+29.97) (–13.39) (–8.13)
Figures in parenthesis show deviation from 100.
The results show the prices of cauliflower-cabbage show
a regular cycle of 4 years. The results have also been shown
Temporal Relation
The direct relationship between market arrival and price
of a commodity is theorised under Citeris-paribus
assumptions. The temporal relationship between market
arrival and prices of cauliflower/cabbage was estimated by
the following linear relationships:
= a+b.P
——(1) and P
= a+b.A
Where A
= total monthly arrival,
= wholesale price in t
month (Rs./qt.)
The results of estimation was obtained as—
= 729.26 – 0.844**.P
= 0.04) — (1)
= 226.47 – 0.443**.A
= 0.04) — (2)
The perusal of equation (2) reveals that the prices of
Cauliflower/cabbage responded negatively to the arrival. The
result of equation (1) also shows that the arrival of these
vegetables respond negatively, i.e. the arrival (supply)
decrease by the increase in price and vice-versa, which
appears to be spurious. It may be due to growers enability
to withheld its supply once these are harvested because of
the perishable nature of two vegetables.
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The Cauliflower, in India, is marketed by the name of
the month they mature, like Kunwari (earlier, in Sep.-Oct.),
Katki (Oct.–Nov.), Aghani (November). Poosi (December),
Maghi (January) etc. These are highly heterogenous in
respect of all the characters, whether vegetative or curd.
The earlier are short plant, bluish green leaves with waxy
bloom and with very small to medium curds. The late ones
are long—leafed sturdy plants with somewhat better quality
curd. The cabbages cultivated are either white, red or savoy
cabbage. Of these only white cabbage is of commercial
importance in India. The white cabbages are available in 3
shapes pointed, round and flat or drumhead. Among them
round and flat headed cultivars are more popular, but the
recent trend is to grow of round varieties since the flat
cultivars are often loose and voluminous. In plains it is
mainly grown in winter season. While in higher hills and
latitudes in the hills, it is grown in cool summer and rainy
It may be concluded from ongoing analysis that the
vegetables being highly perishable, are lost after harvest
due to decay, over ripening, mechanical injury, weight loss,
trimming and spronting. The spoilage also results from the
grower’s lack of knowledge in proper post-harvest handling,
improper grading, packing, lack of storage and proper
transportation facilities contribute to low quality. The
industry being concentrated with small and marginal farmers
further aggravate the situation. Therefore, there is urgent
need of training the vegetable growers on scientific post-
harvest techniques, if the vegetable production in general is
to be sustained on profitable basis in the region. The
changing profile of urban consumers opens up opportunities
for value addition through adoption of integrated post-harvest
management and organised marketing network. Therefore,
promotion of integrated vegetable cultivation, setting up of
vegetable marketing infrastructure to facilitate co-operative
farming, formation of vegetable producers’/marketing
societies, establishment of a professional body on the lines
of HOPCOMS/NDDB or a composite structure like
MAHAGRAPES is suggested to cater the needs of million
of vegetable growers and consumers in the State.
Dhillon, P. K. and Goel, V. 1993. An analysis of the seasonal
pattern of market arrivals and prices of onion in
Ludhiana market of Punjab, Indian J. Agril. Mar.,
7(2) : 193-200.
Hinge, V. N. et al. 1984. Price supply relationship of
important vegetables in a wholesale market. Journal
of Marketing. 14(8) : 28-32.
Kasor, D. V.; Raut, R. C. and Rasane, V. S. 1996. Behaviour
of prices and arrivals of red chillies—A case study
from maharashtra. 10(3) : 78-81.
Rathore, M. S.; Bhati, J. P. and Swarup, R. 1975. Resource
use efficiency and returns from some commercial
crops of Himachal Pradesh, Agricultural Situation
in India. 30(7) : 507-509.
Thakur, D. S. et al. 1997. Market supply response and
marketing problems of farmers in the hills. Indian
J. Agrill. Econ., 52(1) : 139-150.
April—June, 2003 21
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Price Spread and Marketing of Green Chillies—A Case Study in
Andhra Pradesh
hilli is an important vegetable crop grown all over India,
not only for a huge home market, but also for export
purposes. India ranked first in the production of chillies in
the world with an area of 9,62,500 hectares and a production
of 8,21,800 tonnes. Among the chilli producing states,
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamilnadu
accounted for 75% of the total area and production. Guntur
district of Andhra Pradesh is one of the leading districts in
the production of chillies. In this paper an attempt has been
made to study the marketing pattern, price spread and also
the marketing problems associated with green chillies.
Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh was purposively
selected as green chilli is one of the major commercial
crops in the district. Multi-stage random sampling design
was adopted for the selection of ultimate units of
respondents. Guntur division was selected purposively as
*Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Agriculture College, Bapatla-522101, Guntur (A.P.).
it occupies first place both in area and production in the
district. From this division Amaravathi and Sattenappalle
mandals were selected based on area under chilli cultivation.
Again three villages from each mandal were randomly
selected to make the total of six villages and 30 farmers
were selected randomly from each village. Thus, the total
sample size was 90. The data related to channels,
intermediaries, marketing cost and margins etc. were
collected from the chilli regulated market yard, Guntur. The
cross-sectional data for different channels, producer’s
expenses etc. were collected by personal interview method
with the help of well-designed and pre-tested schedules.
The reference period for the study in 1999-2000 Agricultural
The producer’s share in consumer’s rupee is calculated
by using the following formula :
Ps = (P
) 100
Table I
Price Spread in Channel-I
Sl. No. Particulars Cost Price Percentage Share in
(Rs./Qtl.) Consumer’s Rupee
1 2 3 4
I. Net Price received by the Producer 181.53 41.48
II. Expenses incurred by the producer
a. Hamali Charges 4.55 1.04
b. Loading and unloading 1.00 0.23
c. Transportation Cost 5.33 1.22
d. Sub-total 10.88 2.49
III. Producer’s Sale Price/Village Merchant’s Purchase Price 192.41 43.96
IV. Cost incurred by the Village Merchant
a. Hamali Charges 5.60 1.28
b. Cost of bags 10.00 2.28
c. Transportation Cost 12.30 2.81
d. Market fee 2.20 0.50
e. Loss of weight and wastage @ 2% 5.05 1.15
f. Sub-total 35.15 8.03
V. Village Merchant’s Sale Price/Wholesaler’s 252.34 57.66
Purchase Price.
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1 2 3 4
VI. Village Merchant’s margin 24.78 5.66
VII. Expenses incurred by the Wholesaler
a. Hamali Charges 6.75 1.54
b. Transportation Cost 10.76 2.46
c. Commissionn Charges 16.06 3.67
d. Loss of weight and wastage @2% 7.07 1.62
e. Market fee 3.21 0.73
f. Sub-total 43.85 10.02
VIII. Wholesaler’s margin 57.18 13.06
IX. Wholesaler’s Sale Price/Retailer’s 353.37 80.74
Purchase Price
X. Cost incurred by the retailer
a. Hamali Charges 4.36 0.99
b. Transportation Cost 5.90 1.35
c. Loss of weight and wastage @2% 8.75 1.99
d. Market fee 4.02 0.92
e. Sub-total 23.03 5.26
XI. Retailer’s Margin 61.25 13.99
XII. Retailer’s Sale Price/Consumer’s Purchase Price 437.65 100.00
Price Spread 256.12 58.52
Where, Ps = Producer’s share in consumer’s rupee expressed
in Percentage.
= Retail price (Rs)
= Producer’s rupee (Rs).
Results and Discussion
Two marketing channels were identified in the study area,
as under:
Channel-I : Producer—Village Merchant—Wholesaler—
Channel- II : Producer—Local consumer.
Generally, farmers dispose of their produce immediately
after harvest due to lack of infrastructure facilities. The price
spread was calculated for the abovesaid two channels and
the results are discussed below :
From Table I, the net share of the producer in the
consumer’s rupee was very low (41.48%). It was due to the
presence of large number of intermediaries in between the
producer and the consumer. So, the farmers were not getting
good remunerative price for their produce.
Table II
Price spread in channel II
Sl. No. Particulars Cost price Percentage share in
(Rs/qtl) consumer’s rupee
1. Net price received by the producer 176.53 97.57
2. Expenses incurred by the producer
(a) Loading and unloading 2.25 1.24
(b) Transportation cost 2.40 1.33
(c) Sub-total 4.65 2.57
3. Producer’s Sale price/ Consumer’s
purchase price 180.93 100.00
Price Spread 4.40 2.43
It was due to the absence of middlemen and negligible
marketing cost.
Marketing efficiency was also calculated for the identified
to channels and the results are presented in Table III.
Table III
Marketing Efficiency of Chillies
Sl. No. Particulars Channel-I Channel-II
1. Value of goods sold 437.65 180.93
2. Marketing cost 112.91 4.65
3. Marketing efficiency 2.88 37.91
The Marketing efficiency was to be the highest in channel
II, because of the absence of intermediaries as well as of low
marketing cost (table III).
Problems associated with Marketing of Chillies
In the present study, several problems were identified
regarding the production and marketing of Chillies. The most
important constraint was the non-availability of quality seeds,
which was due to inadequate production. The other constraints
were non-availability of credit from the government and
institutional agencies, high fertilizer cost, high manurial labour
cost, lack of infrastructure like cold storage facilities, lack of
good support price and the non-existence of Regulated Market
Yards at the producing center.
Conclusions and Policy Implications
It was clear from the present study that the producer’s share
in the consumer’s rupee as well as marketing efficiency were
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high in the channel II, where there were no middlemen. But,
the majority of the farmers were forced to dispose of their
commodity to the village merchant who provided credit to
them. The main problems associated with marketing of green
chillies were, absence of cold storage structures, high
transportation cost, unawareness of market information, lack
of support price and unsatisfactory marketing arrangements.
Based on the findings of the study, the policy implications
which emerged out are (i) there is a need of installation of
cold storage structures (ii) Proper market information should
be made available to the farmers. For that, the extension
agency should be strengthened (iii) Adequate and timely
credit should be provided to the farmers. (iv) The government
should give priority for the establishment and smooth
functioning of regulated markets. (v) Production and
marketing techniques have to be integrated to reduce post-
harvest losses and (vi) The government should provide a good
support price for the produce.
Goyal, S.K., 1999. Economics of Rose cultivation and its
marketing in Sonepat district of Haryana state. Ind.
Jour. of Agril. Mktg., 13(3) : 44—51.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United
Nations), 1999. Production Year book, FAO, Rome,
Italy (53) : 346.
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Marketing of Soybean in Sehore District of Madhya Pradesh
griculture continues to be the backbone of Indian
economy which contributes about 28 per cent of national
income. The source of livelihood of about 70 per cent of
population is still agriculture. Every culture is bound to fail
tomorrow if agriculture fails today. India is major pulse
growing country in the world which occupied in area of 22.43
million hectares with the annual production of 31.1 million
tonnes. The average yield of pulse crop is 584 kg./ha which
is very low. Soybean is one of the most important pulse crops
of Madhya Pradesh. It is very rich in protein content. Its
protein content is comparable to that of milk protein, rightly
designated as “Kalptaru” had a difficult commencement in
India. However, in recent years it developed so rapidly at least,
in area that our country now amongst the top three in the
world in growth rate, the other two being Argentina and Brazil.
At present juncture, we stand satisfied but not satiated as both
the area coverage and pattern of growth represent only the
“tip of an iceberg” and absolute manifestation of real potential,
both in terms of productivity and area expansion of this, still
await to be trapped.
The major soybean growing states are Madhya Pradesh
(3.41 million ha), Maharashtra (60,000 ha), Rajasthan (35,000
ha), Uttar Pradesh (25,000 ha), Gujarat (20,000 ha) and other
states (55,000 ha). The area and production of soybean in
different states and the country show a rising trend in the
recent years. Sehore is major soybean growing district of the
state occupying 10 per cent of its area. Sehore block is an
important block of the district accounting for 30.38 per cent
of the total soybean area of the district.
Being a new crop in Madhya Pradesh, marketing facilities
have not yet been developed. Moreover, support price declared
by Government of India is based only on the cost of cultivation
and in view of lack of organized marketing the cultivators do
not get remunerative prices. Thus, the development of
infrastructure in the marketing of soybean in the state of
Madhya Pradesh is of great significant. Looking to the above
statement there is a need to study the production and marketing
of soybean in district Sehore of Madhya Pradesh. The
objectives of this study are : (i) To examine the elasticity of
production of soybean on different size groups of farms.
(ii) To examine the marketing cost and consumer share in
producer price under different marketing channels of soybean
The present study was conducted in Sehore district of
Madhya Pradesh which covers highest area under soybean in
the state. A multistage stratified random sampling was used
to select the block, cluster of village and the respondents i.e.
soybean growers. A random sample of 120 soybean growers
was selected from the universe of 12 villages of Sehore block
of district Sehore, Madhya Pradesh. There were three
marketing channels for marketing of soybean in the study
area. To calculate the marketing cost and producer’s shares
in the consumers rupee for different channels village
merchant. Wholesale dealers, processors, refiners, cooperative
societies were interviewed. The primary data were collected
through personal interview method.
To examine the producers share in consumers price the
following formula was used.
Net price received by producer
Producer’s share = × 100
Price paid by the consumer
General Characteristics of Sample Farms
It was observed from the Table 1, that the average family
size was 6 and literacy percentage was 55 per cent at aggregate
level. Average size of holding was increased as the size of
farms increases on an average. About 82.08 per cent area
comes under cultivation. The major crops grown by the sample
farmers were soybean, wheat, linseed and Arhar. The overall
cropping intensity was about 181.42 per cent.
Marketing Channel
There were three marketing channels for soybean
marketing in the study area are given below:
Channel-I. Producer—Village Merchant—Wholesale
dealers—Processor—Refiners—Wholesale dealers of
soybean oil—Retailers of soybean oil-consumers.
* Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural & Natural Resource Economics, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur-492012 (C.G.)
** Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural & Natural Resource Economics, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur-492012 (C.G.)
*** Professor & Head (Retired) CSA, University of Agricultural & Technology, Kanpur (U.P.) 208002.
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Channel-II. Producer—Cooperative societies—
Processors—Refiner’s wholesale dealers of soybean oil-
retailers of soybean oil-consumers.
Channel-III. Producer—Wholesale dealer’s in Regulated
Market—Processor—Refiners—Wholesale dealers of
soybean oil-retailers of soybean oil-consumers.
Marketing Cost of Soybean
Table 2 indicates that the marketing charges paid by the
producer, village merchant, wholesaler, processor, wholesale
dealer of soybean oil + cake and retailer of soybean oil +
cake in the marketing of soybean were came to Rs. 5.75, Rs.
22.50, Rs. 40.37, Rs. 13.00, Rs. 6.50 and Rs. 7.00 per quintal
in channel-I respectively. The marketing charges paid by the
producer, cooperative societies, processor, wholesale dealer
of soybean oil + cake and retailer of soybean oil + cake came
to Rs. 16.50, Rs. 10.00, Rs. 13.00, Rs. 6.50 and Rs. 7.00 per
quintal in channel II, respectively. The marketing charges paid
by producer, wholesaler, processor, wholesale dealer of
soybean oil + cake and retailer of soybean oil + cake came to
Rs. 17.00, Rs. 40.37, Rs. 13.00, Rs. 6.50 and Rs. 7.00 per
quintal respectively in channel III. Total marketing charges
were higher being Rs. 202.52 per quintal in channel I followed
by Rs. 191.27 in channel III.
Producer’s Share in Consumer’s Price
The producer’s share in consumer price was presented in
Table 3.
The Table 3 shows that the price paid by consumers for
per quintal of soybean products (oil+cake) was calculated
Rs. 2000 which was Rs. 800 for soybean oil and Rs. 1200 for
cake. Table 3 further indicates that middlemen’s margin was
highest being Rs. 753.23 per quintal in channel I followed by
Rs. 701.10 and Rs. 685.73 per quintal in channel II and III
Table 3 the producer’s share in consumer’s price was
highest being 56.92 per cent in channel II followed by 56.15
and 52.21 per cent in channel III and I respectively. Thus, it
can be concluded that the marketing channel I is comparatively
much complicated involving a number of middlemen and
market functionaries between the producer’s and consumers
as compared to the others marketing channels.
The total marketing cost of soybean was observed highest
on channel-I (Rs. 202.52) and lowest on channel-II
(Rs. 160.40). The producer share in consumer price was
almost similar in channel-II and channel-III. Exploitation by
middleman should be checked through strengthening the Oil
Seed Producer’s Cooperative Societies in the study area.
Agrawal, N.L. and Sharma, J.L. (1994) “Promoting
Agribusiness Soybean Marketing problems in
Rajasthan”, Bihar Journal of Agricultural
Marketing 2 (1) : 43-54.
Chopra, Kusum (1982). “Pulse Production in India A
Statewise Analysis” Indian Journal of Agricultural
Economics,37 (3): 371-380.
Despande, R.S. and H. Chandra Shekhar (1982) Growth
and Supply Response of Slow Growth Crops: A
Case Study of Pulses, Indian Journal of
Agricultural Economics, 36(3) : 386-393.
Table 1
Profile Characteristics of sample household
Particulars Small Medium Large Overall
Total No. of 75 25 20 120
Average family 7 6 5 6
Literacy per cent 50.00 60.00 68.00 55.00
Average size of 0.80 1.91 3.74 1.52
holding (ha.)
Net cropped area 71.97 86.32 87.97 82.08
as percentage to
total cropped
Major crops (%
area to total
cropped area)
(i) Soybean 27.06 27.75 29.67 27.72
(ii) Wheat 24.54 18.22 32.73 24.85
(iii) Linseed 14.96 13.05 9.67 13.53
(iv) Arhar 11.78 8.45 11.90 11.25
Cropping 178.92 181.52 183.34 181.42
intensity (%)
Table 2
Marketing Charges per Quintal paid by the Producer—Village
Merchant, Cooperative Society Mill Owner, wholesaler and
retailer in the Marketing of Soybean (in different marketing
Sl. No. Particulars CHANNELS
A. Total marketing charges paid by the
1. Transport charges — 10.00 10.00
2. Karda (Dirt) 5.25 6.00 6.00
3. Sample — — —
4. Others 0.50 0.50 1.00
Sub-total 5.75 16.50 17.00
B. Marketing charges paid by
village merchant
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1. Transport charges 10.00 — —
2. Loading charges 1.00 — —
3. Gunny bags charges 2.00 — —
4. Clearing/Karda 2.00 — —
5. Sample 6.00 — —
6. Unloading 1.00 — —
7. Other charges 0.50 — —
Sub-total 22.50 — —
C. Marketing charges paid by co-
operative Societies
1. Transport charges — 5.00 —
2. Loading/unloading — 2.00 —
charges/gunny bags — 2.00 —
Stitching charges — 1.00 —
Others — — —
Sub-total — 10.00 —
D. Marketing charges paid by whole-
1. Transport charges 5.00 — 5.00
2. Palledari per bag 2.00 — 2.00
3. Weighing charges 1.00 — 1.00
4. Commission per hundred Rs. 18.82 — 18.82
5. Mandi fee 12.55 — 12.55
6. Other/storage 1.00 — 1.00
Sub-total 40.37 — 40.37
E. Marketing charges paid by
1. Transport charges 2.00 2.00 2.00
2. Palledari 2.00 2.00 2.00
3. Processing charges 107.40 107.40 107.40
4. Packing charge/pan 9.00 9.00 9.00
5. Others — — —
Sub-Total 13.00 13.00 13.00
Sl. No. Particulars CHANNELS
F. Marketing charges paid by whole-
sale dealer of soybean oil
1. Transport charges oil+cake 4.50 4.50 4.50
2. Loading/unloading Oil+cake 2.00 2.00 2.00
Sub-total 6.50 6.50 6.50
G. Charges paid by retailer of
soybean Oil+cake
1. Transport charges 3.00 3.00 3.00
2. Palledari oil+cake 3.00 3.00 3.00
3. Others 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sub-total 7.00 7.00 7.00
Grand total 202.52 160.40 191.27
Table 3
Producer’s Share in the Consumer’s price per quintal of Soybean
in the Sehore Regulated Mandi
Sl. No. Particulars CHANNELS
1. Total marketing charges 202.52 160.40 191.27
2. Middleman margin 753.23 701.10 685.73
(a) Profit of village merchant 70.25 — —
(b) Profit of cooperative society — 35.00 —
(c) Profit of wholesaler 16.88 — 19.63
(d) Profit of processor 69.60 69.60 69.60
(e) Profit of wholesaler of soybean 223.50 223.50 223.50
(f) Profit of retailer of soybean 373.00 373.00 373.00
3. Net amount received by 1144.25 1138.50 1123.00
4. Price paid by the consumer 2000.00 2000.00 2000.00
5. Producer share in consumer 52.21 56.92 56.15
price (%)
Sl. No. Particulars CHANNELS
'vª=i= 'vª=i= 'vª=i= 'vª=i= 'vª=i= zizri =t ºr¬iº r+ zizri =t ºr¬iº r+ zizri =t ºr¬iº r+ zizri =t ºr¬iº r+ zizri =t ºr¬iº r+
April—June, 2003 27
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Marketable Surplus of Rice and Wheat and Benefits of Storage
to the Farmers in India
he improvement in living standard of rural India is one
of the major indicators of economic development of the
country. About 25 per cent of GDP is generated by the
agriculture sector. Since agriculture is one of the major
producing sector in the economy, it influences the
performance of other sectors too. The higher income and
consequently the higher purchasing power among rural
households create demand for industrial goods. The
agricultural production must be increased not only to meet
the demand of growing population, but also to meet the
increasing demand due to rise in income and living standard.
The modern agricultural technology has raised the
production and profitability of investment in agriculture. As
a result the gross capital formation in agriculture accelerated.
But, due to the land constraint and increasing requirement of
land for non-agricultural uses, the growth in net sown area
slowed down considerably. This explains why, despite the
accelerated increase in capital formation and the introduction
of new technologies, the growth in marketable surplus (per
cent of toal production) could not increase substantially in
the post-green revolution period. However, the absolute
marketable surplus will further increase with improved
efficiency in marketing system, especially through storage.
Storage of seasonally produced commodities is one of the
important physical functions in commodities marketing
system especially when production and consumption are
widely spread over a long period. But the farmers in India do
not store the produce for better sale price opportunities in the
later market season. The needs for money and low storage
capacity of farmers in India have been the prime reasons for
immediate sale after harvest. The commercial minded farmers
or the group of farmers can earn a high profit through storage
of commodities produced.
There is little literature on category-wise land holding size-
wise marketable surplus at macro level and the benefits of
rural storage to the farmers, if they retain the produce to sell
in the off season. Therefore, there is need for estimating the
category-wise marketable surplus, storage requirement of
farmers and the benefits of holding produce at rural storage
to the farmers.
Rice and wheat are two major cereal crops, which almost
all the farmers grow in India but do not store for sale in later
period which could be beneficial to them. Therefore, the
efforts, in this study, have been made (i) to estimate the holding
size-wise marketable surplus of rice and wheat and (ii) to
examine the benefits from holdings rice and wheat in rural
Material and Method
Secondary data on all India market arrivals, monthly
wholesale prices, per capita/month consumption, number of
size of holdings & area operated and area under rice & wheat
was collected from various published sources of Government
of India, such as Central Statistical Organisation, D.E. & S,
Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Finance etc. as well as
CMIE issues.
Tabular analysis was used to work out marketable surplus,
storage requirement and benefits to farmers from storage.
Results and Discussion
The results and discussion on various aspects of the study
are presented objective-wise as follows:
Marketable Surplus
Marketable surplus can be defined as the residual
production, of agricultural produce left, with the producer
after meeting his requirements of family consumption, farm
needs (seed and feed), kind payments, etc. The importance
of increasing marketable surplus for meeting the increasing
demand for food, raw materials and other agricultural products
by the non-farming population is well recognised. If the size
of marketable surplus in an economy does not rise, it may
well contribute a fundamental limiting factor on the tempo of
development by reducing supplies available for urban
consumption, for industries and exports.
On the macro-level, theoretically, it has been argued that
the surplus varies with relative prices of foodgrain crops.
However, the relationship between the two under many
situations is not clear. On the one hand, it can be argued that
assuming the farmers have fixed cash requirements, price rise
will be accompanied by a decline in the quantity offered for
sale, implying a negative response of marketable surplus to
relative price. On the other hand, it can also be argued that as
the relative price of rice and wheat increases, farmers will
retain less for self-consumption and offer more in the market,
in order to buy the products of non-agricultural sectors. Thus,
Division of Agricultural Economics, IARI, New Delhi-12.
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the marketable surplus of rice and wheat with respect to its
relative price is more likely to be positive. Clearly, positive
or negative response depends essentially on the relative
strengths of income and substitution effects arising from a
change in the relative prices of commodities.
Another important factor that have also bearing on
marketable surplus is the aggregate level of production.
Production of a crop itself depends upon various factors
including inputs use, rainfall and irrigation, technology, price,
distance of agricultural markets and the availability of
transport. The elasticity of marketable surplus with respect
to production can be more than one, i.e., increased production
leads to a more than proportionate increase in marketable
Several micro level studies have also dealt with the question
of the determinants of marketable surplus of different classes
of farmers for different crops under diverse institutional and
agro-climatic situations. The various variables considered in
such studies are: size of holding, production of the crop, size
of family, number of livestock kept at farm, price of crop,
amount of payment in kind, non-farm income, consumption
habits and taste. Among these the most important is the size
of holding. Based on this, marketable surplus may be negative
for marginal farmers, but positive for medium and large
farmers, keeping other things constant.
Operational holding-wise all India total production,
consumption and marketable surplus during 1999-2000 has
been presented in Table-1. Marginal farmers owned about
15 per cent of the total operational holdings area. They
produced 25.87 million tones of rice and 16.94 million tones
of wheat i.e. about 28.8 and 22.4 per cent, respectively of
total production of rice, and wheat. But the total family
consumption including feed and seed was also highest, about
31 million tones of rice and 22 million tones of wheat,
among these farms. Because of this the marketable surplus
for rice and wheat was negative for this group. The per cent
marketable surplus for both the commodity increased with
the increase in size group. The estimated marketable surplus
with no losses at local storage was 59.75, 68.52 and 88.69
per cent for rice and 60.24, 71.53 and 85.00 per cent for
wheat for semi-medium, medium and large farmers,
respectively during 1999-2000. On an average the
marketable surplus for rice and wheat was 39 per cent and
44 per cent (Table-1) respectively, for rice and wheat during
1999-2000. This in future will increase to the limit of
increase in productivity. The marketable surplus will further
increase if storage losses at farm level are reduced.
Rural storage facilities are necessary to prevent the storage
loss arising out of defective storage and also to equip the
farmers with a convenient instrument for credit. All-India
Rural Credit Survey Committee (1954) recommended for
initiating a countrywide programme of warehousing
development. This Committee recommended a three-tier
system at (a) the National level, (b) state and district level,
and (c) village and rural level for storages. The Central
Warehousing Corporation was required to create storage
facilities at centers of All-India importance, the State
Governments and State Warehousing Corporation at centers
of state/district level importance but the rural storage needs
were to be looked after by the co-operatives. The Government
of India accepted the recommendations of the committee
and set up the National Co-operative Development and
Warehousing Board (in 1956) and the Central Warehousing
Corporation (in 1957). The setting up of State Warehousing
Corporations by all states followed this. There are three main
agencies in the public sector today, which are engaged in
building large-scale storage/warehousing capacity viz., the
Food Corporation of India (FCI), Central Warehousing
Corporation (CWC) and State Wareshousing Corporations
(SWCs), FCI is the main agency for handling rice and wheat
for procurement and distribution in India since 1960s. It has
its godowns and it also hires storage capacity from other
sources such as CWC, SWCs, and private parties. The total
capacity with FCI was about 19156 thousand tones of
foodgrains 12503 thousand tones owned and 6653 thousand
tones hired during March 1999. This does not include CAP
capacity. However most of this capacity is non-rural based.
The farmers are not benefited directly through its storage.
The main functions of the CWC and SWCs are to acquire
and build warehouses at suitable places and operate them for
storage of agricultural produce, fertilizers, etc.
Besides, public sector agencies, cooperatives also have
78290 godowns in rural and marketing areas with storage
capacity of 13737 thousand tones for storage of fertilizers
and other inputs and consumer articles, mainly. This capacity
is insufficient if rice and wheat are also to be stored in rural
godowns. Thus, to benefit the farmers co-operatives or private
rural godowns especially for commercial crops including rice
and wheat are necessary where farmers can store the produce
for sale in later months after harvest.
Primary agricultural co-operative societies and most of the
marketing co-operatives in the country now own godowns
with funds provided by NCDC. Besides warehouses, there
are cold storages, which help farmers/producers to avoid
distress sales of perishable commodities like onions, potatoes,
fruits, vegetables, fish, meat, dairy products etc.
Save Grain Campaign (SGC), launched as a pilot project
in 1965-66, became a regular scheme since 1969-70. It seeks
to popularise scientific methods for foodgrains storage at farm
level. The scheme aims at providing appropriate technology
through education, motivation and persuasion in preventing
losses and improving farm-level storage. Because of lack of
proper storage and warehousing facilities, a significant share
-estimated at about 6 per cent, in some study, gets lost. To
that extent the total available supplies get reduced. Simple
but effective methods, of foodgrains storage and pest control
are popularised with supply of improved types of metal bins
and pesticides. The main idea is to help farmers to minimise
storage losses. This campaign has been undertaken through a
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network of regional team and sub-teams of technical staff in
close collaboration with the state governments. This is
supplemented by the Indian Grain Storage Management and
Research Institute, Hapur, and its five field stations at
Ludhiana, Hyderabad, Jabalpur, Udaipur and Jorhat. Rural
storage covers both farm-level small storage for retained
produce and large-scale storage of marketable food grains
The farmers normally sell rice and wheat immediately after
harvest for various reasons including loss in local storages.
To retain the rice and wheat for off season sale they need
large scale scientific storage facility in rural areas. In fact the
storage/godown requirement for rice and wheat mainly
depends on:
1. Retention of these cereals production for self-
consumption, (for family and other purposes at farm).
2. Purchasing habit of these cereals by non-rice and
wheat producing rural population.
3. Credit facility for storage.
4. Availability of paddy sheller/huller units in rural areas.
The Central Government in 1980’s promoted a national
programme of storage with the construction of rural godowns
each of 100 tones capacity, Most of rural godowns was in the
co-operative sector. It was supplemented by a Rural Godowns
Scheme, which was centrally sponsored but implemented
through Market Committees and State Warehousing
Corporation. The objective was to build godowns of larger
capacity of 200 to 1000 tones in rural areas to facilitate storage
of produce of small and marginal farmers. However, the
progress of construction as well as utilisation was generally
unsatisfactory. It is generally accepted that the rural godowns
have substantively contributed to the better storage of
agricultural inputs.
Cost-Benefit from Storage
The market arrival is expected to increase with the increase
in the productivity and production of rice and wheat keeping
other things constant. Total wheat arrivals as per cent of
total production of wheat has not changed much since 1970-
71 though it has increased for rice (table-2). Further, the
farmer did not change the pattern of sale in different quarters
of the year after harvest which could bring them more prices
and thus the benefits. The quarterly arrival of both the
commodities during 1990’s is presented in the table-3. The
table shows that about 50% of total rice arrival in the markets
in the month of October to December. The market arrivals
went on decreasing for rest of the quarters though price of
the same increased. The market arrival in case of wheat was
higher, about 65% in the first quarter of the year harvest
though the prices increased in most of the subsequent months.
Thus, the table shows that the farmers sell most of their
produce immediately after harvest tablet and do not take
advantage of increase in price in the market during later
months. This benefit is harvested by the traders, who after
procurement at low wholesale price at harvest period, sell at
a high price in later months. The monthly wholesale prices
in respect of rice and wheat are presented in table-4. The
table indicates that the prices increased steadily over the
months after the harvest. Slight decrease in wholesale prices
is observed when the arrival of new crop neared.
On an average the wholesale price for these crops increased
by Rs. 12.50 and Rs. 8.52 per quintal per month for rice and
wheat, respectively. The wholesale price for rice remained
almost stagnant from October to March. The cost of storage
for rice and wheat in the rural godowns ranged from Rs. 2.82
to 3.75 per quintal per month depending on year of
construction and the capacity of storage/godowns. Based on
average price and average cost the net benefit from storage
per quintal/month worked out of Rs. 9.06 to Rs. 9.92 per
quintal/month for rice and Rs. 5.08 to Rs. 5.93 per quintal/
month for wheat (Table -4). Thus the farmers will be benefited
if the rural godowns are constructed for rice and wheat. The
finance requirement of the farmers can also be easily met by
various financial institutions which will provide the credit to
the farmers on the basis of the storage receipts. In fact the
commercial banks and co-operative banks extended advances
against warehouse receipts, though the volume of such
advances remained very small. The warehouse receipt has
not yet become a fully negotiable credit instrument in the
same way as promissory notes or bills of exchange or cheques.
It was concluded that 60 per cent of the farmers are
marginal farmers and do not have marketable surplus. In
fact, marketable surplus of these farmers in respect of rice
and wheat in 1999-2000 was negative. The small, semi
medium, medium and large farmers had the marketable
surplus in India. The estimated marketable surplus with small,
semi medium, medium and large farmers was 51.81, 59.75,
68.52 and 88.69 per cent for rice and 8.74, 60.24, 71.53 and
85.00 per cent for wheat, respectively ignoring losses. The
total estimated marketable surplus for all India was 39.46 per
cent and 43.79 per cent for rice and wheat, respectively. The
farmers sell a wide range of products surplus like foodgrains,
pulses, oilseeds and spices immediately after they harvest the
produce, for various reasons like low storage capacity, need
for money, uniform procurement price throughout the year
etc. Further, the quality and quantity loss as well as value
loss risk acts as deterrent for storing the products. Only a
few commercial minded medium and large farmers, who
retain the surplus produce and or collect the surplus
commodities like onion, potato, pulse and some price from
fallow farmers, go for storage. It was found that the total
cost of rural godown storage per quintal per month would
vary from about Rs. 2.82 to Rs. 3.75 depending upon year of
construction and size of the godown/storage structure. Based
on average prices and average cost the net benefit from storage
per quintal/month worked out to Rs. 9.06 to Rs. 9.92 per
quintal/month for rice and Rs. 5.08 to Rs. 5.93 per quintal/
month for wheat. Thus the farmers will be benefited if the
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rural godowns are constructed for rice and wheat. The net
price above this threshold cost, besides, the procurement cost
in the market will encourage the farmers to store the products
in rural godowns.
The new opportunities for sale, opened by liberal domestic
and international trade along with government policy on credit
to construct the godowns in rural areas at low rate, will
encourage construction of rural godowns for rice and wheat.
Since traders may not construct the godowns in rural areas,
therefore, the group of farmers or the co-operatives only will
have to take lead. The credit policy for credit against stored
products will help in increasing withholding capacity of the
farmers. This will then have multifarious effect on orderly
marketing of products. Consequently, welfare of consumers
as well as producers will be improved.
Estimated Production Retention and Marketable Surplus of Rice and
Wheat (Farm size-wise) in India During 1999-2000
(Million Tonnes)
Size group Produc- Feed and Family Market-
tion seed consump- able Sur-
tion plus (%)
1 2 3 4 5
Marginal 25.87 1.03 30.08 —20.26
Small 21.58 0.87 9.53 51.81
Semi-medium 18.22 0.73 6.61 59.75
Medium 13.09 0.52 3.60 68.52
Large 10.73 0.43 0.78 88.69
All groups 89.49 3.58 50.60 39.46
Marginal 16.94 1.86 20.31 —30.88
1 2 3 4 5
Small 15.99 1.76 6.44 48.74
Semi-medium 15.51 1.71 4.46 60.24
Medium 13.90 1.53 2.43 71.53
Large 13.23 1.46 0.53 85.00
All groups 75.57 8.31 34.17 43.79
Source : The figures have been worked out by the authors.
Note : 1. Class-wise production has been worked out on the basis of
projected per cent area in 1999-2000, for various categories, for
Rice and Wheat.
2. Family size of 6 members have been assumed for each class in
the study.
3. Consumption is based on 55th round of NSSO, i.e. @ 6.59 kg
and 4.45 kg/capita/month for rice and wheat, respectively.
4. Marketable surplus will further decrease to the extent of local
storage losses.
All India Market Arrivals as percentage of production
Years Rice Wheat
1970-71 25.2 29.8
1975-76 15.2 30.5
1980-81 30.2 31.9
1985-86 31.2 20.2
1990-91 30.9 29.5
1991-92 29.8 27.8
1992-93 38.3 29.3
1993-94 44.8 32.2
1994-95 37.7 32.4
1995-96 39.7 31.3
1996-97 42.3 30.3
1997-98 (P) 40.9 29.3
Source : Various issues of CMIE Publications.
Quarterly Market Arrival Pattern of Rice and Wheat
(Th. Tonnes)
Period Oct.—Dec. Jan.—March April—June July—Sep. Total
1990-91 30137.2 14262.6 8909.3 6430.7 59732.8
(50.45) (23.87) (14.92) (10.76) (100.00)
1995-96 39167.8 13786.5 10116.5 6570.1 69640.9
(56.24) (19.80) (14.53) (9.43) (100.00)
April—June July—Sep. Oct.—Dec. Jan.—March Total
1990-91 34475.5 6378.4 5000.6 4470.2 50275.4
(68.57) (12.69) (9.95) (8.79) (100.00)
1995-96 32601.0 6244.1 5777.5 5652.8 50275.4
(64.84) (12.42) (11.49) (11.25) (100.00)
Source : Various issues of “Bulletin of Food Statistics”.
Note : Figures in brackets are the percentages of the total.
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Changes in wholesale prices and cost-benefit of storing Rice and Wheat
Month/Year WS prices Change in Cumulative change Cumulative Cumulative net
Rs/qt WS price in prices total cost benefit
Oct., 99 825 0 0 0.00—0.00 0.00 to 0.00
Nov., 99 825 0 0 2.82—3.75 —2.82 to -3.75
Dec., 99 825 0 0 5.64—7.50 —5.64 to -7.50
Jan., 00 825 0 0 8.46—11.25 —8.46 to -11.25
Feb., 00 835 10 10 11.28—15.00 —1.28 to -5.00
Mar., 00 825 -10 0 14.10—18.75 —14.1 to -18.75
Apr., 00 850 25 25 16.92—22.50 2.50 to 8.08
May, 00 875 25 50 19.74—26.25 23.75 to 30.26
Jun., 00 950 75 125 22.56—30.00 95.00 to 102.44
Jul., 00 950 0 125 25.38—33.75 91.25 to 99.62
Aug., 00 975 25 150 28.20—37.50 112.50 to 121.80
Sep., 00 975 0 150 31.02—41.25 108.75 to 118.98
Apr., 99 615 0 0 0.00—0.00 0.00 to 0.00
May, 99 636.5 21.5 21.5 2.82—3.75 17.75 to 18.68
Jun., 99 698.5 62 83.5 5.64—7.50 76.00 to 77.86
Jul., 99 711.2 12.7 96.2 8.46—11.25 84.95 to 87.74
Aug., 99 732.5 21.3 117.5 11.28—15.00 102.50 to 106.22
Sep., 99 740 7.5 125 14.10—18.75 106.50 to 110.90
Oct., 99 744 4 129 16.92—22.50 106.50 to 112.08
Nov., 99 760 16 145 19.74—26.25 118.75 to 125.26
Dec., 99 748.8 —11.2 133.8 22.56—30.00 103.80 to 111.24
Jan., oo 738 —10.8 123 25.38—33.75 89.25 to 97.62
Feb., 00 721.75 —16.25 106.75 28.20—37.50 69.25 to 78.55
Mar., 00 717.2 —4.55 102.2 31.02—41.25 60.95 to 71.18
Source: The wholesale prices of coarse rice have been taken for Kakinada and Nizamabad wholesale markets of A. P. The wholesale prices for wheat
had been taken for Hapur wholesale Market.
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32 Agricultural Marketing
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Rearing of Male Buffalo Calves as a Meat Producer
—Kamal Chakrabarti*
HE domestic buffalo has been neglected for a long
time although many scientists have worked and written
about this animal. However, many arrears about this animal
have received little attention. There has been a lack of
research activities which leads to a major failure to recognize
and exploit the potential of this animal. Male buffalo calves
never got desired care which they deserved, among Indian
farm animals from the ancient times as stated by “Surapal”
that a buffalo that begets a male calf, bride that gives birth
to a female baby and rain that precipitates in the month of
Kartika (October-November), all these portend ominous time
(Anonymous 1964).
It is noticeable that buffalo exists in greatest number
in those areas. Of the world, where shortage of animal
protein is most acute. The average world consumption of
meat, fish and egg is 36 kg/capita/year and the
consumption of animal protein in the far-east is less than
half of the world average. In our country, the overall
intake of animal protein is only 15% against the
recommended quantity of 30% of total protein, both in
rural urban areas. Mutton 07 kg/capita/year (1997), beef
.8 kg/capita/year (2000), poultry .850 kg/capita/year
(2002). So there is a tremendous scope for augmenting
animal protein in our country. this region has the largest
livestock population in the world viz. cattle 218.80 million,
Buffalo 93.77 million, Sheep 57.90 million, Goat 123
million, Pig 16 million & poultry 402 million (FAO-2000).
The major potential of the buffalo however is a meat
producer and it can only be achieved in a relatively short
time through increased research and investigation. In most
countries the buffalo meat is marketed which comes from
old animals at the end of a long life of work or milk
production. Even these poor products are in considerable
demand. There is a every reason to believe and experiments
revealed that if the buffalo is reared for meat production,
the meat will be tender, palatable of high quality and
acceptable to the consumers. It can easily be obtained at
less expense than that from cattle and in tropics particularly
at a much earlier age. Evidence has revealed that the
buffaloes can be maintained in good condition, even when
only coarse fodder is available and as such buffalo would
be used effectively in suitable environments for increasing
supply of meat and meat food products.
So far the above discussions have been made a just as an
introduction in relation to establish the facts that buffalo
calves could be effecively weaned/reared as meat producer.
Now an attempt is being made on the growth aspects in
terms of meat production by narrating various workers
experiments in this field.
The feeding ability of buffaloes mainly depends on the
stage of rumen development, individual physiological status,
environmental condition, availability of quality feed stuff
and stress due to diseases. Rumen development of young
buffalo calves is affected by the age, level and duration of
milk feeding. Growing buffalo calves fed fibrous feed of
low energy usually have larger feeding capacity than those
reared on high level of milk feeding or suckling for a longer
periods. It has also been revealed that on sole feeding of
oat, hay, green maize, green oats, green cow-peas, and green
barseem mean DMI per kg W 0.75 has been found to be
67,88,96,91 and 100 gms respectively in buffaloes of 200-
250 kg body weight, (Jaikishan, 1974). Mean DMI was
much lower (70-75 gms. Per kg W 0.75) when wheat straw
was fed with a small amount (25.30%) of concentrate
mixture during growing tenure. (johri et.al. 1982) under
normal condition. It is postulated that DMI. Per kg unit of
body weight is higher in early life and gradually decreases
with the advancement of age and thus the body size in
growing buffaloes DMI per 100 kg body weight may be
2.5-3.90 kgs upto 150 kgs. Body weight, 2.2-75 kgs up to
250 kgs. Body weight and 1.75-2.40 kgs upto 400 kgs body
weight (verma 1991).
In our country, generally buffaloes are get three types of
rations (A). High straw low concentrate or a mixture of
straw and green fodder or grazing on wasteland
supplemented with crop residues and domestic bye-products
available from grains and pulses processing.
(B). Good quality cereal fodder or a mixture of cereal
legumes fodder, and
(C). Good quality fodder supplemented with adequate
concentrate mixture. The energy values of these systems
are highly variables and may be equivalent to 45-50% TDN
or 1.6-1.8 Mcal. ME per kg. dry matter (6.7-7.5 Mj) in
system (1), 50-55% TDN or 1.8-2.0 Mcal or (7.5-8.4Mj)
ME per kg. dry matter in system (2) and 60-65% TDN OR
2.25-2.5 Mcal or (9.4-10.5 Mj,) ME per kg. dry matter in
system (3) of feeding buffaloes. Animals on system no. (1)
nearly maintains the animals while system no. (2) & (3)
support different rates if growth as well as milk production.
Like other bovines the growth tenure in buffaloes may
be demarcated into (1) pre-ruminant i.e. growth up to about
*Marketing Officer, Dte. of Marketing & Inspection, Mumbai.
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3 months of age when feed normally consists of milk and
milk products, oil cakes and fodders. (2) Active growth
which considered to be upto 18 months of age and
(3) terminal stage when animals becomes capable of
breeding and reproduction. Recently attempts are being made
to accelerate the growth of male buffalo calves inn early
life through increase nutrient supply for the production of
meat animals. the changes in growth patterns and thus the
tissue compositions are gradual and it is difficult to draw a
strict line between the successive stages of growth. However,
it has already been established that with the advancement
of age and normal growth, the proportion of moisture
decreases that of adipose (fatty) tissues increases. Thus, the
energy requirement per unit gain in body weight gradually
increases with age. This has also been revealed that the
growth response of the buffaloes were limited to 50—70%
when compared with the concentrate diet on the other hand
the forage fed animals showed considerable compensatory
growth (Agarwal-1974). A study was conducted by (Pathak-
1979) observed that feeding high level of urea-molasses
liquid diet (about 2.5% urea in molasses) the gain in body
weight was considerably lower. The rearing of calves on
very low level of nutrition is mainly responsible for delayed
production and also decreases life time production (Ranjhan
& Pathak - 1983). They also stressed that planning for
rearing of buffalo calves must be clean and well defined so
that for the production, the calves should be fed on high
level of nutrition from the 1st week so that the body weight
may be doubled before 10 weeks of age.
Work was initiated at I.V.R.I. to study the comparative
growth, feed efficiency, carcass quality and the economics
of raising buffalo calves of intensive feeding regimes and
the traditional range of feeding regimes respectively. For
this purpose two grossly divergent rations were worked out
(1) high concentrate ration having about 55% TDN. These
rations were fed at two distinct level of intake, (a) an adlib
level and (b) 25% less of the adlib level. Therefore, in all
four rations treatment were tried.
About 24 buffalo calves weighing on an average 75 kgs.
At 8 months of age were distributed in four identical groups.
These animals were fed till they reached a slaughter weight
of 300 kgs. the low groups under high concentrate feeding
were fed the same rations throughout the experiment but in
the other groups the all roughage ration was replaced by
the high energy ration at 250 kgs. body weight for finishing.
The approximate time taken by the 70 kgs. Starter calves
to attain a slaughter weight of 3000 kgs. was 12 months, 14
months and 18 months when maintained on full and limited
intake of all roughage rations respectively. The growth rates
were found to be about 610 gm/day with a feed efficiency
of 1 : 6 in high and concentrate groups respectively. the
corresponding values were 370 with 1 : 10 and 3000 with
1 : 9 in the case of two roughage groups. The pattern of
growth remained almost uniform throughout the year in
case of concentrate feeding groups but the same should
considerable variations during hot summer and the rest of
the months in the case of all roughage rations. Thus in
tropical countries like India different system of feedings
have to be adopted during the different seasons of the year
for meat production.
The average dressing percentage in the high concentrate
group was 57. The same values were 55.5 and about 50%
for the low concentrate high roughage and low roughage
feeding respectively. A variation in the digestive fill ranging
from about 9—25% of the shrunk body weights were
recorded in this study. Feeding cost unit of dressed carcass
was the lowest in about Rs. 4.60 kg. at 1974 base year. The
other two groups have been found uneconomical either
because of high production cost or inferior meat quality
standard respectively.
The performance of the animals can be further augmented
if the seed cakes would have been fed properly during the
early part of their lives and better management practices
were adopted during the subsequent part of the growth
Sharma & Talapatra (1963) fed buffalo male calves aged
8 to 11 months on three plane of nutrition for 285 days.
High plane animals retained a daily weight gain of 0.63 kg.
day on a ration of (1.8 to 3.6 kgs.) concentrate mixture ,
2.26 kgs. of fresh grass and 1.3 to 2.73 kgs. wheat straw.
The intake was drop to 0.9 to 1.8 kgs. concentrate & 2.2
kgs fresh grass & 1.3 to 2.7 kgs. wheat straw/day for the
medium plane, which gave a daily weight gain of 0.88 lbs.
(0.4 kgs.). The low plane group lost 0.9 kgs. body weight/
day on a daily intake of 0.45 to 0.90 kgs. concentrate 2.2
kgs. fresh grass and 0.45 kgs. wheat straw, the loss was
halted by feeding wheat straw adlib.
According to Hafez (1952) buffalo beef differs texturally
from ox-beef in many respects. The muscle fibres are thicker
and nucleus is more abundant, there is also difference in the
distribution of fatty & connective tissues. There is no
marbling (intramuscular fat) in buffalo meat this is a very
important difference between cattle and buffalo. The
nutritional excellence of buffalo meat is not the sole factor
affecting consumers demand; palatability is of decisive
importance. Meat from milk fed buffalo calves slaughtered
just after weaning, commands the highest price in many
countries because of its excellent palatability.
According to Zaki (1951) and Ferrara (1964) the taste
and tenderness of the meat of young buffaloes are superior
to those of cattle of the same age, Hafez (1952) mentioned
that the buffalo beef is nutritionally superior to ox-beef in
many respects and can be produced at a less cost because
of the lower feed requirements of the buffaloes. More recent
work in Italy on theearly weaning of buffalo calves and
rearing them for meat production indicates clearly that if
buffalo calves are well fed and managed they yield a meat
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which in quantity and quality, is not inferior to that of other
bovine animals.
In Yugoslavia, trials were conducted byW. Ross Cockrill,
at an establishment where more than 3000 young cattle
were usually fattened each year. !0 young buffalo males
were given the same feeding and attention as the rest of the
animals in a feed weight rations consisted of 1.250 kgs.
concentrate and/kg hay/100 kg. live weight with green fodder
adlib. about 20 kgs. being consumed daily. The initial
average weight of the buffaloes was 199,1 kgs. at 12—14
months and the final average weight after 105 days fattening
was 314.8 kgs. total gained average 115.7 kgs. and the
daily average 1.09 kg. with individual variations from 0.610
to 1.5 kg. the impressive response to intensive feedings was
only about 5% lower than that of young bulls of improved
cattle breeds. Further more, the buffalo attained a satisfactory
grade of finish 300—350 kgs. while the bulls only attained
a similar grade at 400—450 kgs. The number involved in
the trial was small yet individual variations were wide
enough to indicate the possibility of selection for high
fattening efficiency.
Houghton (1960) and Poulkner (1962) reported on the
first evaluation, the buffalo as a meat producer in the
Caribbean. The work was based on a trial involving two
groups of young castrated buffalo weighing 182 to 277
kgs. fattened on good pongola grass pasture for 280 days.
One group received no supplementary concentrate and
showed an average daily weight gain of 0.6674 kgs. The
second group receives 0.91 kgs./day of mixture of citrus
pulp, coconut meal and salt. The average gain was 185.23
kgs. and with an average daily gain of 0.6583 kgs. A
study by Shute (1966) in Trinidad compared growth rate
of three groups. Each of six healthy animals pastured
together for 20 weeks, the first groups were Jamaica Red
cattle, the second were buffaloes and the third was
Brahman cattle. The average initial weights were 190,
184 and 140 kgs. respectively. For the first 10 weeks
they were on poor pasture, for second 10 weeks they
had abundant but inferior roughages.
Class Daily weight Daily weight gain on
gain in poor moderate pasture (kgs)
pasture (kgs)
Jamaican Red Cattle. 0 0.4767 + 0.0726.
Buffaloes. 0.1234+ 0.6174 + 0.0999.
Brahman Cattle. 0 0.2951 + 0.1317.
For the whole period, the live weight increased at almost
twice the rate of Jamaican red cattle and three times that of
the Brahman cattle. There were no wallows. Differences
could have been greater if relief from exposure to direct
sunlight had been provided.
Bedreldin (1955) recorded that data on milk consumptions
weight increased in suckling buffalo calves. The conversation
rate was high 9 kgs. Buffalo milk was required for 1 kg
carcass weight.
Salerno (1948) showed that 1 kg live weight gain the
buffalo calves required 4.29 Scandinavian, 4.71 Brown Swiss
and Holstein Friesians 4.94.
Improved conditions of buffalo rearing farms and more
rational system of feeding and hygienic, together with
increased demand for the products, has meant that a quality
meat can be obtained or marketed at an increase price, meat
production from yearling buffaloes at a weight of 300–320
kgs is feasible and practicable (De Francis).
The results of all these investigations showed that the
buffalo efficiently converts feed into growth and meat. The
object of feeding a calf for the veal market is to convert as
much feed as possible into flesh. Tremendous wastage of
male calves of dairy buffalo in India should be stopped, if
necessary with a suitable financial incentive to buffalo
dairymen to rear such calves up to an age of 12-18 monhs
for their utilization as meat stock by buffalo meat plants.
Once the dairymen get economic return for the sale of their
male calves, the present practice of negligence towards them
will gradually stop. The scientific exploitation is urgently
required particularly of buffalo male calves from quality
meat production point of view. Although most of the buffalo
breeds in India are reared for milk, yet this species can be
exploited for meat particularly the male animals to catch
export markets to earn valuable foreign exchange. Male
calves, if reared for would be available to the extent of 6.88
millions every year in the country. Scientific research needed
on the following parameters : back fat thickness (cm),
longissimus area (cm)
, ham loin percentage, marbling score,
colour, firmness, structure score, ph, press fluids, bound
water, dripping loss, tenderness, juiciness, flavors as well as
different cuts like forequarters, hindquarters and so on.
Aurora, S. P. (1978). In addition to this most emphasis in
research is needed to determine the efficiency of the various
types and breeds, particularly with reference to different
feeding systems and with special attention to locally available
feed stuff.
The potentialities for development of market for buffalo
meat both within the country and abroad are really immense
and no other country is in more favourable position than
India for establishing a prosperous buffalo meat industry.
World’s best buffalo resources are in India. India possesses
about one-fourth of the bovine population in the world. As
whole cattle constitutes about three-fourth and buffaloes
one-fourth of the total bovine population in world. I want
to mention here that we need to make more investments in
the livestock industry not only for the inland requirements
but also for capturing the export markets. According to
FAO-monthly bulletin of agriculture economic and statistic,
the per capita consumption of livestock products is 4.5 times
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higher in developed countries than in the developing
countries. In India about 54% of meat comes from sheep
and goat, 26% from cattle and buffaloes, 13% from poultry
and 7% from pigs. 37.3 million Sheep and goat, 1.5 million
pigs and 1.4 million cattle and buffaloes are being
slaughtered annually in our country. The percentage of the
animals slaughtered annually in relation to their respective
population, cattle—0.9%, buffaloes—1.4%, sheep—32.5%,
goat—36.85, pigs—22.0% and others—6.4%.
The percentage of cattle and buffaloes slaughtered in
India in relation to their population is exceedingly low, viz.,
0.9% and 1.4% per cent respectively. Against that the
percentage of cattle slaughtered in the developed countries
is between 30–40 percent.
The main exporting countries are namely : Saudi Arabia,
East Germany, Australia, Netherlands, Maldives, Oman,
Philippines, Malaysia etc. Indian export of buffalo beef
quantity: 288027.84 (mt), value in crores Rs. 1375.04, sheep
and goat quantity: 11902.85 (mt), value in crores Rs. 78.16,
poultry products quantity: 15836.12 (mt), value in crores
Rs. 86.18, dairy products quantity: 11068.86 (mt), value in
crores Rs. 83.9, animal casings quantity: 537.70 (mt), value
in crores in Rs. 12.79, processed meat quantity: 130.69
(mt), value in crores in Rs. 1.58 aggregating total animal
products exports: 327540.06 (mt), value in crores Rs.
1637.16. In the light of the above, there is a considerable
scope for building up an export market for buffalo meat
especially to the countries in the Middle East. A number of
countries are now taking very active interest in developing
the meat industry with an eye on export trade. We would
lose the race in capturing the foreign markets, if we can not
utilize the advantage that we possess.
1. 1948 Meat reproduction of buffaloes reared in Italy,
Salerno. A, cited from The Husbandry and
health of the domestic Buffaloes by W. Ross
2. 1951 The Monoufi type of buffalo. As suggested score
card KZ, M.11. Cited from the domestics water
buffalo by Pshimuddin.
3. 1951 Skin structure of Egyptian buffaloes and cattle
with reference to a sweat glands. Hafaz, E.S.E,
Badrelin, A.I. and Shroei, H.N, cited from the
Husbandry health of the domestic buffaloes by
W. Ross Cockril.
4. 1955 Dressing percentage in suckling buffalo veal,
Badreldin. A.I, Indian journal of veterinary
science, 25-61-64.
5. 1960 Water buffaloes in Trinidad, Houghton. T.R.,
cited from the Husbandry and Health of the
domestic buffalo by W. Ross cockril.
6. 1963 Growth response in buffalo calves. Sharma
K.M., and Talapatra S.K., Journal of dairy
Science 19:236:244
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36 Agricultural Marketing
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Cumin Seed Marketing in Rajasthan
umin seed occupies an important place in the Indian
economy in various ways. Cumin seed has an aromatic
odour and a spicy bitter taste and is extensively used as
condiment in all mixed spices and curry powder for flavouring
soups, sausages, pickles and cheese and for seasoning bread
and cakes. In Europe, cumin as a flavouring spice has largely
been replaced by caraway. In indigenous medicine, cumin
seeds have long been considered as a stimulant and
carminative. The cumin seed is stomatic astringent and useful
in diarrhoea and dyspepsia. Cumin seeds are also used in
number of veterinary medicines.
In India, cumin is cultivated in the States of Gujarat,
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. The first
two states namely Gujarat and Rajasthan together account
for 90 per cent of the country’s total production of cumin
seed. Rajasthan state has the pre-eminent position in
production of cumin seed accounting 58% of total cumin
production of the country. Rajasthan occupied an area of
199839 hactares with a production of 76760 Tonnes in year
2000-2001. Cumin seed in Rajasthan state is grown mainly
in the districts of Jalore, Barmer, Nagaur, Ajmer, Pali, Sirohi,
Tonk and Jodhpur.
An efficient marketing system is one of the pre-requisites
for raising the income of the farmers. The available
marketing facilities and different marketing channels bring
variation in the net price got by the producer-farmers for
the produce disposed of by them. The farmers behaviour
with respect to sale of their surplus produce and the pattern
of flow of surplus produce in the marketing channels is
influenced by number of factors as proximity to market,
price of the produce in the market, availability of transport
facilities, available storage facilities, finanical position of
the farmer, etc. The study on performance of cumin seed
marketing helps in planning and developing the system for
efficient marketing for the crop. In this paper, an attempt
has been made to examine the existing marketing system
and price spread in marketing of cumin seed in Nagaur
district of Rajasthan.
The present study was carried out in Nagaur district of
Rajasthan State. Multistage random sample technique was
followed to draw the sample for the study. Merta city
regulated market having the highest market arrivals of cumin
seed among the cumin seed markets of Rajasthan was
selected for the study. Based on the market arrivals, four
villages were selected for detailed study of the marketing
patterns purposively. A sample of hundred farmers were
drawn from the four selected villages. The selected farmers
were categorized into four different size groups i.e. small,
semi-medium, medium and large as per system adopted by
Government of India in classification of holdings. The data
on marketing system, costs, margins and price-spread in
marketing of cumin seed through different marketing
channels were collected for the agriculture year 1997-98.
The data were collected from the respondents with the help
of specially designed schedules. The Data were analysed by
expressing the data in simple percentage terms.
Producers surplus
Cumin seed is retained by the farmers at home for use
as a spice in preparation of different consuming item and
also retained on farm as seed for sowing the crop in the
ensuing season. The consumption for these uses viz., as
seed and for consumption by the family is categorized as
on farm utilization. On farm utilization of cumin seed is
only 0.13 quintal per family (1.82 per cent of total
production). Among the size groups, it ranged from 0.06
quintal on small sized farms to 0.21 quintal on large sized
farms (Table 1).
The overall marketable surplus on all sized farms has
been 98.18 per cent of total production. There existed minor
variation in this surplus on different sized farms. Marketable
surplus was equal to marketed surplus on all these size
groups of farms as farmers disposes the total cumin seed
surplus and do not retain any quantity for sale in future.
Marketing system
The marketing system of the selected farmers in respect
of sale of cumin i.e. place-wise, time-wise, lot-wise and
agency-wise is presented under following sub-sections:
(i) Place-wise sale pattern of cumin seed
Selected farmers marketed 95.16 per cent cumin seed
surplus in the Merta City regulated market and only 4.84
per cent quantity was marketed in their own village
(Table 2). Among the size groups, small and semi-medium
sized farmers sold 43.58 and 15.03 per cent quantity in the
village whereas the quantity sold in the mandi by these
farmers group were 56.42 and 84.97 per cent. As against
this, cent per cent medium and large size farmers marketed
their cumin surplus in the Merta City regulated market. The
tendency of village sale was observed to some extent only
in small and semi-medium sized group of farmers due to
lesser quantity of cumin seed surplus available with them
and also to fulfil immediate cash requirement.
*Professor of Agril. Economics, RAU, Bikaner Campus Jobner.
**Sr. Research fellow, MPUAT, RCA, Udaipur.
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(ii) Time-wise sale pattern of cumin seed
Selected farmers sold 80 per cent cumin seed surplus in
the first two quarters of the year i. e. during the month of
March to August and only 20 per cent quantity of cumin
seed was sold by them in other two quarters of the year i.e.
during September to February months (Table 3). The farmers
of all size groups sold 48.79, 31.30, 18.49 and 1.42 per
cent surplus cumin seeds in the first. second, third and fourth
quarters of the year, respectively. Among the size groups,
semi-medium, medium and large sized farmers sold 70.59,
47.90 and 12.81 per cent surplus cumin seed, respectively
in the first quarter. The quantity marketed by them in the
second quarter was 29.4, 31.13 and 41.93 per cent,
respectively. Medium and large sized farmers sold 20.97
and 36.86 per cent quantity of cumin seed in the third
quarter of the year. Only large sized farmers sold 8.40 per
cent quantity of cumin seed in the fourth quarter. As against
this, all the small sized farmers marketed their total surplus
cumin seed in the first quarter of the year.
(iii) Lot-wise sale pattern of cumin seed
Eighty-one per cent farmers marketed 65.64 per cent
surplus cumin seed in one lot, 17 per cent farmers sold
29.12 per cent cumin seed surplus in two lots and only 2
per cent farmers disposed of 5.24 per cent surplus cumin
seed in more than two lots. Further among the size groups,
small and semi-medium sized farmers marketed their
available total surplus cumin seeds in one lot whereas 69
per cent medium sized farmers sold 60 per cent quantity of
surplus cumin seed in one lot and other 31 per cent farmers
sold 40 per cent surplus cumin seed in two lots (Table 4).
Large sized farmers sold their total surplus cumin seed in
three lots. Among the large sized farmers, 50 per cent farmers
sold 35.79 per cent quantity of cumin seed in one lot, 30
per cent farmers sold 33.58 per cent quantity in two lots
and 20 per cent farmers sold 30.63 per cent quantity of
cumin seed in more than two lots.
It is well known that cumin seed deteriorates in quality
as other seed spices on storage. On this account, the tendency
of sale of cumin seed in one lot was more common (65.64
per cent surplus) in all size group of farmers. Cent per cent
surplus quantity of cumin seeds were sold by the small and
semi-medium sized farmers in one lot. Medium and large
sized farmers disposed of their surplus cumin seed in two
and more lots. These sized group farmers had sizeable
quantity of cumin seed surplus with them and as such
disposed in more number of lots.
(iv) Agency-wise sale pattern of cumin seed
Following marketing channels were observed in
marketing of cumin seeds at village and mandi sale:
(i) Farmer producer—Village trader—Wholesaler
Retailer—Consumer (at village level).
(ii) Farmer producer—Wholesaler Retailer—Consumer (at
mandi level).
The farmers sized group-wise adopting different channels
in sale of cumin seed are shown in Table 5.
Marketing Margin and Price-Spread
Prevailing rates of market charges in sale of cumin
seed in Merta City market are presented in Table 6. All
marketing charges are to be paid by the buyers except
unloading and cleaning charges prior to sale of cumin.
Producers got 61.36 per cent of the price paid by the
consumer in sale of cumin seed at village. Marketing
costs incurred by the middlemen including that of the
producer has been 4.79 per cent of consumer’s price.
Intermediaries earned a total margin of 33.85 per cent of
the price paid by the consumer in sale of cumin seed.
Agency-wise break-up of the gross margin revealed that
the village trader, wholesaler and retailer got 8.42, 6.27
and 19.16 per cent of the consumer’s price, respectively.
Further, the share of retailer in the total margin has been
much higher (more than 50 per cent) due to the demand
of cumin seed in small quantity by the consumers.
On sale of cumin seeds in Merta City regulated market,
producer farmers got 69.87 per cent of the price paid by the
consumers. Marketing cost incurred by different middlemen
including the producer was 4.69 per cent of consumers rupee.
Middlemen in sale of cumin seed earned a margin of 25.43
per cent of the price paid by the consumers. Farmers got
8.51 per cent higher share in sale of cumin in the regulated
market than sale in the village. Margin earned by the
middlemen has been lesser by 8.42 per cent is sale of cumin
seeds in the villages.
Disposal of Cumin Seed by the farmers in Unjha
(Gujarat) Market
The state of Rajasthan occupies a premier position in
production of cumin seed accounting 58 per cent of the
total production of cumin of the country. However, only 25
per cent cumin seed arrives in the markets of Rajasthan
state and rest 75 per cent cumin seed are marketed in the
markets of other states. Production and arrivals of cumin
seeds for sale in the major producing districts of Rajasthan
are given in Tables.
Barmer and Jalore districts of the state ranks first and
second in production of cumin seed but only 0.22 and 0.57
per cent production of cumin seed arrived in the mandies of
these districts (Table 8). More than 99 per cent cumin seed
from these two districts has been marketed at Unjha market
of Gujarat state.
Arrivals of cumin in other major cumin producing
districts of the state viz., Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali and Ajmer
were 68.66, 26.71, 63.89 and 316.26 per cent of total
production, respectively. In Ajmer district arrivals of cumin
seed exceeded the total production of the district because
producer farmers from Bhilwara, Tonk, Pali and Nagaur
districts brought their cumin seed in the prominent cumin
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markets of this district for sale viz., Vijaynagar, Kekri,
Beawar and Kishangarh.
Unjha market of Gujarat state is the well known
international market for sale of cumin seed in the country.
This market was established in February 1954 and presently
it is one of the main market of cumin seed and fennel in the
country having national and international repute in the trade
of these spices.
Traders of the state of Rajasthan also market their cumin
seed in this famous Unjha market due to price advantage on
account of the existence of competitive conditions among
the buyers and availability of processing and export facilities
in the market. As a result of good number of merchants
dealing in cumin and existence of processing units, there is
good competition among the buyers (traders and processors)
and offer competitive prices accrued to the sellers. The
difference in prices between Unjha market of Gujarat and
that in Bhinmal and Sanchore markets of Jalore district
(adjacent to Unjha) was as high as Rs. 50 to Rs. 100 per
quintal. Even after taking into account the transportation
cost of Rs. 5 to 10 per quintal net margin by sale of cumin
in Unjha market is very high.
Traders of Unjha market also send their agents or appoints
the agents of local area in Rajasthan for making advance
payment to the potential cumin producers for purchase of
their cumin by the traders of Unjha market. The rates of
different market charges (commission and market fee) and
the rate of sales tax to be charged by Govt. are also lower
in Gujarat state market compared to Rajasthan. As such
sellers of cumin seed are benefited substantially by sale of
cumin in Unjha market.
In pursuance of low market arrivals of cumin seed in
Rajasthan mandies (25 per cent) and disposal of cumin
seeds at Unjha market, detailed study was also under taken
in four major cumin markets of Rajasthan viz., Nagaur,
Merta City, Jodhpur and Kishangarh. Primary data were
collected from ten leading firms commanding 60 per cent
of the total transactions in the respective state markets. Data
for this were obtained for the period from March, 1998 to
August, 1998 i.e. of the peak marketing season of the crop.
Disposal of cumin seeds by these firms in the Unjha market
is presented in Table 9.
Traders of Nagaur, Merta City, Jodhpur and Kishangarh
mandies disposed of 70.55, 65.16, 77.58 and 52.28 per cent
of cumin seeds in the famous Unjha market of Gujarat
state. From Jodhpur and Nagaur mandies, 70 to 77 per cent
cumin seed was disposed of in Unjha market due to nearness
of this market from these mandies. As against this, traders
of Merta City and Kishangarh mandies marketed only 52 to
65 per cent of cumin seeds in the Unjha market. About 67
per cent cumin seeds from Rajasthan state find the way to
international fame Unjha market from where after processing
the cumin seed are sent to the consuming centres and also
exported to the markets of the foreign countries.
To recapitulate the results, cumin is an important seed
spice crop having 98 per cent marketable surplus of total
production. Farmers market cent per cent surplus
immediately after harvest as the color of seeds deteriorate
due to storage. Place-wise sale depicts that 95 per cent
surplus was sold in the regulated markets and village sale
was only 5 per cent. Time pattern-wise of sale revealed that
80 per cent surplus was sold in the first two quarters after
harvest and 20 per cent surplus was carried in the last two
quarters by the medium and large sized farmers. Two
marketing channels were observed in sale of cumin by the
(i) Farmers producers—Village traders—Wholesalers—
Retailers Consumers (Village level)
(ii) Farmers producers—Wholesalers—Retailers—
Consumers (Mandi level)
Further, producer’s share in consumer’s rupee has been
61.36 per cent in village sale and 69.87 per cent in sale
at regulated marketed. As such farmers selling cumin seed
in the regulated marketed got higher share (8.5 per cent)
which in absolute terms (Rs. 1000 per quintal) is quite
substantial in this high value crop. More than three fourth
of the total production of cumin seed was marketed by
the farmers in Unjha market of Gujarat state. Only 25
per cent of the total cumin seed production of the state
arrived in the markets of Rajasthan state. This is causing
heavy losses to the state exchequer in term of loss on
account of mandi fee and sales tax. Thus, to attract more
arrivals of surplus cumin seed in the markets of Rajasthan
state, there is dire necessity for development of
infrastructure facilities in the markets of the state such as
opening of cleaning and processing units, establishment
of export houses and construction of storage structure in
all cumin markets of Rajasthan to check the flow of
cumin for sale in the out side markets.
1. Acharya, S.S. and N.L. Agarwal, “Agricultural Marketing
in India”, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi, 1999, pp. 306-7.
2. Acharya, S.S. and N.L. Agarwal, “Efficiency in Millet
Marketing—A Case Study of Rajasthan”, Ind. Jn.
of Agri, Econ., 39 (2), 1984, pp. 233—38.
3. Agarwal, N.L. “Costs, Margins and Price-Spread in
Marketing of Spices Crops in Rajasthan”, Niyamit
Mandi, 8(2), Jun.-July 1998. pp. 13—16.
4. Agarwal, N.L. and B.L. Meena. “Agricultural Marketing
in India: Performance of Cumin Marketing in
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Rajasthan”, The Bihar Journal of Agricultural
Marketing, 5 (3), July-Sept. 1997, pp. 319-28.
5. Agarwal, N.L. and Narendra Singh, “Marketing of
Fenugreek in Rajasthan”, Published in Edited
Book by Jagdish Prasad Encyclopaedia of
Agricultural Marketing Vol. 7, Mittal Publication,
6. Agarwal, N.L. and R. Vijay, “Marketing of Coriander in
Rajasthan”, Niyamit Mandi, 4 (3&4), August-
November, 1993, pp. 13-15.
7. Agarwal, N.L. and S.C. Sharma, “Marketing of Red
Chillies in Rajasthan”, Spices India, 5 (8), August,
1992, pp. 16-21.
8. Ashturkar, B.W., L.V. Ambegoonkar and C.D. Deol,
“Performance and Profitability of Turmeric in
Maharashtra”, Financing Agriculture, 12 (4),
October-December, 1989, pp. 31-33.
9. Nadda, A.L., R. Swarup and S.S. Tewari, “Economics of
Cultivation, Returns and Marketing of Ginger in
Sirmur District of Himachal Pradesh, 18(4), June
1976, pp. 7-14.
Marketable and marketed Surplus of Cumin Seed on Sample Farms
(Quantity in quintals)
Size Number of Production On farm Marketable Marketed
groups Selected Utilization Surplus surplus
Small 13 Total—2917 0.78 28.39 28.39
(0-2 ha.) Per farm—2.24 0.06 2.18 2.18
(100.00) (2.68) (97.32) (97.32)
Semi- medium 32 Total-149.97 3.09 146.88 146.88
(2-4 ha.) Per farm—4.69 0.10 4.59 4.59
(100.00) (2.13) (97.87) (97.87)
Medium 45 Total—414.92 7.23 407.69 407.69
(4—10ha. ) Per farm—9.22 0.16 9.06 9.06
(100.00) (1.74) (98.26) (98.26)
Large 10 Total—122.33 2.10 120.23 120.23
(Above 10 ha.) Per farm—12.23 0.21 12.02 12.02
(100.00) (1.72) (98.28) (98.28)
Overall 100 Total—716.39 13.28 703.19 703.19
Per farm—7.16 0.13 7.03 7.03
(100.00) (1.82) (98.18) (98.18)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of total production in the respective size group.
Place-wise Disposal Pattern of Surplus Cumin Seed by the Sample Farmers
(Quantity in quintals)
Size Number of Particulars Village Market Total
groups Farmers sale sale
Small 13 Total 12.37 16.02 28.39
(0-2 ha.) Per farm 0.95 1.23 2.18
(43.58) (56.42) (100.00)
Semi-medium 32 Total 22.00 124.88 146.88
(2-4 ha.) Per farm 0.69 3.90 4.59
(15.03) (84.97) (100.00)
Medium 45 Total — 407.69 407.69
(4-10 ha.) Per farm — 9.06 9.06
— (100.00) (100.00)
Large 10 Total — 120.23 120.23
(Above 10 ha.) Per farm 12.02 12.02
(100.00) (100.00)
Overall 100 Total 34.37 668.82 703.19
Per farm 0.34 6.69 7.03
(4.84) (95.16) (100.00)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of total sale by the respective size group farmers.
40 Agricultural Marketing
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Time Pattern of Sale of Cumin Seed by the Sample Farmers
(Quantity in quintals)
Farm Number Particulars Ist IInd IIIrd IVth Total
Size of Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter Sale
Groups Selected (March to (June to (Sept. to (Dec. to
Farmers May) Aug.) (Nov.) Feb.)
Small 13 Total 28.39 — — — 28.39
(0-2 ha.) Per farm 2.18 — — — 2.18
(100.00) (100.00)
Semi-medium 32 Total 103.58 43.30 — — 146.88
(2-4 ha.) Per farm 3.24 1.35 — — 4.59
(70.59) (29.41) — — (100.00)
Medium 45 Total 195.38 126.95 85.36 — 407.69
(4-10 ha.) Per farm 4.34 2.82 1.90 — 9.06
(47.90) (31.13) (20.97) — (100.00)
Large 10 Total 15.36 50.42 44.35 10.10 120.23
(Above 10 ha.) Per farm 1.54 5.04 4.43 1.01 12.02
(12.81) (41.93) (36.86) (8.40) (100.00)
Overall 100 Total 342.71 220.67 129.71 10.10 703.19
Per farm 3.43 2.20 1.30 0.10 7.03
(48.79) 31.30 (18.49) (1.42) (100.00)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of total sale by the respective size group farmers.
Lot-wise Disposal Pattern of Marketed Surplus of Cumin Seed by the Sample Farmers
Farm Selling in one lot Selling in two lots Selling in more than
Size two lots
Groups No. of Quantity No. of Quantity No. of Quantity
farmers (qtls) farmers (qtls) farmers (qtls)
Small 13 28.39 — — — —
(0-2 ha.) (100.00) (100.00) — — — —
Semi-medium 32 146.88 — — — —
(2-4 ha.) (100.00) (100.00) — — — —
Medium 31 243.27 14 164.42 — —
(4-10) ha.) (68.89) (59.67) (31.11) (40.33) — —
Large 5 43.03 3 40.37 2 36.83
(above 10 ha.) (50.00) (35.79) (30.00) (33.58) (20.00) (30.63)
Overall 81 461.57 17 204.79 2 36.83
(81.00) (65.64) (17.00) (29.12) (2.00) (5.24)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of total number of farmers/quantity of cumin seed in the respective size group.
April—June, 2003 41
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Distribution of Producer Farmers Adopting Different Marketing channels
Marketing channels Size groups Total
Small Semi- Medium Large
1. Producer—Village
Trader—Wholesaler 7 6 — — 13
—Retailer—Consumer (53.85) (18.75) (13.00)
(In village sale)
2. Producer— 6 26 45 10 87
—Retailer-Consumer (46.15) (81.25) (100) (100) (87.00)
(In mandi sale)
Total 13 32 45 10 100
(100) (100) (100) (100) (100)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of their respective column total.
Market Charges in Sale of Cumin Seeds in Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti, Merta City
Particulars Unit Rate Charges
borne by
1. Sales tax Per 100 rupees worth of 2.00 Buyer
2. Mandi fee -do- 1.60 Buyer
3. Commission -do- 2.00 Buyer
4. Labour charges for Per bag of 55 kgs
(a) Unloading, seiving, -do- 3.00 Seller
cleaning and filling of
bags prior to sale
(b) Loading -do- 1.50 Buyer
(c) Unloading _do- 1.50 Buyer
(d) Weighing -do- 0.20 Buyer
Source : Records of Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti, Merta City.
42 Agricultural Marketing
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Price-Spread in Marketing of cumin Seeds at Village and Mandi Sale
Sl. Particulars Village sale Mandi sale
No. Rs./quintal Share in consumer’s Rs./quintal Share in
rupee (Per cent) consumer’s rupee
(Per cent)
1. Producer’s net price 4791.53 61.36 5455.82 69.87
2. Cost incurred by
(a) Producer 13.30 0.17 32.96 0.42
(b) Village trader 26.77 0.34 — —
(c) Wholesaler 319.62 4.09 319.62 4.09
(d) Retailer 14.00 0.18 14.00 0.18
Total Cost 373.69 4.79 366.58 4.69
3. Margin earned by
(a) Village trader 657.18 8.42 — —
(b) Wholesaler 489.70 6.27 489.70 6.27
(c) Retailer 1496.37 19.16 1496.37 19.16
Total margin 2643.25 33.85 1986.07 25.43
4. Consumer’s price 7808.47 100.00 7808.47 100.00
Production of Cumin Seed in Major Producing Districts and of Rajasthan, Arrivals of Cumin Seed in Mandies
Major Production of Rank in Arrivals of cumin seed in Krishi Upaj Rank
cumin seed cumin seed the state Mandi Samities of the respective in
Producing districts of (qtls) districts (qtls) the
Rajasthan Quantity of Per cent of total state
arrivals production
Jalore 132930 II 754 0.57 V
Barmer 159120 I 345 0.22 VI
Nagaur 96730 III 66410 68.66 I
Pali 13530 V 8644 63.89 IV
Jodhpur 92570 IV 24727 26.71 II
Ajmer 74100 VI 23403 316.26 III
Rajasthan state 529610 — 130064 24.56 —
Source : Records of Directorate of Agricultural Marketing.
Disposal of Cumin Seeds to Unjha Market of Gujarat State from important Cumin Markets of Rajasthan State
(Quantity in quintal)
Disposal from Krishi Purchased quantity of Disposal of cumin seed in Percentage of
Upaj Mandi Samiti of cumin seed by the Unjha market by the total purchased
Rajasthan selected firms selected firms of the mandi quantity
of Rajasthan
Mertacity 17341 11300 65.16
Jodhpur 7218 5600 77.58
Nagaur 4160 2935 70.55
Kishangarh 7460 3900 52.28
Source : Information obtained from cumin dealing traders.
April—June, 2003 43
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Home News
Consumer expenditure
• About 75% of the Indian population lives in rural areas
and 25%, in urban areas. There were 942 females per
1000 males in rural areas and 908 females per 1000 males
in urban areas.
• The all-India average monthly per capita consumer
expenditure (MPCE) is Rs. 495 and Rs. 914 for rural
and urban areas, respectively. Thus, the average MPCE
for urban areas at all-India level is 85% higher than that
in rural areas.
• Average MPCE in rural areas has increased by 2%
(Rs. 9) from the previous year and in urban areas, by 7%
(Rs. 60).
• For rural India, average MPCE of Rs. 495 comprised
Rs. 279 for food, and Rs. 216 for non-food. Food
expenditure included Rs. 100 for cereals and cereal
substitutes, and Rs. 90 for milk, milk products,
vegetables and edible oil. Non-food expenditure included
Rs. 41 for fuel and light, and Rs. 41 for clothing and
• For the urban sector, average MPCE of Rs. 914 comprised
Rs. 400 for food and Rs. 514 for non-food. Of food
expenditure, only Rs. 102 went towards cereals and cereal
substitutes while Rs. 143 is spent on milk, milk
products, vegetables and edible oil, and
Rs. 58 on beverages, refreshments and processed food.
Rs. 77 is spent per person per month on fuel and light
and Rs. 69 on clothing and footwear.
• At the all-India level, the share of cereals and cereal
substitutes in total consumption expenditure is 20% in
rural India and 11% in urban India.
• There is a declining trend in the share of food in total
expenditure. It is 56% in rural areas and 44% in urban
areas during NSS 56th round compared to 64% in rural
areas and 56% in urban areas during NSS 43rd round
Adequacy of food
• At the all-India level the proportion of chronically hungry
households (not getting enough to eat during even some
months of the year) is less than 1% for rural areas and
less than 0.5% for urban. As for seasonal hunger, 19 per
1000 households in rural areas and 4 per 1000 households
in urban areas reported getting enough food only in some
months of the year.
Other living conditions
• The percentage of households living in dwelling units
owned by them was 93 in rural India and only about 61
per cent in urban areas, while 34 per cent lived in rented
dwelling units in urban areas.
• There is an increase of around 3 percent in the proportion
of urban households using LPG for cooking over the
previous year. The percentage of urban households
depending on firewood and chips for cooking came down
by 1 whereas the same for rural areas remained more or
less stable.
• About 99% of the households are dependant on kerosene
and electricity for their lighting purposes in both rural
and urban India. At the all-India level the percentage of
households using electricity is 91% in urban areas and
51% in rural areas; the remaining households are, mostly,
users of kerosene.
Employment and unemployment
• Over two-fifths of the population (42%) in rural areas —
and more than one-third (35%) in urban areas — are in
the employed category as per their usual status (ps + ss,
that is, if principal and subsidiary status workers are taken
• The worker population ratio (WPR) according to the usual
status (ps + ss) differed between males and females in
both rural and urban areas. In rural areas, the rates are
54 and 29 per cent for males and females, respectively.
In urban areas, the corresponding rates are 53 and 14 per
cent, respectively.
• Both for males and females, the unemployment rates are
appreciably higher in urban areas than in the rural areas.
• In rural India, according to the usual status (ps + ss) about
69 per cent of the male workers and 82 oer cent of the
female workers are engaged in agricultural activities. In
urban India, about 58 per cent of the male workers and
about 48 per cent of the female workers are engaged in
the tertiary sector activities as per the usual status
(ps + ss).
• the proportion of usually employed (ps + ss) who reported
themselves as not employed (i.e. unemployed or out of
labour force) as per current weekly status is higher for
females than for males. For females, it is 25 per cent in
the rural areas and 18 per cent in the urban areas.
Source : Press Information Bureau, Government of India, New Delhi dt. 20-3-2003.
44 Agricultural Marketing
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Modernisation of Trade Marks Registry makes Rapid
As part of the major project for modernization and
upgradation of the intellectual property framework in India,
the Trade Mark Registry in the country is being modernized
at a rapid pace with the basic objective of eliminating the
backlog of pending applications. During the visit of Shri
Arun jaitley, Union Minister of Commerce & Industry and
Law & Justice, to the Trade Marks Registry (TMR) in Mumbai
recently, it was indicated that the backlog of unexamined trade
mark applicatioins has been reduced from 5 to 6 years to less
than a year now and will be fully liquidated by September
2003. Further, by 31
March, 2003, zero pendency will be
attained by the Trade Mark Registry in respect of issuance of
the first examination report. Renewal of Trade Mark
Certificates is being done instantly in clear cases, while online
registration of applicatiions in all the regional offices and the
headquarters started from October 2002.
Action Plan for 2003-04 includes registration of trade
marks in clear cases within one year from receipt of
applicatioins as against 5 to 7 years taken earlier; renewal of
registered trade marks within a week of the receipt of
application for renewal as against 2 to 3 years taken earlier;
ensuring no backlog at any stage except that of contested
cases; expediting disposal of contested cases; and completion
of the moderinization project initiated in the 9
Plan. As part
of decentralisation of the operations, examination of
applications will begin at branch offices with effect from April
2003 and renewal of registered trade marks at branch offices
by the end of the first quarter of 2003. Substantial progress
will also be made towards complete automation of Trade
Marks Registry functioning.
Government underlook modernisation of intellectual
property framework in India as a strategic response to the
emerging challenges posed by globalisation and the increasing
relevance and importance of intellectual property in a
knowledge-based development environment. This has
included modernisation of the infrastructure of Patent Offices,
Trade Marks Registry etc., besides legislative changes in the
relevant IPR laws, The TMR administers the Trade and
Merchandise Marks Act (1958) and the Head Office the TMR
is at Kolkata.
Source : Press Information Bureau. Govt. of India, New Delhi, dt. 26.3.2003.
Shri Ajit Singh calls for correcting inadequacies in Farm
Vice Chancellors meet to discuss National Policy on
Agricultural Education
The Agriculture Minister Shri Ajit Singh has called for
reorienting agricultural education to make it relevant to the
emerging challenges in the context of globalisation and
opening up of economies. He was inaugurating the two-day
Conference of Vice Chancellors of State Agriculture
Source :—Press Information Bureau. Govt. of India New Delhi, dated 1-4-2003.
Universities here today. Shri Ajit Singh said “competition
posed by globalisation and opening up of economies, ethical
issues of trade related intellectual property rights, genetically
modified foods and organisms and enforcement of strict
quality regimes need immediate attention”. He expressed
concern over inadequate knowledge base about intellectual
property rights and said the government could not find five
qualified persons for special teaching assignments in this
Shri Ajit Singh said the government is in favour of
conferring statutory powers on the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research to ensure uniformity and quality in
agricultural education in the country. Due to lack of such
powers with the ICAR various states are setting up farm
universities without any consideration for man-power
requirement and academic and financial sustainability. He
called for creating a class of grass-roots level workers,
technicians and para professionals capable of handling
services like soil testing, seed production, elite planting
material, artificial insemination, disease surveillance grading
and marketing etc. The Minister observed that there was a
need for introducing farm education at the school level.
Only Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan are offering agricultural
education at higher secondary level.
Referring to the financial problems of farm universities
Shri Ajit Singh said they deserved more support both from
the Central and State governments but resource constraints
are a handicap for both. He said the Universities shall
endeavour to stand on their own by generating at least 20%
of their revenues from internal efforts. Without going for
crass commercialisation the universities could mobilise
resources through other initiatives. Shri Ajit Singh said
seminars and workshops on WTO related issues need to be
organised with farmers’ participation to enhance their
Dr. Mangala Rai, Director General of Indian Council of
Agricultural Research said the country do not as yet have
a national policy on agricultural education. He said there
was a need for the farm universities to avoid duplication of
efforts by specialising in identified areas. Ms. Krishna
Bhatnagar, Principal Advisor in the Planning Commission
observed that the most profound indicator of backwardness
in any part of the country is low agricultural productivity.
The two day conference of Vice Chancellors will
deliberate on national policy on agricultural education,
commercialisation of agricultural education, introduction of
agricultural education at school level, restructuring of
undergraduate education etc.
All Exim Policy Notifications Issued Simultaneously
All notification pertaining to the Export and Import
(EXIM) Policy announced by shri Arun Jaitley, Union
April—June, 2003 45
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Minister of Commerce & Industry and Law & Justice, have
been issued simultaneously with the Policy. As indicated by
Shri Jaitley, required notifications by the Director General of
Foreign Trade (DGFT), Ministry of Commerce & Industry
and the Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBEC),
Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, covering
provisions of the EXIM Policy 2003-04 have been issued
simultaneously, for the first time.
The list of Customs Notifications pertaining to the Exim
Policy issued by the Department of Revenue are:
1. Customs Notification 53/03–Cus dated 1.4.2003 to
operationalise Duty Free Entitlement Credit Certificate
Scheme (vide paragraph of the Exim Policy).
2. Customs Notification No. 54/03–Cus dated 1.4.2003 to
operationalise Duty Free Service Entitlement Credit
Certificate Scheme (vide paragraph 3.8 of the Exim
3. Customs Notification No. 55/03/Cus dated 1.4.2003 to
operationalise the new 5% duty EPCG Scheme (vide
chapter 5 of the Exim Policy).
4. Customs Notification No. 56/03-Cus dated 1.4.2003 to
operationalise Advance Licence for annual requirement
scheme in respect of status holders (vide paragraph
4.1.7A of Exim Policy).
5. Customs Notification No. 57/03-Cus dated 1.4.2003
amending 4 earlier Customs notifications issued under
Advance Licence, DEPB, DFRC and deemed exports
schemes to synchronise with provisions of 2003-03 Exim
Further, the following 9 notifications covering SEZs
(Special Economic Zones)/EOUs (Export Oriented Units)/
EHTP (Electronic Hardware Technology Park)/STP (Software
Technology Park) have been issued by the Department of
Revenue, Ministry of Finance & Company Affairs: No. 22/
2003-Central Excise dated 31st March, 2003; No. 24/2003-
Central Excise dated 31st March, 2003; No. 25/2003-Central
Excise dated 31st March, 2003; No. 26/2003-Central Excise
dated 31st March, 2003; No. 27/2003-Central Excise dated
31st March, 2003; No. 28/2003-Central Excise dated 31st
March, 2003; No. 8/2003-Customs dated 31st March, 2003;
No. 51/2003-Customs dated 31st March, 2003; and No. 52/
2003-Customs dated 31st March, 2003.
(V) Workshop on Extension Reforms Inaugurated
The Agricultural Minister, Shri Ajit Singh has stressed the
need to bring about agricultural extension reforms for meeting
the challenges of the international trading regime under the
World Trade Organisation. He was inaugurating here today a
three-day workshop on Operationalising Agricultural
Extension Reforms in South Asia. He said that a sensitive
and responsive research and extension system could help turn
the threats of a global market place into opportunities for the
farming community. The Minister pointed out that reforms
of the extension system have gained urgency for increasing
production and productivity and utilizing export opportunities.
Shri Ajit Singh said that the biggest challenge in agriculture
today is how to give the benefit of science and technology to
the poorest farmer. The Government alone can not meet this
challenge and the private corporate sector, farmers’
organisations, co-operatives, NGOs, media and other Groups
will have to contribute to the task. The Minister said that
private provision of agro-services needs to be encouraged
through policy reforms and institutional changes so that
farmers’ needs are serviced more efficiently. He stated that
extension work in India is very difficult and complex because
of wide differences in farming practices in the country.
In his Presidential address, the Minister of State for
Agriculture, Shri Hukumdeo Narayan Yadav said that research
and extension agenda must be relevant to contemporary and
future needs of farmers. He also stressed the need for
developing agricultural extension services suitable to the
conditions of the country.
Earlier, the Agriculture Secretary Shri R.C.A. Jain said
that agricultural extension has emerged as a challenging
area in the post Green Revolutions era. The countries of
South Asia region could learn from each other’s best
The Three-day Workshop has been organised by the
Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with the World Bank.
The Workshop aims at promoting greater awareness among
agricultural extension policymakers and practioners in
Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka about the
best practices in the design and implementation of agricultural
extension programmes. Issues like public private partnership
in technology dissemination, ensuring access for women and
vulnerable groups to extension services and use of information
and communication technology in agricultural extension
services will be discussed. Experts from within the country
and abroad are taking part in the Workshop.
Source : Press Information Bureau, Govt. of India, New Delhi,
dated 3.4.2003.
Source :Press Information Bureau, Govt. of India, New Delhi,
dated 6.5.2003.
46 Agricultural Marketing
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