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Pipe Systems

Basic Tapwater Manual

Afripex (Pty) Ltd - Tel: 0861 444 333 - info@afripex.com - www.afripex.com


Dec. 2001

Wirsbo Tap Water System


Basic Manual

Afripex (Pty) Ltd - Tel: 0861 444 333 - info@afripex.com - www.afripex.com

Contents

Page
Introduction...................................................................................................... 4
Chapter 1

System description
The Wirsbo Tap Water System......................................................................... 5
Wirsbo-PEX pipe .............................................................................................. 5
Easy to install ................................................................................................... 6
Security against water damage ...................................................................... 6
Wirsbo conduit................................................................................................. 7
Marking and identification .............................................................................. 7
Longitudinal expansion................................................................................... 7
Longitudinal contraction (shrinkage) ............................................................. 8
Joining methods .............................................................................................. 8

Chapter 2

Calculation principles
Water flow demand ......................................................................................... 9
Design flow...................................................................................................... 10
Velocity of flow................................................................................................ 11
Hot water circulation (HWC) .......................................................................... 11
Pressure drop .................................................................................................. 11
Generally ......................................................................................................... 13

Chapter 3

Diagrams and tables


Pressure drop nomograms ............................................................................ 14
Heat emission loss.......................................................................................... 16
Working pressure/temperature...................................................................... 18
Thermal expansion ......................................................................................... 19

Chapter 4

Calculation methods
Calculation example 1 .................................................................................... 20
Calculation example 2 .................................................................................... 22

Chapter 5

Installation methods/directions
Traditional method.......................................................................................... 25
Manifold system ............................................................................................. 25
Conduit Pipe-in-Pipe system ...................................................................... 26
Securing the conduit ...................................................................................... 26
Location of the manifolds .............................................................................. 27
Location of the pipes ...................................................................................... 28
Installation in concrete structures ................................................................. 28
Installation in wooden structures .................................................................. 29
Installation in single-family houses............................................................... 29
Installation in a block of flats ......................................................................... 30
Installation in basements and ceilings.......................................................... 30
Installation not allowing for thermal expansion .......................................... 31
Installation allowing for thermal expansion................................................. 32
Fixing and clamping pipes on to a rack ........................................................ 32
Installation in a vertical pipe duct.................................................................. 33
Expansion compensating devices ................................................................. 34
Calculation of a flexible arm and expansion loop........................................ 34

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Page
Chapter 6

General directions
Storage and general care ............................................................................... 36
Uncoiling the pipe........................................................................................... 36
Method of cutting ........................................................................................... 36
Assembling a Wirsbo Q&E fitting .................................................................. 37
Assembling a compression fitting................................................................. 38
Assembling a WIPEX Coupling ...................................................................... 39
Minor repairs................................................................................................... 40
Inserting a PE-X pipe into a conduit .............................................................. 41
Replacing a damaged pipe............................................................................. 42
Pipe bending ................................................................................................... 44
Minimum bend radius .................................................................................... 44
Filling the system............................................................................................ 44
Pressure test.................................................................................................... 44
Fire protection ................................................................................................. 45

Chapter 7

Wirsbo-PEX Technical data............................................................................. 46

Chapter 8

Quality Assurance, tap water approvals ....................................................... 47

Chapter 9

Conversion tables ........................................................................................... 49

Chapter 10

List of figures, tables and diagrams


Figures ............................................................................................................. 55
Tables ............................................................................................................... 56
Diagrams ......................................................................................................... 56

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Introduction

This manual will give basic information regarding the design of tap water
systems incorporating Wirsbo-PEX pipes and is intended mainly for use in
the design of systems for apartments and houses.
Wirsbo systems are easy to install and calculation principles, with the
exception of material and installation costs, are the same as for other systems.
However it is recommended that design and installation be carried out by
experienced personnel. Local authority regulations in any case govern the kind
of persons authorised to carry out this work, which in most instances will be
certified plumbers. Moreover, although recommendations given here are in
general based on Nordic norms (NKB), individual requirements specific to the
country concerned should be taken in to account where necessary.
In the case of high-rise buildings such as hotels or offices, necessary
additional information is available from Uponor Wirsbo AB or one of our
many agents and distributors throughout the world.
Uponor Wirsbo AB

Uponor Wirsbo AB, Sweden in December 2001.


Reprinting, copying or any kind of reproduction is allowed provided the source of the
material is mentioned.

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Chapter 1
System description
The Wirsbo Tap Water
System

For years, selecting a tap water system was done in a routine fashion. Choice
of material was limited, and attention was paid only to basic requirements.
Today, selecting a tap water system involves taking into consideration a wider
range of aspects. Although the purpose is the same, a modern tap water system
has a number of additional features, features which have a direct impact on
the overall performance of a system.
As in other aspects of modern life, development and improvement are
continuous. Wirsbo piping systems are by no means new on the market.
These have been developed and improved on since 1972.
Wirsbo offers a complete system for domestic hot and cold water. The
system consists of a wide range of pipes and accessories. It is clean, easy to
install and flexible. Being flexible means for example, that longer lengths of
pipe can be installed, resulting in fewer joints and less associated installation
work. The Wirsbo Tap Water System includes components for installation in
new buildings as well as in renovation projects, and is suitable for concealed
runs in building structures of wood, concrete and brick, and for exposed
runs in basements or ceilings.

Wirsbo-PEX pipe

Wirsbo-PEX is a pipe for hot and cold water applications. The pipes are
made from cross-linked high-density polyethylene (PE-X) in accordance with
the Engel process. Cross-linking is a process which changes the chemical
structure of the plastic material in such a way that the polymer chains
are connected with each other to form a strong three-dimensional net of
chemical bonds.

Figure 1 Molecule chain for a cross-linked


polyethylene pipe

The new chemical structure makes it impossible to melt or dissolve the


polymer, without first destroying its structure. Wirsbo-PEX pipes are therefore
suitable for use at pressures and temperatures for which previously only
metal pipes were appropriate.
In addition, Wirsbo-PEX pipes have a unique elasticity. Thus, when
expanded, a pipe will always strive to resume its original dimension (unless it
is expanded beyond the breakpoint which is over 300%). Using this feature
for example means that pipes can be simply and securely connected to each
other (see joining methods below).
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Wirsbo-PEX pipes have excellent long-term properties and are proof


against corrosion. The internal diameter will not be reduced due to corrosion
or to sediment build-up that can often occur in metal pipes. The pipe material
also boasts the advantage of not being affected by high flow velocities or
by low pH-valued water (aggressive water). Nor is it affected by building
materials such as concrete, lime mortar, gypsum, etc. Wirsbo-PEX pipes have
a very high resistance to chemicals and are thus resistant to chemical additives
in water. Wirsbo-PEX does not give off taste and smell, or add any harmful
substances to the drinking water.
The material used for Wirsbo-PEX pipes is elastic and has a shockabsorbing effect in situations such as when a mixing tap is suddenly shut
off. Water hammer in fact is reduced to one third compared with traditional
metal pipes.

Figure 2 Wirsbo-PEX pipe

Note
Prevent tape, paint and sealing compounds containing plasticizers and
other products containing solvents from coming into contact with the
pipe as the compositions in these products affect the long-term properties
of the pipe negatively.
Since UV radiation affects the pipe, a Wirsbo-PEX pipe should not
be stored or installed in such a way as to be exposed to sunlight (UV
radiation).
Easy to install

Wirsbo-PEX pipes have many features that simplify the installation work.
They are light and flexible and there is no need for high-temperature
operations such as soldering or welding. Connecting a Wirsbo-PEX pipe
is made simple using Wirsbo Quick & Easy couplings and the pipe can be
easily cut and bent by hand. Furthermore the pipes are delivered in coils for
easy transportation and handling.

Security against water


damage

Wirsbo tap water pipes can be safely placed in concealed locations within
building structures because they offer security against water damage. This is
because the pipes are channelled through a conduit, a protective outer pipe,
which can be installed in a single seamless length around the water-bearing
pipe from the manifold all the way to the draw-off point (a pipe in pipe
system). Thus any water leakage, due for example to a pipe being damaged by
a misplaced nail, will be carried and discharged beyond the building structure
and will be detected at an early stage.
In addition as a further guarantee against damage, the various cabinets
in the Wirsbo range, such as the manifold cabinets, are fitted with leakage
indicators.

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Wirsbo conduit

The conduit itself is corrugated, which makes it highly flexible and gives it
a high load-bearing capacity. As well as ensuring against water damage, it
also provides mechanical protection and allows for the substitution of an
accidentally-damaged water pipe.

Figure 3 Conduit pipe

Marking and identification

Wirsbo pipes are always marked with the product name, outer diameter,
wall thickness, date of manufacture, and continuous metre marks. They
are also marked with the current standard, together with a type approval
label and depending on the type of pipe, with the relevant production
monitoring authority.
Wirsbo-PEX tap water pipes are approved according to the relevant
international standards with respect to material properties, installation
technique and health requirements.
Dimension (outside
diameter and wall

Approval for potable


water in Germany

thickness)

Identification:
material, machine, year,
month, day

Figure 4 The marking on Wirsbo-PEX


pipe

The name of
the product

Longitudinal expansion

Production
monitoring authority

Manufacturing
process (Engel)

DIN standard
specifying pressure
and temperature
rating

Compared to metal pipes, Wirsbo-PEX pipes have a high longitudinal


expansion (although associated expansion forces are low).
If a pipe in pipe system is installed in concealed pipe runs, longitudinal
expansion is taken up in the space between the water-bearing pipe and
the conduit.
In exposed pipe runs, the expansion forces are transmitted to expansion
compensating devices or to the structure of the building via anchor points.

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Longitudinal contraction
(shrinkage)

When a pipe has been in use for a while, the pressure and temperature of
the water can drop and so the pipe may shrink longitudinally by up to
1.5%. If the pipe is prevented from shrinking, a tensile force will be built
up. However, since the grip of the coupling on the pipe is stronger than
any tensile force and the pipes are often laid somewhat slack, longitudinal
shrinkage is normally not a problem.

Joining methods

A wide range of couplings and fittings are available for the easy and secure
connection of plastic pipes; mainly compression fittings, press fittings among
others of various manufacture.
Wirsbo has developed its own joining method, Wirsbo Quick & Easy
(Q&E), based on the unique properties of the Wirsbo-PEX pipe.
A Wirsbo Quick & Easy joint is made by gradually expanding the pipe
with a ring of PEX material fitted on its outside, and then by allowing the pipe
and support ring to shrink back onto the fitting nipple.
This demonstrates the elastic properties of the PE-X material which always
strives to resume its original shape as mentioned above and helps give Wirsbo
Quick & Easy the reputation of being probably the most efficient and safe
PE-X coupling available today.
The WIPEX coupling is the other main coupling in Wirsbos assortment,
designed especially for connecting larger dimension Wirsbo-PEX pipes, used
in tap water systems or in district heating installations.
WIPEX couplings are available for pipe dimensions, ranging from outer
diameters of 32 mm up to 110 mm. The joints here are sealed with o-rings.
Note
For the safest couplings, Wirsbo-PEX pipes should be connected with
approved fittings recommended by Wirsbo or any of our retailers.

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Chapter 2
Calculation principles
Water flow demand

Table 1 Water flow demand


(* method 4)

The water flow requirements do vary in each country, therefore the following
figures should be verified with the relevant authorities in your area.

Application
Water closet with flush tank
Wash basin
Shower
Bath
Sink
Washing machine
Bidet

Water flow demand l/s


Nordic (NKB)
prEN 806*
0.1
0.13
0.1
0.07
0.2
0.15
0.3
0.30
0.2
0.10
0.2
0.20
0.1
0.20

Example 1: Bathroom
In a bathroom with bath tub, wash basin, water closet and bidet the maximum
flow, according to Nordic norms, is:

Bath
Wash basin
Water closet
Bidet
Total flow rate

Cold water (l/s)


0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1

Hot water (l/s)


0.3
0.1

0.1

0.6

0.5

Bathrooms are normally used by one person at a time, the largest volume of
water being taken by the bath. Therefore the maximum water flow would be
0.3 l/s and used as design flow rate.
Example 2: Apartment
An apartment has a bathroom, a toilet and a kitchen:

a) The bathroom is similar to the bathroom in example 1


b) The toilet has one water closet and one wash basin (only one used
at a time)
c) The kitchen has a sink and a washing machine
The total flow rate in l/s to be considered for cold water is:
a) Bathroom in example 1
b) WC and wash basin
c) Sink and washing machine

0.6
0.2
0.4

Total flow rate

1.2

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According to Nordic norms, when the demand flow of an apartment is


larger than 0.7 l/s, it is sufficient to calculate with 0.7 l/s for both cold and
hot water supply. If hot water is to be heated in the apartment, then the
supply to the apartment should be 1.6 l/s.
Design flow

Table 2 Design flow

In practice, most faucets used in tap water installations have a predominantly


short usage time (less than 15 minutes per 24 hours) and not all faucets are in
use at the same time. For this reason the design flow is based on the total flow
(total volume required), and accordingly reduced by a design factor.
The table below shows design flow (Nordic norms) according to various
total flows.
Total
flow
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0

Design
flow
0.30
0.35
0.37
0.39
0.40
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.49
0.50
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.56
0.57
0.58

Total
flow
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5

Design
flow
0.59
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.71
0.74
0.76
0.78
0.80
0.82
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.90
0.92
0.94
0.96

Total Design
flow
flow
12.0
0.98
12.5
1.00
13.0
1.01
13.5
1.03
14.0
1.05
14.5
1.07
15.0
1.08
15.5
1.10
16.0
1.12
16.5
1.13
17.0
1.15
17.5
1.17
18.0
1.18
18.5
1.20
19.0
1.22
19.5
1.23
20.0
1.25
21.0
1.28
22.0
1.31
23.0
1.34
24.0
1.37
25.0
1.40
26.0
1.43

Total
flow
27.0
28.0
29.0
30.0
32.0
34.0
36.0
38.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
110.0
120.0
130.0
140.0
150.0
160.0
170.0

Design
flow
1.46
1.49
1.52
1.55
1.60
1.60
1.71
1.77
1.82
1.95
2.08
2.33
2.57
2.81
3.04
3.26
3.49
3.70
3.92
4.13
4.34
4.55
4.76

Note
For hotels, office buildings and other large installations the above information should not be used. Consultation with your local authority is
recommended in these instances.

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Velocity of flow

Velocity of flow in a tap water system has a direct influence on:


- Internal erosion
- Noise level
- Water hammer
- Pressure drop
With the use of copper pipes, limiting the velocity of flow to a maximum of
1.5 m/s is recommended. Wirsbo-PEX pipes are not subject to this restriction.
Tap water system installations with Wirsbo-PEX pipes can be designed to a
maximum calculated water velocity of 2.5 m/s.

Hot water circulation (HWC)

When designing a hot water system, consideration should be given to the


installation of a circulation system, which reduces to a minimum the time
between turning on the tap and the arrival of the hot water. This not only saves
time but also reduces water consumption, since water need not cool between
tap usage and unwanted cold water need not therefore be drawn off.
The following example shows the method for calculating the time with the
hot water circulating relatively close to the manifold.
Example:
The waiting time requirement is 10 seconds. The distance between the faucet
(wash basin; 0.1 l/s) and the manifold is 10 m. The pipe from the manifold
to the faucet is a Wirsbo-PEX pipe of 16x2.2 mm.
The internal volume of a Wirsbo-PEX pipe of 16x2.2 mm is 0.099 l/m.
Since the distance is 10 m, there will be 0.99 l in the pipe between the
connection points. The water flow is 0.1 l/s.
0.99 l
= 9.9 s
0.1 l/s

Thus the time of under 10 seconds is acceptable.


Pressure drop

Table 3 Correction factors

Once the total flow (total volume required) in each main supply pipe has been
calculated and the design flows have been determined, pressure requirements
must then be considered before selecting a pipe dimension. The pressure drop
in valves, mixers, flow metres, shut-off valves, fittings, etc., has to be taken into
account when calculating these requirements. The pressure drop diagrams for
Wirsbo-PEX pipes in the next chapter can now be used. These are based on
specific temperatures. Calculations based on other temperatures are subject
to a correction factor as shown in the table below.
Temp.
C
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

Correction Factor
70C
10C
0.95
0.76
0.98
0.78
1.00
0.80
1.02
0.82
1.05
0.84
1.10
0.87
1.14
0.91
1.20
0.96
1.25
1.00

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Pressure drop kPa/m 70C


Flow
l/s

Table 4 Pressure drop for various WirsboPEX pipe dimensions at 70C

0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00

12x2
5.68
11.78
19.79

20x2.8
16x2.2
1.01
2.09
3.52
5.25
7.30
9.64
12.27

1.13
1.69
2.35
3.10
3.94
4.87
5.90
8.20
10.83

Pipe Dimension, mm
32x4.4
50x6.9
75x10.3
110x15.1
25x3.5
40x5.5
63x8.7
90x12.3

0.84
1.11
1.41
1.74
2.11
2.93
3.87
4.93
6.10
7.38
10.27

0.62
0.87
1.14
1.45
1.80
2.18
3.03
4.00
5.10
6.31
7.64

0.61
0.74
1.02
1.35
1.72
2.13
2.58
3.87
5.39
7.13

20.00

0.49
0.63
0.78
0.94
1.41
1.96
2.60
3.31
4.10
4.97

0.28
0.43
0.59
0.78
1.00
1.23
1.49
2.08
2.76
3.51

0.26
0.34
0.44
0.54
0.65
0.91
1.20
1.54
1.90
2.31

0.22
0.27
0.37
0.49
0.63
0.78
0.94
1.32
1.74

0.19
0.24
0.30
0.36
0.51
0.67
0.85
1.06
1.28

Explanation:
For each marked value of flow in table 4, is a marked value for pressure
drop in each column. This marking indicates the pressure drop level for the
maximum recommended velocity of 2.5 m/s.
Example:
The total flow for a cold water supply pipe (20C) is 5 l/s. The pipe length is
20 m and the pressure drop must not exceed 40 kPa.
From the table above we can see that pipe sizes 40, 50 and 63 mm can be
used. Pipe sizes of 63 mm give a pressure drop of 1.49 kPa/m. The length of
the pipe is 20 m so the pressure drop would be:
20 x 1.49 = 29.8 kPa

However, the correction factor in table 3 must be used since the pipe
will be used for cold water:
29.8 x 1.20 = 35.8 kPa

The value above is therefore acceptable.

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Generally

Table 5 Indication of required WirsboPEX pipe dimension

1. The design flow for a room is the maximum volume needed to supply
the faucet which requires the maximum flow. In bathrooms this is
normally the bath tub.
2. The pressure drop for fittings supplied in the Wirsbo Tap Water System
is equivalent to a pipe length of less than 0.5 m. (0.1 m for Wirsbo Q&E
and 0.5 for WIPEX).
3. When a pipe dimension is selected the common acceptable value is 1-10
kPa/m (10-100 H2O).
4. There are occasions where approximations can be useful for selecting a
pipe dimension. The following table gives an indication of the required
Wirsbo-PEX pipe dimension considering three various selection criteria.
The values in the table are based on the examples, rules and tables shown
in this manual.

Pipe
dimension
mm
20x2.8
25x3.5
32x4.4
40x5.5
50x6.9
63x8.7

A. Number of
Apartments
(acc.to ex 2
in section 2.1)
1
3
12
29
43
107

B. Number of
bathrooms
(acc.to ex 1
in section 2.1)
2
6
24
57
86
213

C. Total
flow l/s
1.4
3.7
14.2
34.2
51.5
127.9

Example1:
Dimension a supply pipe for 30 apartments of the same sort as in example 2
in Chapter 2, Water flow demand.
Conclusion: Wirsbo-PEX 40x5.5 mm is sufficient for 29 apartments but
not for 30. Select Wirsbo-PEX 50x6.9 mm.
Example 2:
Dimension a supply pipe for two bathrooms of the same sort as in example 1
in Chapter 2, Water flow demand.
Conclusion: Wirsbo-PEX 20x2.8 mm is sufficient for these two bathrooms.
Example 3:
Dimension a supply pipe for a total flow of 3 l/s.
Conclusion: Wirsbo-PEX 25x3.5 mm is sufficient for this flow.
Note
You have to consider the pipe length, hoisting height and available
pressure.

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Chapter 3
Diagrams and tables
Pressure drop nomogram Wirsbo-PEX 1.0 MPa 90C
Water temperature 10C
l/s

100

10

63

.7
x8

12.0

.9
x6

50

10.0

5.5

x
40

.4

x4

32

7.0
6.0
.5
x3

5.0

25

4.0
.8

x2

3.0

20

2.5

0.1
16

2.0
1.75

.2
x2

1.5
1.25

m/s

.0
x2 1.0

12

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.25
0.01

0.1

0.15

0.01

Correction factors for


other temperatures

0.2
0.1

Temperature C
Factor

90
0.76

80
0.78

Diagram 1 Pressure drop nomogram Wirsbo-PEX 1.0 MPa 90C

14 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

100

10

70
0.80

60
0.82

50
0.84

40
0.87

30
0.91

20
0.96

kPa/m

10
1.00

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Pressure drop nomogram Wirsbo-PEX 0.6 MPa 90C


Water temperature 70C
l/s

100

10
0m
x1

0
11

.2
x8
90
75

.9
x6
63

.8
x5
.6

12.0

x4

50

10.0
.7
x3

7.0

40

6.0

.0
x3

5.0

32

25

4.0

.3
x2

3.0
2.5
2.0
1.75

.0
x2

20

1.5
1.25
.0

0.1

m/s

x2

16

1.0

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.25
0.2

0.01
0.01

Correction factors for


other temperatures

0.1

Temperature C
Factor

90
0.95

80
0.98

100

10

70
1.00

60
1.02

50
1.05

40
1.10

30
1.14

20
1.20

kPa/m

10
1.25

Diagram 2 Pressure drop nomogram Wirsbo-PEX 0.6 MPa 90C

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Heat emission loss can be calculated according to the formula in figure 5. The
diagrams show heat emission loss for Wirsbo-PEX pipes rated 1 MPa, 90C
and 0.6 MPa, 90C. Temperature difference (water - ambient).

Heat emission loss

d2

T2

d1
2

d3

d4
T1
Surface
temperature T

1
2
Figure 5 Heat loss from a pipe based
upon a length of 1 metre.

1 = Piping wall
2 = Insulating layer

T=

3 = Insulating layer

Q
T
d

=
=
=
=
=
=

W
C
m
W/m K
W/m2 K
m

(T1-T2) l

Q=
1
1d1

16 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

Q
+ T2
d4 2

1
2d4

1
21

ln

d2
d1

1
22

ln

d3
d2

1
23

ln

d4
d3

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Heat emission loss Wirsbo-PEX 1.0 MPa 90C


63x8.7

W/m

50x6.9

mm

140
40x5.5
120
32x4.4
100
25x3.5
80

20x2.8
16x2.2

60
12x2.0
40

20

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80 C

Diagram 3 Heat emission loss Wirsbo-PEX 1.0 MPa 90C

Heat emission loss Wirsbo-PEX 0.6 MPa 90C

mm
110x10

W/m

90x8.2

75x6.9

200

63x5.8

180
50x4.8

160
140

40x3.7

120

32x3.0

100
25x2.3
80

20x2.0
16x2.0

60
40
20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80 C

Diagram 4 Heat emission loss Wirsbo-PEX 0.6 MPa 90C

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Working pressure/
temperature

The following diagram shows the applicable working pressure for Wirsbo-PEX
pipes series S = 3.2 (10 bar at 95C) and series S = 5 (6 bar at 95C) at
different continuous temperatures.
Sf 1,3 = Safecty factor 1.3

Pressure (bar)
30

20

S = 3.2

10
S=5

Diagram 5 Working pressure as a


function of temperature for normal hot
water use

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Temperature C

ISO/DIS 15875 is the standard documentation which classifies service


conditions for plastic pipes and fittings for hot and cold water systems.
The service conditions with safety factors for 10 bar (class 2, hot water
supply, 70C) are specified below.

Table 6 Service conditions with safety


factors

Dimension
series

Operative
temp.
Top, C

Time
at
Top
Years

Max.
temp.
Tmax,
C

Time
at
Tmax,
Years

3.2

70

49

80

Malfunc. Time
temp.
at
Tmal,
Tmal
C
Hours
95

100

Typical
field
of application
Hot water
supply

Note
Systems are not always in operation throughout their 50-year service life,
and therefore, when calculating the projected service life to ensure that it
equates with the actual service life, allowance must be made for the time
the system is not in use. A temperature of 20C, approximating to room
temperature, must be used for calucation purposes for this period.
Pipes in series 3.2 should be installed in a hot water supply system
with a maximum design pressure of 10 bar. Pipes in dimension series
5 should be installed in a hot water supply system with a maximum
design pressure of 6 bar.

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Thermal expansion

The diagram below shows the thermal expansion of a Wirsbo-PEX pipe as


a function of the temperature.
Expansion, mm/m
25

20

15

10

Diagram 6 Thermal expansion

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Temperature, C

This diagram is used in the example on page 35.

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Chapter 4
Calculation methods
In this chapter we will show two calculation examples to do with risers. For
the sake of simplicity any pressure loss through manifolds and fittings has been
omitted since it would have an insignificant effect upon calculations.
Calculation example 1

Example 1 shows a pressure loss calculation for the dimensioning of a riser


in a small-size building.

l/s

l/s 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1


kPa/m
7.30 1.01 1.01 3.52

0.6
4

1.2
3

1.8
2

2.4
1

Heater
P0
M

3.0

Figure 6 Outline drawing of an installation

The basic criteria required for pressure loss calculations:


A five floor building
A bathroom on each floor
Each floor has a height of 3 m
The available water pressure at ground level is 400 kPa (hypothetical figure)
The pressure loss through the heater is 100 kPa (hypothetical figure)
The pressure loss in every faucet is 50 kPa (hypothetical figure)
Step 1 Calculate the known pressure loss
Pressure loss in the heater
Pressure loss due to the force
of gravity
Pressure loss in each faucet

20 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

100

kPa

147.2 kPa (9.81 x 3 m x 5 floors)


50 kPa
297.2 kPa

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Step 2 Calculate the average pressure loss/m of the riser

This calculation gives an indication of the pressure loss when a pipe dimension
is to be selected. Approximate pipe length = 15 m (3 m x 5 floors) + 5 m
(bathrooms) = 20 m
The average pressure loss will be the difference between the available
pressure from the pump (400 kPa) and the known pressure loss (297.2 kPa),
which is 102.8 kPa. Thus
102.8 kPa
= 5.14 kPa/m
20 m

Step 3 Calculate the maximum pressure loss in the bathroom

The maximum flow in the bathroom comes from supply to the bath which
is 0.3 l/s and gives a pressure loss of 7.3 kPa/m for a Wirsbo-PEX pipe of
16x2.2 mm. The distance from the manifold to the draw-off point is 4 m.
The pressure loss will therefore be:
7.3 kPa/m x 4 m = 29.2 kPa

The maximum pressure loss is a function of the flow requirement, pipe


dimension and pipe length. It is not always the outlet with the highest water flow
requirement that gives the maximum pressure loss. That is why a comparison of
pressure loss for all the outlets in the bathroom should be made.
Outlet

Table 7 Calculated pressure loss for all


outlets in the bathroom

Bath
Wash basin
Toilet
Bidet

Distance to
manifold
(m)
4
6
7
4

Pipe
dim
(mm)
16x2.2
16x2.2
16x2.2
16x2.2

Flow
(l/s)
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1

Pressure
loss/m
(kPa/m)
7.30
1.01
1.01
1.01

Pressure
loss
(kPa)
29.2
6.06
7.07
4.04

Step 4 Calculate the pressure loss in the riser

According to Nordic norms, (NKB), the required flow for every bathroom
is 0.3 l/s. However, the riser must be dimensioned for the total flow rate of
each bathroom. In this case 0.6 l/s.
The total flow will thus be 3.0 l/s. From table 2 (Chapter 2; Design flow)
we know the design flow is 0.58 l/s. Using this value in table 4 (Chapter 2;
Pressure drop) will give an indication of a suitable pipe dimension.
In step 2, the average pressure loss/m was calculated at 5.14 kPa/m. This
should not be exceeded. If we select a pipe dimension of 25x3.5 mm this will
give a pressure loss of 2.77 kPa/m.
By using table 2 and then table 4 the value of the pressure loss in the riser
can be determined. Here for example are comparison values obtained from
the tables for a dimension of 25 x 3.5 mm.

Table 8 Values based on total flow

Pressure loss
kPa/m
1.35
1.74
2.11
2.44
2.77

Design
flow l/s
0.39
0.45
0.50
0.54
0.58

Total flow
l/s
0.6
1.2
1.8
2.4
3.0

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The total pressure loss in the riser.


1.35 kPa/m x 3 m =
1.74 kPa/m x 3 m =
2.11 kPa/m x 3 m =
2.44 kPa/m x 3 m =
2.77 kPa/m x 3 m =

4.05 kPa
5.22 kPa
6.33 kPa
7.32 kPa
8.31 kPa
31.23 kPa

Step 5 Add together the calculated pressure loss


Known pressure loss (step 1)
Maximum pressure loss (step 3)
Pressure loss in riser (step 4)

297.20
29.20
31.23
357.63

kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa (<400 kPa)

Since the pressure loss is lower than the available pressure (a difference of
42.37 kPa), there is sufficient pressure for the water supply. If the pressure
loss had been greater than available pressure, a larger pipe diameter would
have been used.
Comments
It is worth noting that the pipes themselves only account for about 18%
of the pressure loss.

Calculation example 2

Example 2 shows a pressure loss calculation for the dimensioning of a


riser in a small size building with water supplied from a storage tank on
top of the building.

Storage
3.0

l/s 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1


kPa/m
7.30 1.01 1.01 3.52

2.4
4

1.8
3

1.2
2

P0

0.6
1

Figure 7 Outline drawing of an installation

The basic criteria required for pressure loss calculations.


A five floor building
A bathroom on each floor
Each floor has a height of 3 m
The height from the water surface in the storage tank to the highest located
faucet is 9 m
The pressure loss of the faucet is 50 kPa (hypothetical figure)

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Step 1 Calculate the minimum available pressure from the water


tank

The minimum available pressure is the pressure in the manifold nearest the
water tank. In this example the vertical distance to the nearest manifold is 9
m. Thus the available pressure is:
9.81 x 9 m = 88.3 kPa

Step 2 Calculate the pressure loss from the water tank down to
the nearest bathroom

If we calculate initially for a 32x4.4 mm pipe, using the same tables (tables 2
and 4) as in example 1 will give a pressure loss of 0.82 kPa/m for 0.58 l/s. The
vertical pipe length to be calculated for is 9 m.The pressure loss is then:
0.82 kPa/m x 9 m = 7.38 kPa
For Wirsbo-PEX 32x4.4 mm

Table 9 Values based on total flow

Pressure loss
kPa/m
0.82
0.72

Design
flow l/s
0.58
0.54

Total flow
l/s
3.0
2.4

Step 3 Calculate the maximum pressure loss in the nearest bathroom

As the water tank is located on top of the building, the nearest bathroom
will be on the top floor. This bathroom is the same as the one in the previous
example. The calculated pressure loss will thus be 29.2 kPa.
Step 4 Calculate if the available pressure is sufficient to supply
the bathroom on the top floor
Available pressure
Pressure loss in riser
Pressure loss in bathroom
Pressure loss in faucet

88.30
- 7.38
- 29.20
- 50.00
1.72

kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa

There is sufficient pressure available to supply water to the bathroom. Again,


if the pressure loss had been greater than the available pressure, a larger pipe
diameter would have had to be used.
Step 5 Check the available pressure for the floors below the
top floor

Due to the force of gravity, the available pressure will increase for every floor
below the top floor, as the riser descends. This final check is intended to:
a) Ascertain if the available pressure is sufficient to supply the required
flow to the 4th floor.
The pressure loss from the riser is:
0.8 kPa/m x 3 m = 2.4 kPa

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The pressure increase due to the force of gravity is:


9.81 x 3 m = 29.43 kPa

Since the pressure increase is higher than the pressure loss, the available
pressure will be sufficient for the demand flow on the 4th floor.
b) Ascertain if the available pressure on the bottom floor is excessive.
If so this would indicate that a reduction in pipe size is necessary to
limit the pressure.
For Wirsbo-PEX 25x3.5 mm

Table 10 Values based on total flow

Pressure loss
kPa/m
2.11
1.74
1.35

Design
flow l/s
0.50
0.45
0.39

Total flow
l/s
1.8
1.2
0.6

The pressure loss from the riser is:


0.72 kPa/m x 3 m =
2.11 kPa/m x 3 m =
1.74 kPa/m x 3 m =
1.35 kPa/m x 3 m =

2.16
6.33
5.25
4.05
17.79

kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa

The pressure increase is:


9.81 x 12 m = 117.72 kPa

Comment:
The available pressure is in fact excessive so that the dimension of the riser
should be reduced from the 4th floor downwards in order to reduce the
pressure in the system.

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Chapter 5
Installation methods/directions
Traditional method

Figure 8 Traditional method with 16 joints

The Wirsbo Tap Water System can be installed in the same fashion as a
traditional system made of metal pipes i.e. a Tee system. The advantage
with this installation method is that it does use less piping than the manifold
system described below. However, the traditional method has some inherent
disadvantages that should be taken into consideration.
The design work for example is more complicated. Most engineers wish
to reduce the pipe dimension, from a larger one at the beginning of the
system to a smaller one at the end, which is why calculations are needed to
determine the various pipe sizes.
Also, there are temperature and pressure variations due to the fact that
one supply pipe normally has more than one draw-off point. In addition,
there are more connection points than with the manifold system and these
are often inaccessibly situated within the walls. Furthermore, because of the
various pipe dimensions and the large number of corresponding fittings, stock
keeping is more complicated on-site.
Manifold system

The manifold system does not present any of the above-mentioned difficulties.
It can be designed with one single pipe dimension from the manifold to
the draw-off point, which simplifies design and installation work. With
connection points only at the manifold and the faucet, the risk of leakage
from joints is considerably reduced and there are no awkward connections
within the walls. Since also there are no other draw-off points on the
same supply pipe, pressure and temperature variations are minimal when
faucets are turned on and off in varying sequences. Furthermore fewer pipe
dimensions and fittings allow for easier stock keeping and save on installation
time and labour costs.

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Figure 9 Manifold system with 10 joints

Conduit Pipe-in-Pipe system

Although a properly installed Wirsbo piping system is secure from leakage,


there may be occasions when extra precautions against damage from leakage
within the construction of a building are required. Different local standards
and regulations or simply the demands of the purchaser may require this.
Using a manifold system in conjunction with Wirsbo Pipe-in-Pipe, the factory
prefabricated Wirsbo-PEX pipe within a conduit, will meet these requirements.
With Wirsbo-PEX Pipe-in-Pipe, any leakage caused by accidental damage
is retained within the conduit and easily detected after being carried safely
beyond the building structure. In addition, in a concealed pipe run, without
the complicating Tee-joints of a traditional pipe system, an accidentally
damaged length of pipe can be substituted from within the conduit without
causing structural harm in the process.
Wirsbo-PEX Pipe-in-Pipe comes in ready-to-install prefabricated lengths.
However if so desired, the conduit may be installed separately with the water
pipe being inserted at a later stage.

Securing the conduit

Conduits should be properly secured, particularly so if run in wooden


structures. This not only simplifies the insertion of the water pipe into the
conduit as required, but also helps reduce any noise from water hammer and
pipe expansion. Note that Wirsbo-PEX Pipe-in-Pipe should be laid with the
fewest possible bends and the largest possible bend radii. This too will help
minimise noise, but in addition, it will make easier the removal of the water
pipe at a later stage if this should prove necessary.
Securing to timber studs and joists is done with nailed clips placed at
suitable intervals and with straps or securing plates, specially designed
and supplied by Wirsbo. Pipes should be secured to concrete structures
with tying wire.
However please note the following:
Conduits running in stud walls, a timber floor structure or in a pipe
duct should not be secured above an interval of 1000 mm (as measured
from the centre of the clips).
Pipes run at right angles through studs or wooden frames should be
secured to these by securing plates.
When studs or joists are spaced 600 mm apart they should be secured
at every other stud or joist.
Where the pipe run bends, the conduit should be fastened at either
side of the bend.

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Figure 10 A conduit run through joists


with pipe clips and securing plates

Location of the manifolds

Manifolds should be positioned for easy access to maintenance and in close


proximity to all faucets. Location should also permit convenient connection
to the supply mains, provide adequate protection from freezing, especially in
areas with very low winter temperatures, and should be situated away from
load-bearing parts of the building.
It may sometimes be appropriate to have more than one manifold location.
In some cases, in keeping with local standards and regulations, a manifold may
be best located where any leakage can be quickly detected, such as near a floor
drain. Alternatively, manifolds can be placed in special watertight cabinets
where any leakage, from for example a pipe damaged during installation, can
be run off and quickly discovered at an appropriate detection point away
from a buildings structure. Location could for example be on the wall in the
laundry room, under a wash basin, or in a kitchen cabinet.

Figure 11 Manifold in a watertight


cabinet (left)
Figure 12 An example of a manifold
attached to the wall (right)

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Figure 13 Example of a manifold situated


in a ceiling

Location of the pipes

The pipe runs should be located where there is no risk of freezing and
where there is least danger of an accidental drilling. The length of pipe
between the manifold and the faucet should be kept to a minimum so
as to reduce the number of bends, which in turn will keep pressure loss
as low as possible.

Installation in concrete
structures

Wirsbo-PEX pipes are not affected by concrete. Thus they can be cast directly
into structural concrete or run in recesses made after casting.
Always allow some extra piping at the beginning and at the end of the
runs to simplify connection to manifolds and fittings. The pipes should
be tied to the reinforcement mesh at a maximum spacing of 750 mm,
with wire or plastic straps. These must not deform or damage the pipe
or the conduit.
A pipe bend support supplied by Wirsbo is recommended for perpendicular
upturns from the floor whilst a temporary stand is often used to hold in
place a loose pipe end, and in some cases even a manifold, if it is mounted
before the wall is built.

Figure 14 A temporary stand supports


the pipe and manifold (left)
Figure 15 A temporary stand supports a
pipe. Note the end cap is retained as long
as the pipe remains unconnected (right)

Note
When installing Wirsbo-PEX Pipe-in-pipe make sure that no concrete or
mortar forces its way into either water pipe or conduit.
Before casting or otherwise concealing the conduit, make sure it has
not been deformed or blocked. An obstruction may affect the insertion
of the water pipe.
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Installation in wooden
structures

If pipes are run in wooden floor structures and stud walls, they should
be laid in runs which are simple to locate in order to help prevent any
puncturing with nails or screws.
A pipe bend support is recommended for vertical upturns from the floor
or where a small bend radius is needed.
Openings cut in joists along inner and outer walls should be under 250 mm
from joist supporting points.
If the pipes are run in load-bearing structures, they must be laid so that the
load-bearing capacity of the floor will not be impaired.
In general if an opening for a pipe run is to be made in a wooden structure,
always check with the building constructor first as to how this will affect the
structural strength of the building.

Figure 16 Suggested run of pipes along


an outer wall (left)
Figure17 Suggested run of pipe along an
inner wall (right)

Figure 18 Suggested run of pipes in


secondary boarding in the ceiling

Installation in single-family
houses

An installation here could, for example, start with pipes run from the
water heater to the manifold. The manifold could be located near the water
heater, as long as any extra pipe length incurred between the manifold
and the faucets does not increase pressure loss to the extent that it will
affect the function of the system. In such cases it may be convenient to
install several manifolds.
The pipe runs can be concealed in the foundation slab, stud walls, floor
structures or loft floor structure.
An outside water outlet could ideally be located under the sink in the
laundry room or kitchen, or under the wash basin in the bathroom.

Figure 19 An example of manifolds


vertically connected to each other in a
single-family house (left)
Figure 20 An example of manifolds
horizontally connected to each other in a
one-storey house (right)

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Installation in a block of flats

In keeping with good design, manifold cabinets should be used in installations


in multi-family houses where concealed pipe runs are used. These cabinets
are designed to be built into the wall for close connection to a pipe duct.
Using Wirsbo-PEX pipes in straight lengths, running from floor to floor,
will facilitate installation work.

Figure 21 Riser installation using


watertight cabinets

Installation in basements and


ceilings

Figure 22 Pipe runs in support channels

Figure 23 Pipes run on a rack

30 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

The installation of Wirsbo-PEX pipes in a basement or under a ceiling in the


traditional manner, with pipes suspended from hangers, can be carried out
with or without allowance for expansion.
Linear expansion in plastic pipes is greater than in metal pipes (although
associated expansion forces are low). Plastic pipes may expand to such an
extent that, without any support along their length, they may sag between the
hangers. Although this does not affect the operation of the system, in exposed
runs it gives a poor general impression.
To give the impression of neat installation work, Wirsbo recommend that
channels should be used to support the pipes. The examples shown below are
in accordance with European draft standards (prENV 12108).

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Figure 24 Branched pipe run in support


channels

These examples also illustrate the recommended manner of clamping


and fixing Wirsbo-PEX pipes.
The support channels should overlap by 100 mm and pipes should be
secured with straps to these. Otherwise because of axial material stress related
to temperature change, the pipes will climb out of the channels. Straps
should be fitted at the following recommended intervals:
Distance (mm)
Cold water
Hot water
500
200
500
300
750
400
750
600
750
750
1000
1000

Table 11 Binding distances in accordance


with prENV 12108

Installation not allowing for


thermal expansion

Wirsbo-PEX pipe,
Do (mm)
16, 20
25
32
40
50, 63, 75
90, 110

Pipes should be anchored and clamped so that expansion forces are transmitted
to the structure of the building. The flexible Wirsbo material will ensure
a low load on the anchor points because, when the longitudinal expansion
is restrained, the pipe will expand radially. In line with prENV 12108 the
maximum permitted distance between anchor points is 6 m. Therefore factory
supplied 6 m lengths are ideally suited for this purpose.
Hanger

Hanger support bar

Binding

Anchor support bar

Anchor point
Figure 25 Wirsbo-PEX pipes in support
channels with anchor points at every 6 m
and supporting hangers inbetween

Anchor point

Clamp

Channel

Support bars, which act as anchor points, should be secured to the ceiling
in pairs at intervals of 6m, and pipes must then be fixed to them at pipe
couplings by means of U-bolts. Support between the anchor points should
be provided by hanger support bars fixed securely to the ceiling. These are
then fitted with hangers clamped to supporting channels. Both hangers and
channels should be securely tightened in order to prevent lateral movement.
Hanger lengths should not exceed 150 mm. Hanger support bars should be
mounted between the anchor support bars at the following recommended
distances:

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Table 12 Distances between hanger


support bars in accordance with prENV
12108

Distance (mm)
Cold water
Hot water
1500
1000
1500
1200
1500
1500
2000
2000

Wirsbo-PEX pipe,
Do (mm)
16, 20
25, 32, 40
50, 63
75, 90, 110

Installation allowing for


thermal expansion

Figure 26 Pipe runs in support channels

In general, pipes should be installed with supports fitted so that the pipe is
free to move. The expansion will then be taken up by expansion compensating
devices, such as an expansion loop or a flexible arm. (see below)
Hangers should be provided as in the preceding example above, with the
clamps fitted at the above recommended distances and tightened so that the
pipe is free to move between the anchor points, which must be set at branches
and at expansion compensating devices.
For particulars of securing the pipe to the support channels, see also the
preceeding example above.
Fixing and clamping pipes on
to a rack

Figure 27 Wirsbo-PEX pipes on a


rack where thermal length variation is
compensated by the snaking of the
pipe

32 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

Laying on racks is appropriate where there are pipes of longer lengths and
where only a few tees are to be fitted. The pipes are then free to move on the
rack and will, by themselves, take up the linear expansion. In order to control
expansion movements it is important to fasten the pipes to the rack at max.
1000 mm intervals and anchor at each tee branch.

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Figure 28 Wirsbo-PEX Pipe-in-Pipe on


a rack will protect the pipes from dirt
accumulation

Installation in a vertical pipe


duct

In a vertical pipe duct, pipes must be


anchored at each floor. This can be
done by means of a rubber-lined pipe
clamp located on each side of a tee
branch. This prevents the spreading
of linear expansion from one floor
to another. If the riser passes several
floors without branches, it should be
anchored at intervals of max. 6 m as
earlier explained.
As the riser is concealed, the pipe
need only be supported at the anchor
points. However, in order to avoid
unwanted sounds generated by pipe
movement caused by rapid changes
in flows and pressures, it is recommended that pipe supports should be
installed between each floor.
Note
If a conduit is used it should be
clamped to the pipe duct wall at
intervals of max. 1000 mm.

Figure 29 Pipe supported only by anchor


points

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A vertical exposed pipe run with


supporting channels could be installed in the same way as a horizontal
installation which does not allow for
thermal expansion (see above).

Figure 30 A vertical exposed pipe run

Note
Some of the accessories used in
the described installations are not
included in our list of compoents
as they are available locally in
most countries.
As explained earlier pipes should
be insulated according to the
standards of each country. Adhesives should not be used for fastening insulation to the pipe as
some of them can damage the
PE-X material.

Expansion compensating
devices

No special expansion compensators are needed if:


the water pipe is supported and anchored at a maximum spacing of 6 m
the water pipe is run in a conduit where the necessary space for expansion
is provided in the gap between water pipe and conduit
the pipe is run in long lengths on a rack.
However, in installations allowing for thermal expansion, where the pipes
are expected to stay straight, expansion compensators should be used.

Calculation of a flexible arm


and expansion loop

The flexible arm should be long enough to prevent damage, and support
clamps should be placed sufficiently far from the wall to allow for longitudinal
thermal expansion.
Use the formula below to calculate the minimum length of the flexible
arm.
LB = C

Do x L

Anchor
point
FIX

Where:
LB

Figure 31 Flexible arm

34 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

LB
C
Do
L

is the flexible arm in mm


is the material constant (12 for PE-X)
is the outside diameter of the pipe
is the thermal length variation in mm

Anchor
point

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When designing an expansion loop it is preferable to design it so


that l2 = 0.5l1. In this case the flexible arm is calculated according to the
equation below:
LB = C

Do x 2L = 2l + l
1
2
2

Anchor
FIX
point

L/2

L/2

l1
E/2

FIX

Anchor
FIX

point

E/2
l
1

Figure 32 Expansion loop


E/4

l2
Example:
A Wirsbo-PEX pipe with an outside diameter (Do) of 50 mm is installed with
30 m between anchor points. The hot water it carries is 70C and the ambient
temperature is 20C. Calculate the length (LB) of the flexible arm.
Calculate the thermal length variation by using the diagram from Chapter 3.
Expansion, mm/m
25

From the graph, the thermal expansion at 20C is 2.5 mm/m, while the
expansion at 70C is 12.5 mm/m.

20

The expansion of the pipe will be


12.5-2.5 = 10 mm/m when carrying
water at 70C. The total thermal
length variation in this case is:
L = 10 mm/m x 30 m = 300 mm.

15

10

LB = 12x

Diagram 7 Thermal expansion, example

50x300 = 1470 mm

0
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Temperature, C

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Chapter 6
General directions
Storage and general care

Wirsbo-PEX pipes are supplied in various dimensions, lengths and packages.


Product information including some installation recommendations and sets
of special end plugs are included in the packaging.
To ensure a long-term service life, pipes should be stored in a clean,
dry environment and away from exposure to UV radiation (sunlight).
They should also be kept in their packaging as long as possible in order
to avoid dirt accumulation.
Pipes should be kept clean from dirt, grease, mortar etc. To avoid the
introduction of dirt into the system during installation, end plugs should be
fixed to the pipes and retained for as long as possible. With Wirsbo Pipe-in
Pipe, no concrete or mortar should force its way between the water pipe
and conduit. If this happens any future substitution of the water pipe will
be made more difficult.

Uncoiling the pipe

A Wirsbo pipe uncoiler can be used to facilitate uncoiling. The uncoiler should
be positioned as close to the current working area as possible. In this way, the
length of pipe pulled over the floor is kept short and the number of corners
around which the pipe is pulled are kept to a minimum.

Figure 33 Wirsbo pipe uncoiler

Method of cutting

36 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

Wirsbo-PEX pipes are manufactured to close dimensional tolerances and


fittings are provided to meet those tolerances. A pipe cutter purposely designed
for use with plastic pipes is recommended. However for larger pipe dimensions
a cutter with large cutting discs should be used. When cutting the pipes,
always ensure that the cut is straight and square. No excess material or burrs
should remain that might affect the fitting connection.

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Figures 34-37 Methods of cutting a pipe

Assembling a Wirsbo Q&E


fitting

Assembling procedure:
1. Cut the pipe.
2. Fit the Q&E ring to the pipe.
3. Use the expander tool to expand the pipe end with the ring. It is important
to rotate the tool slightly before the segments of the tool are pushed further
into the pipe, prior to the next expanding. Rotate the tool alternating to
the right and to the left between each expansion.
4. Push the pipe onto the fitting nipple. The Q&E ring and pipe will strive to
resume their original shape and in so doing will grip the coupling.

Figures 38 and 39 Assembling a Wirsbo


Q&E fitting steps 1 and 2

Figures 40 and 41 Assembling a Wirsbo


Q&E fitting steps 3 and 4

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A correctly fitted Wirsbo Q&E joint can be pressurised after 30 minutes at


temperatures above +5C. At room temperature the joint will be as strong as
the pipe itself after six hours. However ambient temperature affects the time it
takes for the pipe and ring to shrink firmly on to the fitting nipple to make a
watertight seal; the lower the temperature, the slower the contraction.
Useful tips
Keep the number of expansions to a minimum. Expand just enough to
allow the pipe to slip comfortably onto the fitting nipple.
Warming up the fittings and expander rings speeds up contraction time.
Heat the pipe for a maximum of about 30 seconds until it reaches 40-50C,
which is the temperature at which you can hold the pipe in your hand
without discomfort. Never use a naked flame for heating.
If uncertain as to how long the pipe will take to contract on to the fitting
a small test using a short piece of pipe can be made. When correctly
mounted the pipe should grip the fitting nipple within 3 seconds although
for dimension greater than 16 mm this may tale from 3-10 seconds. If it
takes longer, the number of expansions may have been too many or the
duration of each expansion too long.
Note
Approximate waiting times before pressurising a joint are presented in the
assembly instructions enclosed with the Wirsbo Q&E toolbox. Wirsbo
recommend the steps taken and illustrated in the assembly instructions in
order to ensure a secure and correctly fitted Wirsbo Q&E joint.
Wirsbo Quick & Easy is a fitting intended and designed only for Wirsbo
pipes. Only genuine Wirsbo fittings, rings and expander tools should
be used.
When Wirsbo Q&E fittings are used with pipes in concealed runs, they
should be insulated to prevent condensation.
For further product information about the Wirsbo Q&E fitting, please
see the separate Wirsbo Q&E catalogue.

Assembling a compression
fitting

The fittings used with Wirsbo-PEX pipes must be approved connection


fittings recommended by either Wirsbo or one of our retailers. Pipe inserts
must always be used.
Assembling procedure:
1. Slide the nut and the compression ring over the end of the pipe.
2. Push the pipe insert into the pipe by hand. Ensure that the insert is pressed
in as far as the flange in order to get a secure joint. If manual pressure is
insufficient a rubber hammer may be used.
3. Fit the pipe to the connector and tighten firstly by hand and then with the
aid of a spanner, until the tightening torque increases noticeably.

Figures 42 and 43 Assembling a


compression fitting, steps 1 and 2

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Figures 44 and 45 Assembling a


compression fitting, steps 3 and 4

Note
When using compression fittings, pipe inserts must always be used.
Tighten the nut in line with manufacturers recommendations.
If for any reason the fitting is dismantled, a new compression ring
should be fitted.

Assembling a WIPEX coupling

The WIPEX coupling is an excellent pipe fitting, intended mainly for use
with Wirsbo pipe dimensions greater than 32 mm.
Assembling procedure:
1. Chamfer the square cut pipe end with a deburring tool or knife. Ensure that
the pipe end is clean and that any external burrs are removed.
2. Unbolt the clamping sleeve, prise it apart as shown with pliers and remove
it from the coupling.
3. Mount the sleeve on to the end of the pipe. Note that the clamping sleeve is
strong and will resist being prised apart. Therefore, once the bolt has been
removed and the sleeve forced open, place the head of the bolt into the gap
before removing the pliers, in order to keep the lugs apart.
4. Connect the pipe to the coupling pressing it as far as the locking groove.
5. Reunite the clamping sleeve with the coupling ensuring that the locking
groove on the support sleeve of the coupling engages with the clamping
sleeve.
6. Lubricate the threads on the bolt and the washer with a suitable lubricant
and insert the bolt into position. Tighten until the lugs on the outer
sleeve are drawn together.

Figures 46 and 47 Assembling a WIPEX


fitting

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Figures 48-50 Assembling a WIPEX fitting

Note
Because the nut, bolt and washer are made of acid-resistant stainless steel,
the threads and the washer must be lubricated.
For a correctly fitted, secure connection follow the instructions enclosed
with the WIPEX coupling.
O-rings are used for sealing all joints in the WIPEX assortment and are
supplied with the fittings. If a coupling is to be fitted to some other
component, seal the threaded joint with linen yarn, flux or a linseed
oil based compound.
For further product information please consult the WIPEX catalogue.

Minor repairs

Because cross-linked polyethylene cannot be welded or repaired with adhesives,


if a pipe is accidentally sliced or punctured, the safest and simplest repairing
method is to cut away the damaged area and replace it with a Wirsbo
Q&E joint.
However if a pipe has been buckled, after for example being bent too
far, an alternative repair method, which actually reforms the pipe and takes
advantage of cross-linked polyethylenes unique thermal memory (see chap 1
above), can be applied as shown below.
Reforming method:
1. Straighten the damaged section by hand
2. Carefully heat the damaged area with a hot-air gun, rotating the gun
around the pipe throughout the process for an even application. Heat until
the pipe has returned to its original shape or until the material begins to
become transparent round its whole circumference. This will happen at
around 130C. However see note below.

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3. Allow the pipe to cool to room temperature before use. Using cold water
or blowing cold air on the repaired section will accelerate cooling. Once
cooled it will return to its original appearance and regain all of its strength.
However see note below.

Figure 51 Reforming a Wirsbo-PEX pipe

Note
Do not use an open flame for heating. Use a hot-air gun.
Do not heat Wirsbo-pePEX or Wirsbo-evalPEX pipes. They have an outer
oxygen diffusion barrier which, if heated, will be damaged.
Keep heating to a minimum. It is not always necessary to heat the pipe
until it is transparent before it resumes its original shape. Note any change
in the pipes surface. If heating has discoloured the pipe, this indicates that
the material has been damaged and the pipe needs replacing.
When a hot-air gun is used, the factory calibrated tolerances are lost.
Therefore the reheated section should not be used for joining to a fitting.
However Wirsbo Q&E joints, if mounted as recommended, can still
be used.

Inserting a PE-X pipe into a


conduit

Figure 52 Pipe end with sharp tongue

The conduit and the PE-X pipe can be installed together or separately. If the
conduit is installed on its own, check before it is concealed that it has not been
deformed or otherwise obstructed. Also check that clamping has been carried
out properly before inserting the water pipe (see also Chapter 5).
Useful tips
The water pipe will be easier to
insert into the conduit, if the pipe
end is cut into a sharp tongue
about 150 mm long.
If insertion is found to be difficult,
a drawing wire, attached to the pipe
end and then threaded through the
conduit beforehand, can be used
to pull the pipe through.

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Replacing a damaged pipe

One of the advantages of using Wirsbo-PEX Pipe-in-Pipe is that, if required,


the water pipe can be replaced without causing structural damage to the
building. Replacement is made easier if the conduit has been correctly
installed. It should have been well secured, be one seamless run from manifold
to draw-off point, and should have as few bends as necessary with bends being
as gradual as possible (see chapter 5).
Before removing the pipe see useful tips below.
Normally it is possible to pull out the pipe by hand but sometimes this
may prove difficult, for example in an installation where there are many sharp
bends. If this is the case, having once disconnected the pipe from the manifold
and faucet/mixing tap, and having removed the fittings from the manifold
end of the pipe, take the following steps:
1. Pull out the termination elbow in order to expose more of the PE-X pipe.
2. Mount the forked extender supplied by Wirsbo on a crowbar end as
shown.
3. Insert protection in the form of, for example a piece of plywood, between
the crowbar and the wall.
4. Press the exposed pipe end into the fork and lock it with pliers if
necessary.
5. Lever the crow bar downwards and pull out a section of pipe.
6. Relocate the extender next to the wall and repeat steps 4 and 5. Repeat as
necessary or until the pipe has been totally removed from the conduit.

Figures 53-56 Replacing a damaged pipe

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Figures 53-57 Replacing a damaged pipe

Once the pipe has been removed the new pipe can be inserted (see
section above).
Useful tips
Removing the old pipe is made easier if it is first softened either by blowing
warm air or by running warm water through it.
Installing a new Wirsbo-PEX pipe can be done at the same time as
removing the old one by connecting the pipes to each other and then
pulling both pipes through at once. Connect the pipes, for example, with a
100 mm length of close-fitting electrical cable using a staple gun as shown.
Make sure that the pipe ends are as close to each other as possible and that
the staples do not stick out on the other side of the pipe, as in both cases
this could cause the pipe to catch on the inside of the conduit.

Figures 58-60 Replacing a damaged pipe

Taping the join to give it extra strength is permitted since it will be


cut away later.

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Pipe bending

Wirsbo-PEX pipes are normally bent without the need for any special tool. If
bends with small radii are necessary, a bending support should be used.
Alternatively, the pipes can be bent after being heated up in accordance
with the procedure described below.
1. Heat the pipe carefully with a hot-air gun. Move the gun around the pipe
throughout the process for an even application.
2. Heat the pipe until the material begins to become transparent where the
pipe is to be bent, which will occur at around 130C.
3. Bend the pipe at once to the required angle.
4. Hold the pipe at the required angle and cool it with water or air. The
pipe will maintain the new shape. If it is heated once more it will resume
its original shape.
Useful tips
Where a sharp bend with a narrow radius is required, a flexible support
should be placed in the pipe at the bending point prior to bending (step
3), in order to prevent the pipe from folding.
Note
An open flame must not be used for heating the pipe.
Do not heat more than necessary. If heating has discoloured the pipe,
this indicates that the material has been damaged and the pipe must
be replaced.
Note any change in the surface of the pipe during the heating operation.
Do not heat Wirsbo-pePEX or Wirsbo-evalPEX pipes. They have an outer
oxygen diffusion barrier which, if heated, will be damaged.

Minimum bend radius

The figures below give the minimum bending radius for pipe dimensions used
in the Wirsbo Tap Water System. Do = outer diameter.
Cold bending
Cold fixture bending
Hot bending

8 x Do
5 x Do
5 x Do

Note
It is not practical to manually bend dimensions larger than 32 mm to
the minimum bending radius.
The radius with which Wirsbo-PEX pipes can be bent, depends on the
installation temperature, pipe wall thickness and type of pipe.

Filling the system

All pipe systems should be filled slowly in order to expel as much air as
possible. In order to remove any remaining air pockets, venting the system
afterwards is recommended. Examine the coupling points and pipe runs
whilst filling the system.
Note
In extremely cold areas the system should be protected at all times
from freezing.

Pressure test

44 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

PE-X systems can be pressure tested in accordance with the local standards
and regulations which apply to metal pipes. However there is a more
appropriate method of testing, which takes into account the fact that
a PE-X system expands and contracts radially when pressure is applied.
This is as follows:

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Vent all air from the system and pressurise the system to 1.5 x operating
pressure. Maintain this pressure for 30 minutes and inspect the joints
and pipe runs. Quickly drain off water to reduce the pressure to 0.5 x
operating pressure and close the drain valve. If the pressure rises to a value
higher than 0.5 x operating pressure and remains constant, this indicates
that the system is watertight. Leave the system pressurised for 90 minutes
keeping it under continued inspection. If the pressure drops during this
period, this indicates leakage in the system.
Operating pressure
1.5

1.0

0.5

Diagram 8 Pressure testing

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120
Time (min)

Fire protection

When pipes are installed in a fire-resistant construction/structure, fire-resistance


ratings must be maintained.
In general:
Pipes should be run within one continuous length of conduit through
a hole in a construction.
The space between the water pipe and the conduit must be sealed to
prevent the spread of fumes caused by fire between fire cells. This seal may
conveniently be mounted at the end of the conduit.
The gap between conduit and wall must be filled with an incombustible
homogenous material such as mortar.
In order to prevent the spread of fumes, spaces between building structures
and pipes and between separate pipes should be large enough to allow
each conduit to be sealed separately.
Note
All fire precaution has to be carried out according to regulations by
local authorities.

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Chapter 7
Wirsbo-PEX Technical data
Material Properties
Mechanical properties
Density
Tensile strength

(at 20C)
(at 55C)

Value
0.938
1926
913
800900
300350
350550
500700
No failure
No failure
0.01
0.08-0.1
34 x 103
80
250

Unit
g/cm3
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
%
%
kJ/m2
kJ/m2
mg/4d

N/m
m3 mm/m2 x day x atm
m3 mm/m2 x day x atm

Thermal properties
Temperature range
Coefficient of linear expansion
(at 20C)
Coefficient of linear expansion (at 100C)
Softening temperature
Specific heat
Coefficient of thermal conductivity

100 to +110
1.4 x 104
2.05 x 104
+133
2.3
0.35

C
m/mC
m/mC
C
kJ/kgC
W/mC

Electrical properties
Specific internal resistance
(at 20C)
Dielectric constant
(at 20C)
Dielectric loss factor
(at 20C/50 Hz)
Rupture voltage
(at 20C)

1015
2.3
1 x 103
6090

kV/mm

Modulus of elasticity E
Elongation on failure
Impact strength
Moisture absorption
Coefficient of friction with steel
Surface energy
Oxygen permeability

(at 20C)
(at 100C)
(at 20C)
(at 80C)
(at 20C)
(at 100C)
(at 20C)
(at 140C)
(at 22C)

Standard
DIN 53455
DIN 53457
DIN 53455
DIN 53453
DIN 53472

ASTM D1434
ASTM D1434

DIN 4725

Table 13 Material properties

Forces of expansion and


contraction
These can appear when a pipe has
been installed at an ambient temperature of about 20C and is then suddenly exposed to a water temperature
of 90C. Forces can appear during
both expansion and contraction.
However if the temperature changes
gradually or if the pipe can give
sideways, the strength of the forces
will diminish. Naturally sideways
movement can be influenced by pipe
length and by clamping, but note
that the length of the pipe has no
bearing on the size of the force.

Dimension
mm
22x3.0
25x2.3
25x3.5
28x4.0
32x2.9
32x4.4
40x3.7
40x5.5
50x4.6
50x6.9
63x5.8
63x8.7
75x6.8
90x8.2
110x10.0
Table 14 Forces of expansion and contraction

46 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

Max force
N
250
200
300
400
400
500
600
800
900
1300
1500
2100
2100
2900
4400

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Chapter 8
Quality Assurance, tap water approvals
Wirsbo-PEX approvals for hot
and cold water installations
have been issued in:

Standards and other quality


guidelines relating to WirsboPEX

Germany
Sweden
Norway
Switzerland
France
Great Britain
Finland
USA
China
Iceland
Bulgaria
Lithuania
Croatia
Rumania
Russia
Malaysia
Hong Kong

The Netherlands
Denmark
Austria
Belgium
Portugal
Spain
Poland
Canada
Australia
Hungary
Estonia
Latvia
Slovakia
Kazakhstan
The Ukraine
Japan

The following published guidelines are available at present:


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)

15)
16)

DIN 16892 - 2000 (Germany)


DIN 16893 - 2000 (Germany)
DVGW Arbeitsblatt W 544 - 1988 (Germany)
DVGW Arbeitsblatt W 534 - 2000 (Germany)
Australian Standard 2537 - 1994 (Australia)
Australian Standard 2492 - 1994 (Australia)
Guide Technique Specialis TE Q/1 No 30142 (France)
UNE 53381 (Spain)
ASTM F 876 -84
F877 -84 (USA)
KIWA CRITERIA No. 41 (Netherlands)
NORM B 5153 (Austria)
Type approval requirements for hot water pipes
- NKB Product rule 3 (Nordic countries)
Type approval requirements for mechanical fittings of metal
for PEX and PB pipes for tap water installations
- NKB Product rule 18 (Nordic countries)
UNI 9338 (Italy)
UNI 9349 (Italy)

The following standards are under preparation:


17)
18)

prEN 12318
ISO/DIS 15875

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Production of Wirsbo-PEX is monitored by the following bodies:


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

48 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

MPA Darmstadt (Germany)


Statens Provningsanstalt (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland)
Centre Scientifique et Technique du Btiment (CSTB) (France)
KIWA (Netherlands)
National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) (USA)
Plastico y Caucho (Spain)
sterreisische Kunststoff Institut (KI) (Austria)
Laboratrio Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC) (Portugal)
BCCA Belgium
QAS Australia

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Chapter 9
Conversion tables
Metric and nonmetric (English and American) units

Length Inches (fractions) into millimetres


in

mm

1/32
1/16
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4
9/32
5/16
11/32

0.794
1.588
2.381
3.175
3.969
4.762
5.556
6.350
7.144
7.938
8.731

in
3/8
13/32
7/16
15/32
1/2
17/32
9/16
19/32
5/8
21/32
11/16

mm
9.525
10.319
11.112
11.906
12.700
13.494
14.288
15.081
15.875
16.669
17.462

in
23/32
3/4
25/32
13/16
27/32
7/8
29/32
15/16
31/32
1

mm
18.256
19.050
19.844
20.638
21.431
22.225
23.019
23.812
24.606
25.400

Table 15 Length Inches (fractions) into millimetres

Length Inches into millimetres and vice versa


in
0.03937
0.07874
0.11811
0.15748
0.19685
0.23622
0.27559
0.31496
0.35433
0.3937
0.43307
0.47244
0.51181
0.55118
0.59055
0.62992
0.66929
0.70866
0.74803
0.7874
0.82677
0.86614
0.90551
0.94488
0.98425
1.02362

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

mm
25.4
50.8
76.2
101.6
127.0
152.4
177.8
203.2
228.6
254.0
279.4
304.8
330.2
355.6
381.0
406.4
431.8
457.2
482.6
508.0
533.4
558.8
584.2
609.6
635.0
660.4

in
1.06299
1.10236
1.14173
1.1811
1.22047
1.25984
1.29921
1.33858
1.37795
1.41732
1.45669
1.49606
1.53543
1.5748
1.61417
1.65354
1.69291
1.73228
1.77165
1.81102
1.85039
1.88976
1.92913
1.9685
2.00787

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

mm
685.8
711.2
736.6
762.0
787.4
812.8
838.2
863.6
889.0
914.4
939.8
965.2
990.6
1016.0
1041.4
1066.8
1092.2
1117.6
1143.0
1168.4
1193.8
1219.2
1244.6
1270.0
1295.4

in
2.04724
2.08661
2.12598
2.16535
2.20472
2.24409
2.28346
2.32283
2.3622
2.40157
2.44094
2.48031
2.51968
2.55905
2.59842
2.63779
2.67716
2.71653
2.7559
2.79527
2.83464
2.87401
2.91338
2.95275
2.99212

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76

mm
1320.8
1346.2
1371.6
1397.0
1422.4
1447.8
1473.2
1498.6
1524.0
1549.4
1574.8
1600.2
1625.6
1651.0
1676.4
1701.8
1727.2
1752.6
1778.0
1803.4
1828.8
1854.2
1879.6
1905.0
1930.4

Table 16 Length Inches into millimetres and vice versa

Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual 49

Afripex (Pty) Ltd - Tel: 0861 444 333 - info@afripex.com - www.afripex.com

Length Feet into metres and vice versa


ft
3.2808
6.5616
9.8424
13.1232
16.404
19.6848
22.9656
26.2464
29.5272
32.808
36.0888
39.3696
42.6504
45.9312
49.212
52.4928
55.7736
59.0544
62.3352
65.616
68.8968
72.1776
75.4584
78.7392
82.02
85.3008

m
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

0.3048
0.6096
0.9144
1.2192
1.524
1.8288
2.1336
2.4384
2.7432
3.048
3.3528
3.6576
3.9624
4.2672
4.572
4.8768
5.1816
5.4864
5.7912
6.096
6.4008
6.7056
7.0104
7.3152
7.62
7.9248

ft
88.5816
91.8624
95.1432
98.424
101.7
104.99
108.27
111.55
114.83
118.11
121.39
124.67
127.95
131.23
134.51
137.79
141.07
144.36
147.64
150.92
154.2
157.48
160.76
164.04
167.32

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

m
8.2296
8.5344
8.8392
9.144
9.4488
9.7536
10.0584
10.3632
10.668
10.9728
11.2776
11.5824
11.8872
12.192
12.4968
12.8016
13.1064
13.4112
13.716
14.0208
14.3256
14.6304
14.9352
15.24
15.5448

ft
170.6
173.88
177.16
180.44
183.72
187.01
190.29
193.57
196.85
200.13
203.41
206.69
209.97
213.25
216.53
219.81
223.09
226.38
229.66
232.94
236.22
239.5
242.78
246.06
249.34

m
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76

15.8496
16.1544
16.4592
16.764
17.0688
17.3736
17.6784
17.9832
18.288
18.5928
18.8976
19.2024
19.5072
19.812
20.1168
20.4216
20.7264
21.0312
21.336
21.6408
21.9456
22.2504
22.5552
22.86
23.1648

Table 17 Length Feet into metres and vice versa

Surface Square feet into square metres and vice versa


ft2
10.76365
21.5273
32.29095
43.05459
53.81824
64.58189
75.34554
86.10919
96.87284
107.6365
118.4001
129.1638
139.9274
150.6911
161.4547
172.2184
182.982
193.7457
204.5093
215.273
226.0366
236.8003
247.5639
258.3276
269.0912
279.8549

m2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

0.092903
0.185806
0.278709
0.371612
0.464515
0.557418
0.650321
0.743224
0.836127
0.92903
1.021933
1.114836
1.20774
1.300643
1.393546
1.486449
1.579352
1.672255
1.765158
1.858061
1.950964
2.043867
2.13677
2.229673
2.322576
2.415479

ft2
290.6185
301.3822
312.1458
322.9095
333.6731
344.4368
355.2004
365.9641
376.7277
387.4914
398.255
409.0186
419.7823
430.5459
441.3096
452.0732
462.8369
473.6005
484.3642
495.1278
505.8915
516.6551
527.4188
538.1824
548.9461

m2
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Table 18 Surface Square feet into square metres and vice versa

50 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

2.508382
2.601285
2.694188
2.787091
2.879994
2.972897
3.0658
3.158703
3.251606
3.344509
3.437412
3.530316
3.623219
3.716122
3.809025
3.901928
3.994831
4.087734
4.180637
4.27354
4.366443
4.459346
4.552249
4.645152
4.738055

ft2
559.7097
570.4734
581.237
592.0007
602.7643
613.528
624.2916
635.0553
645.8189
656.5826
667.3462
678.1099
688.8735
699.6372
710.4008
721.1645
731.9281
742.6918
753.4554
764.2191
774.9827
785.7464
796.51
807.2736
818.0373

m2
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76

4.830958
4.923861
5.016764
5.109667
5.20257
5.295473
5.388376
5.481279
5.574182
5.667085
5.759988
5.852892
5.945795
6.038698
6.131601
6.224504
6.317407
6.41031
6.503213
6.596116
6.689019
6.781922
6.874825
6.967728
7.060631

Afripex (Pty) Ltd - Tel: 0861 444 333 - info@afripex.com - www.afripex.com

Volume Cubic feet into cubic metres and vice versa


ft3
35.31338
70.62676
105.9401
141.2535
176.5669
211.8803
247.1936
282.507
317.8204
353.1338
388.4472
423.7605
459.0739
494.3873
529.7007
565.0141
600.3274
635.6408
670.9542
706.2676
741.5809
776.8943
812.2077
847.5211
882.8345
918.1478

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

m3

ft3

0.028317
0.056634
0.084951
0.113267
0.141584
0.169901
0.198218
0.226535
0.254852
0.283168
0.311485
0.339802
0.368119
0.396436
0.424753
0.45307
0.481386
0.509703
0.53802
0.566337
0.594654
0.622971
0.651287
0.679604
0.707921
0.736238

953.4612
988.7746
1024.088
1059.401
1094.715
1130.028
1165.341
1200.655
1235.968
1271.282
1306.595
1341.908
1377.222
1412.535
1447.849
1483.162
1518.475
1553.789
1589.102
1624.415
1659.729
1695.042
1730.356
1765.669
1800.982

m3
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

ft3

0.764555
0.792872
0.821189
0.849505
0.877822
0.906139
0.934456
0.962773
0.99109
1.019406
1.047723
1.07604
1.104357
1.132674
1.160991
1.189308
1.217624
1.245941
1.274258
1.302575
1.330892
1.359209
1.387525
1.415842
1.444159

1836.296
1871.609
1906.922
1942.236
1977.549
2012.863
2048.176
2083.489
2118.803
2154.116
2189.429
2224.743
2260.056
2295.37
2330.683
2365.996
2401.31
2436.623
2471.936
2507.25
2542.563
2577.877
2613.19
2648.503
2683.817

gallons

m3
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76

1.472476
1.500793
1.52911
1.557427
1.585743
1.61406
1.642377
1.670694
1.699011
1.727328
1.755644
1.783961
1.812278
1.840595
1.868912
1.897229
1.925546
1.953862
1.982179
2.010496
2.038813
2.06713
2.095447
2.123763
2.15208

Table 19 Volume Cubic feet into cubic metres and vice versa

Volume US gallons into litres and vice versa


gallons
0.246
0.492
0.738
0.984
1.23
1.476
1.722
1.968
2.214
2.46
2.706
2.952
3.198
3.444
3.69
3.936
4.182
4.428
4.674
4.92
5.166
5.412
5.658
5.904
6.15
6.396

l
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

3.785
7.57
11.355
15.14
18.925
22.71
26.495
30.28
34.065
37.85
41.635
45.42
49.205
52.99
56.775
60.56
64.345
68.13
71.915
75.7
79.485
83.27
87.055
90.84
94.625
98.41

gallons
6.642
6.888
7.134
7.38
7.626
7.872
8.118
8.364
8.61
8.856
9.102
9.348
9.594
9.84
10.086
10.332
10.578
10.824
11.07
11.316
11.562
11.808
12.054
12.3
12.546

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

102.195
105.98
109.765
113.55
117.335
121.12
124.905
128.69
132.475
136.26
140.045
143.83
147.615
151.4
155.185
158.97
162.755
166.54
170.325
174.11
177.895
181.68
185.465
189.25
193.035

12.792
13.038
13.284
13.53
13.776
14.022
14.268
14.514
14.76
15.006
15.252
15.498
15.744
15.99
16.236
16.482
16.728
16.974
17.22
17.466
17.712
17.958
18.204
18.45
18.696

l
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76

196.82
200.605
204.39
208.175
211.96
215.745
219.53
223.315
227.1
230.885
234.67
238.455
242.24
246.025
249.81
253.595
257.38
261.165
264.95
268.735
272.52
276.305
280.09
283.875
287.66

Table 20 Volume US gallons into litres and vice versa

Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual 51

Afripex (Pty) Ltd - Tel: 0861 444 333 - info@afripex.com - www.afripex.com

Mass, weight Pounds into kilograms and vice versa


lb
2.2046
4.4092
6.6138
8.8184
11.023
13.2276
15.4322
17.6368
19.8414
22.046
24.2506
26.4552
28.6598
30.8644
33.069
35.2736
37.4782
39.6828
41.8874
44.092
46.2966
48.5012
50.7058
52.9104
55.115
57.3196

kg
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

0.4536
0.9072
1.3608
1.8144
2.268
2.7216
3.1752
3.6288
4.0824
4.536
4.9896
5.4432
5.8968
6.3504
6.804
7.2576
7.7112
8.1648
8.6184
9.072
9.5256
9.9792
10.4328
10.8864
11.34
11.7936

lb
59.5242
61.7288
63.9334
66.138
68.3426
70.5472
72.7518
74.9564
77.161
79.3656
81.5702
83.7748
85.9794
88.184
90.3886
92.5932
94.7978
97.0024
99.207
101.4116
103.6162
105.8208
108.0254
110.23
112.4346

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

kg

lb

12.2472
12.7008
13.1544
13.608
14.0616
14.5152
14.9688
15.4224
15.876
16.3296
16.7832
17.2368
17.6904
18.144
18.5976
19.0512
19.5048
19.9584
20.412
20.8656
21.3192
21.7728
22.2264
22.68
23.1336

114.6392
116.8438
119.0484
121.253
123.4576
125.6622
127.8668
130.0714
132.276
134.4806
136.6852
138.8898
141.0944
143.299
145.5036
147.7082
149.9128
152.1174
154.322
156.5266
158.7312
160.9358
163.1404
165.345
167.5496

kg
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76

23.5872
24.0408
24.4944
24.948
25.4016
25.8552
26.3088
26.7624
27.216
27.6696
28.1232
28.5768
29.0304
29.484
29.9376
30.3912
30.8448
31.2984
31.752
32.2056
32.6592
33.1128
33.5664
34.02
34.4736

Table 21 Mass, weight Pounds into kilograms and vice versa

Density Pounds per cubic foot into kilograms per cubic metre and vice versa
lb/ft3
0.062428
0.124856
0.187284
0.249712
0.31214
0.374568
0.436996
0.499424
0.561852
0.62428
0.686708
0.749136
0.811564
0.873992
0.93642
0.998848
1.061276
1.123704
1.186132
1.24856
1.310988
1.373416
1.435844
1.498272
1.5607
1.623128

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

kg/m3

lb/ft3

16.019
32.038
48.057
64.076
80.095
96.114
112.133
128.152
144.171
160.19
176.209
192.228
208.247
224.266
240.285
256.304
272.323
288.342
304.361
320.38
336.399
352.418
368.437
384.456
400.475
416.494

1.685556
1.747984
1.810412
1.87284
1.935268
1.997696
2.060124
2.122552
2.18498
2.247408
2.309836
2.372264
2.434692
2.49712
2.559548
2.621976
2.684404
2.746832
2.80926
2.871688
2.934116
2.996544
3.058972
3.1214
3.183828

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

kg/m3

lb/ft3

432.513
448.532
464.551
480.57
496.589
512.608
528.627
544.646
560.665
576.684
592.703
608.722
624.741
640.76
656.779
672.798
688.817
704.836
720.855
736.874
752.893
768.912
784.931
800.95
816.969

3.246256
3.308684
3.371112
3.43354
3.495968
3.558396
3.620824
3.683252
3.74568
3.808108
3.870536
3.932964
3.995392
4.05782
4.120248
4.182676
4.245104
4.307532
4.36996
4.432388
4.494816
4.557244
4.619672
4.6821
4.744528

Table 22 Density Pounds per cubic foot into kilograms per cubic metre and vice versa

52 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

kg/m3
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76

832.988
849.007
865.026
881.045
897.064
913.083
929.102
945.121
961.14
977.159
993.178
1009.197
1025.216
1041.235
1057.254
1073.273
1089.292
1105.311
1121.33
1137.349
1153.368
1169.387
1185.406
1201.425

Afripex (Pty) Ltd - Tel: 0861 444 333 - info@afripex.com - www.afripex.com

Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit into degrees Celsius and vice versa


F
-148
-130
-112
-94
-76
-58
-40
-22
-4
14
23
24.8
26.6
28.4
30.2
32
33.8
35.6
37.4
39.2
41
42.8
44.6
46.4
48.2

-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

C
-73.3333
-67.7778
-62.2222
-56.6667
-51.1111
-45.5556
-40.0
-34.4444
-28.8889
-23.3333
-20.5556
-20.0
-19.4444
-18.8889
-18.3333
-17.7778
-17.2222
-16.6667
-16.1111
-15.5556
-15.0
-14.4444
-13.8889
-13.3333
-12.7778

F
50
53.6
57.2
60.8
64.4
68
71.6
75.2
78.8
82.4
86
89.6
93.2
96.8
100.4
104
113
122
131
140
149
158
167
176
185

10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85

C
-12.2222
-11.1111
-10.0
-8.88889
-7.77778
-6.66667
-5.55556
-4.44444
-3.33333
-2.22222
-1.11111
0.0
1.111111
2.222222
3.333333
4.444444
7.222222
10.0
12.77778
15.55556
18.33333
21.11111
23.88889
26.66667
29.44444

F
194
203
212
248
284
320
356
392
437
482
572
662
752
842
932
1112
1292
1472
1652
1832
2192
2552
2912
3272
3632

90
95
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000

C
32.22222
35.0
37.77778
48.88889
60.0
71.11111
82.22222
93.33333
107.2222
121.1111
148.8889
176.6667
204.4444
232.2222
260.0
315.5556
371.1111
426.6667
482.2222
537.7778
648.8889
760.0
871.1111
982.2222
1093.333

Table 23 Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit into degrees Celsius and vice versa

Thermal conductivity Btu in/ft2 h degrees F into W/K m


Btu
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2

0
0.0144
0.0288
0.0432
0.0576
0.072
0.0864
0.1008
0.1152
0.1296
0.144
0.1584
0.1728
0.1872
0.2016
0.216
0.2304
0.2448
0.2592
0.2736
0.288

0.01
0.01584
0.03024
0.04464
0.05904
0.07344
0.08784
0.10224
0.11664
0.13104
0.14544
0.15984
0.17424
0.18864
0.20304
0.21744
0.23184
0.24624
0.26064
0.27504
0.28944

0.02
0.001728
0.03168
0.04608
0.06048
0.07488
0.08928
0.10368
0.11808
0.13248
0.14688
0.16128
0.17568
0.19008
0.20448
0.21888
0.23328
0.24768
0.26208
0.27648
0.29088

0.03
0.001872
0.03312
0.04752
0.06192
0.07632
0.09072
0.10512
0.11952
0.13392
0.14832
0.16272
0.17712
0.19152
0.20592
0.22032
0.23472
0.24912
0.26352
0.27792
0.29232

0.04
0.002016
0.03456
0.04896
0.06336
0.07776
0.09216
0.10656
0.12096
0.13536
0.14976
0.16416
0.17856
0.19296
0.20736
0.22176
0.23616
0.25056
0.26496
0.27936
0.29376

0.05
0.00216
0.036
0.0504
0.0648
0.0792
0.0936
0.108
0.1224
0.1368
0.1512
0.1656
0.18
0.1944
0.2088
0.2232
0.2376
0.252
0.2664
0.2808
0.2952

0.06
0.002304
0.03744
0.05184
0.06624
0.08064
0.09504
0.10944
0.12384
0.13824
0.15264
0.16704
0.18144
0.19584
0.21024
0.22464
0.23904
0.25344
0.26784
0.28224
0.29664

0.07
0.002448
0.03888
0.05328
0.06768
0.08208
0.09648
0.11088
0.12528
0.13968
0.15408
0.16848
0.18288
0.19728
0.21168
0.22608
0.24048
0.25488
0.26928
0.28368
0.29808

0.08
0.002592
0.04032
0.05472
0.06912
0.08352
0.09792
0.11232
0.12672
0.14112
0.15552
0.16992
0.18432
0.19872
0.21312
0.22752
0.24192
0.25632
0.27072
0.28512
0.29952

0.09
0.002736
0.04176
0.05616
0.07056
0.08496
0.09936
0.11376
0.12816
0.14256
0.15696
0.17136
0.18576
0.20016
0.21456
0.22896
0.24336
0.25776
0.27216
0.28656
0.30096

Table 24 Thermal conductivity Btu in/ft2 h degrees F into W/K m

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Pressure

1 N/m = 1 Pa
1 kPa
1 bar
1 mm WS
1 lb/in2 (psi)

1 Pa
1
1.000
105
9.81
6.89103

1 kPa
10-3
1
100
9.8110-3
6.89

1 bar
10-5
0.01
1
9.8110-5
0.069

1 mm WS
0.102
102
1.02104
1
703

1 lb/in2
1.4510-4
0.145
14.50
1.4210-3
1

1 J = 1 Nm
= 1 WS

1 kpm

1 kcal

1 kWh

1 Btu

1
9.80665
4.1868103
3.6106
1.055056103

0.101972
1
426.935
3.670978105
1.075857102

2.3884410-4
2.3422810-3
1
859.845
0.251996

2.7777810-7
2.7240710-6
1.163103
1
2.9307110-4

9.4781710-4
9.2942110-3
3.96832
3.41214103
1

Table 25 Pressure

Energy

1 J = 1 Nm
= 1 WS
1 kpm
1 kcal
1 kWh
1 Btu
Table 26 Energy

54 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

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Chapter 10
List of figures, tables and diagrams
Figures

Figure No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

Text

Page

Molecule chain for a cross-linked polyethylene pipe .............. 5


Wirsbo-PEX pipe ........................................................................ 6
Conduit pipe................................................................................ 7
The marking on Wirsbo-PEX pipe ............................................. 7
Heat loss from a pipe based upon a length of 1 metre ......... 16
Outline drawing of an installation........................................... 20
Outline drawing of an installation........................................... 22
Traditional method with 16 joints ........................................... 25
Manifold system with 10 joints ............................................... 26
A conduit run through joists with pipe clips ......................... 27
Manifold in a watertight cabinet ............................................. 27
An example of a manifold attached to the wall ..................... 27
Example of a manifold situated in a ceiling ........................... 28
A temporary stand supports the pipe and manifold ............ 28
A temporary stand supports a pipe ........................................ 28
Suggested run of pipes along an outer wall .......................... 29
Suggested run of pipe along an inner wall ............................ 29
Suggested run of pipes in secondary boarding in the .......... 29
An example of manifolds vertically connected to ................. 29
An example of manifolds horizontally connected to............. 29
Riser installation using watertight cabinets ........................... 30
Pipe runs in support channels ................................................. 30
Pipes run on a rack ................................................................... 30
Branched pipe run in support channels.................................. 31
Wirsbo-PEX pipes in support channels with ......................... 31
Pipe runs in support channels ................................................. 32
Wirsbo-PEX pipes on a rack where thermal length ............... 32
Wirsbo-PEX Pipe-in-Pipe on a rack will protect .................... 33
Pipe supported only by anchor points.................................... 33
A vertical exposed pipe run..................................................... 34
Flexible arm .............................................................................. 34
Expansion loop ......................................................................... 35
Wirsbo pipe uncoiler ................................................................ 36
Method of cutting a pipe.......................................................... 37
Method of cutting a pipe.......................................................... 37
Method of cutting a pipe.......................................................... 37
Method of cutting a pipe.......................................................... 37
Assembling a Wirsbo Q&E fitting, step 1 ............................... 37
Assembling a Wirsbo Q&E fitting, step 2 ............................... 37
Assembling a Wirsbo Q&E fitting, step 3 ............................... 37
Assembling a Wirsbo Q&E fitting, step 4 ............................... 37
Assembling a compression fitting, step 1 .............................. 38
Assembling a compression fitting, step 2 .............................. 38
Assembling a compression fitting, step 3 .............................. 39
Assembling a compression fitting, step 4 .............................. 39
Assembling a WIPEX fitting ..................................................... 39
Assembling a WIPEX fitting ..................................................... 39
Assembling a WIPEX fitting ..................................................... 40

Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual 55

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Figure No.
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Tables

Table No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Diagrams

Page

Assembling a WIPEX fitting ..................................................... 40


Assembling a WIPEX fitting ..................................................... 40
Reforming a Wirsbo-PEX pipe ................................................. 41
Pipe end with a sharp tongue.................................................. 41
Replacing a damaged pipe ...................................................... 42
Replacing a damaged pipe ...................................................... 42
Replacing a damaged pipe ...................................................... 42
Replacing a damaged pipe ...................................................... 42
Replacing a damaged pipe ...................................................... 43
Replacing a damaged pipe ...................................................... 43
Replacing a damaged pipe ...................................................... 43
Replacing a damaged pipe ...................................................... 43

Text

Page

Water flow demand .................................................................... 9


Design flow ................................................................................10
Correction factors ...................................................................... 11
Pressure drop for various Wirsbo-PEX pipe dimen ............... 12
Indication of required Wirsbo-PEX pipe dimension .............. 13
Service conditions with safety factors.................................... 18
Calculated pressure loss for all outlets in the ........................ 21
Values based on total flow....................................................... 21
Values based on total flow....................................................... 23
Values based on total flow....................................................... 24
Binding distances in accordance with prENV 12108 ............. 31
Distances between hanger support bars in ........................... 32
Material properties Wirsbo-PEX .............................................. 46
Forces of expansion and contraction...................................... 46
Length Inches (fractions) into millimetres ........................... 49
Length Inches into millimetres and vice versa.................... 49
Length Feet into metres and vice versa............................... 50
Surface Square feet into square metres and vice versa .... 50
Volume Cubic feet into cubic metres and vice versa.......... 51
Volume US gallons into litres and vice versa...................... 51
Mass, weight Pounds into kilograms and vice versa ......... 52
Density Pounds per cubic foot into kilograms per ............. 52
Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit into degrees Celsius ..... 53
Thermal conductivity Btu in/ft2 h degrees F into .......... 53
Pressure..................................................................................... 54
Energy ....................................................................................... 54

Diagram No. Text


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

56 Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual

Text

Page

Pressure drop nomogram Wirsbo-PEX 1.0 MPa 90C.............14


Pressure drop nomogram Wirsbo-PEX 0.6 MPa 90C ........... 15
Heat emission loss Wirsbo-PEX 1.0 MPa 90C ....................... 17
Heat emission loss Wirsbo-PEX 0.6 MPa 90C ....................... 17
Working pressure as a funcion on temperature for .............. 18
Thermal expansion....................................................................19
Thermal expansion, example .................................................. 35
Pressure testing ........................................................................ 45

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Wirsbo Tap Water System Basic Manual 57

Hr fr reklambyr och tryckeri stta ut tryckort

1127GB 01-12-2-M

Afripex (Pty) Ltd - Tel: 0861 444 333 - info@afripex.com - www.afripex.com

Wirsbo-PEX is the registered Trade Mark of Uponor Wirsbo AB of Sweden. The


products described in this manual are generally protected by Letters Patent throughout
the world. In keeping with our policy of continuous improvement and development,
Wirsbo reserves the right to change specifications without prior notice.

Uponor Wirsbo AB
Basic
Box 58
101Wirsbo Tap Water System
Phone +46
223 Manual
380 00
SE-730 61 Virsbo
Fax
+46 223 381 02
Sweden
www.wirsbo.org