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College Name:Aryans College Of Engineering(Banur)

FOUR MONTH HARDWARE TRAINING IN


CNT TECHNOLOGIES PVT LTD.
(CHANDIGARH)
A TRAINING REPORT
ON

PLC & SCADA


PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
JALANDHAR, PUNJAB, INDIA

SUBMITTED BY
SUBMITTED TO
NAME OF CANDIDATE: HARDEEP SINGH
ROLL NUMBER: 1280088
COURSE NAME: B-TECH
MONTH YEAR:
5 / 2015
CNT TECHNOLOGIES

MRS. MANVI

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College Name:Aryans College Of Engineering(Banur)

FOUR MONTH HARDWARE TRAINING IN


CNT TECHNOLOGIES PVT LTD.
(CHANDIGARH)

ARYANS COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING
AND
TECHNOLOGY

PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


Aryans College of Engineering and Technology
Village-Nepra,Chandigarh-Patiala Highway,
Chandigarh.

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Letter head of Aryans College of Engineering

Date: 18/05/15

CANDIDATE'S DECLARATION
I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the report
entitled, PLC & $CADA, by Hardeep Singh (1280088 ) , B.TECH in EEE
submitted at Aryans College of Engineering, is an authentic record of my
own work carried out during a period from JUNUARY 2015 to MAY 2015
under the supervision of Ms. Meenakshi,Software Trainer,CNT Chd.

Signature of the Student

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my sincere gratitude to Aryans Group of Colleges for giving


me the opportunity to work on the PLC & SCADA during my B.Tech.
Training is an important aspect in the field of engineering.

Hardeep Singh)
1280088

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FOUR MONTHS HARDWARE TRAINING


REPORT

Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of

BACHELOR OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS


ENGINEERING

ARYANS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


BANUR (RAJPURA)

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CONTENTS
1) Company profile

2) Programmable logic controller (PLC)


Architecture of PLC
Inputs and Outputs of PLC
Catalog number
Source and sink concept
PLC wiring
Panel wiring
Software introduction
XIC-XIO concepts
Introduction to PLC memory
Introduction to Data files and Program Files.
Start Stop logic
Logic gates
Concept for Latch, Unlatch
Timer
Counter
Compare function
Compute math
Move logic
Higher instruction (jmp, lbl, jsr, sbr, tnd, ret, mcr)

3) Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)


Digital control
Start stop control
Digital programming
Analog control
SCADA interface to PLC
Digital control with plc and scada
Analog control with plc and scada

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to thank almighty GOD who has given this wonderful gift of
life to us. He is the one who is guiding us in right direction to follow noble path of
humanity. In my six months industrial training it is a wonderful experience to be a
part of CNT TECHNOLOGIES where I have opportunity to work under brilliant
minds. I owe my deep regards for the supporting and kind staff authorities who are
helping me in my lean patches during these six months. The knowledge I am
gaining throughout my studies have the practical implementation during this
period. I am grateful to all the staff of CNT and for their timely support and sharing
of their experience with me. I would like to express my heartiest concern for Miss.
Meenakshi

for her able guidance and for his inspiring attitude, praiseworthy

attitude and honest support. Not to forget the pain staking efforts of our college
training and placement cell and specially my training and placement officer
Mrs.Manvi Mam Last but not the least I would express my utmost regards for the
electrical department of our Institute.

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COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES


CNT is one of the most acknowledged names in Software development and
Network Training. Apart from providing Software Solutions to the various
companies, CNT is also involved in imparting High-end project based
training to students of MCA and B.Tech etc. The training professionals are
basically Software Developers having Industry experience and exposure to live projects
on various technologies like Java (With Advanced Java), VB.NET, ASP.NET, C Sharp,
MCSE, CCNA, CCNP, LINUX and Oracle etc . CNT has trained thousands of the

Engineering/MCA students of various institutes by providing Industrial


training. Special emphasis is laid on exposure to Real Time Projects.
The Trainees are equipped with thorough knowledge of various
modules from basic to advance in the software involved in their projects. With a
right blend of interactive coaching, laboratory tutoring and a case study based
approach; the skills of the trainees are sharpened to their best.
CNT has an excellent infrastructure with Air conditioned labs, and
classrooms and fully equipped library. The lab facility extended to the trainees is
unparalleled with every trainee having an independent system access for the
entire training period.

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In short, Computer Software and Network Technologies is guided by a dynamic


management team that believes in integrity, quality, continuous learning and
personal dedication
OBJECTIVES
a) To provide world-class technology and Indian expertise globally in all fields of
networking and information technology.
b) To sustain, expand and excel in its operations in software technologies.
c) To acquire latest technology on a continuing basis.
FUTURE
CNT core competence in the Networking and Software Project has enabled it to
earn respect of clients all over the world.
CNT is now using state-of-the-art technology in the areas
of Information Technology Access Networks. All in order to continue providing
better solutions through better understanding.
TRAINING
The business of CNT is characterized by Hi-tech mainly in the field of Network and
IT, and technology in this area is advancing very fast and with the view to keep
update with the latest technology. CNT undertakes training activities either through
its own resources or through external agencies.
CNT has also organized a number of training programmes
catering to specific requirements.

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IT SERVICES
Turnkey Solution to meet end-to-end customer requirements
Networking Solutions with total System Integration and Implementations
Project Consultancy services from concept to commissioning
IT Training
MISSION
To provide world class professional training and solutions in advance networking,
Embedded systems design and career services for IT professionals as
well as electronic system designers.

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1.

PLC AND SCADA (SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITIN)

1.1.1 PLC

(Programmable Logic Controller):

A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer


used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory
assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and
machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and
output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and
resistance to vibration and impact
1.1.2 SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)
SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) is a category of software application program for
process control, the gathering of data in real time from remote locations in order to control equipment
and conditions. SCADA is used in power plants as well as in oil and gas refining, telecommunications,
transportation, and water and waste control.
SCADA systems include hardware and software components. The hardware gathers and feeds data
into a computer that has SCADA software installed. The computer then processes this data and
presents it in a timely manner. SCADA also records and logs all events into a file stored on a hard disk
or sends them to a printer. SCADA warns when conditions become hazardous by sounding alarms.

1.1.3 HMI (Human Machine Interface)


A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator,
and through which the human operator controls the process.
An HMI is usually linked to the SCADA system's databases and software programs, to provide trending,
diagnostic data, and management information such as scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic
information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting
guides.
The HMI system usually presents the information to the operating personnel graphically, in the form of a
mimic diagram. This means that the operator can see a schematic representation of the plant being
controlled

1.1.4 Distributed Control System


A type of automated control system that is distributed throughout a machine to provide instructions to
different parts of the machine. Instead of having a centrally located device controlling all machines,
each section of a machine has its own computer that controls the operation. For instance, there may be
one machine with a section that controls dry elements of cake frosting and another section controlling
the liquid elements, but each section is individually managed by a DCS. A DCS is commonly used in
manufacturing equipment and utilizes input and output protocols to control the machine

1.1.5 Drives
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The main power components of an AC drive, have to be able to supply the required level of current and
voltage in a form the motor can use. The controls have to be able to provide the user with necessary
adjustments such as minimum and maximum speed settings, so that the drive can be adapted to the
user's process

1.2.RELAY AND CONTACTOR


1.2.1 RELAY:
A relay is a simple electromechanical switch made up of an electromagnet and a set of
contacts. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a
lever and changes the switch contacts. It is used for double through (changeover).

Fig 1.1 relay


The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO:

COM = Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of the switch.
NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off.
NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.

1.2.2Advantages of relays:

Relays can switch AC and DC.


Relays can switch higher voltages.
Relays are often a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A).
Relays can switch many contacts at once.
Relay can be rated for very high voltage.

1.2.3 Disadvantages of relays:


Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents.
Relays cannot switch rapidly (except reed relays), transistors can switch many times per
second.
Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil.
Relays require more current than many ICs can provide, so a low power transistor may be
needed to switch the current for the relay's coil.

1.3 CONTACTOR:
1.3.1What is contactor?
Contactors are used to switch relatively large outputs and currents.
Contactors work on the same basic principle as relays.
The typical features of contactor are:
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double- break ( 2 break points per contact),


positive-action contacts and
closed arcing chambers (spark arresting chambers).

Fig.1.2 Symbol of contactor


1.3.2Advantages of contactor:
Easy to changeover.
Durable.
Easy to test.
Basically used for high current ratings.
1.3.3 Disadvantages of contactor:
Required more power
Contacts wear
1.4 COMPARISON BETWEEN RELAY AND CONTACTOR:

PLC

2.1I
has
In

Relay
Relays possess a clapper-type
armature and are
characterized by single contact
separation

Contactor

Relays are used to switch


relatively small outputs and
currents.

Contactors are used to switch


relatively large outputs and
currents.

Contactors possess a lifting


armature and are characterized
by double contact separation.

(Programmable
Logic
Controller)
NTRODUCTION
Control engineering
evolved over time.
the

past

humans

were the main methods for controlling a system. More recently electricity has been used for
control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be
switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple
logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent
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revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the
1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls. PLCs have been
gaining popularity on the factory floor and will probably remain predominant for some time to
come. Most of this is because of the advantages they offer.
Cost effective for controlling complex systems.
Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily.
Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control.
Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime.
Reliable components make these likely to operate for years before failure.
The term SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. A SCADA system is a
common process automation system which is used to gather data from sensors and instruments
located at remote sites and to transmit and display this data at a central site for either control or
monitoring purposes. The collected data is usually viewed on one or more SCADA Host
computers located at the central or master site.
A real world SCADA system can monitor and control hundreds to hundreds of thousands of I/O
points. A typical Water SCADA application would be to monitor water levels at various water
sources like reservoirs and tanks and when the water level exceeds a preset threshold, activate
the system of pumps to move water to tanks with low tank levels.
Common analog signals that SCADA systems monitor and control are levels, temperatures,
pressures, flow rate and motor speed. Typical digital signals to monitor and control are level
switches, pressure switches, generator status, relays & motors.Automation of many different
processes, such as controlling machines, basic relay control, motion control, process control is
done through the use of small computers called a programmable logic controller (PLC). This is
actually a control device that consists of a programmable microprocessor, and is programmed
using a specialized computer language. A programmable logic controller (PLC) or
programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical
processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting
fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines, such as packaging and
semiconductor machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple
inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and
resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in
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battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output
results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise
unintended operation will result.
A modern programmable logic controller is usually programmed in any one of several
languages, ranging from ladder logic to Basic or C. Typically, the program is written in a
development environment on a personal computer (PC), and then is downloaded onto the
programmable logic controller directly through a cable connection. Programmable logic
controllers contain a variable number of Input/output (I/O) ports the programmable logic
controller circuitry monitors the status of multiple sensor inputs, which control output.

Fig 2.1.Programmable logic controller (PLC)

HISTORY
2.2.1 Origin

The PLC was invented in response to the needs of the American automotive manufacturing
industry. Programmable controllers were initially adopted by the automotive industry where
software revision replaced the re-wiring of hard-wired control panels when production models
changed. Before the PLC, control, sequencing, and safety interlock logic for manufacturing
automobiles was accomplished using hundreds or thousands of relays, cam timers, and drum
sequencers and dedicated closed-loop controllers. The process for updating such facilities for
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the yearly model change-over was very time consuming and expensive, as the relay systems
needed to be rewired by skilled electricians. In 1968 GM Hydramatic (the automatic transmission
division of General Motors) issued a request for proposal for an electronic replacement for hardwired relay systems. The winning proposal came from Bedford Associates of Bedford,
Massachusetts. The first PLC, designated the 084 because it was Bedford Associates' eightyfourth project, was the result. Bedford Associates started a new company dedicated to
developing, manufacturing, selling, and servicing this new product: Modicon, which stood for
Modular Digital Controller. One of the people who worked on that project was Dick Morley, who
is considered to be the "father" of the PLC. The Modicon brand was sold in 1977 to Gould
Electronics, and later acquired by German Company AEG and then by French Schneider
Electric, the current owner.One of the very first 084 models built is now on display at Modicon's
headquarters in North Andover, Massachusetts. It was presented to Modicon by GM, when the
unit was retired after nearly twenty years of uninterrupted service. Modicon used the 84 moniker
at the end of its product range until the 984 made its appearance.

2.1.2 Programming
Early PLCs, up to the mid-1980s, were programmed using proprietary programming panels or
special-purpose programming terminals, which often had dedicated function keys representing
the various logical elements of PLC programs. Programs were stored on cassette tape
cartridges. Facilities for printing and documentation were very minimal due to lack of memory
capacity. The very oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory .

2.1.3 Functionality
The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control,
motion control, process control, distributed control systems and networking. The data handling,
storage, processing power and communication capabilities of some modern PLCs are
approximately equivalent to desktop computers. PLC-like programming combined with remote
I/O hardware, allow a general-purpose desktop computer to overlap some PLCs in certain
application

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2.2. ARCHITECTURE OF PLC

2.2 ARCHITECTURE OF PLC


2. 2.1 PARTS OF PLC
2. 2.1 .1POWER SUPPLY: PLC requires 24V switch mode power supply for its

operation.

2. 2.1 .2MCU: Its full form is microcontroller unit. It is the processor of PLC. It is basically the
brain of PLC. It performs various control operations of PLC.
2. 2.1 .3INPUTS AND OUTPUTS: PLC has a set of isolated inputs and isolated outputs.
Different PLCs have different number and different type of inputs and outputs. Like in Micrologix
1000 we have total number of 6 inputs and 4 outputs whereas in Micrologix 1100 we have 10
inputs and 6 outputs.
2. 2.1 4
EXPANSION PORT: In PLC there is an expansion port which is used for the addition
of any other equipment with PLC. For example analog cards.
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2. 2.1 .5
MEMORY MODULE: The memory module in PLC is used for the storage of
program in PLC for future use.
2. 2.1.6 COMMUNICATION PORT: The communication ports are used in PLC to communicate
with the
computer. In PLC there are two types of communication ports i.e. RS 232 comport
and Ethernet port.
2. 2.1.7 This display screen is used as human machine interface i.e. it provides good
visualization of operation running

2.3.PLC PIN DIAGRAM

Fig 2.3 .Pin Diagram

2.4 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS OF PLC


PLC programs are made up of a combination of the "gates" together with inputs, outputs, timers,
counters, internal memory bits, analog inputs, analog outputs, mathematical calculations,
comparators etc.
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2.4.1 INPUTS
These are the physical connections from the real world to the PLC. They can be limit switches,
push buttons, and sensors, anything that can "switch" a signal on or off. The voltages of these
devices are usually, but not always, 24 Volt DC. Manufacturers make inputs that can accept a
wide range of voltages both ac and dc. It should be remembered that an input will be ON, "status
1", when the voltage is present at the input connection and OFF, "status 0", when the voltage is
no longer present at the input connection.
2.4.2 TYPES OF INPUTS OF PLC
USER TYPE: These are the inputs and outputs that are physically present and are
practical to the inputs and outputs of the PLC.
BIT TYPE: These are the inputs and outputs that are not physically present and are
functional in the PLC only. These inputs/outputs are basically used to drive each other in
the ladder logic programming.
XIC (Examine if closed):
I/P
0
1

O/P
0
1

XIO (Examine if open):


I/P
0
1

O/P
1
0

2.4.3 OUTPUTS
These are the connections from the PLC to the real world. They are used to switch solenoids,
lamps, contactors etc on and off. Again they are usually 24 Volt DC, either relay or transistor, but
can also be 115/220 Volt AC.

2.4.3.1 TYPES OF PLC OUTPUTS


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Relay type output


Transistor type output
TRIAC type output

2.5 PLC MANUFACTURES

SIEMENS
ALLEN BRADLEY
GENERAL ELECTRICAL
MITSUBISHI
SCHENIDER
ABB
Here we have done programming of two PLCs of Allen Bradley i.e. Micrologix 1000 and Micrologix
1100.

2.5 .1 Micrologix 1000 Controllers 1761


Micrologix 1000 brings high speed, powerful instructions and flexible communications to
applications that demand compact, cost-effective solutions. The Micrologix 1000 programmable
controller is available in 10-point, 16-point or 32-point digital I/O versions. Analog versions are
also available with 20 digital I/O points, with 4 analog inputs (two voltages and two current) and
1 analog output (configurable for either voltage or current).This little powerhouse is both
inexpensive and compact, with footprints as small as 120mm x 80 mm x 40 mm (4.72" x 3.15" x
1.57"). The analog I/O circuitry is embedded into the base controller, not accomplished through
add-on modules, providing compact and cost-effective analog performance.
2.5 .2 Features of Micrologix 1000

Preconfigured 1K programming and data memory help ease configuration (bit,


integer, timers, counters, etc)
Fast processing allows for typical throughput time of 1.5 ms for a 500-instruction
program
Built-in EEPROM memory retains all of your ladder logic and data if the
controller loses power, eliminating the need for battery back-up or separate memory
module

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RS-232 communication channel allows for simple connectivity to a personal


computer for program upload, download and monitoring using multiple protocols,
including DF1 Full Duplex
RTU slave protocol support use DF1 Half-Duplex Slave, which allows up to 254
notes to communicate with a single master using radio modems, leased-line
modems or satellite uplinks

The Micrologix 1000 family provides small, economical programmable controllers. They are
available in configurations of 10 digital I/O (6 inputs and 4 outputs), 16 digital I/O (10 inputs and
6 outputs), 25 I/O (12 digital inputs, 4 analog inputs, 8 digital outputs, and 1 analog output), or
32 digital I/O (20 inputs and 12 outputs) in multiple electrical configurations of digital I/O. The I/O
options and electrical configurations make them ideal for many applications.

Fig 2.6.Micrologix 1000


2.5.3 Benefits

Compact designLets the Micrologix 1000 controller thrive in limited panel space.

Choice of communication networksAn RS-232-C communication port is configurable


for: DF1 protocol for direct connection to a programming device or operator interface; DH485 networking through a 1761-NET-AIC converter; Device Net networking through a
1761-NET-DNI interface; Ethernet/IP networking through a 1761-NET-ENI interface; or for
half-duplex slave protocol in SCADA applications.
Simple programming with your choice of programming deviceYou can program
these controllers in familiar ladder logic with Micrologix 1000 A.I. Series Software , PLC
500 A. I. Series Programming Software, RSLogix 500 Windows Programming Software,

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or the Micrologix Hand-Held Programmer (1761-HHP-B30). This symbolic programming


language is based on relay ladder wiring diagrams that simplify the creation and
troubleshooting of your control program.
Comprehensive instruction setOver 65 instructions including simple bit, timer, and
counter instructions, as well as instructions for powerful applications like sequencers,
high-speed counter, and shift registers.
FastExecution time for a typical 500-instruction program is only 1.56 ms.
Choice of languagesSoftware and documentation are available in 5 languages. The
hand-held programmer has 6 languages built in.

2.5.4Features
The Micrologix 1100 has 10 digital inputs, 2 analog inputs and 6 digital outputs, and supports
expansion I/O. Up to four 1762 I/O modules (also used on the Micrologix 1200) may be added to
the embedded I/O, providing application flexibility and support of up to 80 digital I/O.

One embedded 20 kHz high-speed counter (on controllers with DC inputs)The


built-in independent high-speed counter uses 32-bit integers for extended range, features
8 modes of operation, and supports direct control of outputs independent of program
scan.
Two 20 kHz high-speed PTO/PWM outputs (on controllers with DC outputs).
Digital trim potentiometersAllow quick and easy adjustments of timers, counters, set
points, and more.
Program data securityData file download protection lets a program be reloaded into
the controller without overwriting protected data.
Floating Point Data FilesYou can create data files that can contain up to 256 IEEE754 floating point values.
Memory modulesMemory backup provides protection and transportability for programs
and data.
Four interrupt inputsInterrupt inputs let the controller scan a specific program file
(subroutine) when an input condition is detected from a sensor or field device.
Real-Time Clockembedded in every controller.

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Fig 2.7.Micrologix 1100 with Analog Card


2.5.5 Benefits

Online Editingmodifications can be made to a program while it is running, making fine


tuning of an operating control system possible, including PID loops. Not only does this
feature reduce development time, but it aids in troubleshooting.
Built-in LCDlets you monitor data within the controller, optionally modify that data and
interact with the control program. The LCD displays status for embedded digital I/O and
controller functions, and acts as a pair of digital trim pots to allow a user to tweak and tune a
program.
Ethernet/IP Portfor peer-to-peer messaging offers users high-speed connectivity between
controllers and the ability to access, monitor and program from the factory floor to anywhere
an Ethernet connection is available.
Isolated RS-232/RS-485 combo portprovides a host of different point-to-point and
network protocols.
Embedded Web Serverlets you custom configure data from the controller to be displayed
as a web page

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2.6. PROGRAMMING OF PLC


PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer, then
downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The program is stored in
the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a
single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. Under the IEC 61131-3
standard, PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming languages. A
graphical programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on certain
programmable controllers. Recently, the International standard IEC 61131-3 has become
popular. IEC 61131-3 currently defines five programming languages for programmable control
systems: FBD (Function block diagram), LD (Ladder diagram), ST (Structured text, similar to the
Pascal programming language), IL (Instruction list, similar to assembly language) and SFC
(Sequential function chart). These techniques emphasize logical organization of operations.
While the fundamental concepts of PLC programming are common to all manufacturers,
differences in I/O addressing, memory organization and instruction sets mean that PLC
programs are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers. Even within the same
product line of a single manufacturer, different models may not be directly compatible.
In Allen Bradley PLCs the logic used for the programming is ladder logic. Ladder logic is a
programming language that represents a program by a graphical diagram based on the circuit
diagrams of relay-based logic hardware. It is primarily used to develop software for
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) used in industrial control applications. The name is
based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical rails
and a series of horizontal rungs between them. An argument that aided the initial adoption of
ladder logic was that a wide variety of engineers and technicians would be able to understand
and use it without much additional training, because of the resemblance to familiar hardware
systems. This argument has become less relevant given that most ladder logic programmers
have a software background in more conventional programming languages, and in practice
implementations of ladder logic have characteristicssuch as sequential execution and support
for control flow featuresthat make the analogy to hardware somewhat imprecise.Ladder logic
is widely used to program PLCs, where sequential control of a process or manufacturing
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operation is required. Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control systems, or for
reworking old hardwired relay circuits. As programmable logic controllers became more
sophisticated it has also been used in very complex automation systems.

Fig 7. Simple ladder logic


The language itself can be seen as a set of connections between logical checkers (contacts)
and actuators (coils). If a path can be traced between the left side of the rung and the output,
through asserted (true or "closed") contacts, the rung is true and the output coil storage bit is
asserted (1) or true. If no path can be traced, then the output is false (0) and the "coil" by
analogy to electromechanical relays is considered "de-energized". The analogy between logical
propositions and relay contact status is due to Claude Shannon.
Ladder logic has contacts that make or break circuits to control coils. Each coil or contact
corresponds to the status of a single bit in the programmable controller's memory. Unlike
electromechanical relays, a ladder program can refer any number of times to the status of a
single bit, equivalent to a relay with an indefinitely large number of contacts.
So-called "contacts" may refer to physical ("hard") inputs to the programmable controller from
physical devices such as pushbuttons and limit switches via an integrated or external input
module, or may represent the status of internal storage bits which may be generated elsewhere
in the program.
Each rung of ladder language typically has one coil at the far right. Some manufacturers may
allow more than one output coil on a rung.
--( )--

a regular coil, energized whenever its rung is closed

--(\)--

a "not" coil, energized whenever its rung is open

--[ ]--

A regular contact, closed whenever its corresponding coil is energized

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--[\]--

A "not" contact, open whenever its corresponding coil is energized

The "coil" (output of a rung) may represent a physical output which operates some device
connected to the programmable controller, or may represent an internal storage bit for use
elsewhere in the program.

Fig 2.8.PLC Trainer Kit


The above figure shows the view of PLC trainer kit. On this kit various operations are performed.
It has following components mounted:
1 .PLC MicroLogix1000
3. A Contactor Relay
5. Normally open Switch (4)
7. Output LEDs (4)

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2 .SMPS (220V AC-24V DC)


4. An Electromechanical Relay
6. Normally closed Switch (4)
8. RS 232 Comport for communication with PC

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The above fig shows the trainer board of Micrologix 1100 PLC. It has following components:
1. PLCmicrologix 1100
2. SMPS (220V ac to 24V dc)
3. Analog I/O card
4. A Contactor Relay
5. An Electromechanical Relay
6. Normally open Switch (4)
7. Normally closed Switch (4)
8. Output LEDs (4)
9.RS 232 Comport for communication with PC

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2.6.1 COMMUNICATION OF PLC WITH PC


To make communication of PLC with PC following steps are noted down:
Connect PC and PLC via RS232 comport or Ethernet.
Then click on RS Linx icon, a window will appear as shown in fig below

Fig2. 10.RS Linx classic window


In this window add drivers i.e. whether it is RS232 comport or Ethernet and configure the drivers
and closes the windowThen click on icon RS who on the RS Linx classic window, another
window will appear as shown in fig.
After opening the RS who window click on AB DF1-1 DH-485, the PLC is running is shown on
the window. Then close this window and double click on RS Logix 500 starter.When we double
click on RS Logix 500 starter a window will appear as shown in fig.

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Fig 2.11. RS Logix 500 window

2.6.2 PLC INSTRUCTIONS


There are various instructions which are useful for making ladder logic for PLC programming.
These are as follows:9.2.1 XIC (Examine if closed):
Use the XIC instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is ON. When the instruction
is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the instruction is evaluated as true. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is evaluated as false.
XIC (Examine if closed):
I/P
0
1

O/P
0
1

Examples of devices that turn on or off include:

A push button wired to an input (addressed as I:0/4).

An output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O:0/2).

A timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN).

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2.6.2.2 XIO (Examine if open):
Use the XIO instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is OFF. When the instruction
is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is evaluated as true. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the instruction is evaluated as false.
I/P
0
1

O/P
1
0

Examples of devices that turn on or off include:


Motor overload normally closed (N.C.) wired to an input (I:0/10).
An output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O:0/4).
A timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN).

2.6.2.3 Output Energize (OTE):


Use the OTE instruction in your ladder program to turn on a bit when rung conditions are
evaluated as true. An example of a device that turns on or off is an output wired to a pilot light
(addressed as O:0/4).

2.6.2.4Output Latch (OTL) and Output Unlatch (OTU):


OTL and OTU are retentive output instructions. OTL can only turn on a bit, while OTU can only
turn off a bit. These instructions are usually used in pairs, with both instructions addressing the
same bit. Your program can examine a bit controlled by OTL and OTU instructions as often as
necessary.

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Latch output and Unlatch output

2.7. TIMERS AND COUNTERS


2.7.1 TIMER
Timers are used to perform the timing operations. Time base is the minimum value of time in
second that can be taken by the timer. Preset value is the total number of the seconds for which
the timing operation has to be done Accumulator starts increasing the time in secondsupto the
preset value. Upto the preset value of the accumulator the enable bit of timer is high & the timer
runs. When accumulator reaches the preset value then the timer stops and the done bit of the
timer becomes high.

The timer has following bits and these bits are useful in the operation of timer:

EN- Enable- This bit will high when the input is given to the timer
TT - Timer timing bit - This bit will be high during the timing process. It remains high

till accumulator value becomes equal to preset value


DN Done This bit will be high when the timing process is ended. It set to high
when the accumulator value becomes equal to preset value.

In Micrologix 1000 and 1100 PLC there are three types of timers i.e.
TON Timer
T-OFF Timer
Retentive timer ON (RTO)

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2.7.1.1 TONTimer:Use the TON instruction to turn an output on or off after the timer has been
on for a preset time interval. The TON instruction begins to count time-base intervals when rung
conditions become true. As long as rung conditions remain true, the timer adjusts its
accumulated value (ACC) each evaluation until it reaches the preset value (PRE). The
accumulated value is reset when rung conditions go false, regardless of whether the timer has
timed out

Fig 2.12a.TON timer


2.7.1.2 T-OFF Timer: Use the TOF instruction to turn an output on or off after its rung has been
off for a preset time interval. The TOF instruction begins to count time base intervals when the
rung makes a true-to-false transition. As long as rung conditions remain false, the timer
increments its accumulated value (ACC) based on the time base for each scan until it reaches
the preset value (PRE). The accumulated value is reset when rung conditions go true regardless
of whether the timer has timed out.

Fig 2.12b.T-OFF timer


2.7.1.3 Retentive Timer (RTO):Use the RTO instruction to turn an output on or off after its timer
has been on for a preset time interval. The RTO instruction is a retentive instruction that begins
to count time base intervals when rung conditions become true.
The RTO instruction retains its accumulated value when any of the following occurs:

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Fig 2.12c.Retentive Timer (RTO)

2.7.2 Counters:
Counters are used to count the number of operations. Its function is same as the timer accepts
that the timer counts the number of seconds and the counter counts the number of operations or
pulses. At each operation the value of the accumulator increases and when the value of the
accumulator comes to the preset value of the counter then the counter stops.
Counter bits:
TT - Timer timing bit - This bit will be high during the counting process. It remains high till
accumulator value becomes equal to preset value
DN Done This bit will be high when the counting process is ended. It set to high when
the accumulator value becomes equal to preset value.
2.7.2.1 Counter UP (CTU):The CTU is an instruction that counts false-to-true rung transitions.
Rung transitions can be caused by events occurring in the program (from internal logic or by
external field devices) such as parts traveling past a detector or actuating a limit switch. When
rung conditions for a CTU instruction have made a false-to-true transition, the accumulated
value is incremented by one count, provided that the rung containing the CTU instruction is
evaluated between these transitions. The ability of the counter to detect false-to-true transitions
depends on the speed (frequency) of the incoming signal. The accumulated value is retained
when the rung conditions again become false. The accumulated count is retained until cleared
by a reset (RES) instruction that has the same address as the counter reset.

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Fig 2.12d.Counter UP (CTU)


2.7.2.1 Counter Down (CTD):The CTD is an instruction that counts false-to-true rung
transitions. Rung transitions can be caused by events occurring in the program such as parts
traveling past a detector or actuating a limit switch. When rung conditions for a CTD instruction
have made a false-to-true transition, the accumulated value is decremented by one count,
provided that the rung containing the CTD instruction is evaluated between these transitions.
The accumulated counts are retained when the rung conditions again become false. The
accumulated count is retained until cleared by a reset (RES) instruction that has the same
address as the counter reset.

Fig 2.12e.Counter Down (CTU)


2.7.2.3 EQU (equal to)

Fig 2.12f.Equal to
This input instruction is true when source A becomes equal to source B. The EQU instruction
compares two user specified values if values are equal, it allows rung continuity. The rung goes
true and output energies.

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2.7.2.4 GEQ (greater than equal to)
This instruction compares two values and will be high when the counted value becomes equal to
or greater than the fixed value and will energize everything that is connected next to it.

Fig 2.12g.Greater than Equal to

2.7.2.5 LEQ(less than equal to

Fig 2.12h.Less than Equal to


This instruction compares two values and will be high when the counted value becomes equal to
or less than the fixed value and will energize everything that is connected next to it.

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2.7.2.6 GRT (greater than)

Fig 2. 12i.Greater Than


Use of the GRT instruction to test whether one value (source A) is greater than another (source
B). If the value at source A is greater than the value at source B, the instruction is logically true. If
the value at source A is less than or equal to the value at source B, the instruction is logically
false. Source A must be an address. Source B can either be a program constant or an address.
Negative integers are stored in twos complement form.
2.7.2.7 LES (less than)
Use of the LES instruction is to test whether one value (source A) is less than another (source
B). If source A is less than the value at source B, the instruction is logically true. If the value at
source A is greater than or equal to the value at source B, the instruction is logically false.
Source A must be an address. Source B can either be a program constant or an address.
Negative integers are stored in twos complement form.

Fig 2.12j. Less than


2.7.2.8 LIM (Limit):

Fig 2.12k.Limit
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Use the LIM instruction to test for values within or outside a specified range, depending on how
you set the limits.
2.7.2.9 RES (Reset):

Fig2. 12l.Reset
Use a RES instruction to reset a timer or counter. When the RES instruction is enabled, it resets
the Timer ON Delay (TON), Retentive Timer (RTO), Count UP (CTU), or Count Down (CTD)
instruction having the same address as the RES instruction. When resetting a counter, if the
RES instruction is enabled and the counter rung is enabled, the CU or CD bit is reset. If the
counter preset value is negative, the RES instruction sets the accumulated value to zero. This in
turn causes the done bit to be set by a countdown or count up instruction.

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2.8. PLC PROGRAMS


2.8.1 Program no. 1:
A bottle takes 7 sec to be completely filled, if the filling is interrupted then it should resume from
the same level. When the filling of one bottle is completed the motor should run for 2 sec for
changing the bottle.
Sol:
In this program we have used two inputs and two outputs of PLC i.e. I:0/0 & I:0/1 as inputs and
O:0/0 & O:0/1 as outputs. We have used a RTO as timer and compare instructions LEQ and
LIM. When input I:0/0 is ON the RTO will start and conveyor motor is started for 7 sec by using
LEQ instruction and after 7 sec conveyor motor is stopped and then the valve is operated for 2
sec using LIM instruction. Then after 2 sec the conveyor motor again starts automatically.

When RTO and conveyor motor runs by pressing start push button

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when the valve operates and conveyor motor stops

after filling bottle the valve stops and conveyor starts again
2.8.2 Program no. 2:
When a momentary start push button is pressed, a lamp goes ON. If again same start push
button is pressed first lamp goes off and it remains off for the next 20 seconds. If start push
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button is pressed again in between these 20 seconds, lamp should not go ON. It should go ON
again on pressing start push button only after completing 20 seconds.
Sol: In this program one input and one output of PLC is used. A Counter, Timer and a Greater
than instructions are used.

Program of controlling lamp by timer and counter

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When lamp glows by pressing push button

.When lamp goes off by pressing push button second time

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Lamp will not glow even if we press push button. The lamp will glow after 20 sec by
pressing push button.

SCADA
The term SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition . A SCADA system
is a common process automation system which is used to gather data from sensors and
instruments located at remote sites and to transmit and display this data at a central site for
either control or monitoring purposes. The collected data is usually viewed on one or more
SCADA
Host
computers
located
at
the
central
or
master
site.
A real world SCADA system can monitor and control hundreds to hundreds of thousands of I/O
points. A typical Water SCADA application would be to monitor water levels at various water
sources like reservoirs and tanks and when the water level exceeds a preset threshold, activate
the system of pumps to move water to tanks with low tank levels.
Common analog signals that SCADA systems monitor and control are levels, temperatures,
pressures, flow rate and motor speed. Typical digital signals to monitor and control are level
switches, pressure switches, generator status, relays & motors.
3.1 Features of SACDA:

Dynamic process Graphic


Alarm summery

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Alarm history
Real time trend
Historical time trend
Security (Application Security)
Data base connectivity
Device connectivity
Scripts
Recipe management

3.2 Manufactures of SCADA:

Modicon (Telemecanique) Visual look


Allen Bradley : RS View
Siemens: win cc
Gefanc:
KPIT : ASTRA
Intelution : Aspic
Wonder ware : In touch

3.3 Working with project:


A project consists of a folder on your hard disk that contains, at minimum, the following items:
1. project file (.rsv)
2. tag folder
3. comprf (communications profile) folder
4. cache folder
3.3.1 Steps for creating a project:

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3.3.2 Creating tag:

Tags and the tag database: In the tag database, you define the data you want
RSView32 to monitor. Each entry in the database is called a tag. A tag is a logical name
for a variable in a device or in local memory (RAM). For example, a tag can represent a
process variable in a programmable controller

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3.3.3 Naming tag:
Tag names can be up to 255 characters long. If you create a folder, the folder name becomes
part of the tag name. The tag name can contain the following characters:

A to Z

0 to 9
underscore (_) and dash (-)

3.3.4 Tag database

3.3.5 Creating graphic display:


A graphic display represents the operators view of plant activity. The display can show system
or process data and provide operators with a way to write values to an external device such as a
programmable controller. Operators can also print the display at runtime to create a visual
record of tag values.
The graphic display editor:

To open the Graphic Display editor:

In the Project Manager, open the Graphics folder.

Open the Graphic Display editor by doing one of the following:

doubleclick the Display icon

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rightclick the Display icon and then click New

The editor main components:

3.3.6 Setting up the display:

3.3.7 Animation:
About the Animation dialog box
The Animation dialog box is a floating dialog box, which means you can have it open all the time
and can move it around the screen, select other objects, and open other dialog boxes.
Dialog box:
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Animation on slider:

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Horizontal position animation:

Visibility animation:

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THANKS YOU

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