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Final Year Project Report Submitted Towards the

Practical Fulfillment for the Requirements for the


Award of B.SC. Degree in Mechanical Engineering

Final year project

Design of Inline Seeder

2006

By Molalign Mulusew
2006

ii
Mekelle
University

AKNOWLEDGMENT
Many helping hands are in the completion of this project, both
from in and out of Mekelle University. Consequently, first of all I
am very thankful to my advisors Ato Solomon G/egziabher
(MSc.), Ir.Fissiha Meressa (MSc.) and Ato Abebe Kebede;
all are from the Farmtech project in the university, for their
unreserved follow up and help through all levels of the project.
Secondly my thanks go to those persons in the department of
Crop Science (Mekelle University) in particular to

W/ro

Alemstehay ( ) for her precise information. And last but not


least I would like to thank the mechanical engineering
department and staffs, Friends here in Mekelle University and
those who are away for their consistent moral and financial
support; and their great concern to my project .

TABLE OF CONTENT

Contents
page
OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................1
PART ONE.................................................................................................................................3
1. Literature...............................................................................................................................3
1.1. Conservation tillage agriculture......................................................................................3
1.1.1. Soil tillage................................................................................................................4
1.1.2. Bed-Planting Systems (Ridge-Till)........................................................................10
1.2. Draft animals/ animal traction.....................................................................................12
1.3. Soil Texture and fertilizers...........................................................................................15
1.3.1. Fertilizer Material..................................................................................................15
1.3.1.1. Fertilizer Form..................................................................................................15
1.3.1.2. Fertilizer compounds........................................................................................16
1.3.1.3. Fertilizer Placement..........................................................................................17
1.3.2. Fertilizer application techniques............................................................................17
1.3.2.1. Broadcasting.....................................................................................................17
1.3.2.2. Band or storage application..............................................................................18
1.3.2.3. Foliar application..............................................................................................19
1.3.2.4. Slurry................................................................................................................19
1.3.3. Crops type limitation on fertilizer application.......................................................19
1.4. Maize and Wheat/Barley.............................................................................................20
1.4.1. Maize.....................................................................................................................20
1.4.2. Wheat.....................................................................................................................25
1.4.3. Barley.....................................................................................................................27
1.5. Sowing and planting equipments..................................................................................30
1.5.1. Traditional Sowing Methods..................................................................................30
1.5.2. Functions of Seed-drills and Planters....................................................................31
1.5.2.1. Subsystems of Sowing and Planting Equipment...............................................31
PART TWO..............................................................................................................................34
2. Conceptual Design...............................................................................................................34
2.1. Different mechanism of metering assessed..................................................................34
2.1.1. Model A.................................................................................................................34
2.1.2. Model B.................................................................................................................35
2.1.3. Model C.................................................................................................................35
2.1.4. Model D.................................................................................................................36
2.1.5. Model E.................................................................................................................37
2.1.6. Model F..................................................................................................................37
2.2.Design matrix.................................................................................................................38

2.3. Decision and Conclusion..............................................................................................40


PART THREE..........................................................................................................................43
3. Design analysis and synthesis..............................................................................................43
3.1. Axle...............................................................................................................................43
3.2. Bearing..........................................................................................................................46
3.3. Wheel............................................................................................................................51
3.4. Power transmission.......................................................................................................60
3.5. Shaft..............................................................................................................................67
3.6. Metering discs...............................................................................................................70
3.7 Frame and compartment................................................................................................73
3.7.1. Vertical beam.........................................................................................................73
3.7.2. Horizontal beam.....................................................................................................75
3.7.3. Opener attaching beam..........................................................................................76
3.7.4. Pulling bars............................................................................................................78
3.7.5. Compartment/housing............................................................................................79
3.7.5. Collecting tubes and guiding rods.........................................................................80
3.8. Openers.........................................................................................................................81
3.8. Covering mechanism....................................................................................................84
PART FOUR............................................................................................................................87
4. Manufacturing......................................................................................................................87
4.1. Data required for production........................................................................................87
4.2. Basic requirements data mandatory for production......................................................87
4.3. Weld design and selection.............................................................................................89
4.4. Material cost analysis trial............................................................................................92
CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................94
RECOMMENDATION...........................................................................................................95
BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................................................................96

OBJECTIVES

To discus on the present and recent past situations of agricultural system technology
and alternative practices of the glob in general and in Ethiopia in particular

To conceptualize models of on line seeders make decision on designing on of the best


alternative.

To make design analysis and synthesis for components that would be incorporated in
the generalized system of the selected seeder model.

To support the design results with illustrative sketches and 3d modeling.

To prepare a clear and feasible production sheet.

ABSTRACT
The base for our enfant economy, in one or another way, is agriculture though it is not yet the
light of technology is reflected over the agricultural system of our country. Today is the right
time to launch technology through our agricultural system and be beneficial of our virgin
resources. Actually more advanced agricultural technologies, nowadays, are adopted in the
developed countries. Hence, as a result of this globalization we have two options to use them.
These are; either to import these technologies in the hardest way or adopt them to our
tradition and capacity elegantly. This project is part of the later option, which discusses the

design of inline seeder for Wheat/Barley and Maize including the general overview of
present and past pressures towards the target. In the first part of this paper the basic systems
behind this project, conservation system is described briefly, with respect to its adaptation
globally and particularly in Ethiopia. In addition some of the related topics to the seeder;
draft animals technology, soil and fertilizer conditions for wheat/Barely and maize are
notably compiled. The second part contains different models of the inline seeder main
components and scientific comparisons to find best alternative model. In the third and most
detail part every components and mechanisms are analyzed and identified to meet both
theoretical and realistic requirements. In the fourth and last part of this report the actions
towards producing feasible model seeder are forwarded with clear illustrative drawings of
each and every components of the inline seeder. Generally, this report comprises of all
necessary information and directions to the feasibility of the inline seeder existence.

PART ONE

1. Literature
1.1. Conservation tillage agriculture
The limitations of agricultural equipments has been a problem for having satisfactory outputs
from our planets limited farm inputs in general and from developing countries scarce
resources in particular. Therefore the target of this project is to find a better and adoptable
mechanism of planting crops particularly wheat and maize. As the existing natural resources
are not enough to satisfy the present human needs it is a must to follow certain scientific way
that lead to sustainable contentment. The need to planting machines is one of the measures
that are considered as todays better way to reach at more advanced and conserved
agriculture. This millennium we humankinds have launched a system that could assure our
existence, which is conservation of our natural resources. Conservation agriculture, in a
few words its defined as the management of resources in such a way as to assure that it will
continue to provide maximum benefits to human over the long run(FAO).
Though many people from different part of the world are changing their live up on efficient
use of conservation system it is hardly practicable in our country in few locations. As a result
it became essential to study its merits and demerits in reference to the glob and our
geographical situation as compared to the conventional one. Conventional "arable"
agriculture is normally based on soil tillage as the main operation. Tillage is mechanical
manipulation of soil. It includes the sequence of operations tilling, planting, harvesting,
chopping and applying pesticides and fertilizers. Conservation Agriculture, understood in this
way, provides a number of advantages on global, regional, local and farm level:

It provides a truly sustainable production system, not only conserving but also enhancing
the natural resources and increasing the variety of soil biota, fauna and flora (including
wild life) in agricultural production systems without sacrificing yields on high production
levels.

No till fields act as a sink for CO2 and conservation farming applied on a global scale
could provide a major contribution to control air pollution in general and the global
warming in special.

Soil tillage is among all farming operations the single most energy consuming and thus,
in mechanized agriculture, air-polluting operation. By not tilling the soil, farmers can
save between 30 and 40% of time, labour and, in mechanized agriculture, fossil fuels as
compared to conventional cropping

Soils under conservation agriculture have very high water infiltration capacities reducing
surface runoff and thus soil erosion significantly. This improves the quality of surface
water reducing pollution from soil erosion, and enhances groundwater resources.

The system depends on biological processes to work and thus it enhances the biodiversity
in an agricultural production system on a micro- as well as macro level.

Conservation agriculture is by no means a low output agriculture and allows yields


comparable with modern intensive agriculture but in a sustainable way.

Conservation farming is mostly attractive as it allows a reduction of the production costs,


time and labour, particularly in peak times like planting and it reduces in mechanized
systems the costs for investment and maintenance of machinery in the long term.

Disadvantages in the short term might be initially high costs of specialized planting
equipment and the completely new dynamics of a conservation farming systems, requiring
high management skills and a learning process by the farmer.

1.1.1. Soil tillage


Plowing is a two thousand year old technology and the primary objectives of tilling soil are
to prepare a seedbed and to control weeds. The term tillage is a broad generic term
embracing all operations of seedbed preparation that optimize soil and environmental
conditions for seed germination, seedling establishment and crop growth (FAO, 1995).

1.1.1.1. Types of soil tillage


A. Conventional tillage
It is the cultivation of the soil using plow, harrow and other farm tools or mechanical
implements to prepare the field for crop production.
Advantages

Destroys pests' shelters and disrupts their lifecycles.

Exposes pests to predators and unfavorable conditions

Distributes soil nutrients throughout the soil

Aerates the soil

Controls weeds

Makes other farm cultural practices easier to undertake

Disadvantages

Destroys the soil cover and its structure

Enhances soil erosion

High moisture loss

Disrupts the lifecycle of beneficial soil organisms

Needs more labor cost for the soil preparation

B. Conservation tillage
The planting or sowing in the previous crop's residues that are purposely left on the soil
surface is called conservation tillage.
Advantages

Conserves water. The mulch reduces water to evaporate.

Reduces erosion because the topsoil is protected.

Reduces soil compaction.

Protects impact from rain and wind.

Improves the soil condition with the increased organic matter content.

Natural enemies have places to stay.

Lessens the overall production cost.

Disadvantages

Needs a thorough understanding of the concept and requires careful farm


management practices to be successful.

Most soil pests populations are increased.

Weeds compete with the main crops.

High tendency of a carryover of the insect pests and diseases from the crop residues.

Organic matters are not evenly distributed or are concentrated at the topsoil.

It needs patience and waits a longer time to have an excellent soil.

1.1.1.2. Methods of conservation tillage


Zero tillage (no-till, minimum tillage, or direct seeding):- Is a system in where the
soil is not disturbed between harvesting one crop and planting the next. It is a crop
production where the soil is not traditionally tilled or cultivated although sticks or
other planting equipments are used to make the openings for seeds.
Ridge tillage: - Is a specific form of no-till wherein a new crop is planted on preformed ridges or hills or bunds from those of the previous crop. After harvest, the
crop residues are left until the planting time. The seeds are sown along the ridges.
Sticks or other farms tools are used to make the openings for seeds.
Mulch tillage (stubble mulch tillage):- Any system that ensures a maximum retention
of crop residues (30% or more) on the soil surface. The soil is prepared in such a way
that plant residues or other mulching materials are specifically left on or near the
surface of the farm.

1.1.1.3. General Situation of No-Tillage in the World

The leading countries in the world with the biggest area under no-tillage are the USA with
19 3 million hectares followed by Brazil with 11 2 million ha, Argentina with 7 3 million ha,
Canada with about 4 1 million ha, Australia with 1 million ha and Paraguay with 790 000 ha
of the technology being practiced by farmers.
Table1.1: Total area under no-tillage in different countries (hectares)
Country
USA
Brazil
Argentina
Canada
Australia
Paraguay
Mexico
Bolivia
Chile
Uruguay
Others
TOTAL

Source: 1) No-till Fanner March 1999,


2) FEBRAPDP, 1999,
3) AAPRESID, 1999
4) CTIC 1999,
5) Hebblethxaite, 1997
6) MAG - GTZ Soil Consenation
Project, 1999
7) CENAPROS, 1999,
8) Dr Patrick Wall, 1999
9) Carlos Crovetto, 1999
10) AUSID, 1999

1998/1999
19,347,000(1)
11,200,000(2)
7,270,000 (3)
4,080,000 (4)
1,000,000 (5)
790,000 (6)
500,0000 (7)
200,000 (8)
96,000
(9)
50,000 (10)
1,000,000(1)
45,533,000

Conservation tillage study results in Ethiopia

Table 1.2.Conservation tillage study for the year 1999


Treatment

Plough
(min)

Weeding
time(min)

Yield
(kg/plot)

conventional
Minimum
Strip
L.S.D(0.01)
C.V (%)

26.07a
12.753b
12.137
11.54
18.07

16
17
16.7
Ns
19.2

6.22
7.73
6.54
Ns
17.48

Table1.3.Conservation tillage study for the year 2000


Treatment

Plough
(min)

conventional 22.957a
Minimum
11.533b
Strip
7.680b

Weeding
time(min)

Yield
(kg/plot)

13.863a
22.563b
20.093ab

11.544
10.731
10.198

CV: costs that vary


Source: Second National Maize
Workshop of Ethiopia.12-16
November, 2001
APPROPRIATE CONSERVATION
TILLAGE PRACTICES FOR MAIZE
PRODUCTION UNDER
MELKASSA CONDITIONS

L.S.D
C.V (%)

6.508(0.01) 8.356(0.05) Ns
12.32
19.57
14.57

1.1.1.4. Some practical results on conservation tillage


Second National Maize Workshop of Ethiopia.12-16 November, 2001. 71
A REVIEW OF TILLAGE MANAGEMENT RESEARCH ON MAIZE IN ETHIOPIA
An experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of tied-ridges for water conservation
and the response of maize to fertilizer. The experiment was conducted to determine the
optimum nitrogen and phosphorus rates during 1992 and 1993 cropping seasons on farmers'
fields at Wonji, Boffa and Wolenchiti and the result is given in Table 4.
(Habtamu et al., 1994)
Table 1.4.Fertilizer response of maize with and without moisture conservation practice

Grain yield(kg ha-1)

Treatment
1992

1993

Mean

No fertilizer, maize planted on tied ridge

1718

1414

1566

No fertilizer, maize on flat

1551

976

1264

18 N,46P2O5(kg ha-1) maize on tied ridge

2175

1401

1788

18 N,46P2O5(kg ha-1) maize on flat

1946

1396

1671

41 N,46P2O5(kg ha-1) maize on tied ridge

2583

1449

2216

41 N,46P2O5(kg ha-1) maize on flat

2876

2046

2461

64 N,46P2O5(kg ha-1) maize on tied ridge

2367

2245

2306

64 N,46P2O5(kg ha-1) maize on flat

2221

2257

2239

LSD (5%)

251

206

186

LSD (1%)

334

74

245

CV (%)

16.2

17.5

16.8

(Worku Burayu, Tewodros Mesfin, Hussein Mohammed, Tolesa Debelle, Tesfa Bogale and
Birtukan Mekonnen EARO) In Bako, one year of results indicated that conservation tillage
significantly increased grain yield by 12.5% as compared to conventional tillage (Table1. 5).
The economic analysis of this experiment showed that the highest net benefit was obtained
from conservation tillage relative to the conventional. Sensitivity analysis also indicated that
conservation tillage remained profitable under different scenarios of maize price and
herbicide cost (Table1.6). Comparative study of tillage system and crop residue management
was conducted at Jimma in a continuously cropped maize field. The difference among tillage
systems was significant at P<0.05 level of significance. The one year of results, (Table 1.7)
indicated that conventional tillage, irrespective of residue management, gave lower yield (76
q/ha) than minimum tillage (86 q/ha).
Table1.5. Effect of tillage systems and fertilizer on grain yield of
Maize (q/ha) pooled over locations
Fertilizer
Tillage system
25% less

25%more

Recommended

Mean

Conventional

60.6

72.8

69.2

67.5a

Conservation

68.3

81.1

78.6

76.0b

Mean

64.5a

77.9b

725.9b

Means followed by same letters are not significantly different at 5%


level of the DMRT

Table1.6. Partial budget and marginal rate of return analysis for conventional and
conservation tillage system

Tillage
system

ScenarioA

Based on cost &


price of year 2000

TCV

NB

TCV

NB

ScenarioB

ScenarioC

TCV

TCV

NB

NB

Conventional 1251.0 4525.0 1251.0 3947.4 1251.0 3369.8 1251.0 1629.0


Conservation

946.6 5551.4

999.2 4889.0 1052.1 4146.3 1210.7 2038.3

TCV=total costs that vary, NB=net benefit ,


A
10% decrease in maize price and 10% increase in herbicide cost
B
20% decrease in maize price and 20% increase in herbicide cost
C
50% decrease in maize price and 50% increase in herbicide cost
Table1.7. On-farm evaluation of tillage system effects on maize grain yield (q/ha-1) in
Mana and Omonada in 2000/01
Tillage system

Mana

Omonada

Tillage
mean

Gentle

Flat

gentle

flat

Con. Rr.

67.40

73.16

79.66

84.71

76.23

Con. Rt.

63.78

77.24

80.96

84.31

76.59

Nt. Rr.

62.31

90.45

103.97

87.97

86.17

Nt. Rt.

63.16

84.70

87.55

93.43

82.21

S. mean

64.16

81.04

88.04

87.60

80.03

P< 0.05

Till = 7.43

S=7.43

TillxS= ns

Con: conventional till, Nt: no-till, Rr: residue removed, Rt: residue retained
and S: site

1.1.2. Bed-Planting Systems (Ridge-Till)


Generally looking, almost all machineries are suitable best for bed planting than traditional
corrugation. Based on this there are two types of bed planting based on the width of the bed,
which are scientifically recommend; The use of a narrow bed, 50cm to 60cm width with one
row on the bed, or the use of a wide bed 80cm to 100cm width with two rows on the bed.
Nevertheless farmers have adopted these methods to include three or four rows. The use of
permanent beds reduced cost of production and long turn-around time with more economic
gains. Generally, bed planting, as compared to the conventional corrugation method provides
the following importance:
1) Facilitates irrigation before seeding and thus more time for weed control before planting.
2) Plant stands are better.
3) Weeds can be controlled mechanically, between the beds, early in the crop cycle.
4) Herbicide dependence is reduced and hand weeding and rouging are easier.
5) Beds provide better drainage and result in less water logging damage to wheat.
Conservation tillage and Bed planting
The following result reveals the advantage of using bed system with the help of bed planters.
Table1.8.Comparison of yield and yield parameter between bed system and conventional

Parameter

wheat

Mungbean

Maize

Bed
system

Con. system

Bed
system

Con.
system

Bed
system

Con.
system

Seed rate(kg/ha)

100

120-150

30

35

20

20

Depth of seed
placement(cm)

3-4

2-6

2-3

3-4

3-4

Plant population
( per m2)

231

305

30

50

Yield (t/ha)

4.7

3.8

0.60

0.4-0.5

8.0

6.0

Source: Power tiller operated bed planter for improved crop establishment and yields for
small landholder (CIMMYT-wheat research center)
Yield of wheat, maize and mungbean on beds were comparatively 19-23 % higher than that
of conventional (Table 8). Bed system facilitated border effect to wheat and mungbean. The
planter can be used for reshape the bed for next crop and seeding operation can also be done
as no tillage condition.
The strong interest of practicing conservation tillage systems has begat the need to see closer
to agricultural implements like seeders. As far as conservation tillage system is needed there
should be a way to get and use necessary farm machineries. Generally, under the conservation
tillage system the following advantages are achievable by use of proper farm equipments:

Reduced operation time; time for tilling, planting, harvesting, chopping or shredding and
applying pesticides and fertilizers.

Less man power requirement.

Proper use of inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, that saves finance.

Increased yield and quality of products as a result of controlled operation.

Good environmental protection; reduced use of chemicals since mechanical weed control
is possible.

High efficiency during critical seasons of tilling, planting and harvesting operations.

Though using farm machineries is profitable with many respects, the following few
limitations are enough to hinder its feasibility. These are:

The high initial cost.

Effectiveness under different climates and social life.

The time taken between break down and maintenance.

Availability of spare parts with affordable cost.

The knowledge and energy required for maintenance.

1.2. Draft animals/ animal traction


In many par of the world animal traction is an appropriate, affordable and sustainable
technology. Work animals can be used to reduce drudgery and intensify agricultural
production, so rising living standards through out rural communities, benefiting men and
woman, young and old. Cattle buffaloes, donkeys, mules, horses, camel and other working
animals can provide smallholder farmers with vital power for crop cultivation and transport.
Draft animals can also be used for other activities including water raising, milling, logging,
land leveling and road construction.
Ethiopia has had generations of experience of using draft animals. Work oxen and pack
donkeys have been part of Ethiopian farming system for centuries. Farmers cultivate with
pair of oxen, using a withers yoke and a long- beam maresha ard plow. The use of cows or
bulls is most unusual, and oxen are seldom used to pull carts. Large numbers of pack
donkeys are used in Ethiopia particularly in the high land areas. They carry fuel wood,
building materials, fodder for animals and goods for marketing. Carts pulled by horses,
donkeys, mules are used in some towns.
Table1.9 Advantages and disadvantages of various animal types for animal traction
CATTLE

HORSES

DONKEYS

MULES

CAMELS

A
D
V
A
N
T
A
G
E
S

-high
endurance
-use of simple
harness

-more rapid pace

-low purchasing price

-intelligent

-low fodder and


husbandry demand

-high prestige value

-high endurance and


draft power in relation
to body weight

-low fodder
demands
-multiple use
possible

-docile spirit

( meat, milk)

-well adopted to
semiarid locations

-simpler
training

easy guiding under


harness

-low fodder
and husbandry
demand

-well adapted to
arid and semiarid
locations

-resistant
constitution

-low water
requirement

-high draft
power

-rapid walking
pace

-sure footed

-multiple use
possible

-rapid pace

(milk, wool)

-very resistant(disease)
-sure footed

D
I
S
A
D
V
A
N
T
A
G
E
S

-slow pace

-higher price

-low status value

-higher price

-slow reproduction

-draft cow:
-low draft
power,
working time
loss during
time of calving

-demand of high
quality fodder

-low absolute draft


power

-not fecund

-high husbandry
demands

-susceptible to harness
sores

-inappropriate
draft angle due to
high of animal

-complex harnessing
required

-no slaughtering value

-not appropriate for


low altitudes
-no slaughtering
value

-no
slaughtering
value

-poor guiding and


maneuverability

Table 1.10. Assessments of force, speed and power.

Country

Animal

Condition

Implement

Ethiopia

250-320 kg
Ethiopian
zebu
oxen(pair)

Farmers fields
after
long fallow
short fallow
Farmers fields.
Nutrition levels:
Normal
Underfed

Maresha ard
plough

Normal
underfed

Single oxen:
zebu
309 kg
302 kg
Boran x zebu
375 kg
465 kg

Force
(N)

Speed
(m/s)

Power
(W)

1195
928

0.35
0.35

424
510

Maresha ard
plough depth:
13.9 cm
13.9 cm

590
600

0.5
0.5

300
310

14.6 cm
14.6 cm

660
710

0.5
0.5

330
360

And the other data that describe the animals condition, force, work-rate and force per weight
of the animal is given as follows.
Table1.11. Assessments of force, work-rate and force per weight of animal in Ethiopia

Animal

Condition

Implement

250-320 kg
Ethiopian zebu
oxen(pair)

Farmers fields
after
long fallow
short fallow

Maresha ard
plough

Single oxen:
Ethiopian zebu
300 kg
Boran x zebu
375-465 kg

Maresha ard
Farmers fields. plough depth:
13.9 cm
14.6 cm

Source: Draft animals technology (5)

Force
(N)

Work
(m2n-1)

Work
(m2d-1)

1195
928

199
222

424
510

595

220

920

685

242

998

force
x100
weight

23% 17%

20%
24%

1.3 Soil Texture and fertilizers


Soil texture refers to the percentage of sand, silt, or clay in the soil. Coarse texture soils,
loamy sand or sandy loam, contain a high proportion of sand. Fine texture soils, clay loam or
clay; contain a high proportion of clay. Medium texture soils, loam and silt loam, contain a
higher proportion of silt.
Soil texture influences the amount of fertilizer that can be applied with the seed at planting in
two ways. Texture determines (1) the amount of water retained by the soil and (2) the cat ion
exchange capacity (CEC) or the ability of the soil to adsorb the damaging ammonia ions
(NH3) released by nitrogen fertilizers. Coarse texture soils have low water retention and low
CEC, so seed germination damage will be greater on these soils, for the same fertilizer rate
than fine texture soils that have high water retention and high moisture contents.

1.3.1. Fertilizer Material


Nitrogen fertilizer is manufactured as dry granular materials (ammonium nitrate or urea
being the most common forms), liquid materials (aqua ammonia or nitrogen solutions) and
gas (anhydrous ammonia). Granular materials remain and react close to the area where
placed. If the granular material is adequately mixed with the soil, the germination damage is
minimized. Liquid and especially gaseous materials will move farther in the soil from the
point of placement.

1.3.1.1. Fertilizer Form


Fertilizers can damage the seed in two ways. The first, and most serious, way that fertilizers
damage the seed is by specific toxicity. For most N fertilizers, ammonia (NH3) toxicity is the
largest factor that causes seed damage. The second way is by salt damage. All commercial
fertilizers dissolve in water and make the soil solution saltier near the point of application.
Fertilizers like potassium chloride and ammonium nitrate can injure the seed by the salt
effect.

Urea fertilizer has the next highest potential to lower seed germination. Although urea is not
an ammonium fertilizer when applied in the granular form, it quickly hydrolyzes to
ammonium carbonate in the presence of the urease enzyme commonly found in soil.
Ammonium nitrate has the least potential for damaging seed because this granular material
contains both ammoniums (50 percent) and nitrate (50 percent). The nitrate nitrogen form, in
comparison to the ammonia, has less effect on seed germination.
Liquid nitrogen materials are non pressure solutions that contain mixtures of water,
ammonium nitrate, urea and ammonia. Liquids contain no free NH3 and generally have lower
potential for germination damage, but this depends on the proportion of each fertilizer form
in the solution and their respective reaction in the soil.
At high application rates of fertilizer with the seed, the salt injury or "burn" can contribute to
germination damage. Fertilizers increase the salt content in the soil solution, which
influences the osmotic pressure, which in effect causes water movement from a lower to a
higher salt concentration. Water moves out of the seed to the fertilizer pellet, actually drying
out the seed and causing "burn" which lowers germination.
As higher rates of fertilizer are applied with the seed at planting, the salt effect, in addition to
the NH3 effect, becomes a more important factor in determining the amount of germination
damage.

1.3.1.2. Fertilizer compounds


N: A mixture of ammonium and nitrate forms seems to be preferred, though all commonly
available forms will perform well if properly applied.
P: Soluble sources including triple super phosphate or ammoniated phosphates perform well.
Rock phosphate is not particularly effective since the crop grows best at pH > 5.7.
K: Potassium chloride is the most economic source unless the soil is deficient in sulphur, in
which case potassium sulphate can be used to provide both K and S.

S, Micronutrients, Agricultural and industrial wastes are other forms

1.3.1.3. Fertilizer Placement


The distance the fertilizer is placed from the seed can have a tremendous effect on the rate of
fertilizer placed with the seed at planting. Fertilizer placed in a narrow band in direct contact
with the seed will have the greatest potential for damage. Damage decreases as the
distance from the seed is increased.
This is partially related to seed utilization, since greater soil-seed-fertilizer mixing action
occurs as the seed and fertilizer is spread out. The area of fertilizer release will have an effect
on placement and mixing of fertilizer in the soil. If the fertilizer is in the same flow pattern as
the seed, little mixing occurs unless a spread pattern is employed. However, if the fertilizer is
released separate from the seed, to the side, below or behind the seed, greater soil mixing will
occur, reducing the potential for fertilizer damage. Type of fertilizer material (granular,
liquid, or gas) can also affect the desired distance fertilizer is placed from the seed.

1.3.2. Fertilizer application techniques


1.3.2.1. Broadcasting
-This calls for a sufficiently dry soil to permit the use of tractors and spreaders but
nevertheless enough soil moisture for adequate nutrient uptake by the roots from the soil
solution. These conflicting requirements could be overcome by the use of aircraft, but still a
rather expensive method. Mostly, however, the actual date of fertilizer application fails to
coincide with the optimum for nutrient uptake. Another difficulty is that P and K - and N
when applied in form of urea - should always be incorporated into the soil, normally before
sowing; but such incorporation, by aerating the top soil, results in a loss of moisture and of
humus. Particular attention must be given to absolute uniformity of N fertilizer distribution.
Evenness of distribution depends mainly on the physical quality of the fertilizer (granule size
distribution, specific weight and surface characteristics).

1.3.2.2. Band or storage application


- If it is desired to make fertilizer nutrients available only in those parts of the field which are
actually covered by the wheat or maize plants at till ring, band application is recommended.
High nutrient concentration will then prevail in those particular areas, which may be used as
long-lasting. Fertilizer depots because neither the roots nor the soil organisms will penetrate
to the centre of the high concentrated zones and only their outer surfaces are exploited. This
method is especially suited to nutrient-deficient and strongly nutrient fixing soils.

The

following

conditions must be
fulfilled in all cases
where the "fertilizer depot" method is to be used:

The amount of nutrient stored must supply the crop's total demand;

The outer surface areas of the depots must be of an appropriate size to minimize both
immobilization and leaching loss;

Placement should be at least 4 cm beside the seed or, even better, about 2.5 cm beside
and 2.5 cm below the seed;

In dry areas, placement can be up to 15 cm deep;

The depots should not be spaced more than 39 cm apart;

The amount of nutrient stored should not exceed 100 kg/ha.

The fertilizers generally used are anhydrous ammonia, aqueous ammonia and easily soluble
P- or NP/NPK-fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia should only be used where nitrification is low
and where the winter precipitation is almost equal to the water holding-capacity of the soil; a
nitrification inhibitor should be added.

1.3.2.3. Foliar application

- The advantage of foliar application is the direct uptake of nutrients into the metabolism of
the plant tissues. Thus, with a very low consumption of energy for transportation within the
plant, the uptake is virtually independent of environmental factors such as soil moisture. The
disadvantage is the limited amount that can be applied at one time, due to the risk of leaf
burn; but this is of less concern provided proper attention is paid to the relevant limits of
concentration, especially when there are a number of split dressings. Another advantage is
the opportunity to combine fertilizer application with that of pesticides and growth
regulators, in many cases with beneficial synergistic effects.

1.3.2.4. Slurry
Application of slurry to cereals causes great problems. Autumn application without added
nitrification inhibitors may result in a large loss of nitrate by leaching, due to the limited
uptake by the young crop. Application on frozen ground, while not harming the crop, may
cause environmental problems. Spreaders with oversized tyres (to reduce pressure on the
soil), applying the slurry through drag hoses, may be used for spring top dressing, provided
tramlines" have been laid down at sowing.

1.3.3. Crops type limitation on fertilizer application


The amount of germination damage caused by application of fertilizer with the seed at
planting depends somewhat on the crop species. Some crop seeds are more sensitive to NH3
and salt injury as a result of their size, seed coat type, and water content.
Limited information is available on how specific crop seeds react to fertilizer applications
with the seed. In general, small grain crops (wheat, barley and oats) are able to tolerate
higher rates of N fertilizer with the seed than corn or soybeans, which are more sensitive.

1.4. Maize and Wheat/Barley


1.4.1. Maize
USA: Corn; French: Mais; Spanish: Maiz; Italian: Mais; German: Mais

Crop data

Annual harvested part: grain, used for human and livestock consumption. Lesser amounts are
grown for harvest of the entire above-ground plants at physiological maturity to be made into
silage for animal feed. In some areas, after the grain has been harvested the remainder is cut
and used for animal feed. Yellow dent is primarily used for livestock feed, white dent is used
primarily for production of meal and cereals for human consumption. Other dent lines have
been bred for special purposes: e.g. waxy maize for production of amyl pectin starch, high
lysine maize for use in pig feed, high oil maize for production of vegetable oil for human
consumption. Flint corns are grown in Central and South America, Asia and Southern
Europe. Sweet corn was developed to be harvested in an immature stage for human
consumption. Popcorn is used primarily for human consumption as freshly popped or other
snack food items.
Adapted to a wide range of climates, the crop is mostly grown between latitudes 30 and 55,
principally in latitudes below 47. In most areas it is sown in early spring but, due to its wide
adaptation, it flowers at different times depending on the cultivar selected. Developed to take
advantage of the length of growing season available, some will mature as soon as 60 days
after emergence while others require over 40 weeks.
Plant densities vary considerably around the world, depending on cultivar and climate. In the
more arid areas, densities as low as 15 000/ha can be found and 25 000/ha are common, but
in humid or irrigated areas populations in excess of 75 000/ha give optimum production.
The crop will do well on any soil with adequate drainage to allow for the maintenance of
sufficient oxygen for good root growth and activity, and enough water-holding capacity to
provide adequate moisture throughout the growing season. Preferred pH 6.0-7.2: the amount
of associated evapo-transpiration varies with plant density, crop age, and available soil water,
atmospheric conditions, etc., from an estimated 0.20-0.25 cm/day for young plants to 0.48
cm/day for plants in the reproductive phase.
It is a warm weather crop, doing best when temperatures in the warm months range from 21
to 27 C. It does not do well when the mean summer temperature is below 19 C.

Table1.10

Table1.11

Table1.12. Plant analytical data

Table1.13

Table1.14

Fertilizer recommendations
Each of the following factors must be carefully integrated when determining the optimum
rate for a particular field or part of a field:
- Yield potential.
Previous 5-year average yield plus 5 % is suggested as a basis for estimation, but, if fertilizer
is applied post-emergence, adjustment may be made for delay in planting or inadequate
stand.
- Previous crop.

Research has shown that maize will produce better when grown in rotation with another crop,
especially a legume, probably as a result of diminished incidence of pests and diseases,
reduction of the negative effect of continuous maize cropping, and a contribution of N from
the legume. While much of the disadvantage of growing maize after maize can be overcome
by applying N fertilizer, it is not possible to apply enough N to eliminate completely the yield
difference between rotational and continuous maize.
- Timing.
Uptake of over half the N and P and 80 % of the K is accomplished before the crop reaches
the reproductive stage. It is therefore imperative that an adequate supply of these major
nutrients be available to the plants early and remains available throughout the growing
season. Even though only small amounts are taken up early in the season, high concentrations
should be available in the root zone as the root system is small at that time and the soil is
often cold.
N must be applied annually. Since it is subject to loss by leaching or denitrification, it is best
applied near the time of crop need. On finer textured soils, silt loam or heavier, it is best
applied as a pre-plant or side dressing; on coarse textured soils where leaching can be a
problem, N is best applied as a side dressing or split application. If the crop is irrigated, 5060 % pre-plant plus the rest through the irrigation system is an effective technique. There is
much greater flexibility in the time of application of P and K since they are relatively
immobile. On many soils they may be broadcast either in the fall or spring with similar
results, except on sandy soils where there is a possibility that the K might be leached out of
the rooting zone (K should then be applied just before planting).
- Method of application.
On fields where the soil fertility status is at or above the desired level, there is little evidence
to show any significant difference in yield associated with different methods of application.
In contrast, on soils with a low nutrient status or a high P-fixing capacity, placement of the
fertilizer within a concentrated band has been shown to result in higher yields, particularly at

low rates of application. On higher-testing soils, although yield differences are unlikely, plant
recovery of fertilizer nutrients in the year of application will usually be greater from a band
placed 5 cm to the side and 5 cm below the seed than when broadcast.
Placement of fertilizer directly with the seed is sometimes referred to as "pop-up", but this is
a misnomer as the crop does not emerge any sooner and may indeed emerge 1-2 days later
than without such application. If used, pop-up fertilizer should contain all three major
nutrients in the proportions N: P2O5:K2O=1:4:2. Under normal moisture conditions, the
maximum safe amount of N + K2O for placement directly with the seed is 12-15 kg/ha in 100
cm rows and correspondingly more in closer rows. In excessively dry springs, even these low
rates may result in reduced germination and/or damage to seedlings.
Present fertilizer recommendations/practices
Good example India
N: 100-125 kg/ha N as urea, split into three applications.
P: 60 kg/ha P2O5, as processed phosphates applied mostly at sowing.
K: 30 kg/ha K2O, as potassium chloride applied mostly at sowing.

1.4.2. Wheat
USA: Wheat; French: Bl; Spanish: Trigo; Italian: Frumento; German: Weizen

Wheat is the world's most important cereal crop in terms of both area cultivated (232 million
ha) and amount of grain produced (595 million t). It is widely grown throughout the
temperate zones (in Northern Europe up to 60 N) and in some tropical/sub-tropical areas at
higher elevations. The major centres are: Europe (131 million t grain, 27 million ha), the
former USSR (108 million t grain, 48 million ha), North America (106 million t grain, 42
million ha), China (96 million t grain, 30 million ha) and India (50 million t grain, 23 million
ha). All these figures relate to 1990. The following information is mainly for T. aestivum,
though also generally valid for T. durum. Special data for durum wheat are given as an
appendix to this end of chapter.

Crop data
-Annual, autumn-sown (winter wheat) and spring sown types.
-Harvested products: grain, straw, (occasionally) whole green plant.
-Desired characteristics affecting fertilizer requirement:
-In grain for milling for bread and pasta: high endosperm-protein: In grain for malting and
brewing: high starch, low crude protein, absence of sprouting.
-For animal feed: high protein especially lysine.
-For industrial starch: high starch concentration with slow starch ripening, high endospermprotein.
-For alcohol production: high starch content, low crude protein.
-Straw for litter and bedding: should be dry and absorbent.
-Straw for cellulose and for pasteboard: high starch, low lignin, low ash.
-Straw for constructional insulation: should be dry and of low bulk density.
-Whole plant for green fodder: high protein, high energy.
-Whole plant for silage: high concentration of easily soluble carbohydrates
The quality of the protein in the grain depends largely on the variety. The protein/starch ratio
in the grain depends both on the variety and on the way in which the crop has matured.

Preferred soils and soil conditions: Wheat (like barley) generally prefers the more fertile
soils, but it can be grown on practically all types except very light sandy soils or peat soils, so
long as the water requirement can be met and the nutrient demand is met by appropriate use
of fertilizers.
Sowing times: Winter wheat should be sown timely enough to get at least two leaves before
the onset of the vegetative rest period. The available growth time for tilling should be at least
21 days. Provided the ground is sufficient, spring wheat should be sown as soon as
temperature and soil moisture permit.

Present fertilizer practices


India
Irrigated timely-sown crop
- Under assured irrigation
N: 80-120 kg/ha N, depending on previous crop
P: 40-60 kg/ha P2O5
K: Based on soil test result
- Under limited irrigation
N: 60 kg/ha N
P: 30 kg/ha P2O5
K: Based on soil test result
Half the N and all the P and K are applied at or before sowing; P should be placed 5 cm
below the seed. The remaining half of the N is top-dressed at the first irrigation. N and P rates
are adjusted according to soil test results.
Irrigated late-sown crop
N: 60-80 kg/ha N
P: 40-50 kg/ha P2O5
K: Based on soil test results
All N, P and K are applied at sowing; rates are adjusted according to soil test results
1.4.3. Barley
French: Ogre, escourgeon (winter barley); Spanish: Cebada; Italian: Orzo; German: Gerste

Crop data
-Annual, winter- and spring-sown types; ears 2- or multiple-rowed; grains generally with
glumes.
-Harvested products: grain, straw, (occasionally) whole green plant.
-Desired characteristics affecting fertilizer requirement:
-In grain for livestock feed: high crude protein, especially lysine. In grain for processing for
use in human foodstuffs: high-protein endosperm, lack of excrescences, low husk content.
-In grain for malting: high starch, low crude protein, lack of excrescences.
-Straw for bedding: should be dry, absorbent material.
-Whole green plant for forage: high crude protein and energy, smooth glumes.
Sowing times: Winter varieties should have completed tilling before the vegetative rest
period, i.e. normally within 45 days (of real growth) from emergence. On the other hand,
excessive early development of biomass is undesirable as it reduces winter hardiness.
Spring varieties should be sown as early as practicable, when temperature, moisture and
other soil conditions permit.
Plant density: sowing rates for 2-rowed types are within the range of 320 - 365 grains/m 2 (at
a desired optimum ear density of 700 - 800 ears/m2). With multiple-rowed winter barley the
following model calculation may serve as a guide:
Expected yield = 9 t/ha; required ear density = 600 ears/m 2. With an estimated germination
rate of 95 %, an over-wintering rate of 85 % and 2.7 ears per plant, the seeding rate should be
280 grains/m2 (see also 2.3 Wheat).

Yield structure: The next table shows the (relative) changes of yield components in
correlation to varying amounts of plant available water; assuming that water supply is the
primary yield-determining factor in cereals:
Table1.15

The grain yield of barley is related to the amount of water consumption, which increases
over-proportionally with increasing yield; the same is true of N uptake. If maximum
utilization of water and applied nutrients is required for optimum grain yield, then the ratio of
the number of plants per unit area to the number of ears per plant must be optimized; thus the
crop should tiller heavily. This can be influenced, depending on water and N supply, by
application of N. Depending on the quantity and timing of N application, around 250 l water
per kg grain yield may be needed, the coefficient of productive tilling (ear-bearing tillers /
total tillers) ranging between 0.39 and 0.60.
As shown in the figure it is not as important in barley as in wheat to control the uniformity of
different orders of tillers. Unproductive tilling (caused for example by a too high or too late
N fertilization in spring) should, however, be avoided.

Fertilizer recommendations

The same principles apply as for wheat, but the exact timing of split applications of N is
more critical, especially for winter barley.
Owing to the greater tendency of barley to lodge, as compared with wheat, stem stabilizers
are being used in intensive growing systems. As chlormequat by itself does not give
sufficient reduction in stem length, a combination of chlormequat chloride and etephon is
favored, with etephon alone being used for late applications.

Fertilizer practice
India
- Irrigated:
60 kg/ha N, 30 kg/ha P2O5
-Half of the N and all P before or at sowing, the remaining N top-dressed at the first
irrigation.
-Rainfed: 30 kg/ha N, 20 kg/ha P2O5
Both N and P application is before or at sowing. P should be placed 5 cm below the seed;
application rates are adjusted according to soil test results.

1.5. Sowing and planting equipments


The basic objective of sowing operation is to put the seed and fertilizer in rows at desired
depth and seed to seed spacing, cover the seeds with soil and provide proper compaction over
the seed. The recommended row to row spacing, seed rate, seed to seed spacing and depth of
seed placement vary from crop to crop and for different agro-climatic conditions to achieve
optimum yields.

1.5.1. Traditional Sowing Methods


Traditional methods include broadcasting manually, opening furrows by a country plough
and dropping seeds by hand, and dropping seeds in the furrow through a bamboo/metal
funnel attached to a plough. For sowing in small areas dibbling i.e., making holes or slits by a
stick or tool and dropping seeds by hand, is practiced. Multi-row traditional seeding devices
with manual metering of seeds are quite popular with experienced farmers. Traditional
sowing methods have following limitations;
In manual seeding, it is not possible to achieve uniformity in distribution of seeds. A
farmer may sow at desired seed rate but inter-row and intra-row distribution of seeds is
likely to be uneven resulting in bunching and gaps in field.
Poor control over depth of seed placement.
It is necessary to sow at high seed rates and bring the plant population to desired level by
thinning.
Labour requirement is high because two persons are required for dropping seed and
fertilizer.
The effect of inaccuracies in seed placement on plant stand is greater in case of crops
sown under dry farming conditions.
During hand sowing, placement of seeds at uneven depth may result in poor emergence
because subsequent rains bring additional soil cover over the seed and affect plant
emergence.

1.5.2. Functions of Seed-drills and Planters


The functions of a well-designed seed drill or planter are as follows:
i. Meter seeds of different sizes and shapes;
ii. Place the seed in the acceptable pattern of distribution in the field;
iii. Place the seed accurately and uniformly at the desired depth in the soil; and
iv. Cover the seed and compact the soil around it to enhance germination and emergence

1.5.2.1. Subsystems of Sowing and Planting Equipment


Improved seed-cum-fertilizer drills are provided with seed and fertilizer boxes, metering
mechanism, furrow openers, covering devices, frame, ground drive system and controls for
variation of seed and fertilizer rates. The major difference in different designs of seed
drills/planters is in type of seed and fertilizer metering and furrow openers. Details of these
devices are as follows:
Seed Metering Devices
Metering mechanism is the heart of sowing machine and its function is to distribute seeds
uniformly at the desired application rates. In planters it also controls seed spacing in a row. A
seed drill or planter may be required to drop the seeds at races varying across wide range.
Common type of metering devices used on seed drills and planters are:
A. DIBBLING STICK
The dibbling stick is a simple manually operated device for creating
a conical cavity in the soil for sowing of seeds. It consists of a
wooden round stick with one end having a sheet metal cone. The
other .end is provided with a handgrip. For its operation, the dibbling
stick is held in vertical position and the conical end is pressed into
the seedbed to the desired depth. This action creates a conical cavity
in the soil in which the seed is placed. The conical end fitted in
wooden stick is made from mild steel sheet.
B. DIBBLER

The hand dibbler is made from mild steel flat or leaf spring by
forging operation. The working end is flattened and edge made sharp
for easy penetration in the soil. The cutting edge of the tool made
from spring steel is hardened and tempered to desired hardness. The
other end serves as a tang for fitting handle. The tool is used in
squatting position by pushing/striking the cutting edge in the soil.
C. ROTARY DIBBLER
The rotary dibbler is a manually operated push type device for
dibbling of medium and bold size seeds. It consists of a rotating
dibbling head with penetrating jaws, covering-cum-transport wheel,
seed hopper with cell type wooden roller and a handle. Except seed
roller, which is made of good quality wood, all the other parts are
fabricated from mild steel. The number of jaws varies from five to
eight among various designs, depending upon seed to seed distance.
For its operation, the hopper is filled with seeds and transport-cum
covering wheel is drawn to rear side. The dibbler is then pushed forward in the direction of
travel with covering cum transport wheel behind the dibbling head. The jaws penetrate into
the soil and automatically drop the seeds. The seed to seed distance depends upon size of the
polygon plate to which jaws are attached.
D. POWER TILLER OPERATED TILL PLANT MACHINE
This machine has been specially designed for operation with a
power tiller of 10-12 hp to carry out simultaneous tilling and
planting operation in a single pass. It can plant two rows
simultaneously. It is provided with a pair of depth control gauge
wheels, which also serve to activate the metering mechanism. Some of its major components
are the main frame, seed and fertilizer boxes, metering mechanism, transport wheel, furrow

openers, hitch system etc. It is suitable for sowing seeds of wheat, soybean, Bengal gram,
sorghum etc in medium and heavy soil.
Other Animal Drawn and Power Driven planting and Wedding Equipments

LOW COST SEED DRILL

ANIMAL DRAWN WEEDER

BULLOCK DRAWN SEEDER

ANIMAL DRAWN AUTOMATIC


SUGARCANE PLANTER

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEED AND FERTILIZER DRILL

PART TWO
2. Conceptual Design
This is the stage where the feature of the inline seeder is pre set as a stepping stone for the
rest of the design process. Here, many alternatives and different features are discussed,
compared and specified based on geometrical consideration and expected mechanical,
ergonomic and aesthetic requirements.
Definitely the main concern of the design of
seeder is to find a simple, with easy
manufacturability and low cost method of
metering seed grains and fertilizer so that to
meet a specific requirement. Hence the
following are some of the competitive
mechanisms anticipated to meet the quality
and feature needed.

2.1. Different mechanism of metering assessed


Model A: - spring loaded sliding meters reciprocated by circular discs

2.1.1.

with circumferential extrusion at adjusted space.

1-Disc, 2-Shaft, 3-Slider,


4-Spring end,
5-compartment

Fig2.1.Spring loaded metering mechanism (rotating shaft):


a) Whole system during opening and closing

b) Variable face disc (a disc with extrusions)


Mechanism is by use of variable face discs that are attached to the axle of the seeder and
sliders spring loaded at one end, and attached to the compartment base. Whenever the
unloaded end of the slider gets the extrusions on the rotating disc, the slider will be subjected
to axial motion thereby it lines the hole on it to the hole on the compartment base and allows
the seed grains drop across from the compartment to collecting tube then to the opener end.
2.1.2.

Model B: -spring loaded single slider with many holes that are
reciprocated by the hub of the wheel.

This is similar mechanism as the above except in this model the shaft will be fixed with the
compartment and metering is then by the reciprocating motion of a long metallic strip(slider)
this has proper holes to allow seed and fertilizer pass through. The strip is spring loaded at
one end and reciprocates as a result of contact with extrusions which are at the wheel hub.

Fig2.2.Spring loaded single slider metering mechanism (fixed shaft)


a)

At opened condition, and

b)

At closed condition.

2.1.3.

Model C: -metering cylinders attached with a rotating shaft, and with two
rows of holes at specified spacing for allowing seed and fertilizer grains pass
across.

1-Compartment, 2-Cylinderical meter, 3-shaft, 4- Holes for seed and fertilizer


Fig2.3. Cylindrical seed and fertilizer metering
This mechanism is more realistic and it is dependent on gravitational flow of grains as in the
above models but here the shaft is more the heart of the metering system; it will be coupled
with one or more metering cylinders. A seed and/or fertilizer grain drops due to gravitational
force to the collecting tube, which will be fixed to the compartment wall, whenever they get a
hole that allow them pass through.

Model D: -grooved solid disc driven by the hubs of the wheel using belt

2.1.4.

connection.

Figure2.4. Grooved solid disc


This mechanism uses cylindrical discs provided with circumferential grooves. Part of a disc
is placed in the compartment and the rest is protected by a casing. The discs are attached to a
rotating shaft, which is driven by belt coupling from the hub of the wheel. The grooved parts

of the disc, on its way through the compartment collects some amount of grains and transport
them to the collecting funnel beneath it.

Model E: -a slider mechanism driven by magnetic strips attached to a

2.1.5.

rotating shaft at specified positions.


1-Magnetic strips
2-spring loaded metallic plate

Figure2.5. Magnetic shaft


In this mechanism magnetic strips are incorporated to a rotating shaft and a spring loaded
metallic strip is attached to the base of the compartment hence the opening and closing
mechanism is by magnetic force attraction of the strip towards the shaft whenever it closes
the incorporated magnet.

Model F: -a rotating splined shaft or a splined disc attached to a rotating

2.1.6.
shaft.

This is similar mechanism to the grooved mechanism except that the in this case the
grooves are perfect splines and the adjusting of the spline for different sized seeds is by
coupling it to an external sleeve and controlling the part of the spline that will meat the
sleeve.

2.2. Design matrix


This is a system of finding good alternatives among many model solutions for a particular
problem. There are different types of Design Matrices that are used to make systematic
decisions on choosing best alternatives of given two or more alternative designs. The
following method is selected so that to help reach at the best decision. This method has been
adopted to meet the case of the inline seeder. Besides, the functional requirements or weights
are selected to suit to expectation to physical, mechanical and environmental fitness of the
seeder. Generally, there are six basic alternatives investigated so far concerning the inline
seeder in general and the seed metering unit in particular.
Key

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

very poor, very small, very few, very difficult,


poor, small, few, low, difficult
acceptable, average, normal
good, high, large, possible
excellent, very high

Each requirement is taken out of five. For example, the one with value higher for a
given requirement means it responds positive than other s for that specified requirement.
And a lower value represents drawbacks for that requirement.

Table2.1. Matrix comparisons of alternative models for metering seeds

No. Function
requirements
Physical
requirements
-Average size of
components
- Less number of
components
-Complexity
-Weight
-Operability
2
Mechanical
requirements
-Wear failure
avoidance
-Fatigue and creep
failure prevention
-Corrosion failure
avoidance
-Deflection, buckling
and jerk avoidance
-Reliability
-Durability
-Stability
3
Materials
requirements
-Strength
-Availability
-Affordability
-Manufacturability
-Maintainability
Total positive weight for
each model
Percentage weight of each
model

Model designations
A

1
3
1

1
3
2

3
4
4

4
3
4

2
3
3

2
3
3

3
3
4

3
3
4

3
4
4

3
3
2

4
3
2

3
4
4

3
3
3
3
3
45

3
3
3
3
3
46

3
4
4
4
3
56

3
4
3
2
4
55

3
1
1
2
2
46

3
2
3
1
2
49

52.9% 54.1% 65.9% 64.7% 54.1% 57.6%

2.3. Decision and Conclusion


Comparing the above six main and more other, that are not discussed, concepts of obtaining
mechanism for metering seeds and fertilizer in many directions especially based on
mechanical properties and cost effectiveness; the selection of the feature in type C,
mechanism with grooved disc meters is beneficial and viable decision. Some of the
drawbacks of this model of mechanism are expected to get remedies in the design analysis
phase with considerations and through good search of suitable alternatives.
More of compromising and realistic tasks are going to be comprehensively covered in the
design analysis and synthesis phase. However, to have clear idea on the following point is
unavoidable.
These are:
1. What part of the society will use it? Definitely, farmers who have less art and potential
to use advanced equipments are the target.
2. What mechanisms to be used to satisfy the need of the user? The mechanism to be
adopted, as described above is the one with a cylindrical metering part with a rotating
shaft.
3. What different components should the seeder expected to have so that to implement the
above mechanism?
Some of the main components are:
a) Shaft. May be either solid or hollow.

b) Bearing. Either sliding or rolling type.

c) Wheel. Can be of metallic or wooden.

a) Metallic wheel

b) wheel made of wood and metal hub

d) Compartment. For accommodating seed as well as fertilizer.

e) Metering disc. Can be made of wood, plastic or metal.

f) Bar for attaching openers and covering unit . This may be made of wood or
metal.

g) Openers, covering and compacting tools.

h) Standard bolts, nuts, screws, keys, pines etc.

CHAPTER THREE
3. Design analysis and synthesis
In the preceding phase many alternatives are given as a solution to the design of inline
seeder. In particular, about six different metering mechanisms are discussed and compared to
each other with various reference points. Actually these comparisons and descriptions are not
completely realistic as well as that method of selection is more of logical than theoretical.
However, it has claimed that the decision made on the previous phase is base for more
scientific and engineered analysis that should be done in this phase.
So far one mechanism expected to be best is selected with briefly satisfactory reasons. Now
the selected model should be analyzed with respect to mechanical requirements such as;
strength, durability, resistance to failure due to wear, corrosion, fatigue, creep, deflection etc.
As shown and described in the conceptual design phase the wheel of the seeder is the heart
element to the whole mechanism of metering and placing seed cum fertilizer grains,
therefore; it is vital to start the design analysis from this component on wards.

3.1. Axle

Assumptions

The axle is analyzed as a cantilever beam.

The maximum distance between the wheel center and the vertical frame is assumed to
be that of in the belt connecting side. Which is taken l=50mm.

The maximum resultant force on the axle is assumed to be the resultant of the vertical
weight and the horizontal traction forces.
F
R

W2 F2

(3.1)

Where: - the maximum weight expected is W=50 Kg


-And the maximum horizontal traction force is taken to be the pulling force of two
Ethiopian zebu oxen at about 0.4 m/s speed. That is F=1191 N. (literature)
Material
Basically, materials used for axle/shaft should have the following core properties:
It should have high strength: therefore to with stand forces applied on it.
It should have good mach inability: fore the easy of manufacturing.
Good heat treatment properties: This provides the shaft with good surface properties
that can resist failures due to fatigue, wear and creep.
It should have good wear resistance properties especially when there is a necessity to use
he axle with journal bearings and similar parts.
Material for the axle is Plain carbon steel (dead milled steel)
Carbon content % (0.05 to 0.15)
Ultimate strength su = 410 Mpa
Yield strength sy =273 Mpa
Elastic limit = 217 Mpa
Deflection or bending consideration
For a circular axle the maximum bending is the product of the load applied and the length
from the fixed end to the section where highest deflection presents.

Maximum bending
moment is given by:

Mmax= FRl..
(3.2)
Mmax = 32292.5 N-mm
Bending strength for a given cross section is given by:
b

M
. .. (3.3)
Z

Where sb = bending strength, b t

y
91MPa
SF

Z = Section modulus. For a circular cross section,

.r 3
32

Substituting the above results in (3.3) gives


r = 14.73 mm, => d=29.5mm
Shear consideration
The axle is subjected to shear due to the resultant force applied on it.
The shear stress that is going to be produced is given by:

FS
.... (3.4)
AS

Where

shear stress induced due to the resultant load

FS=the shearing force, whose value is half of FR=1291.7 N


AS=the shear area=

.d 2
4

Substituting the above values gives:

=0.95 Mpa which is lower than the allowable stress, which implies the

axle is safe for shearing.


Therefore the diameter of the axle is taken to meet nearest standard value d=30mm

3.2. Bearing

As we are looking for a component that are with by far manufacturability by local farmers
and the raw materials are abundantly available with low cost, the first thing to be decided is
to see the properties of materials around us and select the suitable one. There are two types of
bearings commonly user for different machine components; sliding bearings or rolling type
bearings. Each of the above has its own merits and demerits with respect to the other.
Generally for low power operation requirements the sliding bearings have the following
advantages over the rolling one:
Advantages of sliding bearings over rolling bearings
Rolling bearings may eventually fail from fatigue while sliding bearings are less
sensitive to fatigue
Sliding bearings requires less space in radial direction
Good damping ability
less noise level
less sensitive to sever alignment
low cost
highly available
However in some cases where higher speed and power transmission required the rolling
bearings show the following advantages
Low starting and good operating friction;

satic dynamic

Can support combined radial and axial load/thrust load


Less sensitive to interruption of lubrication
No self excited instability
Good low temperature starting.
Can seal lubrication with in bearing and be life time lubricated
Looking closer to the working environment, the users economy and operating skill

(our farmers) and the above physical and mechanical comparisons, it is reasonable if the
sliding bearings are selected though it has some drawbacks that are not considerable
limitations for farm operation.
Hence the sliding bearings are selected the one used for the seeder must possess;
Compression strength to resist permanent deformation
Suitability, ability to accommodate misalignments of journals
Low coefficient of friction and oiliness
Must be soft enough for the hard abrasive particles (dust, grit etc), that may interfere its
operation.
Resistance to corrosion so that it can with stand oxidation
Good heat conductivity to help the dissipation of heat generate3d
Low thermal expansion so that the clearance doesnt change if bearing is to operate in
wide range of temperature.
Low cost
Material
The common sliding bearing materials are:

Metals (Babbitt metal, Bronze, Cast iron, Silver etc)

Non-metals (carbon graphite, rubber, wood, plastic)


The bearing for the seeder wheel may be made from any one of the above recommended
materials. However, it is necessary to analysis the bearing especially for heat dissipation
capacity of the bearing by assuming particular material. Therefore, the bearing for the wheel
is designed considering cast iron journal type bearing.
Analysis
Assumptions
The design of journal bearing involves many variable; such as viscosity, Z; load per unit
projected area of bearing, p; the journal speed, N; bearing dimensions radius, r; clearance, C;
contact angle, ; length, l; and the performance variables: coefficient of friction, f; bearing

surface temperature, t ; heat generated and dissipated, Qg and Qd; the maximum film
thickness, ho.
Assuming radius of wheel 160 mm and the traction speed of oxen v=0.5 m/s, the speed
of the journal N will be around 59.7 rpm
Load on the bearing FR1= FR1=645.85 N
Journal diameter d= 32 mm => r=16mm
Operating temperature to= 30oC and ambient temperature ta= 20oC
Table3.2. Design value for journal bearing
Machinery

Bearing

Steam
Driving axle
locomotive Wrist pin

2.8

Operating value
Absolute viscosity Z C
d
Kg/m-s
0.03
0.7
0.001

Railway
cart

3.5

0.1

Axle

Maximum
bearing
pressure(N/mm2)

Generators
motors
Centrifugal Rotor
pumps

.
.
.
0.7-1.4

.
.
.
0.025

0.001

.
.
.
28

l
d

0.8-1.3
1.8-2

.
.
.
0.001

.
.
.
1-2

The following procedure will lead to determine the required variables of the bearing.
Determine the bearing length by choosing

l
ratio of 2
d

l=2d=62 mm
load on the bearing p

W
0.63
ld

-this is in the limit given in table 3.1 above for corresponding railway cart though it is
more pronounced to take such consideration.
By selecting typical lubricant oil and its recommended working temperature determine
the viscosity

i.e. SAE70,Z = 1 at operating temperature to=30oC


ZN
13.4 .......................................................
P

the bearing characteristics number


(3.5)

The minimum value of the bearing modulus k at which the oil film will break is given by:
3K

ZN
28
P

=> K=9.33.....................................................................................(3.6)

Since the calculated value of the bearing characteristics number is greater than the
maximum requirement K= 9.33, therefore the bearing will operate under hydrodynamic
conditions.
Take the clearance ratio c/d= 0.0013
Coefficient of friction for journal bearing is given by:

33 ZN

10 8 P

d
k ................................................................................................... (3.7)
C

Where k= factor to correct leakage. It depends on the ratio of l/d, k=0.002 for l/d ratios of
0.75 to 2.8

0.0054

.dN
60

Heat generated Q g WV W

watt , where V

.dN
60

...............................(3.8)

Q g 0.03watt

Heat dissipated Qd=C.A(tb-ta)=C.l.d(tb-ta), A=ld........................................................(3.9)


Where C=heat dissipation coefficient. For unventilated air C is in the
range of 140-420 w/m2/oC. Take C=200 w/m2/oC
tb=temperature of bearing surface
ta= ambient temperature =20oC
tb-ta =0.5(to-ta) =5oC

Q g 0.625 watt

It has been seen that the heat generated is smaller than the heat dissipated which implies that
the bearing is safe, that is it doesnt need artificial cooling.

Though for the seeder wood bearings are recommended, because reasonably they are used in
application where the following points are required.

Low cost

Cleanliness

negligence to lubrication and anti-seizing are important

Easy manufacturability

Good maintainability

As one can assess all types of wood available are not equally good to make bearings. As well
as no such direct procedures are available to evaluate properties and requirements of wood
bearings it is recommended to use locally available wood which farmers and manufacturers
used for making traditional farm implements. With such wood the bearing only need to be
made with good surface finish and accurate diametral clearance.
Summary

Bearing type selected: - sliding bearing

Bearing material: - wood used for traditional farm implements (best if it has got
treatment)

Sliding bearing type: - split bearing, where outside of the bearing out is driving fit in
the hole of the wheel hub and the inside is a running fit for the axle.

Bearing external geometry: - regular octagon circumscribed in a circle of diameter


given below.

Bearing dimensions:

-Bearing bore diameter db=axle diameter + diametral clearance C


-Recommended value of C for wood bearings is

C
0.001
d

-Where d is diameter of axle, d= 30mm, => db= (30 + 0.03) mm


-Bearing outer diameter do= 60mm (i.e. the diameter of inscribed circle), which is taken to
meet geometrical necessities and wall thickness necessary for bearings.

1-set screws used to fit the two halves of the


bearing.
2-Cover plate
3-Bearing
The two halves of the bearing will be produced separately and force fitted to the hub of the
wheel and the rotation to the hub side of the bearing is prevented by making its outer profile
polygon. The axial movement of the bearing will be prevented by providing cover plates.

3.3. Wheel
The wheel for the seeder can be made from different materials and with different
arrangements. As we have done at the bearing analysis the analysis of the wheel will be done
by considering as if it is made of a typical material and it has specific arrangement and
geometry likely suited for analysis take it has got perfect circular circumference. However if
cost and availability of metallic material, that is steel products and the rough, muddy and
bump furrows of farm fields that induce slippage of wheel; which is very undesired as it has
direct effect on he seed rate and distribution, are taken in to account the type of wheel
considered above has some limitations. Therefore for sake of difficulties of analysis the
design will be based on the specified type of wheel material arrangement and other
alternatives and options will be matched after some parameters of the wheel are determined.
a)

Wheel hub

The wheel hub is basic part of the seeder wheel system. It is used as an attaching core
element for both bearing and wheel arm/body. The wheel hub generally will be subjected to
the following critical stresses:

Shear stress developed when the two halve bearing makes side way movements.

Bearing stress due to the load applied on it

Tearing as a result of weight loaded on it

Assumptions

The parts that are subjected to the above stresses would have a larger cross section that
extends to the pulley body. However, the pulley is not yet analyzed therefore these sections
are assumed to be only those in the hub. That means the face width of the hub is assumed
to be equal to that of the bearing width L=30 mm.
Hub material
The hub material should satisfy certain requirements that are discussed so far at the
strength analysis of each part.
Analysis
Shearing consideration

FS
............ (3.10)
AS

Where S

0.5 y
SF

=45.5 Mpa

FS=shearing force assumed to be equal to half of the resultant force FR.


FS=645 N
AS= shear area= L x t
Substituting the values, results in t= 0.5 mm.
Bearing consideration
The part of the hub that may subject to bearing/crushing is the lower part. Hence by
assuming the area subjected to bearing as that of half of the circumference of the inscribed
circle to the inner hub times the length L. therefore,
b

Fb
.............. (3.11)
Ab

Where b = bearing strength= 135 Mpa

Fb= FS=645 N
Ab=
b

L .d
=2827 mm2
2
0.22MPa ,

which is too safe

Tearing consideration
The empirical formula for tearing is analysis is,
t

Ft
........ (3.12)
At

Where, Ft=Fb=FS=645 N
At=2xAb
t 23.5MPa

< 91 MPa the allowable bearing stress of the material so the part is safe

against tearing.
Summary
A wall thickness of 0.5 mm is sufficient for the strength requirements. However, it is
preferable to account the difficulty of manufacturing, the resistance for sudden impact loads
and other insignificant factors the hub thickness will be rounded up to 5to 10mm, further this
allows easy of attaching the arms/body of wheel. Generally the hub will have the following
parameters:
Hub thickness t=5-10mm
Hub length L=30mm to 60 mm
Hub profile : - regular octagon( 8 sides)
The hub can be made of either a hollow tub by forming or easily from sheet metal by shaping
and joining the two ends by welding.
b) Arms
Arms of the wheel are parts that are subjected to variable stress under different
circumstances. However; the critical stresses that lead to failure most of the time are:

Compressive stress when arm is in the lower half part of the wheel

Tensile stress when an arm is in the upper half part of the wheel

Bending stress due to he tangential force developed at the circumference of the wheel.

As the arm is subjected to these critical stresses it is totally exposed to failures, hence to
avoid any of the failure caused by the above stresses it is mandatory and common design
procedure to select proper material and check the arms to satisfy the necessary
requirements.
Assumptions
Clearly it is not such easy to identify the force and stresses at each and every critical
positions of the arm at different moments of the arm motion; therefore we are forced to
use convenient methods of evaluation with very compromising assumptions.
Based on others experience the following assumptions are taken.
1. For the case of the above critical stresses the numbers of arms that are subjected
to critical loads are assumed to be half of the total number of arms for bending
stress and one third for the compressive and tensile stresses.
2. Jerk and the resulting axial bending stresses are assumed to be insignificant as the
radius of the wheel (length of the arm) is not very long.
Considerations
Wheel outer diameter is D=320 mm, which is taken for geometric convenience and
material minimization.
The total number of arms recommended for a wheel with diameter medium length is
n=12.
The length of the arm is about L=130 mm, which is the difference of the radius of the
wheel and that of the hub outer radius.
For the bending stress analysis the arms are going to be considered as a cantilever fixed at
the hub end.
Material
Material for the wheel should full fill certain property requirements that are necessary to with
stand the above three critical stress and be able to easily couple to the hub of the wheel. In

addition the arm material should be of the type that can perform efficiently against the harsh
muddy and vamp farm environment.
Therefore the material selected for the arm of the wheel is plain carbon steel used so far.
Bending consideration

For a cantilever beam as shown in the figure above, the bending moment and stress relation
is:
b

M
....... (3.13)
Z

Where b t

y
SF

91MPa

M= bending moment M= Fy L =32500 N-mm


Z= section modulus, for circular rod it is given as:
Z

.ra3
.ra3

, i.e. for half of the arms Z 6


32
32

Now substituting in (1) gives:


ra = 8.99 mm => da =18 mm
For compression and tension, the arms are very safe with the diameter obtained from the
bending consideration. Hence the diameter of the arm will be taken to be 20 mm; this is the
closest standard circular cross-section solid rod.
c) Rim

The rim of the wheel critically subjected to three main stresses, such as shearing stress,
tearing stress and bending stress at the rim part between consecutive arm ends.
Assumptions

For shearing it is assumed only parts of the rim with area equal to the projection of the
end of the arm end is subjected.

In case of tearing it is assumed that only the part between two arms is assumed to be
subjected to.

The bending is critical when the part of the rim at the middle of two arms is in contact
to the ground.

Considerations

Width of the wheel rim is taken to be B=30 mm

Inter arm length is calculated as l=

.D
12

=83.8 mm

Bending consideration

Fb

From the angle of application of the force F b the horizontal component of this force is not
significant as compared to the vertical component assuming only the two arms are subjected
to the load WT:
Fby

WT
125 N
4

And considering the rim portion as a cantilever fixed at the middle O


b

And,

Fby l
M

Z
Z ............................................................................................. (3.14)

bh 2 bt 2

6
6 , for the rim cross section. Then solving these;

t=3mm, for this value as we can notice both requirements are satisfied.
Therefore by joining these different elements of the wheel by any of the conventional simple
and enough joining mechanism, in our case most likely by welding, the final required
geometry of the wheel can be achieved. However, as all parts of the wheel are designed to be
made of steel only, the practice of manufacturing the wheel by the local artisan will face
limitation of row and production materials; hence for better of the seeder towards production
alternative materials for the wheel will be presented with equivalent dimensions and features.
With same analysis, the first alternative is to make the circumference of the wheel regular
polygon of reasonable number of faces (10 16). This type of wheel may be used efficiently
when riding on a farm field where obstacles are very abundant. In such obstacle dense farm
areas if one use circularly circumference wheels slipping of the wheel is major problem
whenever an obstacle face it. This is because of that the circular circumference cant grip to
the ground so as to override the obstacle. But if the polygon type wheels are used it can
overcome such difficulties easily as; one there will be face contact developed between the
wheel rim and the obstacle and second and main advantage, one of the many edges will grip
the ground easily whereby there will be rotation to override the obstacle.
The second alternative is a wooden wheel with circumferential groove, which is probably the
best alternative provided so far. It can be made of one or two slabs of wood screwed to the
steel flanged hub. The grooves can be produced by simply machining or attaching pieces
together.

The third alternative is a woo den wheel with regular polygon face. This type has the
advantage of availability of raw materials because it is going to be made of wood pieces of
width ranging 15mm to 50mm and thickness about 15mm attached to both sides of a metallic
strip welded to the hub by simply nails or set screws to the required arrangement. All of the
different alternatives of wheel are tabulated below with their corresponding dimensions.

Table3.3. Alternative wheel proportions and relations


Width
Type of

Material

Diameter

Description

wheel

(mm)

(mm)

numbe

Number

r of

of rod

nails/s

or faces

Hub

Wheel

30

100

320

____

10

30

100

320

____

10

30

100

320

6 to 10 10

30 + 3

100

320

20to

crews

Metal
1 Circular
rim

Rim is 3mm
(Steel)

thick and rimarm-hub are


joined by weld

Metal
2 Regular
polygon

Rim is 3mm
(Steel)

thick and rimarm-hub are


joined by weld

Wood
3 Circumfere

If it is one piece

ntial face

( one or

the hub should

grooved

two

have to flanges

pieces)

on both side of

Wood

the wheel
Wood slabs

4 Regular
polygon 2

width 15-50mm
(Many
pieces
together)

and 15 mm
thick batched
together by
nails or screws
On both side of
a single flange
on the hub

30

10

3.4. Power transmission


There are different mechanisms that are advisable to transmit power from the wheel to the
metering disc. The most widely used power transmission devices are belt and chain drives.
These two drives are as follows with respect to the seeder requirement and feature.
Table3.4. Belt and chain power drive comparisons

Chain drives
They transmit motion accurately for a

Belt drives
Power reduction exists due to

wider range of chain tension by a

slippage as a result of non

single chain.

consistency of friction between belt


and pulley.

Have a longer life with proper


lubrication and are less sensitive to

variation in weather conditions.

Belts usually fails due to weather


change influence, hence have
generally shorter life than chain

Chain drives are very expensive and

drives.

not available with in he vicinity of the


farmer

Belt drives are cheaper and available


to the level of local farmers

The cost and knowledge of


manufacturing of chain components is

Pulleys and other implements used

beyond the scope of the target

with belt can be made accurately with

farmers.

less power and skill.

Chain drives are difficult to maintain


even if possible it requires higher skill

Parts of belt drive are easy to produce


and maintain by local artisans

and more investment.


Since cost and availability are the higher pressure that are behind the need for this inline
seeder, we are supposed to satisfy these requirements basically and then try to minimize the

drawbacks through practical trials of different alternatives. As a result the belt drives are
selected for the power transmission in the seeding machine.
Besides the reasons given above belt drives provides alternative flexibility both in
mechanism and component material. Among different belts some reasonable selection is
required to be beneficial in the power transmission mechanism of the seeder. Therefore, it is
necessary to discuss thoroughly the main belt types
Considering only the strength and efficiency requirements all types of power transmission
are good for the seeder. Both belts and chain are capable of performing efficiently under
different circumstances and requirements. Both of the belts, flat belts and v-bets are
preferable equally for this power transmission though they are remarkably different.
For seed like farm machineries the recommended type of power transmission is chain drive.
However for different reasons discussed so far, for the inline seeder power transmission there
is a pressure to precede the belt drive and all so the flat belt type among the belts. Therefore,
because the flat belt drive is the least recommended for farming equipments like our seeder, it
is good transitivity to deal with this type of belt for strength and geometrical analysis and ten
propagate the outcome to the remaining v-belt and chain drives. Clearly load and rating
performed by flat belts will not be difficult to chain and v-belt drives under such short center
to center distance. Hence there by is the analysis of power transmission modeled by v-belt
and flat belt type.

Belts
The belt is the part that transmits the power from the wheel to the shaft carrying the metering
discs. The belt is expected to transmit the power as possible as efficiently from the wheel to
the shaft because as the core elements are the metering discs a small deviation in power that
means deviation in rotation results in variation in placement spaces with in a given row, that
will cause either over populated or deficient plant seed distribution. Both of the above
problems are disadvantageous in one or another way and contradict the target of design of
inline seeder in particular and the system of conservation agriculture in general. Therefore

attention has given to the selection of proper belt and design of suitable belt mechanism
considering and comparing the following criteria with respect to the two belt types; flat belts
and v-belts:

Mechanical strength

Physical geometric fitness

Size of belt and space required

Atmospheric conditions

Service life

Availability, etc

Belt selection is a matter of finding standard belt that will closely mach the required speed
ratio between input and output shafts the required power transfer, and the required center
distance, which is the distance between the two center lines of the input and output shaft.
Both belt types are capable of providing wide rage of strength and load capacity depending
on the problem. V-belts give smooth and uniform power transmission than flat belts because
in flat belt power transmission there appears some irregularity and non uniformity around
mechanically connected part of the belt. Flat belts are subjected to misalignment as they are
exposed to side way axial movement. In addition generally flat belts are not as efficient as vbelts in transmitting power over shorter length and compacted space. Both belt types respond
in a similar fashion to different atmospheric situations, service and availability requirements.
Having these, v-belt is selected as a power transmission unit to the inline seeder. Hence as the
torque transmitted is not that much significant the selection of proper v-belt type can be
achieved in the following few analysis.
Assumptions
The belt is assumed to be subjected to not higher range of power.
Proper alignment of the belt to the pulley is expected to be governed by the belt itself.
The effects of atmospheric conditions are assumed to be taken care of by some
factors.
Considerations

Only geometric relations are considered to determine the standard type of belt.

Open belt and non-crossing over arrangements are considered.

Analysis
The following relation is used to analysis the geometric suitability of the belt to the coupling
pulleys. Those are:
I. Pulley belt pulley relation
II. Rotation linear rotation motion considerations
Geometric relation
of belt mechanism

Table3.5. Pulleys and belt system geometry


Items
Diameter(mm)
Circumference(mm)
Width(mm)
Center-center
distance(mm)
Material

1-wheel

2-large

320
1005.2
30

pulley
100
314.1
30

3-belt

4-small pulley

5-metering
disc

25
78.5
30

80
251.3
30

Steel

Steel

440
steel

Steel

--

All the above geometrical relations are taken by considering the placement gap of seed grains
with in row, i.e. about 250 mm for Maize and 25 mm for wheat. In the above relation one can
see that the wheel travels around 1005.5 mm in one revolution and therefore to cover this
length with proper seed rate the disc should rotate four times, since its circumference length

is around 25 mm. the rate for fertilizer for a given seed rate is variable with many conditions
and is going to be adjusted with the requirement of circumstances.
Considering only the two pulleys and the belt:

For open belts length of belt is given by:


L= AB + BC + CD + DA (3.15)
L= 2AB +BC + DA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB=CD
AB C 2 R1 R2

DA=R1 1
BC=R2 2
R1 R2
, and
C

R1 R2
.................................... (3.16)
C

2 2 sin 1

1 2 sin 1

L=1086 mm
Using the following table of standard v-belt:

Table 3.6.Standard v-belt sections (152494) and recommended power range


Belt type
Recommended

Up to

1.5-15

13

17

C
5-75
22

30-150

50-200 more

32

38

power range(kw)

7.5

Section
geometry(mm)

11

14

19

23

Therefore, standard v-belt A is selected and its nominal pitch length selected based on our
requirement L=1086mm is the nearest one having L=1102mm.
Pulleys
Pulleys used for the v-belt drive mechanism, as specified previously first of all should have
to satisfy the geometric requirements. Then to take care of strength, reliability and durability
necessities the selection of material for the pulley should be base on such considerations in
addition to cost, availability and manufacturability requirements.
Pulley materials
Commonly used pulley materials are metals which includes cast iron, steel, aluminum etc,
And to light duties non metallic pulleys are used such as plastic, paper and wood are the
commonest of the non metallic pulleys. Metallic pulleys are most of the times used for high
power rating and greater load capacity transmissions. They are most reliable and durable
pulleys against variable working environment.
Non metallic pulleys made of wood or plastic on the other side hand are used for less power
rating and minimum load operations. They are naturally susceptible to difficult failures;
however, with proper care and provision they are giving service for acceptable life with
accurate transmission. The seeder belt system is required to transmit very low power and load
but with high accuracy and efficiency, therefore, the wooden pulley can be used properly
with great advantages and can perform as good as enough to achieve metering by the disc
rotation. Wood is selected as a material for both sall and large pulleys and some theoretical
and geometric analysis will be shown in the next part of the report.
Good pulley woods must have the following properties

Less moisture absorbing character

Good wear resistance

Good resistance to deformation

Easy to machine

Should have enough friction coefficient to maintain the motion transmission uniform.

Generally the wood used for pulley should with stand change in environmental situations
further more need to be capable of performing good in the farm plots against rainy seasons,
muddy soil and rough and vamp motion lines.
Summary
-The pulley can be made of two split pieces and join by screws and metallic rings at the two
ends
-Most preferably the larger pulley should be made as integrated part to the bearing would
have internal diameter equal to that of the bearing.
-external diameter should be 108 mm as it is discussed in the belt selection part.
.

Face width b= b1+b2+W=30mm


Two metallic strips and b are used to strengthen and prevent deformation the pulley edge
these strips will be attached to the pulley body by using set screws or by nail.
Small pulley
It will be attached to the end of the shaft holding the metering disc. This is made of wood
similar to the large pulley.
Width=30m
Outer diameter do2=23 mm

Inside diameter will be equal to the diameter of the shaft.


The pulley can either be split type or made of single solid wood plate.
Recommendation: - wood used for both pulleys need to have a minimum of 74 Rockwall (B)
hardness or the grooved face must hardened to this value by mechanical pressing.

3.5. Shaft
The shaft is the part of the seeder that will be coupled to the small pulley at one end and drive
the metering discs by the power it gain from the wheel by the belt connection. It transmits
both torque and rotational motion to the metering discs which are secured to it properly.
Assumptions
The shaft is assumed to be subjected only to torsional stress and bending stress due to the
engaging force of the belt.
Considerations
The shaft is provided with holes to secure the discs and pulley to it and the sensitivity of
these holes should be accounted.
The length of the shaft is taken to be L=1100 mm
Proper material for the shaft is mild steel used so far.
Analysis

Bending consideration
F1=F2=F3=F4=the weight of the grains perfectly above the area of the disc in contact with the
grains. It is approximately 5N
Then taking moment about A, B and C and equating to zero,
FB=FC= 10 N
Maximum banding moment MMax=2400 N-mm
Bending strength

M
.............................................................................(3.17)
Z

where Z is the section modulus Z .rS

32

rs= 6.5 mm
dS=13 mm
Shear consideration
Shear stress

FS
.......................................................................................... (3.18)
AS

FS= 4xF1=20 N, and AS

.d S2
4

Substituting these values gives

0.07 MPa hence the design is safe for shearing.

Torsion consideration
Because there is a resisting torque developed due to the contact of disc surface and grains as
the result of the weight of the grain and the friction force there exists a tangential force which
cause torque. To determine the maximum resisting torque hat may develop on the shaft the
coefficient of friction between the grains and disc surface should be known. As it is given in
the disc design part, the coefficient of friction is assumed to be equal to 0.6 .

tangential force on a disc is equal to the friction force developed on the surface of a
disc
Ft= 8.3 N
Torque developed T=Ft x rd= 8.3x40 N-mm= 333.3 N-mm
The shear stress in the shaft is given by:

T
....
rs
I

(3.19)
Where

I= moment of inertia of the hat cross section=

Substituting these vales gives the shear stress developed

.d S4
32

11.8 MPa which is less than the

allowable maximum stress; hence the shaft is safe against shearing.


The shaft diameter shall be rounded up to standard dimensions so that it can easily
accommodate the screw holes for attaching the metering disc. Therefore the revised diameter
of the shaft will be dS= 20mm.
Shaft bearings
Assumptions and considerations

The bearings are needed to carry only radial loads

As the space provided for the bearing is small and considering other factors such as
cost and availability journal bearings are selected.

Material
Material for the bearing is wood or plastic
Dimensions of the bearing are
Bore diameter dbb= 20mm
External profile is square with side S=30mm

Face width of the bearing wb= 60mm, this is selected for geometric convenience and easy of
securing it to the vertical frame.
1- screws
2- cover plate

As shown in the figure above two cover plates are required for a bearing, therefore these
plates are of sheet steel thickness 2-4 mm and square shape S=40mm with bore at their center
with 22mm.
These plates will be screwed to the vertical frame on both sides of the bearings to prevent the
bearings axial movement.

3.6. Metering discs


As discussed in the previous parts the core element for the inline seeder are the metering
discs which completely governs the grain and fertilizer size, flow rate and proportion for
different requirements and different inputs. Basically the conceptual design part was
dependent on finding a suitable and beneficial metering mechanism for wheat and maize
seeds. After various
Comparisons and analysis done at the conceptual stage the disc type metering mechanism has
been selected, so that in this part the remaining strength and geometric analysis will be
covered. Forces applied on the disc are not too significant to cause devastating failure during
operation; nevertheless it is essential to check the critical parts of the disc especially for
bending and torsion.
Torques transmitted by the disc.

Due to the weight of the grain and fertilizer act up on the disc surface the disc is subjected to
frictional torque. The maximum torque is clearly at full load; hence analysis should be
performed with in the circle of conditions at full load.

Different parts in the disc system are


1. -Disc arm: - steel plate or rod
2. -Disc hub: -made of steel plate
3. -Disc rim or caves: -which are of
steel

sheet formed to meet the

geometry shown.
4. Grooves for seed
5.

Grooves for fertilizer

Assumptions

The discs are assumed to be subjected to around 105 of the total load due to seed and
fertilizer weight. The pressure per unit area of the compartment can be taken as the
product of the weight of the grains and the base area of the compartment; hence the
pressure on the disc does simply considered by taking area relation and it is about 5%
of the total pressure on the compartment.

The frictional force between the grin and surface of disc is as assumed in the shaft
design part. It is equal to be 0.6.

Material for the disc components


Required properties of material for the metering disc components

Good resistance to wear

Rigidity

Easy manufacturability

Good bending strength

Cheaper and abundantly available.

Therefore having all the above necessities under consideration material selected for the disc
components are;
Mild steel sheet for the rim
Circular or rectangular cross section steel rods for the arm
2- 5mm thick steel plate for the hub or a circular hollow section steel rod with
internal/bore diameter 20 mm and a minimum wall thickness 2mm.
Strength analysis
Tangential force per disc due to friction Ft=8.3 N
Torque developed T= FtxR =333.7N-mm
Bending consideration of spokes of the disc

Considering only half of the arms are subjected to bending at a time and by taking the arm
under load as a cantilever beam fixed at the hub end,
Tangential force per arm= Ft= Ft

T
2T

2.4 N ..................................................
Rn
R. n
2

(3.20)
Maximum bending moment on the arm at the hub will be,
M=66.75 N-mm
Section modulus Z

3
r ................................................................................................
32

(3.21)
Using the relation b

M
Z

The radius of the arm rod r=2.5mm

3.7 Frame and compartment


For the seeder body there are several members which are attached together to form a rigid
body. Generally, these members can be categorized as follows:
1. Vertical members: - this is the main member to which the axle, horizontal members
and compartment body are attached.
2. Horizontal members: -Basic/ main horizontal beam, beam to which the openers are
attached which is equipped with grippers at its ends.
3. Transverse members: -pulling bars and stabilizing bars
4. Housing: -compartment housing, disc casings and funnels.
More of these components need no analysis as the material and methods used to produce
these parts are good enough to withstand the less substantial load and stresses that may be
developed. However, on the other side, few basic members need through analysis to say that
they are capable of carrying and transmitting the load and disturbance stresses subjected to
them. As a result the main members that need analysis are discussed in the next part.

3.7.1. Vertical beam

Analysis
There are three different loads to which this member will be subjected to
1. The load at A: -vertically down ward load through the axle, which will subject the
beam cross section to tensile stress.
2. Force at B: - due to the load transmitted through the horizontal beam.

3. Load at C: - that is the weight of the compartment


Consideration and assumptions
-The load at A is considered being equal to the load due to the maximum weight of the
seeder. Which is, as described before FR= 645.85 N.
-This force is the maximum of the forces applied on the beam, so as both of the loads have
similar stress on the beam the dimension and material that satisfy this load requirement is
assumed to satisfy the requirement of the rest of the loads.
Material
Material for the beam is steel.
As shown in the figure above Standard rectangular hollow section beam. All the cross
sections are selected based on availability and easy of manufacturability. Hence the reaming
part of the analysis s is to check weather this cross section satisfy the requirement or not.
-tension consideration
Tensile stress is given by t
This gives t 3.35 MPa

Ft
................................................................................... (3.22)
At

which is much smaller than the maximum allowable tensile

stress for plain carbon steel given in part 3.1 (axle design). Hence the beam is safe.
-bending/ buckling consideration
To check the beam against buckling the following Rankin-Gordon stability formula can be
implemented.
P

wA
l
1 a
k

.................................................................................................................. (3.23)

Where-P=critical load causing failure


A= cross sectional area
a= end fixity coefficient. The beam can be look upon as a strut fixed at the lower end
and free at the top. => a=

1
, for steel
625

l
Slenderness ratio greater than 100
k

w c

400
136.7 MPa
SF

P=4612.5 N, since the maximum load allowable is much greater than the load subjected to
the beam, the design is safe.

3.7.2. Horizontal beam


Material: mild steel
Cross section: rectangular hollow section. Standard dimensions 30mm by 50mm
Forces applied:

Maximum bending moment Mmax=273930 N-mm


b

M
Z

=> Z=3010.5 mm3

With this section modulus the thickness of the beam is determined;


Z

BH 3 bh 3
.......................................................................................................... (3.24)
6H

Where B=30mm
H=50mm,

b=B-t, and
h=H-t

Substituting and solving, gives the minimum wall thickness for the rectangular cross
section beam t=2.84 mm. Take the nearest standard value t=3mm

3.7.3. Opener attaching beam


This member subjects to the following main stresses:

Torsion/ twisting stress: due to the force developed at the opener soil interaction
and that is the component end to bend the openers.

Bending and shearing: -due to the component of the opener-soil interaction force
that induce compression to the openers.

Assumptions
-material of the shaft is uniform through out
-the twist along the section of the member is uniform
-the normal cross section of the member which were straight before twist remains straight
after twist.

Twisting consideration
When a machine member is subjected the action of two equal and opposite couples in
parallel plane the machine member is said to be subjected to torsion. The stress set up by
torsion is known as torsional shear stress. This stress is zero at the centroidal axis and
maximum at the outer surface.
The maximum torsional stress at outer surface of a given sectional member may be obtained
from the following equation.

T
................................................................................................................................
x
J

(3.25)
Where = torsional shear stress
x= the distance from the neutral axis to the outer surface=b/2
T=torque or twisting moment
J= second moment of area of the section about its polar axis
J=JXX+JYY............................................................................................................... (3.26)

=> T J

b4 h4

2
x
b

The torque developed is due to the opener soil engagement


and it may be given by:
To=Fo x lo= 1490 N-m
h=48.25mm
t= 0,87 mm
Then by taking this thickness the beam is checked for bending ands shearing and found being
safe for both. Therefore the rectangular hollow cross section with wall thickness t=2.5 mm is
selected from standard RHS. In this final selection of thickness some allowances are added to
take account of weld requirement.
For attaching this bar to the vertical main frame, as it is needed to be adjustable flexible
joining is selected. This mechanism is by bots and nuts connection of the ends of the
attachment beam to the main. Hence at both of the ends of this member gripping are required.
End grippers
Material: - mild steel
Joining mechanism:
By arc welding with the attachment beam and by bolt
and nuts (M10) to the vertical main frame.
Rubber liners have to be placed between the end
grippers and the vertical main in order to prevent metal

Geometry

to metal contact and to increase friction so that to avoid sliding of the gripper over the
main. In addition wood or rubber spacers need to be used around the bolting area, between
the two gripper ends. And if possible to the other sides of the gripper so that to allow
compaction and increase griping.

3.7.4. Pulling bars


Pulling bars are the members that used to pull the whole seeder by the drafting force of
oxen. These members are predominantly subjected to tensile stress.
Analysis

Angle of inclination of the pulling force Fd is assumed to be 20o to 40o from the
horizontal.
Each of the bars is considered being subjected to tensile and bending stress due to the
pulling load.
Shearing consideration
The shear stress is given by

Fd
............................................................................. (3.27)
A

Fd = 645.85N the maximum pulling load at each bar


A

.d 2
Where d is the diameter of the bolt used to join the bar to the yoke
4

d= 3.8mm
Tension consideration
t

Ft
......................................................................................................................... (3.28)
At

Where Ft Fd cos and it is maximum at 0


At= (30 d) t
t=0.35mm
Bending consideration
Maximum bending is when the load is at either -40 o or 40o from the horizontal. And it is
given by Mmax=Fd * l sin 40=3878 N-mm
t= 2.81 mm
Hence to satisfy both requirements t= 3-5mm can be used.
Joining mechanism
These two bars are going to permanently join by welding to the fixed horizontal member.
And to other end they hold the lower end of a traditional yoke by a bolt pass through them.
Here, mechanisms other than bolting maybe used as per the tradition of the locality. Such
as tying by ropes or by wire

3.7.5. Compartment/housing
The whole compartment body is covered by mild steel sheet of thickness about t=1mm
The whole body of the compartment lies on a base structure attached to the main vertical
member. These structures are made of steel bars of minimum thickness 3mm and width
50mm permanently joined by welding to the rest of the body as shown in the figure below.

3.7.5. Collecting tubes and guiding rods


3.7.6.
There is a considerable gap between the bottom end of the funnel and the top attachment of
the openers. And to properly make placement of seed and fertilizer grains there should be
some means to transport them to the end of the opener at the exact time, with proper gap and
protection. For this purpose there are components called collecting tubes. As the opener and
its attaching beam are variable in the vertical direction to accommodate different bed height
and placement depth required, the collecting tubes should be either adjustable of much
flexible to work at both up and down conditions
Therefore, plastic flexible tube s are selected with steel guiding
Tube pitch diameter 15 to 20mm
Thickness 1 to 3mmlength350mm each
Guiding rod
Diameter 3 to 5 mm
Length 350mm
Clipping wires are required to fix the tube to the funnel end, with the guiding rod and to the
opener end. Required wire diameter 1 to 2 mm.

The size of the tube for both seed and fertilizer is equal but as the mass or volume of
fertilizer for a given mass or volume of seed is larger and the should have to be placed on
both sides of a seed, hence there will be two fertilizer collecting tubes which emanates from
the fertilizer funnel end together and ends at different opener ends on both sides of the seed
opener.

3.8. Openers
Openers are typical ploughs that used in the seeder to make enough furrows by opening the
soil and let good and easy placement of seed and fertilizer. The very wide range of farm
conditions openers subjected to makes openers critical member to analysis. To the extent
implemented in farm areas only experience can show how openers are efficient and how they
may fail. Because openers are parts that directly interact to the soil, soil with different texture
and structure, with varying physical and chemical properties in general, the strength and
strain analysis is very exhausting. This requires very good knowledge of soil physics and soil
mechanics also; it needs practical exposure and experimental inputs as the various farm fields
are of different soil conditions.
Even though it is out of the scope of this design it is more engineered and anticipated that to
make a wise assessment, which means to take geometric proportions and determine other
physical parameters just by considering few ideal conditions. This indicates that for the time
being the openers are going to be analyzed only to achieve reasonable physical suitability to
other parts of the seeder; moreover, for a better safety most of the parameters will be taken
more pronounced than expected in reality.

Analysis
The openers as described above are subjected to various stresses which emanate from the
dominant reaction due to opener-soil interaction, therefore, as an option it is assumed that the
following parameters are suitable to perform the desired operation. The geometries of the
openers given in this part are generally proportional to the traditional plough and to same of
practically implemented comparable openers discussed in the literature
There are two basic features selected for the inline seeder conditions. Both of them are
discussed below with illustrating sketches and tables:

1. Solid square steel rod with reasonable

2. A circular steel tube with sufficient wall

cross sections and shearing end, that is to

thickness, in which the shearing edge is

be made by forging an end of the square

created by cutting/ shaping one end of

bar to the required shape, and the bar

the tube to the desired shape. This type

need to be bend to some angle so that to

of opener provides a very nice and easy

get good shearing angle.

attachment of seed and fertilizer tubes.

For both of the above models of openers the geometric relation and some other characteristics
are tabulated s follows:
Table3.7. The two types of openers adopted
Opener

Maximum

Cross

Shearing Attaching

type

length(mm)

section(mm2)

angle(o)

Solid

drawbacks

mechanism
Attachment is

-need additional

by using metal

extended part to

sheets that wrap

attach lower ends

rectangular

125

20x20

30 to 45

the openers top

of collecting

end with the

tubes

attaching

-require high

beam ,and by

skill and energy

bolting the ends

to get the desired

of the wrapping

shearing edge by

sheet on the

forging.

other side of the

outer 22

Hollow
circular
tube

150

thickness
t=1.5

45 to 60

beam
Metallic plate

-requires

of appropriate

accurate bending

width is welded

to get the desired

to an opener

shearing angle

and three of

-weld

such openers

requirement to

forms a bunch ,

fix the openers to

then it will be

their respective

fix to the

base plate

very

attaching beam
by a wrapping
steel sheet

3.8. Covering mechanism


It is the mechanism used to cover the furrows soon after seed and fertilizer are placed
properly. Usually the covering mechanism of seeders contains two basic parts; the first is a
part that cover the soil back to the furrows and the second part is that used to compacts the
coved soil following the first part. The importance and necessities of both covering and

compacting are discussed in the literature; therefore by any means it is mandatory to provide
both of them. But the present practical alternatives are less attractive financially for our
farmers hence we are forced to look for other conventional cum efficient mechanism.
To some extent chains are applicable to covering system, still no analysis of chain covering
mechanism found being necessary. As a result for the inline seeder this chain mechanism is
adopted. Getting proper covering and compaction using chains is hence a matter of selection.
Chain selection
Standard steel chain with the following geometry is taken.
Rod diameter; 15mm to 25mm
Chain pitch diameter: 40mm to 70 mm
Weight per unit length: 5kg per meter
Total Length: 1m to1.5m
Joining mechanism
The chain is attached to the hooked ends of two metallic strips which are in turn attached to
the horizontal opener attaching beam loosely by rod and ring coupling.

3.10. Other safety and securing members

Quick closing and opening mechanism

Bolts, nuts, screws, studs, pin, nails and wire

Quick closing mechanism


It is the part of the seeder used to control the flow of seed and fertilized directly to the
metering disc from the compartment body. Its main purposes are

To shut down/ block seed and fertilizer flow when the seeder is stopped or
in case the seeder straps back or else during any situation when no seed
cum fertilizer flow is necessary.

To open and allow seed and fertilizer flow, and to some extent to regulate
the flow by widening and narrowing the passage at the bottom of the
compartment whenever it is required.

This mechanism is operated by hand pull and release from the person who is leading the
seeder. And it comprises of different parts, such as:

Steel plate to block and unblock

Rubber strip to quickly return the


system to closed condition.

Thickness 5mm

Cross section 30mmx60mm

Thickness 0.5mm to 2mm

Quantity: - four

Cross section

Steel rod to attach the plates

30mmx20mm

Steel bar to fix end of rubber strip

Diameter 5mm

Thickness 3mm to 5mm

Length 1000mm

Cross section 30mmx 75mm

Steel bar L-shape to lock and unlock

Thickness 3mm to 5mm

Cross section 30mmx30mm

Four M4 set screws to fix the rubber


to the base plate and fixed end

Bolts, nuts, screws, studs, pins, nails, and wires or ropes

Different size standard bolts and nuts, set screws and pins are used in the design of inline
seeder. Consequently, at each part o the design it has been tried to specify such things
moreover as they are represented in the assembly and part drawings both qualitatively and
quantitatively. Hence herby there is no more discussion on such parts.
Wire and/ or ropes are necessary to join different components in the seeder body and to tie
and merge other components alternatively or additionally to give better strength and
reliability.
Steel wires
Diameter ranging from 2mm to 4mm
Length 5m (pieces not shorter than 500mm or 0.5m)
Rope may be either steel ones or any of the type locally available and adopted
Diameter at minimum 3mm
Length minimum 2m with one piece

PART FOUR
4. Manufacturing
4.1. Data required for production
When we are trying to launch practical session of the project it is must that input data and
specifications should me readily prepared on hand. Though all of the required data are
presented in the previous three parts of this paper it is very difficult and exhausting to search
and find the required particular parameter and data from the enormous pages of report.
Hence, for the sake of handiness it is advisable and logical to list down all data and specific
information tat are required to manufacturing the in line seeder as precise as possible and
illustrated as briefly as it can easily be understood and accessed.

4.2. Basic requirements data mandatory for production


The following table comprises of some of the basic elements of the inline seeder with full
explanation of their results obtained in the design analysis part.
It.

Name

QTY Dimensions

No

Material

Description

Mild steel

A hole of 6 is
provided for pin
Outer shape is regular
octagon

t/w

Axle

70

32

Main
bearing

60

52

10

Wood/cast
iron

Hub

60

62

Mild steel

Wheel

320

30

Large
Pulley

100

19

Wood/ mild
steel
Wood

Belt

Leather

1102

30x5

Both internal and outer


shape is regular octagon
Provided with flanges
Solid wood or steel rods
with circumferential strip
This dimension is with
flat belts, if v-belts are
used it will be grooved to
a depth of 8mm with
proper shape
If v-belts are used all
dimensions are standard

Small pulley 1

Shaft

1100

20

Shaft
bearing
10 Metering
discs

30

30

Wood

80

30

Steel sheet

11 Vertical
beam (RHS)
12 Horizontal
main (RHS)
13 Horizontal
opener
attaching
beam (RHS)
14 Funnels

570

30x50

Steel

1000

30x50

Steel

1060

30x50

Steel

15 Openers

12

125
to
150

22

16 Collecting
tubes

12

350

15 to
20

17 Pulling bar

115

5x30

Steel

18 Compartme
nt wall

1000

100x100

Steel sheet

19 Compartme
nt partitions

100x100

1.5
to
2.5
2

20 Inter
compartmen
t partitions

100x100

Steel sheet

25

Wood
Steel

Steel sheet
20x20

1.5

1
to
3

Steel
tube/solid
rectangular
rod
Plastic

Steel sheet

If v-belts are used it will


have extra size of 8mm to
make groove
Provided with screw
holes so that to
accommodate metering
discs
Kept on place by end
cover plates
Each seed and fertilizer
meters are on one disc
side to side and are made
with different groove
depth
It has a hole to hold the
shaft bearing
To be joined to the
vertical beam by welding
Provided with end
grippers to flexibly
attached to the vertical
beam
They have shape given it
the part drawing part
If tube is used it will be
made of standard steel
pipes
One or two pieces can be
used for a single path but
proper care should be
taken when using two
pieces
Each have M10 holes at
the free end
Sheet metal will be
dressed over a fixed steel
frame
Will be welded to the
frame of the body or
simply riveted
Will be welded to the
frame of the body or
simply riveted

21 Covering
chain
22 Bolts& nuts

23 Set screws
24 Nails

1500

20

8
12

125
75

10
10

Standard M10
Standard M10

4
25
30

50

10
4
5

Standard M10
Standard M4
Standard

>15

Steel

4.3. Weld design and selection


Welding is extensively used in the fabrication of the inline seeder. Though there are many
other alternative joining methods welding is selected for the following fundamental
advantages:

Welded structures are usually lighter than other joining such as riveted structures.
Welded joints provide maximum efficiency which is not possible by other

cases

Alteration and additions can be easily made in existing structure


Has greeter strength, often welded joints has the strength of the parent material.
Provides very rigid joint
No difficulty of joining complicated parts
The process takes less time
But the following draw backs are remarkable

Distortion due to uneven heating and cooling during fabrication

Require high skill and supervision

Failure due to crack development]

Inspection is more difficult

With the above difference the following two basic types of welding are selected to join parts
in the inline seeder.
Lap joint or fillet joint: -done by over lapping the plates and welding the edges of the plates.
The cross section of the fillet is approximately triangular.
Butt joint: -the butt is obtained by placing the plates edge to edge.
Some of the welded joints are discussed below by representing parts under similar weld.
Frame welds

Sheet metal welds


All sheet to sheet welds are single v-butt type which is represented by
All perpendicular joints
All joints in the compartment which are of between two perpendicular parts are
represented by a double sided fillet weld

Weld for joining pulling bar to the horizontal frame


Fillet weld each side of Tee joint

Weld for joining axle to vertical main frame.

Weld for joining metering disc components

Weld design approach


Representative model take parallel fillet joints because the parts are expected to be
subjected to higher stress
It

is the allowable shear stress for the weld metal then the shear strength of the joint

for the double parallel fillet weld is;


2P=2x0.707xsxl
=>p= o.707 Sxlx
Considering the maximum load p=400N for the side to the front of the compartment
S=0.25mm, but to account for stresses due to other loads that the weld joint may
subjected to S should be taken equal to the thickness of the bar at least
S=3mm
In a similar fashion all the fillet welds in the seeder are considered to have same
dimension because the type of weld metal and other factors are all similar to the above
one. Hence weld size S= 3mm to 5mm according to the thickness of the weld metal is
used.

4.4. Material cost analysis trial


Final year project on Design of inline seeder
Material needed to make inline seeder
No

MATERIAL

SIZE

Steel and cast iron


Steel
30x50mm
rectangular
and square
hollow
section(RHS/ 50mmx50mm
SHS) bars

I.
No

LENGTH/AREA

DESCRIPTION of current cost

670mm

1.5mm150 birr per 6m


2mm 180 Birr per 6m
2.5mm200 Birr per 6m

1060mm

1060mm

1.5mm180 Birr per 6m


2mm 220 Birr per 6m
3mm 320 Birr per 6m

15mmx15mm

1060mm

0.8mm20 Birr per 6m

U-beam

50mmx50mm

120mm

2-3mm400 birr per 6m

Circular
cross section

20mm

1100mm

0.8mm 26 Birr per 6m

20

24

115mm

Solid-- 200 Birr per 6m

5mm

10x4

30mm

8 Birr per Kilogram

Steel wire
Steel tub/rod

2mm
I=60mm
O=100mm

1
2

7500mm
70mm

14 Birr per kilogram


Solid 100mm500 Birr per 6m
Solid 60mm 300 Birr per 6m

Cast iron rod


Wood rod or
plate
Steel/alumin
um sheet

=60-70mm

50-70mm

------Not available in market----Easily available

Thickness
1mm

300x1000mm2

---

4
5
6

7
8

Steel bar

30mmx2mm

4
4
2

50mmx3mm
Thickness
5mm
20mmx20mm

Steel pate

10

Steel rod
(square)
Plastics, rubber and canvas
Plastic sheet Thickness

11

30x350 mm2
1000mm
1010mm

30 Birr per 6m

115m

110 Birr per 6m

4
4

30mmx50mm
50mmx70mm
350mm

120 Birr per 6m


--200 birr per 6m

225mmx6000m

12

Aluminum
sheet

greater than
0.5mm
Thickness
1-1.5 mm

m
4

----

40mmx250mm
60mmx150mm

--Not available on market----Not available on market---

500mm

3 Birr per 1m

40mmx40mm

----

1102mm

50 birr

15

Washer plate 3mm thick


8
Metallic or
Rubber
Standard and consumable parts
V-Belt
8mmx13mm
1
(standard -A)
chain
10mm
1

1500mm

--

16

Elastic
rubber strip

Plastic tubes
13

14

15-17mm

50mm and
2mm-5mm
Thickness
M4

100mm

--

10-15mm

.25 Birr per screw

M8

10-15mm

--

M10

10

60-75mm

4 Birr per pair

19

Bolts and
nuts
Stud and nut

M10/M12

100-150mm

--

20

Pins

6mm

25-35mm

--

21

Rivets and tie The quantity and size depends on


wires
circumstances during manufacturing.
Welding rods Consumable, so cant be determined
greatly depends on the skill of the
producer

17
18

22

Standard set
screws
(flat head)

---

CONCLUSION
As the objective of this project is to design inline seeder for planting Wheat/Barley and
Maize, and as so far things are neatly presented one can conclude that the target is achieved
exhaustively and efficiently. Generally in the literature and other consequential parts of this
paper the necessary inputs to and outputs from the design of inline seeder are presented to the
level that every one can understand. Having the design completed, the whole project report
shall be concluded by forwarding the following points.

Project background and objectives are discussed clearly; which means one can get all the
input and subordinate things to the inline seeder design properly.

In the conceptualizing level different alternatives that leads to the final target are
discussed and one which is best of all is selected and then based on these following parts
are performed clearly and to the maximum possible extent.

From the analysis and synthesis part of this paper it is concluded that almost all of the
necessary inputs and outputs are presented in such a way that readers and users of this
report ca cope up with it.

The inline seeder actually is designed to meet alternative requirements and to be flexible
for manufacturing it in different locality. Hopefully it would have got at least its
prototype produced in the near future. Hence, so far it has been discussed briefly about
the logics and easy ways towards production so as to allow its manufacturing with
different range of row materials combination. For this it can be generalized that the
production of the seeder, at least a prototype has already launched .

One surely can say that the design outputs have generally been illustrated more after
having investigation on the different assembly drawings and part drawings of each
component.

Moreover, asserting that there is a complete description of the design of inline seeder it has
concluded that arts and conditions are discussed according to their precedence and
importance. And generally, all things around the design of inline seeder are compiled in this
technical paper with interesting spirit.

RECOMMENDATION
Although many recommendations and guiding direction are presented in each part of the
report supported by material reasons it has been found mandatory to recommend in a more
generalized way issues in the project again. Therefore the following points are found
remarkable to be recommended:
Such projects, on the fields related to agriculture have attractive contributions on the
enhancement of our enfant agriculture based economy, yet very lack of clear directions
and problem identification are basic limitations on running farm related projects to thee
speed required to rescue our people and country from the pronounced poverty that
likely would face us with in not more than a decade. So it is recommended that
subsequent pressure and follow up are mandatory to the direction of agriculture related
topics in our profession.
In particular in the design of the inline seeder there was many difficulties which in
general are emanate from lack of experiment based information on the aggregate
agricultural technology issues. And it is the very time to recommend that fundamental
points ands some clear inputs have to be forwarded with each and every problem on
hand to be solved persons of different profession in general and final year students in
particular. So that the big time taken to reduce the gap between agriculture and
technology would be avoided and then good outputs will be found on time.
There has to be a room to continue the design of inline seeder in particular and of farm
implements in general as more update alternatives and best methods of analysis might
be expected through time.
The theoretical analysis compiled in this report may in case be not in a best fashion so
that it is recommended to follow and assess differently if possible finite element
analysis is advisable.
Moreover less there was time limitations on working of the project, and therefore it is
recommended to concerned bodies to check the report thoroughly again and make corrections
wherever it has found necessary.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Advancing the Art, 1997,Zero tillage farmers Association, Manitoba North Dakota,
2. Conservation tillage system and management, MidWest Plan Service, agricultural
and Biosystems Engineering Department, Lowa State University, Ames
3. Increasing wheat yield Sustainably through Agronomic Means, 1997, Paper
98-01, CIMMYT
4. J.E. Shigley, Mechanical engineering design, 1986, 1st edition, McGraw Hill, N.Y,
5. O. Luurt, Draft Animals Technology
6. Rice-Wheat Consortium Paper series 2, Mexico
7. R.S. khurmi, J.k. Gupta, A textbook of machine Design, 2002, 13th edition, Ram
Nagar, New Delhi
8. Tulu Taffa, Soil and Water Conservation for Sustainable agriculture, 2002,
Mega Publishing Enterprise, A.A Ethiopia
9. Wheat Program Special Report (WPSR) No.17A, March 1998, CIMMYT,
Mexico
10. Wheat Program Special Report (WPSR) No. 48, , December 1998, CIMMYT,
Mexico
11. Wheat Special Report No. 18, November 1993, CIMMYT, Mexico,
12. Wheat Special Report No. 32, September 1994, CIMMYT, Mexico
13. William Orthwein, Machine Component design, 2003 , 2nd edition, Jaico publishing
house, Mumbai