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Finding yourselves in a changing world of work

Vietnam, moon landing


Civil/womens rights
Experimental
Innovators
Hard working
Personal computer

Baby boomers
Born between 1946-1964

60
g
era
Av

om
ec

50

pa
fes
y li
pan

40

The Baby Boomer work ethic is


also characterized by dedication,
loyalty and a willingness to stay in
the same job for a long time.

Coming of age in 1973

no

nS

&P

30

50
0

I nd
ex

(in
yea
r

Gen X
Born between 1965-1976

Gen Y
Born 1977-1997

Fall of Berlin Wall


Gulf War
Independent
Internet, MTV, AIDS
Mobile phone

Possesses an entrepreneurial spirit, a


do-it-yourself attitude and, in
contrast to the generations before 18th birthday
them, embrace change in the
2005
workplace. They are career-oriented
but place a strong emphasis on
family time and strive for a good
worklife balance.
They enjoy freedom and autonomy
they work to live rather than live to
work.

1993
turn 18

s)

Maker culture
Easily distracted
Digital natives
aspiring entrepreneurs

Gen Z
Born 1997-present

9/11 attacks
Community service
Immediacy
Confident, diversity
Social everything
Google, Facebook

With Generation Z there will be a return to


values such as respect, responsibility and
restraint. However, with the way technology is
heading, most of the jobs that Gen Z will be
filling have not even been created yet.
Generation Z workers are expected to have an
average of five careers and 20 different
employers in their lifetime.

The typical Gen Y is smart, creative,


productive and achievement-oriented. Coming of age
They seek personal growth, meaningful
in 2021
careers, and mentors or supervisors to
encourage and facilitate their professional
development.
They have been constantly surrounded by
choice and therefore dont tend to stay in
one job for very long. They require
constant stimulation and the opportunity
to develop their skills

20

Each data point represents a rolling 7-year average of average life-span)

10

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

ROBOTIC
WORK

ROTE
WORK
INTERCHANGEABLE // ROUTINIZED
OUTSOURCEABLE // MANAGED
Increasing effect of extrinsic motivators on performance
Compensation, benefits, job title

(1946 to 1980)
Federal grants for returning soldiers as part of a
veterans re-integration program.
Most provincial governments began directly
funding for post-secondary education
institutions.

Pre-WWII

(1867 to 1938)
Almost 100% private donations &
substantial tuition fees. Small elite
portion of Canadian population in
college.

Provincial college systems


were established in most
provinces.

Mid-1960s

Post-War

1976

Mid- to late-1960s

ALGORITHMIC // COMPUTERIZED //
EFFICIENT // PURCHASED

Almost 100% nearly all funds provided


by federal and provincial.
Post-secondary education enrollment
exploded, with Canadians from all
backgrounds

Canadian government signed on to


the United Nations Covenant on
Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights
promising to gradually
introduce free education
at all levels.

Identity

The world is changing, fast

The marketplace is becoming more competitive; people are staying employed well into their
seniors; turnover rates are at an all time high; and people are entering the workforce with more
education than ever before. Work is an activity where individuals spend most of their waking
hours and is becoming more than just a source of income. Work is the passage through which
we can each make our unique contributions to the world and realize our fullest potential.

100

G a ll u

Liking what you


do each day and
being motivated to
achieve your goals

p-H e alt

Purpose

UNIQUE // IMAGINATIVE
NON-ROUTINE // AUTONOMOUS

Autonomy, mastery, purpose

Jurisdictions began cutting funding for


public programs. Average tuition fees at
Canadian universities more than doubled. Tuition was 12%
of university
revenue.

1990s

2012

Average
undergraduate
tuition fees in
Canada were $1,464.

Tuition was 41% of


university revenue.

Affection

Doing work you love

100

Worldwide, having a good job is one of the most important factors in life because
it occupies an enormous amount of peoples time and their self-identity.
Finding ones ideal place within the world comprises a challenge of:

100

Participation

h way Well-Be

Community

Having strong
and supportive
relationships and
love in your life

Through this giga-map exercise, we can begin to unravel the forces that shape individual
aspirations, as well as their education and career decisions, in hopes of generating insights that
lead individuals onto the path of fulfillment.

STANDARDIZED // TALENT-DRIVEN
PROFESSIONAL // DIRECTED

Understanding

Leisure

While every person has the right to write their own story, there are dysfunctions in the social
system that inhibit our journey towards finding the right career where we can realize our full
potential. For example, the lingering perception that post-secondary education is the sole path
to success and curriculums that lacks regard for self-reflection are resulting in disillusionment
among generations of graduates who find themselves stuck on career paths that are leading in
the opposite direction than their true aspirations. Meanwhile, 45 percent of university
graduates earn less than median income.

CREATIVE
WORK

1980 to 1994

Protection

Creation

The world of work is changing at an unprecedented pace.

2025

SKILLED
WORK

1988

Manfred Max-Neef
Fundamental
Human Needs

100

2020

Increasing effect of intrinsic motivators on performance

Subsistence
Freedom

n
o
i
t
i
u
T
f
Hist o ry o

2015

2010

1) Knowing oneself,
2) Seeing and seizing opportunities in the turbulent marketplace of work, and
3) Matching ones talents and aspirations with opportunities in the world.

w
e
i
V
in g 5

Google Search Trends

Physical

Having good health and


enough energy to get things
done on a daily basis

Social

Financial

Do wha

ove
l
u
t yo

Engagement you have with


the areas where you live, liking
where you live, and feeling safe and
having pride in your community

Effectively managing
your economic life to
reduce stress and
increase security

Find your
passio n

2007

2009

2011

2013

Education System
FORESIGHT

Glorification of
job title

Pressure to choose
during high school

Level of education, 15 years of age and over 1990-2012 (percent)

LOOKING
FOR
DIRECTION

FAMILY
INFLUENCE

40

The Social System

30
20

Lack of fit

Idealistic and
unrelistic expectations

10

University degree

College

Other

Teaches thinking
skills to lead others
and create new
knowledge

Teaches applicable
skills to operate
efficiently within
existing frameworks

Employment
Entrepreneurship
Coding bootcamps

1990

2000
Without high school diploma
College or trade certification
Some post secondary

Lack of proper
consideration
for decision making

2010
High school diploma
University degree

+
CRISIS

Source: HRSDC calculations based on Statistics Canada

c
n
e
u
l
f
In e Map

100
Join a
like-minded
community
Mentorship

Experiential
learning
placements

den

Stu
t

Individual
decision

Supply to
demand ratio

Passion

Society
Career
prospects

Ones actual career strategy, as defined by ones actions day-to-day, is shaped by


how resources (time, effort) are allocated between the intended strategy and
opportunities that emerge along the way. Tacit knowledge generated from
experiences can be structured into codified knowledge through scaffolding,
which can be facilitated through conversations with others.
Professor

Zone of Proximal
No
Development Experience

Zone of proximal
development

Random,
tacit knowledge

Family

uc

STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math)


Individuals with
a STEM degree

Individuals in
STEM occupations

No Know

le d g e

Im

pro
v
of ed u
sel nd
op f an erst
po d c an
rtu are din
nit er
g
ies

Qua

lifie

d jo

b ca
ndi

dat

Individuals
with STEM degrees

Individuals
in STEM occupations

Sca

ffo
ld

St
ra
Ac teg
tio ic
n

Unanticipated
problems and
opportunities

100

y )
eg
rat joy
t st en
en you
erg rk
Em g wo
in

100

(do

St
(R rate
es g
+ our y fo
pr ce rm
+ iorit allo ula
pl y
an se cat tion
ni ttin ion
ng g
)

Arts

5 years after graduating 10 years after graduating


Move forward on
current path

600

Opportunities given to
person A relative to
person B

Person A has the


opportunity

Person B has the


opportunity

ur
25

f yo
iza
tio
rea
l
e to

m
e
t
s
y
S
t
r
o
p
p
Su

riences
e
p
x
e
h
g
ld throu n failure.
r
o
w
e
h
ft
si
model o er fit and result
l
a
t
n
e
helping
o
m
g
t
r
n
y
u
o
e
l
o
k
e
o
e
t
n
r
a
stems a ductive way.
We upd the old models
y
s
t
r
o
p
p
o
where
most pr
social su
e
d
h
n
t
a
n
l
i
a
n
re
Educatio ls confront failu
a
individu

Un
d
at a ecide
ge d
25

car
eer

asp

irat

ion

100

Korea

France

OECD

UK

, CIBC
Source: Statistics Canada

, CIBC

Growth in Real wage


by education
Index 2002-100

02

04

06

08

10

12

High school
Certificate/diploma
Bachelors
Above bachelors

Person B acquires
more experience

com

Definin
titltes ha g oneself based o
s a positi
n skills ra
ve effect
on resilie ther than job
ncy and
in the ma
adaptabi
rketplace
lity

Bachelors

700

100

US

Release

800

do
you

Reorganization

Titles

Canada
113
109
107
103
111
105
99
101
97

no

io

er

Source: LinkedIn

1200

1000

Money

Skills, not

g (Right)

e
Real average weekly wag
by education (2012)

Getting onto a different path and


forming new commitments.

Skills

0%

in
ow
rr
Na
is
,
t)
ef
(L
n
io
at
uc
ed
to
m
iu
em
pr
Sizable income

Growth

Interests

5%

(L)
College diploma holder
s (L)
University degree holder
(R)
Annual university tuition

Impact

100

10%

900

Growth

er.
g
are
ac
lpin
He ers
ng
osi
ial
th
ho
anc ns o
nc
Fin
rs i
ity reaso
cto
un
g fa
h
ort
pp owt
idin
n O for gr
dec
to
jor
pac try
Ma
m
I
us
ind

Phase 4
Rebuilding a
new life

OECD

Canada

1100

Developing new commitments that are more in tune with


personal interests, aspirations
and values.
Phase 5
Developing
new
commitments

Oth
8%

Quitting the job or relationship or


whatever else is making you feel
trapped and embarking on a
"time out" period where you try
out new experiences to find out
who you want to be.

100

100

15%

1,000

Person A acquires
more experience

Putting the pieces back together


in a way that allows one to do what
they love, with their unique talents,
while making money and impact.

20%

College
University

2,000

10%

100

Re-organization

ing
Share of graduates earn
n
less than half the media
income
25%

Success
Breeds
Success

The system archetype Success to the


Successful illustrates the exponential impact of
opportunties
given at a young
age on career
success at later
stages in life.

Predetermined Path of Success

Realizing that ones identity no


longer holds true, followed
by deconstruction of
ones beliefs and
experiences.

Feeling stuck prompts one to question


their deeper motivations and assumptions
underlying their goals. This resembles a nested learning
loop in which the individual becomes acutely aware of their
broadest values and goals and than make changes to their efforts
to be more aligned to their bigger picture of their lives.

25%

Phase 3
Embarking
on a time
out period

20%

Release

Seeing the Bigger Picture

8%

30%

Making a living through work, but feeling a


slight discomfort due to a lack of fit for
ones aspirations.

ns
t)
io
ex
pt
m
nt
t
su
co
ici
as on g r
pl s
g ati ein rge
Ex eed
rin tur (Se la
n
in
ve a
co M dom ith
is w
Un
W ess
n
ed
ct

Life
results

3,000

Conservation

Act to
achieve
life
goal

e
nn
co

Career
results

cit
Ta eds
ne

Education
results

40%

100

The conservation-release-reorganization-growth cycle of


the panarchy model matches with the phases of a
quarter-life crisis:
Act to
achieve
career
goal

4,000

0%

Panarchy of
self-reorganization
Act to
achieve
education
goal

+
-

+
-

Industry

Plan to
achieve
education
goal

D ev
iat

Edu
c
+
-

50%

Ag
e
21

ati
on

De

a
Go

Stakeholders

US$
5,000

Ag
e
15 Age
17

on

Education
Institutions

Share of
population
60%

age

Family

More Educated and Poorer

hat

a
go

Youth 18-30

Government

Plan to
achieve
career
goal

via
ti

Ca
re
er

De

n
ito

A rising sense of
"I've got to get out"
and the feeling that
you can change your life,
along with a mental and
physical separation from
previous commitments.

Payoff of
Education

At
w

via

Lif
e

Plan to
achieve
Life
goals

Mentor

Employers

n
Conservatio

100

Feeling stuck is often a symptom of


setting the wrong career goals.
Setting a higher goal along the
same path provides
immediate sense of progress
while reflecting on ones
life choices takes longer
to yield the right
answers. However the
temporary solution
further traps them by
way of sunk costs
and perceived
self-identity.

Phase 2
Sense that
change is
possible

10

at a Glance (2013), CIBC

20

Ag
e

Short term gain for long term loss

Hierarchy
of needs

a
go

Employment
Service
Organizations,
career
counsellor

30

Ag
e
23

Re-evaluate
direction

Canada: Total

Certificate/diploma

Friends and
acquaintances

Pressure to
search for answers

40

Source: OECD: Education

A feeling of being trapped


by your life choices. Feeling
as though you are living
your life on autopilot.
Teachers &
Professors

This Eroding Goals system archetype describes one


way in which individuals deal with the descrepancy
between their expectations (making money doing what
you love) and harsh market realities. The individual
chooses to settle for a less ambitious goal with money as
the only consideration rather than setting themselves
up for more disappointment.

Low-return fields
(account for 45% of
recent graduates)

Source: Statistics Canada

Int
en
(ca ded
ree str
r p ate
lan gy
s)

High school

Phase 1
Feeling of
being
trapped

Strength of self-image
Commitment to
currentpath
Sunk costs

Feels
stuck

Becoming realistic

uates
Share ofuniversity grad
earning less than the
median income

50

Pressure to
lower goal

alignment with
interests

100

Ac
str tual
ate
gy

Majority of students switch into a


different profession than their
education, regardless of whether they
earned a STEM or Arts degree

OCAD students with degrees in


Art or Deisgn who are practising art or design

Feels
stuck

ing

Business
Health
Engineering
Other
Education
Social science
Humanities
Psychology

Getting unst

Friends

Changing Aspirations

There are three ways in


which individuals deal
with feeling stuck in a
career: they settle, occupy
themselves with chasing after
ever more elusive goals, or
question their own assumptions
and in turn set new goals that are
more in line their their interests.

Desire to find work


that you love

Career
counsellor

Meaningful,
codified knowledge

P
Ha rac
nd tica
s- l k
on n
ex ow
pe led
rie ge
nc
e

a
sT

Risk
tolerance

s
t
o
d
e
h
t
g
n
i
t
ec

Time commitment

varying career
e youth population by
th
of
ge
ta
en
rc
Pe
:
ce
Sour
Canada, 2000 to 2010
expectation patterns,

Infl

Br

ue

ry ills
eo sk
Th ing
nk

Mentorship
Career advising
Co-op and internship
placements

Work

h
c
o
S
o
l
g
a
n
i
nd
g
di

Influences

Pa y
Demands

Industry

Family
tradition

Mentors

Con

Teaches

Master is the
new Bachelor

100

Education &
Curriculum

Career
development
opportunities

Volunteer
& community
involvement

Government

xe

Money
acquired

Individual
values

Tuition
& debt

Value of university
education

University
enrollment

Build skills and


experience

i
Th

Deepen
knowledge
base

on

Lack of
autonomy

Above bachelors

Find a
mentor

s
ce

Government
funding for
universities

Perception of university
as sole path to success

Educational
choice

Connect
with peers,
faculty and
professionals

Individualism