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[8] GENERATION OF ELECTRIC

8.1 Generation of Electrical Energy


- types of electric generator:
i)
hydroelectric generator
ii) thermal generator
iii) diesel generator
iv) gas turbine generator
v) nuclear generator
hydroelectric generator

thermal generator

Fuel : No

Fuel: Coal / petroleum

Energy changes:

Energy changes:

Potential energy kinetic energy electrical energy

Chemical E. heat E. potential E. kinetic energy


electrical energy

diesel generator

gas turbine generator

Fuel: Diesel
Energy changes:

Fuel: Natural gas

Chemical E. heat E. potential E. kinetic energy

Energy changes:

electrical energy

Chemical E. heat E. potential E. kinetic energy


electrical energy

nuclear generator
1

Nuclear
reactor

Fuel: plutonium / uranium


Energy changes:
Chemical energy nuclear energy heat E.
potential E. kinetic energy electrical energy

8.2 TRANSFORMER
Function change the voltage of alternating current (a.c.)
Type of transformer:
Step-up transformer

Step-down transformer

Symbol
Increase the voltage of

Function

Decrease the voltage of

alternating current (a.c.)


No. of turns in secondary coil is

No. of turns in secondary coil

alternating current (a.c.)


No. of turns in secondary coil is

more than

Vs

less than

No. of turns in primary coil


Output voltage vs input voltage

The no. of turns in primary coil


Output voltage is

the no. of turns in primary coil


Output voltage is
more than input voltage

less than input voltage

Relationship between no. of turns in secondary coil, no. of turns in primary coil, output voltage and
input voltage:
Input voltage

number of turns in primary coil

=
output voltage

number of turns in secondary coil

8.3 Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

National Grid Network (NGN)


- link all power station in the country
- advantages:
Ensure continuous supply of electrical energy.
Electrical energy can be channeled to other generator depend to the need.
8.4 Electricity Supply and Wiring system at Home

Electrical energy that supply to home is alternating current(a.c.) at 240V.


Supplier unit consist of main fuse and electric meter.
Consumer unit consist of main switch, miniature circuit breaker (MCB) and earth leakage
circuit breaker (ELCB).
Earth wire was connected to the body/casing of electrical appliances

Component

Function

Contains fuses that cause circuit in the house when short


circuit occurs without disrupting the others

3-pin plug
Type of wire

Colour

Green with yellow stripes

Single phase and triple phase wiring system

Figure 8.13, pg 161


(text book)

8.5 Cost of Using Electrical Energy


S.I. unit for power is watt(W) and other unit is joule per second (J/s).
In malaysia, electrical energy is mesured in unit of kilo-watt-hour(kWh)
Power is rate of energy used (energy used per second).

P
V

J
I

Power ( W )=Voltage ( V ) Current ( I )

Power ( W )=

Energy(J )
Time( s)

Electrical energy ( kWh )=Power ( kW ) Time (h)

Cost =Electrical energy ( kW h ) Cost per unit


8.6 Function of Fuse and Earth Wire
Fuse:
Function prevent excess current from flowing through electrical appliances.
Type of fuse:
o Glass cartridge fuse
o Wire fuse
Fuse value 2A, 3A, 5A, 10A, 13A, 15A
Identify suitable fuse by using formula:
Power(W )
Current ( I )=
Voltage(V )

The fuse value must be slightly higher than the current.

Earth Wire

Connect the casing of electrical appliance to the earth.


Channel leakage current into earth (earthing)

8.7 Safety Precautions in Used of Electrical Energy

Causes of Electric Accidents:


i)
Short circuit.
ii)
Overheated insulation.
iii)
Overloading outlet
iv)
Damage old wire
v)
Replace burn fuse with wire
vi)
Handling electrical applience with wet hand
vii)
Repairing electrical faults

Safety Features in Electric Circuit:


i)
Insulation wire
ii)
International colour code
iii)
Switches
iv)
Fuses
v)
Earthing
vi)
Automatic circuit breaker (MCB, ELCB)