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Chapter No. 01
PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEM
1.1

INTRODUCTION:

In daily life demand of electrical energy has been increased. It is essential for
Lighting, Heating, Domestic equipments, Industrial Machines and electric Traction. In order
to secure our precious and costly electrical equipments from being damaged. We have to
introduce some protection. Therefore it is required to take out faulty parts from healthy and
live systems that run to the system smoothly & properly. So Protection of the system has very
important role in power transmission and distribution system. It's provided the facilities of
ON/OFF switching in case of any abnormality and need for operation of electric circuit.
All ON/OFF equipments called switch gears. These switch gears consist on Protective
devices. For Example Switches, Fuses, isolators, Circuit Breakers and Relays.
During the normal operation switch gear, generator, transmission lines distributor and
other installed equipments are used for ON/OFF. But when ever any fault come in Power
system e.g. (short circuit, low or high voltage) then very high current flow in the circuits or
equipments. If faulty section did not separate from healthy circuit then losses will be more.
Therefore in the supply system we need automatic switch gears & these switch gears consist
on Relays and Circuit Breakers.
These relays are operating on Current, Voltage, Phase Angles and Frequency of our
systems. For Protection system different types of relays used. These all relays need for
operation instruments Transformers which are operate the relays. These instruments
Transformers are CT (Current Transformer) and VT (voltage Transformer) which are used to
operate the relays. Different schemes are used in Protection system but all are play on CT or
VT.
The current transformers and voltage transformers are used for transforming the
current and voltage to a lower value for the purpose of measurement, protection and control.
For trip circuit auxiliary supply will be need. This auxiliary source is DC. Which got from DC
chargers and DC Batteries? These chargers charge the Batteries and provide the dc voltage for
control circuit of protection systems. DC Batteries are used if chargers fail.
1.2

REPRESENTATION OF POWER SYSTEM


1.2.1

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

Three phase always represent with single Phase. In single Phase have one wire for
Phase and another wire for Neutral. When it represent more simple then Neutral wire will not
represent. All equipments represented by symbols. This type's of simple figures called single
line diagram. Symbols are shown in Figure No. 1.1

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Figure No. 1.1

COMPONENT

SYMBOL

ALTERNATE

Ammeter
Wattmeter
Voltmeter
Battery
Capacitor, Feed through
Capacitor, Fixed, Nonpolarized
Capacitor, Fixed, Polarized

Capacitor, Ganged, Variable


Capacitor, General
Capacitor, Variable, Single
Capacitor, Variable, Split-Stator
Fuse
Cell
Air Blast Circuit Breaker

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Attenuator, Fixed
Attenuator, Variable
Ground, Chassis
Ground, Earth
Inductor, Air-Core
Inductor, Bifilar
Inductor, Iron-Core
Inductor, Tapped
Inductor, Variable
Integrated Circuit
Lamp, Incandescent
Lamp, Neon
Male Contact, General
Female Contact, General
Positive Voltage Connection
Negative Voltage Connection

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Outlet, Utility, 117-V


Outlet, Utility, 234-V
Plug, Utility, 117-V
Plug, Utility, 234-V

Relay Coil

Potentiometer
Delay Line
Relay, DPDT
Relay, DPST
Relay, SPDT
Relay, SPST
Resistor
Fault
Rheostat
Saturable Reactor
Shielding

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Signal Generator
Switch, DPDT
Switch, DPST
Switch, Momentary-Contact
Switch, Rotary
Switch, SPDT
Switch, SPST
Terminals, General, Balanced
Terminals, General, Unbalanced
Test Point
Thermocouple
Transformer, Air-Core
Transformer, Iron-Core
Transformer, Tapped Primary
Transformer, Tapped Secondary

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1.2.2

Single Line Diagram of Generation using Symbols Shown in Figure No. 1.2

Figure No. 1.2

1.2.3

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF SUBSTATION

A sub-station consists of many sections/bays. The main equipment in a section


consists of circuit breakers, isolators or dis-connectors, earth switches, current transformers,
surge arrestors, etc. Figure No 1.3 shows a single line diagram of a section at a sub-station
identifying different components.

Figure No. 1.3

1.3

EHV TRANSMISSION SYSTEM: CONTROL AND PROTECTION

The demand for power is growing rapidly due to increased industrial and agricultural
activities in the country. Generating sets of large ratings are being set up to meet this
requirement. The generator, which is the source of power in networks, is a major component
in electrical installations. Equally important is the transmission system, which is used for
distribution and the proper utilization of power generated by power plants. A fault or
breakdown in the power plant or transmission network may have far-reaching consequences.
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It is therefore of paramount importance that the generators and transmission equipment are
optimally used and efficiently protected.
Control and protection panels have a functionally important role. They perform the following
functions:
(a) They provide facility for centralized control.
(b) They provide a point for centralized supervision at which all vital information relating to
controlled equipment is received and assimilated.
(c) They provide for necessary protection and isolation facility of all power circuits like
generators, feeders, transformers, bus-coupler, reactors, etc. The control and protection panels
provide alarm and trip commands under abnormal conditions and hence function like a
watchdog for the system.
1.3.1

TYPES OF EHV SYSTEMS

Two types of EHV transmission systems are generally employed in power system.
These are detailed below.
1.3.1.1

ONE-AND-A-HALF BREAKER SYSTEM

It is a two-bus system. An arrangement of two circuits with the associated tie breaker
is called a diameter. The diameter can be a line-line or line-transformer or transformertransformer circuit diameter. Each diameter has three breakers for two circuits, hence the
name one-and-a-half breaker system. Normally all the three breakers are closed and power is
fed to both the circuits from two buses which operate in parallel. The middle breaker or the tie
breaker acts as a bus-coupler for the two circuits.
The main advantage of this configuration is that a fault on any one bus is cleared
instantaneously and yet all circuits continue to be fed from the other bus without any supply
interruption. The same is true in case of a breaker stuck condition, but with a time delay. The
system is otherwise more expensive as it employs a higher number of breakers.
In case of failure of the breaker of any one circuit, the power is fed through the breaker of the
second circuit and the tie breaker. Each breaker, therefore, has to have a rating suitable for
feeding both the circuits. A typical single line diagram of one-and1.3.1.2

TWO MAIN AND A TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM

This system has two main buses and one transfer bus. In case of maintenance on any
one breaker, the particular circuit is connected to the system through a transfer bus-coupler or
transfer breaker. Complete control and protection is transferred in this case to the transfer
breaker through the trip transfer selector switch.
1.4

TYPICAL CIRCUITS IN AN EHV TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

The circuits in a typical EHV system are:


(a) Transmission lines;
(b) Generator transformers;
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(c) Inter-connecting transformers;


(d) Feeder transformers;
(e) Reactors;
(f) Tie/transfer bus-coupler;
(g) Bus-coupler; and
(h) Bus bars.
1.5
1.5.1

FAULTS IN POWER SYSTEM


DEFINATION OF FAULTS

In an electric system definition of fault is that cause of defect in any electrical circuit
flow of current stop or currents change his path or current value to much increase in full load
working limits.
According to American Electrical Institute definition of fault is like this "A wire or cable fault
is a partial or total failure in the insulation or continuity of a conductor ".
1.5.2

TYPES OF FAULTS IN POWER SYSTEM


1.

Over Current

2.

Under Voltage

3.

Unbalance

4.

Reversed Power

5.

Surges

In following detail of above fault


1. OVER CURRENT
This fault is cause of short circuit or corona effect leakage and some time increasing the
system load. Over current Relay used for control the fault.
2. UNDER VOLTAGE
This fault is cause of Lines fault and more voltage drop in the machines or failure the
Alternator field. Under Voltage relay use for control the fault.
3. UNBALANCE
This fault is cause of one or two Phase ground or short circuit between the two Phases or
cut of any one conductor. Due to this between different Phases different current flow. These
types of faults called Unbalance fault. Unbalances relay use for control the fault.
4. REVERSED POWER
This type of fault produced only in interconnected system. Generator field when fail then
it run like motor and Power return to generator. Means flow of power opposite direction.
Generator can burn. Reverse Power Relay used for save the generator.
5. SURGES
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Whenever Lightening or in near circuit produce serve fault then produce short live waves
of high current and voltage in the lines. These types of fault called Surges. Lighting arrestor
and over voltage used for control the surges.
1.6
INTEGRATED PROTECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR
SUB-STATION
Electrical power utilities have been using discrete electronics and electro-mechanical
devices for power system protection, metering and supervisory control. Each device
independently acquires and processes the power system data from current and potential
transformers, circuit breakers, isolators, tap changers, etc., and performs the assigned
function. Such a system suffers from two disadvantages. The first one is the cost associated
with each device acquiring power system signals independently. The second and foremost
disadvantage is that each device has only the information that it acquires directly for
performing its function.
With advancements in computer technology, it has now become possible to introduce
micro-computers, digital signal processors, and analogue to digital converters, optical
transducer and fiber-optic communication systems to acquire and process electrical power
system information in an effective manner and use it in the development of the integrated
protection and control system for a sub-station. Such a system not only provides a costeffective solution to the problems earlier faced by power utilities while using conventional
protection and control equipments but adds the good features of MMI, disturbance records
and event recording helpful for the post-fault analysis.
The integrated protection and control system provides the following features:
a. Power system protection;
b. Supervisory control and data acquisition;
c. Statistical and revenue metering;
d. Local control;
e. Voltage regulator;
f. Station battery monitoring;
g. Digital fault recording.
Figure 1.4 shows the system architecture for an integrated protection and control
system for the sub-station. The above listed functions could be achieved by adopting threelevel architecture which has been used to provide information at three distinct rates. The first
level is assigned to the protection and metering system. Real time data processing is carried
out at the highest rate for the protection and metering functions. For example, a sampling
frequency of 800 Hz is required to discretise each current/voltage signal for computing the
RMS values of that signal if the processing algorithm so selected is based on 16 samples per
cycle. The control and monitoring of sub-station equipment is carried out at a relatively lower
speed as compared to the protection system. Similarly the data analysis and archiving function
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is processed either after the critical event has passed or at a fixed interval of the order of
hours. Thus the data is available at the highest rate in the first level (protection and metering),
at a lower rate in the second level (control and sub-station monitoring) and at the lowest rate
in the third level (data analysis and archiving). Each level incorporates processor(s) to
perform the functions that are appropriate for the speed at which data is available at that level.
The system is described below.

Figure No. 1.4: Connections to primary equipments

1.7

OBJECTIVE OF PROTECTION SCHEME

The main objective of a protection scheme is to keep the power system stable by
isolating only the components that are under fault, whilst leaving as much of the network as
possible still in operation. Thus, protection schemes must apply a very pragmatic and
pessimistic approach to clearing system faults. For this reason, the technology and
philosophies utilized in protection schemes are often old and well-established because they
must be very reliable.
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Protection systems usually comprise five components:


1. Current and voltage transformers to step down the high voltages and currents of the
electrical power system to convenient levels for the relays to deal with;
2. Relays to sense the fault and initiate a trip, or disconnection, order;
3. Circuit breakers to open/close the system based on relay and auto recloser commands.
4. Batteries to provide power in case of power disconnection in the system.
5. Communication channels to allow analysis of current and voltage at remote terminals
of a line and to allow remote tripping of equipment.
For parts of a distribution system, fuses are capable of both sensing and disconnecting faults.

CHAPTER NO. 02
TRANSFORMERS OF POWER SYSTEM
2.1

HISTORY

The transformer principle was demonstrated in 1831 by Michael Faraday, although he used it
only to demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic induction and did not foresee its practical
uses. Viable designs would not appear until the 1880s, but within less than a decade, the
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transformer was instrumental during the "War of Currents" in seeing alternating current
systems triumph over their direct current counterparts, a position in which they have remained
dominant. Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov in 1876 invented a lighting system based on a
set of induction coils, where primary windings were connected to a source of alternating
current and secondary windings could be connected to several "electric candles". The patent
claimed the system could "provide separate supply to several lighting fixtures with different
luminous intensities from a single source of electric power". Evidently, the induction coil in
this system operated as a transformer.
Figure No. 2.1
A Historical Stanley Transformer.

Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs, who first exhibited a device with an open iron
core called a 'secondary generator' in London in 1882 and then sold the idea to American
company Westinghouse. They also exhibited the invention in Turin in 1884, where it was
adopted for an electric lighting system.
William Stanley, an engineer for Westinghouse, built the first commercial device in
1885 after George Westinghouse had bought Gaulard and Gibbs' patents. The core was made
from interlocking E-shaped iron plates. This design was first used commercially in 1886.
Hungarian engineers Zipernowsky, Blthy and Dri from the Ganz company in Budapest
created the efficient "ZBD" closed-core model in 1885 based on the design by Gaulard and
Gibbs. Their patent application made the first use of the word "transformer. Russian engineer
Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky developed the first three-phase transformer in 1889. In 1891
Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla coil, an air-cored, dual-tuned resonant transformer for
generating very high voltages at high frequency. Audio frequency transformers (at the time
called repeating coils) were used by the earliest experimenters in the development of the
telephone.
While new technologies have made transformers in some electronics applications obsolete,
transformers are still found in many electronic devices. Transformers are essential for high
voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.
2.2

INTRODUCTION
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A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another
through inductively coupled electrical conductors. A changing current in the first circuit (the
primary) creates a changing magnetic field; in turn, this magnetic field induces a changing
voltage in the second circuit (the secondary). By adding a load to the secondary circuit, one
can make current flow in the transformer, thus transferring energy from one circuit to the
other.
The secondary induced voltage VS is scaled from the primary VP by a factor ideally equal to
the ratio of the number of turns of wire in their respective windings:

By appropriate selection of the numbers of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating


voltage to be stepped up by making NS more than NP or stepped down, by making it
less.
Transformers are some of the most efficient electrical 'machines', with some large
units able to transfer 99.75% of their input power to their output. All operate with the same
basic principles, though a variety of designs exist to perform specialized roles throughout
home and industry.
2.3

INSTRUMENTS TRANSFORMERS

This chapter provides an overview of instrument transformers (current transformers


and voltage transformers) which are required for the measurement of electrical parameters
and for protection of equipment.
Instruments Transformers are Two Types.
1. Current transformer
2. Voltage transformers
2.3.1

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

A current transformer is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its


secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. Current transformers are
commonly used in metering and protective relaying, where they facilitate the safe
measurement of large currents. The current transformer isolates measurement and control
circuit from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured.
Figure No.2.2

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A CT for operation on a 110 kV grid

Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary


turn (either insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a wellinsulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. The CT is
typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. For
example, A 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes
when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. Care must be taken that the
secondary winding is not disconnected from its load while current flows
in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the
open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the
transformer
a.

DESIGN

The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times
around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. The CT's primary circuit
therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many hundreds of turns.
Figure No. 2.3
Current transformers, designed to be looped around conductors

The CT acts as a constant-current series device with an apparent power burden a


fraction of that of the high voltage primary circuit. Hence the primary circuit is largely
unaffected by the insertion of the CT. Common secondary are 1 or 5 amperes. For example, A
4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000
amperes. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio, with five taps being
common for multi ratio CTs.
b.

USAGE

Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the
operation of the power grid. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to
secondary. Often, multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example,
protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs).
c.

CONNECTIONS

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Typically, the secondary connection points are labeled as 1S1, 1S2, 2S1, 2S2 and so
on, or in the IEEE standard areas, X1...X5, Y1...Y5, and so on. The multi ratio CTs are
typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications.
For a three-stacked CT application, the secondary winding connection points are typically
labeled Xn, Yn, Zn.
d.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected
from its load while current is flowing in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high
voltage across the open secondary, and may permanently affect the accuracy of the
transformer.
e.

ACCURACY

The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including:

i.

burden

rating factor

load

external electromagnetic fields

temperature and

Physical configuration.
BURDEN

The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely


resistive) present. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0.1, B-0.2, B-0.5, B-1.0, B-2.0 and B4.0. This means a CT with a burden rating of B-0.2 can tolerate up to 0.2 of impedance in
the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current.
Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters
and intermediate conductors. This problem can be solved by using CT with 1 ampere
secondary which will produce less voltage drop between a CT and its metering devices.
ii.

RATING FACTOR
Figure No.2.4

Current transformers used in metering equipment for


Three-phase 400 ampere electricity supply
Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full
load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its
absolute maximum measurable primary current. Conversely,
the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is
"light load," or 10% of the nominal current (there are, however, special CTs designed to
measure accurately currents as small as 2% of the nominal current). This is made possible by
the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. This is a
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distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy, since the
CTs are most accurate between their rated current and rating factor.
iii.

PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION

Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy. While


all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law, there are some issues when
attempting to apply theory to the real world. When conductors passing through a CT are not
centered in the circular (or oval) void, slight inaccuracies may occur. It is important to center
primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy.
iv.

SPECIAL DESIGNS

Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an
oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power
systems. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output
that is proportional to the measured current. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an
external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured
current. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry, wideband CTs are rated in output volts per
ampere of primary current.
2.3.2

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS

Voltage transformers (VT's) or potential transformers (PT's) are another type of


instrument transformer, used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are
designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage
ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment
can be operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated
for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of protection relays.
The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labeled as H1, H2
(sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1, X2, and sometimes an X3 tap may be
present. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) may also be available on the
same voltage transformer. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or
phase to phase. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.
The terminal identifications (H1, X1, Y1, etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This
applies to current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral
have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential
for proper operation of metering and protection relays.
While VT's were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary, modern meters
eliminate the need VT's for most secondary service voltages. VT's are typically used in
circuits where the system voltage level is above 600 V.
Voltage transformers (VT's) are used for metering and protection in high-voltage
circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to
have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and
protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential.
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2.3.2.1

CONSTRUCTION

i.

CORES

Figure No. 2.5

Laminated core transformer showing edge of laminations at top of Unit.


ii.

LAMINATED STEEL CORES


Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies typically have cores made of high
permeability silicon steel. The steel has a permeability many times that of free space, and the
core thus serves to greatly reduce the magnetizing current, and confine the flux to a path
which closely couples the windings. Early transformer developers soon realized that cores
constructed from solid iron resulted in prohibitive eddy-current losses, and their designs
mitigated this effect with cores consisting of bundles of insulated iron wires. Later designs
constructed the core by stacking layers of thin steel laminations, a principle that has remained
in use.
The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to highly elliptical paths that
enclose little flux, and so reduce their magnitude. Thinner laminations reduce losses, but are
more laborious and expensive to construct. Thin laminations are generally used on high
frequency transformers, with some types of very thin steel laminations able to operate up to
10 kHz.
Figure No.2.6
Laminating the core greatly reduces eddy-current losses

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One common design of laminated core is made from interleaved stacks of E-shaped
steel sheets capped with I-shaped pieces, leading to its name of "E-I transformer. Such a
design tends to exhibit more losses, but is very economical to manufacture. The cut-core or Ccore type is made by winding a steel strip around a rectangular form and then bonding the
layers together. It is then cut in two, forming two C shapes, and the core assembled by binding
the two C halves together with a steel strap. They have the advantage that the flux is always
oriented parallel to the metal grains, reducing reluctance.
A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is
removed. When power is then reapplied, the residual field will cause a high inrush current
until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced, usually after a few cycles of the applied
alternating current. Over current protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow
this harmless inrush to pass. On transformers connected to long, overhead power transmission
lines, induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause
saturation of the core and operation of transformer protection devices.
iii.

SOLID CORES

Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that
operate above main frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. These materials combine
high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. For frequencies extending
beyond the VHF band, cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials called
ferrites are common. Some radio-frequency transformers also have moveable cores
(sometimes called 'slugs') which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth)
of tuned radio-frequency circuits.
iv.

TOROIDAL CORES
Figure No. 2.7
Small transformer with toroidal core

Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core, which, depending on


operating frequency, is made from a long strip of silicon steel or perm alloy wound into a coil,
powdered iron, or ferrite. A strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally
aligned, improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. The closed
ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an E-I core. The cross-section of
the ring is usually square or rectangular, but more expensive cores with circular cross-sections
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are also available. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover
the entire surface of the core. This minimizes the length of wire needed, and also provides
screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference.
Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated E-I types for a
similar power level. Other advantages compared to E-I types, include smaller size (about
half), lower weight (about half), less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio
amplifiers), lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth), low off-load losses (making them
more efficient in standby circuits), single-bolt mounting, and greater choice of shapes. The
main disadvantages are higher cost and limited rating.
v.

AIR CORES

A physical core is not an absolute requisite and a functioning transformer can be


produced simply by placing the windings in close proximity to each other, an arrangement
termed an "air-core" transformer. The air which comprises the magnetic circuit is essentially
lossless, and so an air-core transformer eliminates loss due to hysterics in the core material.
The leakage inductance is inevitably high, resulting in very poor regulation, and so such
designs are unsuitable for use in power distribution. They have however very high bandwidth,
and are frequently employed in radio-frequency applications, for which a satisfactory
coupling coefficient is maintained by carefully overlapping the primary and secondary
windings.
2.3.2.2 WINDINGS
Windings are usually arranged concentrically to minimize flux leakage

Figure No. 2.8 (B)

Figure No. 2.8 (A)

Cut view through transformer windings. White: insulator. Green spiral: Grain oriented
silicon steel. Black: Primary winding made of oxygen-free copper. Red: Secondary winding.
Top left: Toroidal transformer. Right: C-core, but E-core would be similar. The black
windings are made of film. Top: Equally low capacitance between all ends of both windings.
Since most cores are (bad) conductors they also need insulation. Bottom: Lowest capacitance

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for one end of the secondary winding needed for low-power high-voltage transformers.
Bottom left: Reduction of leakage inductance would lead to increase of capacitance.
The conducting material used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all
cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the
current travels throughout every turn. For small power and signal transformers, in which
currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are
often wound from enameled magnet wire, such as Formvar wire. Larger power transformers
operating at high voltages may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated
by oil-impregnated paper and blocks of pressboard.
High-frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz often have
windings made of braided litz wire to minimize the skin-effect and proximity effect losses.
Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well, since even at low power
frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current
windings. Each strand is individually insulated, and the strands are arranged so that at certain
points in the winding, or throughout the whole winding, each portion occupies different
relative positions in the complete conductor.
For signal transformers, the windings may be arranged in a way to minimize leakage
inductance and stray capacitance to improve high-frequency response. This can be done by
splitting up each coil into sections, and those sections placed in layers between the sections of
the other winding. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding.
Both the primary and secondary windings on power transformers may have external
connections, called taps, to intermediate points on the winding to allow selection of the
voltage ratio. The taps may be connected to an automatic on-load tap changer for voltage
regulation of distribution circuits. Audio-frequency transformers, used for the distribution of
audio to public address loudspeakers, have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each
speaker. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power
amplifier in a push-pull circuit. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar.
Certain transformers have the windings protected by
epoxy resin. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy
under a vacuum, one can replace air spaces within the
windings with epoxy, thus sealing the windings and helping
to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption
of dirt or water. This produces transformers more suited to
damp or dirty environments, but at increased manufacturing
cost.
Three-phase oil-cooled transformer with cover cut away.
The oil reservoir is visible at the top. Radiative fins aid the
dissipation of heat.
2.3.2.3

Figure No.2.9

COOLANT
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Extended operation at high temperatures is particularly damaging to transformer


insulation. Small signal transformers do not generate significant heat and need little
consideration given to their thermal management. Power transformers rated up to a few kVA
can be adequately cooled by natural convective air-cooling, sometimes assisted by fans.
Specific provision must be made for cooling high-power transformers, the larger physical size
requiring careful design to transport heat from the interior. Some power transformers are
immersed in specialized transformer oil that acts both as a cooling medium, thereby extending
the lifetime of the insulation, and helps to reduce corona discharge.
The oil-filled tank often has radiators through which the oil circulates by natural
convection; large transformers employ forced circulation of the oil by electric pumps, aided
by external fans or water-cooled heat exchangers. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged
drying processes to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the
cooling oil is introduced. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. Oil-filled
transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays, which detect gas evolved during internal
arcing and rapidly de-energize the transformer to avert catastrophic failure.
Some "dry" transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and cooled by nitrogen or
sulfur hexafluoride gas. To ensure that the gas does not leak and its insulating capability
deteriorates, the transformer casing is completely sealed. Experimental power transformers in
the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper
losses, but not the core steel loss. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium.
2.3.2.4 TERMINALS
Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the
coils, and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. Larger transformers may
have heavy bolted terminals, bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or
porcelain. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide careful control of
the electric field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil.
2.4

CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSFORMER

The many uses to which transformers are put leads them to be classified in a number
of different ways:

By power level: from a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA;

By frequency range: power-, audio-, or radio frequency;

By voltage class: from a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts;

By cooling type: air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, or water cooled;

By application function: such as power supply, impedance matching, output voltage


and current stabilizer, or circuit isolation;

By end purpose: distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output;

By winding turns ratio: step-up, step-down, isolating (near equal ratio), variable.
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CHAPTER NO. 03

6th Spring 2015 Electrical

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS IN PROTECTION


SYSTEM
3.1

CT's USING AS MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Measuring instruments, such as ammeters, voltmeters, kilowatt-hour meters, etc.


whether electromechanical or electronic, meet insuperable design problems if faced with the
high voltages or high currents commonly used in power systems. Furthermore, the range of
currents employed throughout is such that it would not be practical to manufacture
instruments on a mass production scale to meet the wide variety of current ranges required.
Current transformers are therefore used with the measuring instruments to:
(a) Isolate the instruments from the power circuits.
(b) Standardize the instruments, usually at 5 amps or 1 amp. The scale of the instrument
(according to the C T ratio), then becomes the only non-standard feature of the instrument.
Figure No. 3.1

3.1.1

METER & PILOT LEAD BURDEN

Burden is the load imposed on the secondary of the CT at rated current and is
measured in VA (product of volts and amps). The accuracy class applies only to loads at rated
VA and below; down to one quarter VA .The burden on the secondary of a CT includes the
effect of pilot leads, connections etc, as well as the instrument burden itself.
The Figure No. 3.1 (A) shows the burden imposed on the CT due to a run of pilot
wire. It will be seen that a pilot loop of 2.5mm2 wire, 60 meters long (30 meters distance) has
a load of 12.5 VA on a 5 amp CT but only 0.5VA on a 1 amp CT.
Figure No.3.1 (A)

3.1.2

ACCURACY CLASS

Accuracy classes for various types of measurement are set out in BSEN /IEC 60044-1.
it will be seen that the class designation is an approximate measure of the accuracy, e.g, Class
1 current transformers have ratio error within 1% of rated current. Phase difference is
important when power measurements are involved, i.e. Table No. 3.1
TABLE NO. 3.1 (A)
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% current ratio at % of ratio Applications


current shown below.

Class

50

120

Ammeters

Approximate Measurements

TABLE NO. 3.1 (B)

Accuracy

% current ratio error at % of rated Phase displacement (minutes) at Applications


current shown below
% of rated current shown below

Class

20

100

120

20

100

120

0.1

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.1

15

Precision
Testing
&
Measurement

0.2

0.75

0.35

0.2

0.2

30

15

10

10

Precision
Grade Meters

0.5

1.5

0.75

0.5

0.5

90

45

30

30

Tarriff kWh
Metering

60

Commercial
kWh
Metering

1.0

3.0

1.5

1.0

1.0

180

90

60

TABLE NO. 3.1 (C)

Accuracy

% current ratio error at % of rated Phase displacement (minutes) at % of rated


current shown below
current shown below

Class

20

100

120

120 5

20

100

120

120

0.2s

0.75

0.35

0.2

0.2

0.2 30

15

10

10

10

0.5s

1.5

0.75

0.5

0.5

0.5 90

45

30

30

30

When using watt meters, kilowatt-hour meters, VAr meters and Power Factor meters.

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Figure No. 3.2

3.1.3

WOUND PRIMARY CT'S

Thus, current transformers for 80 amps and below frequently require more than 1 turn
to achieve the desired accuracy class. Considering again the previous example.
Using the same core and by winding 200 secondary turns and 4 primary turns a 50/1
ratio is achieved. The magnetizing ampere turns remains at 2 as before, however the
magnetizing current becomes 2 divided by 4 turns or 0.5A and the percentage error is reduced
to 1% (approx.).
It is therefore possible to achieve accuracy requirements, without using expensive core
materials, by constructing a wound primary transformer. Of course, the cost of the primary
winding with its insulation and terminations must be weighed against the cost of the more
expensive core which would be required to achieve a 1% accuracy for a ring CT at a 50/1
ratio.
The table below details limits of error for current transformers for special applications and
having a secondary current of 5A
3.1.4

AMPERE TURNS RULE

An ideal transformer is based on the Amperes Turns Rule, i.e. Primary Ampere Turns
= Secondary Ampere Turns or: IpTp = IsTs (Ts/Tp=Ip/Is)
Thus the current transformation ins in INVERSE proportion to turns whereas voltage
transformission is in DIRECT proportion to turns ie Ts/Tp=Vs/Vp
3.1.5

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

As in all transformers, errors arise due to a proportion of the primary input current
being used to magnetize the core and not transferred to the secondary winding. The proportion
of the primary current used for this purpose determines the amount of error.
The essence of good design of measuring current transformers is to ensure that the
magnetizing current is low enough to ensure that the error specified for the accuracy class is
not exceeded.
In these most common cases the CT is supplied with a secondary winding only, the
primary being the cable or bus bar of the main conductor which is passed through the CT
aperture in the case of ring CTs (i .e. single primary turn) it should be noted that the lower the
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rated
primary
current
the
more
expensive it is) to achieve a given accuracy.

difficult

it

is

(and

the

more

Considering a core of certain fixed dimensions and magnetic materials with a


secondary winding of say 200 turns (current ratio 200/1 turns ratio 1/200) and say it takes 2
amperes of the 200A primary current to magnetize the core, the error is therefore only 1%
approximately. However considering a 50/1 CT with 50 secondary turns on the same core it
still takes 2 amperes to magnetize to core. The error is then 4% approximately. To obtain a 1%
accuracy on the 50/1 ring CT a much larger core and/or expensive core material is required.
3.1.6

SATURATION

Magnetic materials are such that when the magnetic flux reaches a certain value the
core will saturate. At this point a large proportion of the primary current is required to
magnetize the core increasing the primary current in the saturation region will therefore cause
only a marginal increase in secondary current.
This phenomenon can be used to protect an instrument against damage due to heavy
over current and a Saturation Factor is sometimes specified. For example, if a Instrument
Sensitivity Factor (Fs) of less than 5 is specified, the CT must be designed to ensure that, at
the rated burden, the core is well into the saturation region (defined point) at 51 times the
rated primary current.
3.1.7

TAPED RING CT'S (R RANGE)

Suitable for Indoor use, are probably the most common type of CT Installed in LV
switchgear and control gear Circular cores wound in clock spring fashion provide a near ideal
magnetic circuit, free of air gaps and having very low leakage or stray fields. After applying
suitable robust insulation to these cores, the windings are applied evenly around the cores by
tropical winding machines. Taped ring CTs are so used extensively in HV switchgear and
power transformers where the insulation is provided by the HV bushings. Where CTs are to be
installed under hot oil, insulation materials have to be selected to avoid pollution of the oil.
3.1.7

OPEN CIRCUIT CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

It is important to ensure that the secondary of any CT is not left disconnected while
the primary supply is on. In this condition, high voltage spikes are produced in the
transformer secondary, often thousands of volts, sufficient to break down the transformer
insulation.
3.1.9

DUAL OR MULTI-RATIO TRANSFORMERS

Frequently when a new plant is commissioned, it is planned for further extension and
consequent increase in power consumption. In this event, it may be advisable to install dual
ratio CTs with a tapped secondary to allow alterations to the metering without the expense and
disruption of replacing the CTs. In this case, the unused terminal should be left open-circuit.
3.1.10

CONSTRUCTION OF MEASURING CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

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Measuring current transformers are available in a variety of different forms and


terminations to meet the requirements of the particular installation.
Model R25

Model R40

Model R80

Model M102
3.1.11

Model R102

Model R125

Model M10235

RESIN CAST CT'S

Produced by casting the transformer in liquid resin which is then cured to the solid
state. These transformers are expensive, but they are robust and immune to difficult climatic
conditions. Special resins are now available to make the transformers suitable for outdoor use.
Resin Cast CTs are commonly used at high voltages, up to 33kV. In these applications, highly
controlled casting techniques are required to avoid air voids where corona discharge could
affect the quality of insulation.
3.1.12

ENCLOSED MOLDED CASE

CT'S (M RANGE)

Similar to the ring CTs but enclosed in tough injection molded shells to provide a
clean and uniform appearance. Mounting brackets and facilities for bus bar clamps and other
accessories can be incorporated in the mould design thereby resulting in a lower cost unit. The
speed and simplicity with which molded case CTs can be clamped to bus bars is an important
feature of the unit.
Model MT0

Model MWBD

Model M15

Model M1530

Model MT21

Model M25

Model M2530

Model MT33

Model M40

Model M4032

Model M4085

Model MT53

Model MT61

Model M64

Model M6431

3.2

CT's USING AS PROTECTION SCHEEM

Protective Current Transformers are designed to measure the actual currents in power
systems and to produce proportional currents in their secondary windings which are isolated
from the main power circuit. These replica currents are used as inputs to protective relays
which will automatically isolate part of a power circuit In the event of an abnormal or fault
condition therein, yet permit other parts of the plant to continue in operation.
Figure No.3.3

Satisfactory operation of protective relays can depend on accurate representation of


currents ranging from small leakage currents to very high over currents, requiring the
protective current transformer to be linear, and therefore below magnetic saturation. at values
up to perhaps 30 times full load current .This wide operating range means that protective
current transformers require to be constructed with larger cross-sections resulting in heavier
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cores than equivalent current transformers used for measuring duties only. For space and
economy reasons, equipment designers should however avoid over specifying protective
current transformers ITL technical staff are always prepared to assist in specifying protective
CT's but require some or all of the following information

Protected equipment and type of protection.

Maximum fault level for stability.

Sensitivity required.

Type of relay and likely setting.

Pilot wire resistance, or length of run and pilot wire used.

Primary conductor diameter or bus bar dimensions.

System voltage level.

Accuracy classes
Accuracy classes are defined as 5P or 10P with limits according to the following table
No.5.1extracted from I EC 60044-1
3.2.1

CAUTION

RELAY MANUFACTURER'S
FOLLOWED
i.

RECOMMENDATIONS

SHOULD

ALWAYS

BE

IEC SPECIFICATION

According to 60044-1 protective current transformers are specified as follows:


Rated Output:
The burden including relay and pilot wires Standard burdens are 2.5,5,75,10, 15 and 30VA.
Figure No.3.4

Table No.3.2

Accuracy Class

Current error at Phase displacement at rated primary Composite error


rated
primary current
at rated accuracy
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limit
primary
current

current
%

min

centiradians

5P

"1

"60

"1.8

10P

"3

ii.

10

ACCURACY LIMIT FACTOR

Accuracy limit Factor is defined as the multiple of rated primary current up to which
the transformer will comply with the requirements of 'Composite Error'. Composite Error is
the deviation from an ideal CT (as in Current Error), but takes account of harmonics in the
secondary current caused by non-linear magnetic conditions through the cycle at higher flux
densities.
Standard Accuracy Limit Factors are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30. The electrical requirements of a
protection current transformer can therefore be defined as:
iii.

RATIO/VA BURDEN/ACCURACY CLASS/ACCURACY LIMIT FACTOR

For example:
1600/5, 15VA 5P10 Selection of Accuracy Class & Limit Factor
3.2.2

GENERAL

Class 5P and 10P protective current transformers are generally used in over current
and unrestricted earth leakage protection. With the exception of simple trip relays, the
protective device usually has an intentional time delay, thereby ensuring that the severe effect
of transients has passed before the relay is called to operate. Protection Current Transformers
used for such applications are normally working under steady state conditions Three examples
of such protection is shown. In some systems, it may be sufficient to simply detect a fault and
isolate that circuit.

Figure No. 3.4

3.2.3

PHASE FAULT STABILITY

Current transformers which are well matched and operating below saturation, will
deliver no current to the earth fault relay, If however, the transformers are badly matched, a
spill current will arise which will trip the relay. Similarly, current transformers must operate
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below the saturation region, since, in a 3 phase system, third harmonics in the secondary are
additive through the relay thereby creating instability and erroneously tripping the earth fault
relay.
3.2.4

TIME GRADING

Time lags on relays are set in such a way that a fault in a sub-section will isolate that
section of the distribution only. Accurate time grading can be adversely affected by inaccuracy
or saturation in the associated current transformer. The following table is intended to show
typical examples of CT applications However; in all cases manufacturer's recommendations
must be followed. Table No. 3.3
Table No. 3.3

CT
VA
Secondary

Protective System

Class

Current for phase & earth 1A


fault
5A

2.5

10P20 or 5P20

7.5

10P20 or 5P20

1A

2.5

5A

7.5

Unrestricted earth fault

10P20 or 5P20

Sensitive earth fault

1A or 5A

Class PX use relay manufacturers


formulae

Distance protection

1A or 5A

Class PX use relay manufacturers


formulae

Differential protection

1A or 5A

Class PX use relay manufacturers


formulae

High impedance differential


1A or 5A
impedance

Class PX use relay manufacturers


formulae

High
speed
protection

1A or 5A

Class PX use relay manufacturers


formulae

1A or 5A 5

5P10

Motor protection
3.2.5

feeder

BALANCED FORMS OF PROTECTION

In balanced systems of protection, electrical power is monitored by the protective CTs


at two points in the system as shown in Figure No. (3.5).

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Figure No.3.5

The protected zone is between the two CTs If the power out differs from the power in,
then a fault has developed within the protected zone and the protection relay will operate. A
'Through Fault' is one outside the protected zone Should such a fault occur, the relay
protecting the protected zone will not trip, since the power out will still equal the power in.
Numerous different types of balanced systems exist and advice may often have to be obtained
from the relay manufacturer. However, in all cases Sensitivity and Stability must be
considered.
3.2.6

SENSITIVITY

Sensitivity is defined as the lowest value of primary fault current, within the protected
zone, which will cause the relay to operate. To provide fast operation on an in zone fault, the
current transformer should have a 'Knee Point Voltage' at least twice the setting voltage of the
relay.
The 'Knee Point Voltage' (Vkp) is defined as the secondary voltage at which an
increase of 10% produces an increase in magnetizing current of 50%. It is the secondary
voltage above which the CT is near magnetic saturation.
Differential relays may be set to a required sensitivity but will operate at some higher value
depending on the magnetizing currents of the CTs, for example.
The diagram shows a restricted earth fault system with the relay fed from 400/5 CTs. The
relay may be set at 10%, but it requires more than 40A to operate the relay since the CT in the
faulty phase has to deliver its own magnetizing current and that of the other CTs in addition to
the relay operating current.

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Figure No.3.6

3.2.7

STABILITY

That quality whereby a protective system remains inoperative under all conditions
other than those for which it is designed to operate, i.e. an in-zone fault Stability is defined as
the ratio of the maximum through fault current at which the system is stable to nominal full
load current. Good quality current transformers will produce linear output to the defined knee
point voltage (Vkp).
Typically,
Vkp = 2If (Rs+Rp) for stability, where
If = max through fault secondary current at stability limit
Rs = CT secondary winding resistance
Rp = loop lead resistance from CT to relay
3.2.8

TRANSIENT EFFECTS

Balanced protective systems may use time lag or high speed armature relays. Where
high speed relays are used, operation of the relay occurs in the transient region of fault

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current, which includes the dc a symmetrical component. The buildup of magnetic flux may
therefore be high enough to preclude the possibility of avoiding the saturation region.
The resulting transient instability can fortunately be overcome using some of the following
techniques.
a)
b)

Relays incorporating capacitors to block the dc asymmetrical component.


Biased relays, where dc asymmetrical currents are compensated by anti phase coils.

c)
Stabilizing resistors in series with current operated relays or in parallel with voltage
operated relays. These limit the spill current (or voltage) to a maximum value below the
setting value.
For series resistors in current operated armature relays.
Rs = (Vkp/2) - (VA/Ir),

where:

Rs = value of stabilizing resistor in ohms


Vkp = CT knee point voltage
VA = relay burden (typically 3VA)
Ir = relay setting current
Note:
The value of Rs varies with each fault setting. An adjustable resistor is therefore required for
optimum results. Often a fixed resistor suitable for mid-setting will suffice.
3.2.9

CLASS PX PROTECTION CT'S

Class 5P protection current transformers may be adequate for some balanced systems,
however more commonly; the designer will specify a special 'Class PX' CT giving the
following information.
(a) Turns ratio.
(b) Knee point voltage Vkp.
(c) Maximum exciting current al Vkp.
(d) CT secondary resistance.
TABLE NO 3.4

Apparatus

Protective System

Generator & Synchronous Differential Earth Fault


Motors
Longitudinal Differential
Transformers

12.5
12.5

Differential Earth Fault

16

Longitudinal Differential

16

Induction Motors / Busbars Differential Earth Fault


Feeders
Longitudinal Differential
3.2.10

Min. Stability Limit x Rated Current

1.25x
Starting
Current,
1x
Switchgear short-circuit rating, short
circuit rating, 30

PILOT WIRE BURDEN FOR CLASS PX CTS


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Figure No.3.7

For 'Class X' current transformers, the cross section and length of pilot wires can have
a significant effect on the required Vkp and therefore the size and cost of the CT. When the
relay is located some distance from the CT, the burden is increased by the resistance of the
pilot wires.
The graph shows the additional burden of pilot leads of various diameters. It should be noted
that, by using a 1 amp instrument and CT, the VA burden imposed by the pilot wires is
reduced by a factor of 25

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CHAPTER NO. 4

6th Spring 2015 Electrical

CIRCUIT BREAKERS
A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an
electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Unlike a fuse, which
operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or
automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from
small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed
to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.
Figure No.4.1
A 2 pole miniature circuit breaker

4.1
4.1.1

PRINCIPLES
CLOSING

In dc circuits the current reaches about 95% of its final steady state value after time 3,
where is the time constant. Similarly, when an alternating current is closed, the current
reaches a steady value after a transient process. The time depends upon the resistive, inductive
and capacitive elements of the circuit. The highest switching current is achieved if switching
is effected at zero voltage (very high peak currents can develop if the switch is closed on short
circuit conditions).
4.1.2

OPENING

Below a threshold voltage, any circuit can be opened without any arc formation. In
practice, however, the commonly used switches do produce an arc while interrupting the
current. The arc must be either kept limited or extinguished at the earliest in order not to
damage the contacts.
4.1.3

CONTACTS

Copper is by far the most widely used contact material. But since non-conducting
layers are formed on copper contacts as a result of switching, a wiping action is provided
while designing copper contacts. These are also plated with a layer of silver in many
applications. In low voltage circuits, silver is also in use as contact material.
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4.1.4

ARC EXTINCTION

Since switching almost invariably gives rise to arcing, extinguishing such arcs
assumes vital importance to prolong contact life.
The following methods are employed:
1. Lengthening of the arc till it extinguishes
2. Intensive cooling (in jet chambers)
3. Division into partial arcs
4. Zero point quenching
5. Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in dc circuits f) Use of vacuum g) Use of
air h) Use of oil
4.1.5

INSULATION

The contacts need to be kept properly insulated from other metal parts including the
body. Different insulating materials are in use. The most commonly used material is cast
epoxy. Besides, PVC, polystyrene, polycarbonate and ceramics are also in use.
4.2

OPERATION

All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although details vary
substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the circuit breaker. The
circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually
done within the breaker enclosure. Large high-voltage circuit breakers have separate devices
to sense an over current or other faults. Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit
breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically stored energy within the breaker
is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from
the fault current itself. When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated - this arc must be
contained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts
can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Finally, once the fault condition has been
cleared, the contacts must again be reclosed to restore power to the interrupted circuit.
4.2.1

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT BREAKER

Magnetic circuit breakers use a solenoid (electromagnet) that's pulling force increases
with the current. The circuit breaker contacts are held closed by a latch. As the current in the
solenoid increases beyond the rating of the circuit breaker, the solenoid's pull releases the
latch which then allows the contacts to open by spring action. Some types of magnetic
breakers incorporate a hydraulic time delay feature using a viscous fluid. The core is
restrained by a spring until the current exceeds the breaker rating. During an overload, the
speed of the solenoid motion is restricted by the fluid. The delay permits brief current surges
beyond normal running current for motor starting, energizing equipment, etc. Short circuit
currents provide sufficient solenoid force to release the latch regardless of core position thus
bypassing the delay feature. Ambient temperature affects the time delay but does not affect
the current rating of a magnetic breaker.
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4.2.2

THERMAL CIRCUIT BREAKER

Thermal breakers use a bimetallic strip, which heats and bend with increased current,
and is similarly arranged to release the latch. This type is commonly used with motor control
circuits. Thermal breakers often have a compensation element to reduce the effect of ambient
temperature on the device rating.
4.2.3

THERMOMAGNETIC CIRCUIT BREAKER

Thermo magnetic circuit breakers, which are the type found in most distribution
boards, incorporate both techniques with the electromagnet responding instantaneously to
large surges in current (short circuits) and the bimetallic strip responding to less extreme but
longer-term over current conditions.
4.2.3

HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Circuit breakers for larger currents are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a
fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases the
latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage circuit breakers
are self-contained with current transformers, protection relays, and an internal control power
source.
4.3

ARC INTERRUPTION

Miniature low-voltage circuit breakers use air alone to extinguish the arc. Larger
ratings will have metal plates or non-metallic arc chutes to divide and cool the arc.
Oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil through the
arc.
Gas (SF6) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and then
rely upon the dielectric strength of the SF6 to quench the stretched arc.
Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other than the
contact material), so the arc quenches when it is stretched a very small amount (<2-3 mm).
Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 35,000
volts.
Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current very quickly: typically the arc
is extinguished between 30 ms and 150 ms after the mechanism has been tripped, depending
upon the age and construction of the device.
4.4

PROTECTION

Under short-circuit conditions, a current many times greater than normal can flow (see
maximum prospective short circuit current). When electrical contacts open to interrupt a large
current, there is a tendency for an arc to form between the opened contacts, which would
allow the flow of current to continue. Therefore, circuit breakers must incorporate various
features to divide and extinguish the arc. In air-insulated and miniature breakers an arc chutes
structure consisting (often) of metal plates or ceramic ridges cools the arc, and magnetic
blowout coils deflect the arc into the arc chute. Larger circuit breakers such as those used in
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electrical power distribution may use vacuum, an inert gas such as sulfur hexafluoride or have
contacts immersed in oil to suppress the arc.
The maximum short-circuit current that a breaker can interrupt is determined by testing.
Application of a breaker in a circuit with a prospective short-circuit current higher than the
breaker's interrupting capacity rating may result in failure of the breaker to safely interrupt a
fault. In a worst-case scenario the breaker may successfully interrupt the fault, only to explode
when resets, injuring the technician. Power circuit breakers are built into switchgear cabinets.
4.5

TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER


Figure No.4.1

Front panel of a 1250 A air circuit breaker manufactured by ABB. This low voltage
power circuit breaker can be withdrawn from its housing for servicing. Trip characteristics are
configurable via DIP switches on the front panel.
Many different classifications of circuit breakers can be made, based on their features
such as voltage class, construction type, interrupting type, and structural features.
Low voltage (less than 1000 V AC) types are common in domestic, commercial and industrial
application, include:

MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker) rated current not more than 100 A. Trip characteristics
normally not adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Breakers illustrated
above are in this category.

MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker) rated current up to 1000 A. Thermal or thermalmagnetic operation. Trip current may be adjustable in larger ratings.

Low voltage power circuit breakers can be mounted in multi-tiers in LV switchboards.

The characteristics of LV circuit breakers are given by international standards such as


IEC 947. These circuit breakers are often installed in draw-out enclosures that allow removal
and interchange without dismantling the switchgear.
Large low-voltage molded case and power circuit breakers may have electrical motor
operators, allowing them to be tripped (opened) and closed under remote control. These may
form part of an automatic transfer switch system for standby power.
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Low-voltage circuit breakers are also made for direct-current (DC) applications, for
example DC supplied for subway lines. Special breakers are required for direct current
because the arc does not have a natural tendency to go out on each half cycle as for alternating
current.
Medium-voltage circuit breakers rated between 1 and 72 kV may be assembled into
metal-enclosed switchgear line ups for indoor use, or may be individual components installed
outdoors in a substation. Air-break circuit breakers replaced oil-filled units for indoor
applications, but are now themselves being replaced by vacuum circuit breakers (up to about
35 kV). Like high voltage circuit breakers described below, these are also operated by current
sensing protective relays operated through current transformers.
Electric power systems require the breaking of higher currents at higher voltages. Highvoltage breakers may be free-standing outdoor equipment or a component of a gas-insulated
switchgear line-up. Examples of high-voltage AC circuit breakers are:

Vacuum circuit breakerwith rated current up to 3000 A, these breakers interrupts the
current by creating and extinguishing the arc in a vacuum container. These can only be
practically applied for voltages up to about 35,000 V, which corresponds roughly to the
medium-voltage range of power systems.

Air circuit breakerrated current up to 10,000 A. Trip characteristics are often fully
adjustable including configurable trip thresholds and delays. Usually electronically
controlled, though some models are microprocessor controlled via an integral electronic
trip unit.

4.6

LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS


Figure No.4.2
Photo of inside of a circuit breaker

Small circuit breakers are either installed directly in equipment, or are arranged in a breaker
panel.
The 10 ampere DIN rail mounted thermal-magnetic miniature circuit breaker is the most
common style in modern domestic consumer units and commercial electrical distribution
boards throughout Europe. The design includes the following components:

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1.

Actuator lever - used to manually trip and reset the circuit breaker. Also indicates the
status of the circuit breaker (On or Off/tripped). Most breakers are designed so they can
still trip even if the lever is held or locked in the on position. This is sometimes referred
to as "free trip" or "positive trip" operation.

2.

Actuator mechanism - forces the contacts together or apart.

3.

Contacts - Allow current to flow when touching and break the flow of current when
moved apart.

4.

Terminals

5.

Bimetallic strip

6.

Calibration screw - allows the manufacturer to precisely adjust the trip current of the
device after assembly.

7.

Solenoid

8.

Arc divider / extinguisher

4.7

RATED CURRENT

International Standard IEC 60898-1 and European Standard EN 60898-1 define the
rated current In of a circuit breaker for household applications as the current that the breaker is
designed to carry continuously (at an ambient air temperature of 30 C). The commonlyavailable preferred values for the rated current are 6 A, 10 A, 13 A, 16 A, 20 A, 25 A, 32 A, 40
A, 50 A, 63 A, 80 A and 100 A (Reynard series, slightly modified to include current limit of
British BS 1363 sockets). The circuit breaker is labeled with the rated current in ampere, but
without the unit symbol "A". Instead, the ampere figure is preceded by a letter "B", "C" or
"D" that indicates the instantaneous tripping current, that is the minimum value of current
that causes the circuit-breaker to trip without intentional time delay (i.e., in less than 100 ms)
Type Instantaneous tripping current
B

above 3In up to and including 5In

above 5In up to and including 10In

above 10In up to and including 20In


above 8In up to and including 12In

For the protection of loads that cause frequent short duration (approximately 400 ms to
2 s) current peaks in normal operation.
above 2In up to and including 3In for periods in the order of tens of seconds.

For the protection of loads such as semiconductor devices or measuring circuits using
current transformers.

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4.8

COMMON TRIP BREAKERS


Figure No. 4.3

Three pole common trip breaker for supplying a three-phase device. This breaker has a 2
Amp. Rating
When supplying a branch circuit with more than one live conductor, each live
conductor must be protected by a breaker pole. To ensure that all live conductors are
interrupted when any pole trips, a "common trip" breaker must be used. These may either
contain two or three tripping mechanisms within one case, or for small breakers, may
externally tie the poles together via their operating handles. Two pole common trip breakers
are common on 120/240 volt systems where 240 volt loads (including major appliances or
further distribution boards) span the two live wires. Three pole common trip breakers are
typically used to supply three phase power to large motors or further distribution boards.
4.9

HIGH-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Figure no.4.4

a 1200 A 3-pole 115,000 V breaker

Electrical power transmission networks are protected and controlled by high-voltage


breakers. The definition of "high voltage" varies but in power transmission work is usually
thought to be 72,500 V or higher, according to a recent definition by the International Electro
technical Commission (IEC). High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated, with
current sensing protective relays operated through current transformers. In substations the
protection relay scheme can be complex, protecting equipment and busses from various types
of overload or ground/earth fault.
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High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc.

Oil-filled (dead tank and live tank)

Oil-filled, minimum oil volume

Air blast

Sulfur hexafluoride or SF6

High voltage breakers are routinely available up to 765 kV AC.


Live tank circuit breakers are where the enclosure that contains the breaking mechanism is at
line potential, that is, "Live". Dead tank circuit breaker enclosures are at earth potential.
4.9.1

INTERRUPTING
BREAKERS

PRINCIPLES

FOR

HIGH-

VOLTAGE

CIRCUIT-

High-voltage circuit-breakers have greatly changed since they were first introduced
about 40 years ago, and several interrupting principles have been developed that have
contributed successively to a large reduction of the operating energy. These breakers are
available for indoor or outdoor applications, the latter being in the form of breaker poles
housed in ceramic insulators mounted on a structure.
Current interruption in a high-voltage circuit-breaker is obtained by separating two
contacts in a medium, such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), having excellent dielectrically and
arc quenching properties. After contact separation, current is carried through an arc and is
interrupted when this arc is cooled by a gas blast of sufficient intensity.
Gas blast applied on the arc must be able to cool it rapidly so that gas temperature
between the contacts is reduced from 20,000 K to less than 2000 K in a few hundred
microseconds, so that it is able to withstand the transient recovery voltage that is applied
across the contacts after current interruption. Sulfur hexafluoride is generally used in present
high-voltage circuit-breakers (of rated voltage higher than 52 kV).
4.9.2

BRIEF HISTORY

The first patents on the use of SF 6 as an interrupting medium were filed in Germany in
1938 by Vitally Grosse (AEG) and independently later in the USA in July 1951 by H.J.
Lingual, T.E. Browne and A.P. Storm (Westinghouse). The first industrial application of SF 6
for current interruption dates back to 1953. High-voltage 15 kV to 161 kV load switches were
developed with a breaking capacity of 600 A. The first high-voltage SF 6 circuit-breaker built
in 1956 by Westinghouse, could interrupt 5 kA under 115 kV, but it had 6 interrupting
chambers in series per pole. In 1957, the puffer-type technique was introduced for SF 6 circuit
breakers where the relative movement of a piston and a cylinder linked to the moving part is
used to generate the pressure rise necessary to blast the arc via a nozzle made of insulating
material (figure 1). In this technique, the pressure rise is obtained mainly by gas compression.
The first high-voltage SF6 circuit-breaker with a high short-circuit current capability was
produced by Westinghouse in 1959. This dead tank circuit-breaker could interrupt 41.8 kA
under 138 kV (10,000 MVA) and 37.6 kA under 230 kV (15,000 MVA). These
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performances were already significant, but the three chambers per pole and the high pressure
source needed for the blast (1.35 MPa) was a constraint that had to be avoided in subsequent
developments. The excellent properties of SF6 lead to the fast extension of this technique in
the 1970s and to its use for the development of circuit breakers with high interrupting
capability, up to 800 kV.

Figure No. 4.4

The achievement around 1983 of the first single-break 245 kV and the corresponding
420kV to 550 kV and 800 kV, with respectively 2, 3, and 4 chambers per pole, lead to the
dominance of SF6 circuit breakers in the complete range of high voltages.
Several characteristics of SF6 circuit breakers can explain their success:
Simplicity of the interrupting chamber which does not need an auxiliary breaking chamber;

Autonomy provided by the puffer technique;

The possibility to obtain the highest performance, up to 63 kA, with a reduced number
of interrupting chambers;

Short break time of 2 to 2.5 cycles;

High electrical endurance, allowing at least 25 years of operation without


reconditioning;

Possible compact solutions when used for GIS or hybrid switchgear;

Reliability and availability;

Low noise levels.

The reduction in the number of interrupting chambers per pole has led to a considerable
simplification of circuit breakers as well as the number of parts and seals required. As a direct
consequence, the reliability of circuit breakers improved, as verified later on by CIGRE
surveys.
4.9.3

THERMAL BLAST CHAMBERS

New types of SF6 breaking chambers, which implement innovative interrupting


principles, have been developed over the past 15 years, with the objective of reducing the
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operating energy of the circuit-breaker. One aim of this evolution was to further increase the
reliability by reducing the dynamic forces in the pole. Developments since 1996 have seen the
use of the self-blast technique of interruption for SF6 interrupting chambers.
These developments have been facilitated by the progress made in digital simulations that
were widely used to optimize the geometry of the interrupting chamber and the linkage
between the poles and the mechanism.

Figure No.4.5

This technique has proved to be very efficient and has been widely applied for high
voltage circuit breakers up to 550 kV. It has allowed the development of new ranges of circuit
breakers operated by low energy spring-operated mechanisms.
The reduction of operating energy was mainly achieved by the lowering energy used for gas
compression and by making increased use of arc energy to produce the pressure necessary to
quench the arc and obtain current interruption. Low current interruption, up to about 30% of
rated short-circuit current, is obtained by a puffer blast.
4.9.4

SELF-BLAST CHAMBERS

Further development in the thermal blast technique was made by the introduction of a
valve between the expansion and compression volumes. When interrupting low currents the
valve opens under the effect of the overpressure generated in the compression volume. The
blow-out of the arc is made as in a puffer circuit breaker thanks to the compression of the gas
obtained by the piston action. In the case of high currents interruption, the arc energy
produces a high overpressure in the expansion volume, which leads to the closure of the valve
and thus isolating the expansion volume from the compression volume. The overpressure
necessary for breaking is obtained by the optimal use of the thermal effect and of the nozzle
clogging effect produced whenever the cross-section of the arc significantly reduces the
exhaust of gas in the nozzle. In order to avoid excessive energy consumption by gas
compression, a valve is fitted on the piston in order to limit the overpressure in the
compression to a value necessary for the interruption of low short circuit currents.
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Figure No. 4.6

Self-blast circuit breaker chamber (1) closed, (2) interrupting low current, (3) interrupting
high current, and (4) open.
This technique, known as self-blast has now been used extensively since 1996 for
the development of many types of interrupting chambers. The increased understanding of arc
interruption obtained by digital simulations and validation through breaking tests, contribute
to a higher reliability of these self-blast circuit breakers. In addition the reduction in operating
energy, allowed by the self blast technique, leads to longer service life.
4.9.5

DOUBLE MOTION OF CONTACTS

An important decrease in operating energy can also be obtained by reducing the


kinetic energy consumed during the tripping operation. One way is to displace the two arcing
contacts in opposite directions so that the arc speed is half that of a conventional layout with a
single mobile contact in Figure No.4.7
Figure No.4.7

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The thermal and self blast principles have enabled the use of low energy spring
mechanisms for the operation of high voltage circuit breakers. They progressively replaced
the puffer technique in the 1980s; first in 72.5 kV breakers, and then from 145 kV to 800 kV.
4.9.6
COMPARISON
TECHNIQUES

OF

SINGLE

MOTION

AND

DOUBLE

MOTION

The double motion technique halves the tripping speed of the moving part. In
principle, the kinetic energy could be quartered if the total moving mass was not increased.
However, as the total moving mass is increased, the practical reduction in kinetic energy is
closer to 60%. The total tripping energy also includes the compression energy, which is
almost the same for both techniques. Thus, the reduction of the total tripping energy is lower,
about 30%, although the exact value depends on the application and the operating mechanism.
4.9.7

THERMAL BLAST CHAMBER WITH ARC-ASSISTED OPENING

In this interruption principle arc energy is used, on the one hand to generate the blast
by thermal expansion and, on the other hand, to accelerate the moving part of the circuit
breaker when interrupting high currents. The overpressure produced by the arc energy
downstream of the interruption zone is applied on an auxiliary piston linked with the moving
part. The resulting force accelerates the moving part, thus increasing the energy available for
tripping.
With this interrupting principle it is possible, during high-current interruptions, to
increase by about 30% the tripping energy delivered by the operating mechanism and to
maintain the opening speed independently of the current. It is obviously better suited to
circuit-breakers with high breaking currents such as Generator circuit-breakers.
Figure No.4.8

Generator circuit-breakers

Generator circuit breaker rated for 17.5 kV and 63 kA


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Generator circuit-breakers are connected between a generator and the step-up voltage
transformer. They are generally used at the outlet of high power generators (100 MVA to
1800 MVA) in order to protect them in a reliable, fast and economic manner. Such circuit
breakers must be able to allow the passage of high permanent currents under continuous
service (6.3 kA to 40 kA), and have a high breaking capacity (63 kA to 275 kA). They belong
to the medium voltage range, but the TRV withstand capability required by ANSI/IEEE
Standard C37.013 is such that the interrupting principles developed for the high-voltage range
must be used. A particular embodiment of the thermal blast technique has been developed and
applied to generator circuit-breakers.
4.9.8

EVOLUTION OF TRIPPING ENERGY

The operating energy has been reduced by 5 to 7 times during this period of 27 years.
This illustrates well the great progress made in this field of interrupting techniques for highvoltage circuit-breakers.
4.9.9

FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

In the near future, present interrupting technologies can be applied to circuit-breakers


with the higher rated breaking currents (63 kA to 80 kA) required in some networks with
increasing power generation.
Self blast or thermal blast circuit breakers are nowadays accepted worldwide and they have
been in service for high voltage applications for about 15 years, starting with the voltage level
of 72.5 kV. Today this technique is also available for the voltage levels 420/550/800 kV.
4.10

OTHER BREAKERS

The following types are described in separate articles.

Breakers for protections against earth faults too small to trip an over current device:

RCDResidual Current Device (formerly known as a Residual Current Circuit


Breaker) - detects current imbalance. Does NOT provide over current protection.

RCBOResidual Current Breaker with Over current protection - combines the


functions of an RCD and an MCB in one package. In the United States and Canada,
panel-mounted devices that combine ground (earth) fault detection and over current
protection are called Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) breakers; a wall
mounted outlet device providing ground fault detection only is called a GFI.

ELCBEarth leakage circuit breaker. This detects earth current directly rather than
detecting imbalance. They are no longer seen in new installations for various reasons.

Auto recloser A type of circuit breaker which closes again after a delay. These are used
on overhead power distribution systems, to prevent short duration faults from causing
sustained outages.

Polyswitch (polyfuse) A small device commonly described as an automaticallyresetting fuse rather than a circuit breaker.
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CHAPTER NO. 5
PROTECTION RELAYS
5.1

INTRODUCTION

A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another
electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or
close one or many sets of contacts. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay
is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it can be considered
to be, in a broad sense, a form of an electrical amplifier. OR
Protective Relay is such a device that used between main circuit and circuit breaker.
When Relay feels any abnormality in a circuit, it gives trip signal to the circuit breaker and
circuit breaker trip (circuit breaker open and kept out faulty section from live circuit) and also
gives indication signal to control room.
All electric power systems constitute certain basic components such as generating
stations, transformers, transmission lines and motors. But we all know that for proper and
efficient functioning, the power system incorporates many other important components.
Protective relays are one of those vital constituents of the power system.
The function of protective relay is to affect disconnection of any faulty section of the
power system from service. A fault is said to have occurred in a section when it suffers a
short-circuit or when it starts behaving in an abnormal manner due to any other reason. This
may cause damage to the equipment or otherwise endanger the effective and healthy operation
of the system. A protective relay senses the abnormal condition and the task of isolation of the
faulty section is achieved through a circuit breaking device which is capable of disconnecting
the faulty element.
Protective relays need the fundamental power system quantities, i.e. current and/or
voltage as an input to provide the protection function. These input(s) are given to the relay(s)
either directly or through instrument transformers, where necessary. Electrical relays are of
many types and it is difficult to give a precise definition of a protective relay which covers all
types. The following definition is, however, generally accepted:
An electrical relay is a device designed to produce sudden, pre-determined changes in one
or more electrical output circuits, when certain conditions are fulfilled in the electrical input
circuits controlling the device.
Hence, we can say that a protective relay is an electrically operated device designed to
sense the identified circuit parameters and to initiate disconnection, with or without a warning
signal, of the intended part of an electrical section in case of any abnormal condition in the
installation and with minimum interruption to overall system.
Like all other constituents of the power system, protective relaying should also be
evaluated on the basis of its contribution to the best economically possible service to the
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customers. The contribution of protective relays is to help the rest of the power system to
function as efficiently and effectively as possible in the event of abnormal conditions. By
prompt sensing and removal of the faulty section, the effects of the following undesirable
situations, which adversely affect the overall economy of power system operation, are
minimized:

The cost of restoring the damaged section

The chances of the fault spreading and subsequent damage

The down-time of the equipment

The loss in revenue and the strained public relations due to equipment outage

Although all varieties of the protective relays aim to achieve the same functions as described
above, these can be grouped into the following three types distinct generations:
1.

First generation :

Electromechanical relays

2.

Second generation :

Static relays

3.

Third generation :

Numerical relays

5.2

TYPES OF RELAY

5.2.1

ELECTROMAGNATIC OR ELECTROMECHINICL RELAYS


A. ELECTROMAGNATIC ATTRECTION TYPE
B. ELECTROMAGNATIC INDUCTION TYPE
C. MAGNATIC AMPLIFIER OR SATURABLE CORE REACTOR RELAY

5.2.1.1

ELECTROMAGNATIC ATTRECTION TYPE


Electromagnetic Attraction Type Are Divided In These Three Types
a. Attracted Armature Type
b. Balanced Beam Type
c. Polarized Moving Iron Type

5.2.1.2

ELECTROMAGNATIC INDUCTION TYPE

Electromagnetic Induction Type Are Divided In These Types.


a) Moving Disc Type
i.

Induction Disc Type

ii.

Induction Cup Type

iii.

Watt hour Meter Type

b) Moving Coil Type


i.

Dynamometer type Moving Coil

ii.

Axial type Moving Coil

iii.

Rotary Moving Coil


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5.2.2.

THERMO ELECTRIC RELAY

These relays are working on Heat Effect.


5.2.3

PHYSICO ELECTRIC RELAY

It is also called Gas Relay because it is working gas principal For Example. Buchholz relay.
5.2.4

SOLID STATE OR ELECTRONIC OR STATIC RELAY

In solid state relay without mechanical motion Magnetic Electronic or through other
component produce response. For solid state Response component used Transformers,
Diodes, Resistors, Capacitors, etc.

5.2.5

i.

Thermionic Relay

In these relay vacuum tube are used.

ii.

Thyretron Relay

In these Relay Gas Filled Tube are used.

iii.

Semiconductor Relay

In these Relay solid state devices are used.

iv.

Photo Electric Relay

In these Relay diode and transistor are used.

NUMIRICAL OR DIGATAL RELAY

A digital protective relay utilizes a microcontroller with software based protection


algorithms for the detection of electrical faults. It is multi user relay and all functions are in
one module.
5.3

USING OF THE RELAYS

It is often desirable or essential to isolate one circuit electrically from another, while
still allowing the first circuit to control the second. For example, if you wanted to control a
high-voltage circuit from your computer, you would probably not want to connect it directly
to a low-voltage port on the back of your computer in case something went wrong and the
mains electricity ended up destroying the expensive parts inside your computer.
One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a
relay between them, as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1. A relay consists of a coil
which may be energized by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts
which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit.

5.4

HOW RELAYS WORK

In figure 2a the relay is off. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact
between the Normally Closed (N.C.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.

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If a current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and
there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.O.) switch contact and the common
switch contact, as shown in figure 2b.

5.5

CHOOSING A RELAY

When choosing a relay to use in a circuit, you need to bear in mind properties of both
the coil and the switch contacts. Firstly, you will need to find a relay that has the required
number of switch poles for your application. You then need to make sure that the switch
contacts can cope with the voltage and current you intend to use - for example, if you were
using the relay to switch a 60W mains lamp on and off, the switch contacts would need to be
rated for at least 250mA at 240V AC (or whatever the mains voltage is in your country).
Finally, you need to choose a relay that has a coil that can be energized by your lowvoltage control circuit. Relay coils are generally rated by their voltage and resistance, so you
can work out their current consumption using Ohm's Law. You will need to make sure that
the circuit powering the coil can supply enough current, otherwise the relay will not operate
properly.
5.6

THE LATCHING RELAY CIRCUIT

If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3, it will become 'latched' on when the coil is
energized by pressing the Trigger button. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to
cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).
The technical name for this type of behavior is
'bistable', since the circuit has two stable states for its output
on and off. Bistable circuits can also be constructed using
many other components, including the 555 timer IC and
transistors. What's the point of this circuit? The Normally
Open switch contact of the relay could also be connected to a
device such as a motor, as shown by the dotted connections in
figure 3. The device will then run indefinitely until some

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event (maybe triggered by the device) momentarily presses the Reset button, thereby turning
off the coil ready for the Trigger button to be pressed again.
This system could be used in a model which needs a 'Push to Operate' button. A motor and
gearing system in the model can be used to press the Reset button to cut the power to the relay
coil after the model has been running for a certain amount of time, or until a certain event has
occurred. Of course, you would have to be sure that there was enough momentum in the
mechanism that the button is released ready for the next cycle.
5.7
TYPES OF RELAY WITH RESPECT TO PURPOSE OR
APPLICATION
i.

Under Voltage Relay

ii.

Under Current Relay

iii.

Over Voltage Relay

iv.

Over Current Relay

v.

Earth Fault Relay

vi.

Reverse Power Relay

vii.

Differential Relay

viii.

Distance Relay

ix.

Directional over Current Relay

x.

Under Frequency Relay

xi.

Gas Pressure Relay

xii.

Thermal Relay

5.8
CLASSIFICATION
OF
RELAY
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
5.8.1

WITH

RESPECT

TO

Under Voltage Under Current and Under Power

This Relay Operate when values of voltage current or power decrease.


5.8.2

Over Voltage, Over Current and Power Relay

This Relay Operate when values of voltage current or power increase.


5.8.3

Directional or Reverse Current Relay

This relay operate when specific Phase displacement produce between given
current and this relay is compensated for fall in voltage.
5.8.4

voltage and

Directional or Reverse Power Relay

This relay operate when specific Phase displacement produce between given voltage
and current and this relay is not compensated for fall in voltage. Means when flow of power
opposed direction flow. For example. Generator run as an Motor.
5.8.5

Differential Relay
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When between two or more electrical quantities or values in phase or Magnitude


difference produce then this relay operate. It is used for Generator and Transformer
protection.
5.8.6

Distance Relay

This Relay depends on voltage and current values or Impedance. Therefore also called
impedance relay. It is used for Transmission Lines protection.
5.9
5.9.1

CLASSIFICATION OF RELAY WITH RESPECT TO FUNCTION


INSTANTANEOUS RELAY

In this relay no any delay time. It operates in minimum time therefore it is also called
High speed relay. According to law of high speed which relay operate in 0.05 second called
High speed relay. This relay operating time is 0.01 to 0.1 second. Its means when fault current
or voltage increase or decreased from particular specified value then it operate with out any
delay and keep open the circuit breaker.
5.9.2

DFINATE TIME LAG RELAY

This relay operates a specific given time. It depends on the value of current or voltage.
We can set this time according to over requirement.
5.9.3

INVERSE TIME LAG RELAY

In this relay electrical quantity value and Time of operation inversely proportional to
the each other. Means electrical quantity value (voltage or current, power etc.) increase and
time of operation will decrease.
5.9.4

INVERSE DEFINITE TIME RELAY (IDMT)

These relays operating time inversely proportional to the provided electrical minimum
quantity value. In this relay time of operation fix and time will not decrease if fault current
increase.
5.10

FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS

A protective relay is a complex electromechanical apparatus, often with more than one
coil, designed to calculate operating conditions on an electrical circuit and trip circuit breakers
when a fault was found. Unlike switching type relays with fixed and usually ill-defined
operating voltage thresholds and operating times, protective relays had well-established,
selectable, time/current (or other operating parameter) curves. Such relays were very
elaborate, using arrays of induction disks, shaded-pole magnets, operating and restraint coils,
solenoid-type operators, telephone-relay style contacts, and phase-shifting networks to allow
the relay to respond to such conditions as over-current, over-voltage, reverse power flow,
over- and under- frequency, and even distance relays that would trip for faults up to a certain
distance away from a substation but not beyond that point. The various protective functions
available on a given relay are denoted by standard ANSI Device Numbers. For example, a
relay including function 51 would be a timed over current protective relay.
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These protective relays provide various types of electrical protection by detecting abnormal
conditions and isolating them from the rest of the electrical system by circuit breaker
operation. Such relays may be located at the service entrance or at major load centers.
5.10.1

OVER CURRENT RELAY

An "Over current Relay" is a type of protective relay which operates when the load
current exceeds a preset value. The ANSI Device Designation Number is 50 for an
Instantaneous over Current (IOC), 51 for a Time over Current (TOC). In a typical application
the over current relay is used for over current protection, connected to a current transformer
and calibrated to operate at or above a specific current level. When the relay operates, one or
more contacts will operate and energize a trip coil in a Circuit Breaker and trip (open) the
Circuit Breaker.
5.10.2

DISTANCE RELAY

It is a protective relay used to protect power transmission and distribution lines against
different fault types. The relay monitors line impedance by measuring line voltage and
current. Once a fault occurs, the voltage drops to zero and thus the measured impedance
become less than the setting value ``reach``. As a result the relay issues a trip command.
5.10.3

BUCHHOLZ RELAY

A Buchholz relay is a safety device sensing the accumulation of gas in large oil-filled
transformers, which will alarm on slow accumulation of gas or shut down the transformer if
gas is produced rapidly in the transformer oil.
5.10.4

SOLID-STATE RELAY

A solid state relay (SSR) is a solid state electronic component that provides a similar
function to an electromechanical relay but does not have any moving components, increasing
long-term reliability. With early SSR's, the tradeoff came from the fact that every transistor
has a small voltage drop across it. This collective voltage drop limited the amount of current a
given SSR could handle. As transistors improved, higher current SSR's, able to handle 100 to
1,200 amps, have become commercially available. Compared to electromagnetic relays, they
may be falsely triggered by transients.
5.10.5

DIGITAL OR NUMERICAL PROTECTIVE RELAY

A digital protective relay utilizes a microcontroller with software based protection


algorithms for the detection of electrical faults. It is multi user relay and all functions are in
one module. Its control by software logic programming.
5.11
RELAY

DESCRIPTION AND DEFINITION OF DIGITAL PROTECTIVE

The digital protective relay, also called a numeric relay by some manufacturers and
resources, refers to a protective relay that uses an advanced microprocessor to analyze power
system voltages and currents for the purpose of detection of faults in an electric power
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system. There are gray areas on what constitutes a digital/numeric relay, but most engineers
will recognize the design as having the majority of these attributes:

The relay applies A/D (analog/digital) conversion processes to the incoming voltages and
currents.

The relay analyzes the A/D converter output to extract, as a minimum, magnitude of the
incoming quantity; most commonly using Fourier transform concepts (RMS and some
form of averaging are used in basic products

The relay is capable of applying advanced logic. It is capable of analyzing whether the
relay should trip or restrain from tripping based on current and/or voltage magnitude (and
angle in some applications), complex parameters set by the user, relay contact inputs, and
in some applications, the timing and order of event sequences.

The logic is user-configurable at a level well beyond simply changing front panel switches
or moving of jumpers on a circuit board.

The relay has an extensive collection of settings, beyond what can be entered via front
panel knobs and dials, and these settings are transferred to the relay via an interface with a
PC (personal computer), and this same PC interface is used to collect event reports from
the relay.

The more modern versions of the digital relay will contain advanced metering and
communication protocol ports, allowing the relay to become a focal point in a SCADA
system.

As a point of comparison, an electromechanical relay converts the voltages and


currents to magnetic and electric forces and torques that press against spring tensions in the
relay. The tension of the spring and taps on the electromagnetic coils in the relay are the main
processes by which a user sets such a relay. In a solid state relay, the incoming voltage and
current waveforms stay within analog circuits that use transformers, resistor, capacitors,
inductors, transistors, op amps, comparators, etc. The incoming waveform is not recorded or
sent into an A/D circuit. The analog values are compared to settings made by the user via
potentiometers in the relay, and in some case, taps on transformers.
In some solid state relays, a relatively simple microprocessor does some of the relay
logic, but the logic is relatively fixed and simple. For instance, in some time over current solid
state relays, the incoming AC current is first converted into a small signal AC value, and then
the AC is fed into a rectifier and filter that converts the AC to a DC value proportionate to the
AC waveform. An op-amp and comparator is used to create a DC that rises when a tripping
point is reached. Then a relatively simple microprocessor does a slow speed A/D conversion
of the DC signal, integrates the results to create the time-over current curve response, and
trips when the integration rises above a set point.
The digital/numeric relay was introduced in the early 1980's, with S.E.L. making some
of the early market advances in the arena, but the arena has become crowded today with many
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manufacturers. In transmission line and generator protection, by the mid 1990's the digital
relay had nearly replaced the solid state and electromechanical relay in new construction. In
distribution applications, the replacement by the digital relay proceeded a bit more slowly.
While the great majority of feeder relays in new applications today are digital, the solid state
relay still sees some use where simplicity of the application allows for simpler relays, and
which allows one to avoid the complexity of digital relays.
5.11.1

BASIC PRINCIPLES

Low voltage and low current signals (i.e., at the secondary of a VT and CT) are
brought into a low pass filter that removes frequency content above about 1/3 of the sampling
frequency (a relay A/D converter needs to sample faster than 2x per cycle of the highest
frequency that it is to monitor). The AC signal is then sampled by the relay's analog to digital
converter at anywhere from about 4 to 64 (varies by relay) samples per power system cycle.
In some relays, the entire sampled data is kept for oscillographic records, but in the relay, only
the fundamental component is needed for most protection algorithms, unless a high speed
algorithm is used that uses sub cycle data to monitor for fast changing issues. The sampled
data is then passed through a low pass filter that numerically removes the frequency content
that is above the fundamental frequency of interest (i.e., nominal system frequency), and uses
Fourier transform algorithms to extract the fundamental frequency magnitude and angle. Next
the microprocessor passes the data into a set of protection algorithms, which are a set of logic
equations in part designed by the protection engineer, and in part designed by the relay
manufacturer, that monitor for abnormal conditions that indicate a fault. If a fault condition is
detected, output contacts operate to trip the associated circuit breaker(s).
5.11.2

PROTECTIVE ELEMENT TYPES

Protective Elements refer to the overall logic surrounding the electrical condition that is being
monitored. For instance, a differential element refers to the
logic required to monitor two (or more) currents, find their
difference, and trip if the difference is beyond certain
parameters. The term element and function are quite
interchangeable in many instances.
For simplicity on one-lines, the element/function is
usually identified by what is referred to as an ANSI device
number, and hence there are three terms (element,
function, device number) in use for approximately the
same concept. In the era of electromechanical and solid state relays, any one relay could
implement only one or two protective elements/functions, so a complete protection system
may have many relays on its panel. In a digital/numeric relay, many functions/elements are
implemented by the microprocessor programming. Any one digital/numeric relay may
implement one or all of these device numbers/functions/elements.

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A relatively complete listing of device numbers is found at the site ANSI Device Numbers. A
summary of some common device numbers seen in digital relays is:

21 - Impedance (21G implies ground impedance)

27 - Under Voltage (27LL = line to line, 27LN = line to neutral/ground)

32 - Directional Power Element

46 - Negative sequence current

47 - Negative sequence voltage

50 - Instantaneous Over Current (subscript N or G implies Ground)

51 - Inverse Time Over current (subscript N or G implies Ground)

59 - Over Voltage (597LL = line to line, 59LN = line to neutral/ground)

67 - Directional Over Current (typically controls a 50/51 element)

81 - Under/Over Frequency

87 - Current Differential (87L=transmission line diff; 87T=transformer diff;


87G=generator diff)

5.11.3

MANUFACTURERS

There are many more than listed here. This especially becomes true when one includes
relays manufactured for niche or regional markets, and manufactures that offer relays in part
hidden and buried within a larger product mix.

5.12

DEIF

General Electric

RFL

Schweitzer

Siemens

Orion Italia

VAMP

ZIV

Areva

Basler

Bresler

Beckwith

Cooper

Cutler Hammer

APPLICATIONS

Relays are used:

To control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal.

To control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal.

to detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening


and closing circuit breakers (protection relays)

To isolate the controlling circuit from the controlled circuit when the two are at
different potentials, for example when controlling a mains-powered device
from a low-voltage switch.
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To perform logic functions. For example, the Boolean AND function is


released by connecting NO relay contacts in series, the OR function by
connecting NO contacts in parallel. The change-over or Form C contacts
perform the XOR (exclusive or) function.

Early computing. Before vacuum tubes and transistors, relays were used as
logical elements in digital computers.

To perform time delay functions. Relays can be modified to delay opening or


delay closing a set of contacts. A very shorts (a fraction of a second) delay
would use a copper disk between the armature and moving blade assembly.
Current flowing in the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time,
lengthening release time.

5.13

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RELAYS

Being mechanical though, relays do have some advantages and disadvantages over
other methods of electrical isolation:
5.13.1

5.13.2

5.14

ADVANTAGES OF RELAYS

The complete electrical isolation improves safety by ensuring that high


voltages and currents cannot appear where they should not be.

Relays come in all shapes and sizes for different applications and they have
various switch contact configurations. Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT)
relays are common and even 4-pole types are available. You can therefore
control several circuits with one relay or use one relay to control the direction
of a motor.

It is easy to tell when a relay is operating - you can hear a click as the relay
switches on and off and you can sometimes see the contacts moving.

DISADVANTAGES OF RELAYS

Their parts can wear out as the switch contacts become dirty - high voltages
and currents cause sparks between the contacts.

They cannot be switched on and off at high speeds because they have a slow
response and the switch contacts will rapidly wear out due to the sparking.

Their coils need a fairly high current to energies, which means some microelectronic circuits can't drive them directly without additional circuitry.

The back-emf created when the relay coil switches off can damage the
components that are driving the coil. To avoid this, a diode can be placed
across the relay coil, as will be seen in any Electronics in Meccano circuits that
use relays with sensitive components.
GENERATOR PROTECTION

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The heart of an electrical power system is the generator. The prime mover which
drives the generator provides the necessary input mechanical energy for conversion into
electrical energy by the generator. The prime mover can be based on steam, gas, water power
and diesel engines. The generators ratings may vary from a few hundred kVA to as much as
500 MVA or more. The present largest installed single generator unit in India has a capacity as
large as 500 MW. While the smaller generating sets may be directly connected to the
distribution system, larger units are usually associated with generator transformers for
connection to EHV transmission systems. The power for the auxiliaries is also drawn from the
large generating units via auxiliary transformers. The composition of generator, generator
transformer and the protection associated with it is referred to as unit protection. Figure No.
5.2 represents a typical SLD representation of the unit.
The failure rate in generators is low due to modern design practices and improved
technology. However, the rare occurrences of failure may result in severe damage and long
shutdowns for repairs. However, certain faults require prompt isolation of the machine. These
are:

Faults in stator winding;

Faults in rotor winding;

Faults in transformer winding;

Overload;

Over-heating of windings/bearings;

Over-speed;

Loss of excitation;

Single-phase or unbalanced current operation; and

Fig. 5.5: Typical SLD representation of a generating unit

5.15

PROTECTION AND METERING SYSTEM

A modern digital relay known as 'numerical relay' is most suited to perform the
function of the protection and metering of the considered electrical equipment. The primary
voltage and current signals of the power system range up to hundreds of kilovolts and kilo
amperes. The nominal voltage signals are usually reduced to 110 V and the current signals are
reduced to 5 A or 1 A range using voltage and current transformers respectively. The signals
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from the secondary of the VTs and CTs are connected to the analogue input sub-system. The
analogue input sub-system isolates and further scales down the signals using low VA burden
instrument type voltage and current transformers. These transformers are placed in the relay
cabinet and their function is to make voltage and current signals compatible with the input
signal range of the analogue to the digital converter (ADC). The scaled signals are low-pass
filtered to minimize aliasing problems.
5.16

PROTECTION SCHEMES FOR MEDIUM VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR

The purpose of an electrical power system is to generate and supply electrical energy
to consumers. Profitable operation requires this work to be done reliably, economically and
with minimum interruptions. In order to fulfill the requirement of protection with the
requirement of profitable operation, any protection system is required to satisfy the 5-S
principles listed below.
5.16.1
i.

5-S PRINCIPLES
SECURITY

Protective system should be reliable so that security of supply is ensured.


ii.

SENSITIVITY

Protective system should be able to sense minimum value of fault current, thereby reducing
the consequent damage.
iii.

SPEED

Protective system should be able to isolate fault in the shortest possible time.
iv.

SELECTIVITY

Protective system should be able to select and trip only the nearest circuit breaker.
v.

STABILITY

Protective system should not operate for external faults.


5.16.2

OVERCURRENT AND EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

AC Schematic Diagram for 6.6 KV without Metering Feeder shown in Figure No. 5.6

Figure No. 5.6

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5.16.3

OVERCURRENT AND EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

AC Schematic Diagram for 6.6 KV with Metering Feeder as shown in Figure No. 5.7
Figure No. 5.7

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5.16.4 DC CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR 6.6 KV FEEDER


Figure No. 5.8

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5.17

ROUTINE TESTS
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S. NO.

Routine test

Purpose

Wiring, electrical operation

To inspect the ASSEMBLY


wiring & function

Protective measures

To check protective measures by application


of control voltage and current injection at
secondary

Dielectric test at 2.5 kV for 1 To verify withstanding high voltage test


min.

including

Insulation resistance

Verification of items as
per approved drawing/
Bills of materials

To verify insulation provided on


conductive parts

To verify the quantities of required


material in the panel as per approved
drawing/B.O.M.

To verify routine test certificates of


relays , meters, etc.

Verification of routine
test reports of major
bought out items, like
relays , meters etc.

NOTES:
1. Routine tests are to be considered as Acceptance Tests
2. The routine test Certificates of manufacturer of all bought out items is to be verified.

CHAPTER NO. 6
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BUSBAR
6.1

INTRODUCTION

1500 ampere bus bars within a power distribution rack for a large building

Figure No.6.1

Figure No. 6.2


Figure No. 6.3
Bus duct penetration, awaiting fire stop

Electrical conduit and bus duct in a building at Texaco Nanticoke refinery in Nanticoke,
Ontario, 1980s.
Figure No. 6.4

Bus duct section subsequently used in fire test of a


firestop system, achieving a 2 hour fire-resistance rating.
A bus bar in electrical power distribution refers to thick
strips of copper or aluminium that conduct electricity
within a switchboard, distribution board, substation, or
other electrical apparatus.
The size of the bus bar is important in determining
the maximum amount of current that can be safely carried.
Bus bars can have a cross-sectional area of as little as 10 mm but electrical substations may
use metal tubes of 50 mm in diameter (1,000 mm) or more as bus bar.
Bus bars are typically either flat strips or hollow tubes as these shapes allow heat to
dissipate more efficiently due to their high surface area to cross-sectional area ratio. The skin
effect makes 50-60 Hz AC bus bars more than about 8 mm (1/3 in) thick inefficient, so hollow
or flat shapes are prevalent in higher current applications. A hollow section has higher
stiffness than a solid rod, which allows a greater span between bus bar supports in outdoor
switch yards.
A bus bar may either be supported on insulators, or else insulation may completely
surround it. Bus bars are protected from accidental contact either by a metal enclosure or by
elevation out of normal reach. Neutral bus bars may also be insulated. Earth bus bars are
typically bolted directly onto any metal chassis of their enclosure. Bus bars may be enclosed
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in a metal housing, in the form of bus duct or bus way, segregated-phase bus, or isolatedphase bus.
Bus bars may be connected to each other and to electrical apparatus by bolted or
clamp connections. Often joints between high-current bus sections have matching surfaces
that are silver-plated to reduce the contact resistance. At extra-high voltages (more than 300
kV) in outdoor buses, corona around the connections becomes a source of radio-frequency
interference and power loss, so connection fittings designed for these voltages are used.
6.2

PROTECTION

Bus bars are vital parts of a power system and so a fault should be cleared as fast as
possible. A bus bar must have its own protection although their high degrees of reliability
bearing in mind the risk of unnecessary trips, so the protection should be dependable,
selective and should be stable for external faults, called through faults.
The most common fault is phase to ground, which usually results from human error.
There are many types of relaying principles used in bus bar
A special attention should be made to current transformer selection since measuring errors
need to be considered.
6.3

Busbar Protection must be Accurate and Respond Swiftly

Figure No. 6.5

Busbars have often not been given their own specific protection because they are
highly reliable and because any accidental activation of the protection mechanism might
cause more problems than the faults triggering the activation. This is not a good policy
because the damage resulting from one uncleared fault can be severe and, in the worst case,
overheating of a busbar may cause a fire. In many cases, electrical supply protection is
applied only to feeders and plant, in which case the busbars are not always inherently
protected. However, the protection scheme needs to cover the whole system against all
probable types of fault. Unrestricted forms of line protection, such as over current and
distance systems do provide this, but lead to delays in clearing faults in the busbars. To
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maintain system stability, and avoid tripping circuit breakers elsewhere in the system,
protection must be fast, which can only be provided by systems specifically designed for the
busbars. Typical fault clearing time should be less than 100ms; with fast breakers this means
measuring time should be of the order of 20 to 30 ms.

Figure No. 6.6

The risk of an unnecessary trip must be kept to a minimum. Mistrips must be


identified accurately, and are often caused by faults just beyond the zone of busbar protection
(commonly known as through faults).
In order to minimise the interruption to the plant, the protection system must correctly
identify the area of the fault and open only the necessary and minimum number of breakers.
To achieve this, it must discriminate properly. However, because of speed requirements,
discrimination based on time delays is not acceptable. It is therefore preferable to have a
clearly defined zone of protection or unit scheme.
Traditional busbar protection relied on logically structured arrays of relays. Modern ICT
controlled busbar protection has two big advantages over these systems:

Fewer external components are required as the functions of the relays are performed
by the software

Sophisticated monitoring that raises alarms if there is a fault. Using simulations, the
operation of the protection system can be checked on a regular basis to ensure it is
fully operational.

CHAPTER NO 7
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DC BATTERIES IN POWER SYSTEM


Battery systems are installed in Substations to close and trip high-voltage circuit
breakers, for transformer protection and safe isolation during normal or fault conditions.
These switchgear and transmissions systems are frequently installed in unattended operation
and must be capable of operating for long periods with total reliability and without
maintenance.
With the improvements in system economics, the use of solar and wind-powered generators is
becoming more widespread.
In addition, Substations require UPS systems and auxiliary generator set with its
associated engine starting battery to protect their control system and emergency and security
systems as well as data and information systems and process control to protect other systems.
7.1

BACKUP BATTERIES

Backup battery is the name given to a secondary power supply, usually a direct current
battery, to provide power in the absence of the main power supply.
An electronic device which utilizes a backup battery will normally get its power directly from
a sustainable alternating current (AC) source or solar cells (DC). The backup battery will
power the circuit only in the event of failure. The battery is otherwise charging from that same
primary circuit.
7.1.1

SWITCHGEAR
Figure No.7.1

Energy transmission and distribution are vital to substation operations.


Battery systems are used to close and trip high-voltage circuit breakers, for transformer
protection and safe isolation during normal or fault conditions. These applications require the
highest reliability, long life, low maintenance, and proper operation in uncontrolled
environments. By virtue of their technology, Ni-Cd batteries
provide top reliability in terms of construction, performance and
maintenance.

Ni-Cd offers long life optimum reliability to protect vital


equipment in substations

Ni-Cd is the only battery type not subject to sudden


failure

Ni-Cd batteries offer a low life-cycle cost, especially


under adverse conditions

Ni-Cd is the best choice for reliable and trouble-free service

The most appropriate solutions for this application are:

Block battery range SBL / SBM / SBH , capacity range up to 1540 Ah

Ultima battery range SLM, 8 Ah to 476 Ah.


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7.1.2

SPH battery range, 11 Ah to 320 Ah.


SOLAR & WIND-POWERED GENERATORS

Photovoltaic and wind-power systems are used in substations. These systems,


involving a solar panel or wind generator, electronic controllers and a back-up battery, are
often installed in remote areas, with only limited skilled labor available for maintenance.
The battery must be able to withstand daily shallow cycles and seasonal deep cycles in
operating temperatures from -30C to + 50C. Saft Sunica plus batteries are specially
designed for these applications.
7.1.3

UPS SYSTEMS

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems are generally used to provide high
quality, clean power at constant frequency to critical loads such as computers. In an
emergency, the battery must provide sufficient power for periods of about 15 minutes to
enable data to be saved and a controlled shut-down to be effected.
The possible consequences of failure in process control are so severe that the power
supplies to control circuits, instrumentation and auxiliaries must be guaranteed. In normal
practice, battery banks are connected in parallel with the low voltage DC load.
To sustain loads from 30 minutes to 2 hours, the Saft Medium rate "M"-type batteries from
the SBM range offer the best features for this kind of application.
The Ultima SLM range is designed for Ultra Low maintenance requirements.
For small UPS systems, the VT F is specially designed to accept a permanent charge in hightemperature environments, and offers capacities from 7.0 Ah to 7.6 Ah.
Saft has developed the Ni-MH VHT range (VHT AA and VHT Cs) to fit the emergency
lighting and high temperature power back-up requirements. This range complements the NiCd VT range.
7.1.4

ENGINE STARTING

Figure No.7.2

Engine starting batteries are associated with auxiliary generator sets and fire pumps
which have to be brought into action after a failure in the main power supply. The battery may
also have to handle some pre-start loads, such as heaters or
lubricating oil pumps. In all cases, the battery must provide a
high current for sufficient time to crank the engine.
If the engine fails to start at the first attempt, the battery
may be called upon to repeat its duty cycle several times in
rapid succession. Saft High discharge rate "H"-type batteries,
from the SBH or SPH ranges recover their voltage instantaneously and are ideal for this
application, even at extremely low temperatures.

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Figure No. 7.3

7.1.5

DATA & INFORMATION SYSTEMS

The increasing use of computers and computer-based


equipment in rail systems requires a clean reliable power
supply. It is essential that such equipment should be protected from power failure as this can
affect the whole facility and could result in danger to life as well as significant financial
losses. Ni-Cd batteries provide reliable back-up as, because of their by design, they cannot
have a sudden failure.
Soft offers the block battery SB range for high, medium and low rate applications and the
SPH and Ultimate SLM low maintenance series for high and
low/medium rate applications.
7.1.6
EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND EMERGENCY
BACK-UP
Back-up batteries may be required to provide
emergency of power for periods in excess of three hours.
Generally, the value of the current drawn from the battery is low in comparison with the total
stored energy. Legislating authorities normally specify that the battery must be capable of
repeating its duty cycle no more than 12 hours after the termination
Figure No. 7.4
of any emergency discharge. Batteries in emergency lighting and fire & security alarms
applications are often "fitted and forgotten" and the choice of the battery may therefore
depend upon its ability to survive the effects of poor maintenance and always be available to
supply power when needed.
Saft's Long rate "L"-type batteries from the SBL and SLM ranges offer the best features for
this kind of application.
For emergency lighting equipment Saft VT Cs, VT D and VT F batteries are
recommended. They are specially designed to accept a permanent charge in high-temperature
environments
and
offer
capacities
from
1.2
Ah
to
7.6
Ah.
Saft has developed the Ni-MH VHT range (VHT AA and VHT Cs) to fit the emergency
lighting and high temperature power back-up requirements. This range complements the NiCd VT range. The VHT range offers capacities from 1.1 to 2.0 Ah with excellent charge
efficiency at high temperatures and superior storage retention.
7.1.7

AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY BATTERIES

Backup batteries in aircraft keep all essentials running in


the event of an engine power failure. Each aircraft has enough
power in the backup batteries to facilitate a safe landing. The
batteries keeping navigation, ELUs (emergency lighting units)
emergency pressure or oxygen systems running at altitude, &
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Project

Preston University

Subject:
6th Spring 2015 Electrical

radio equipments operational. Larger aircraft have control surfaces that run on these backups
as well. Aircraft batteries are either Figure No. 7.5
Ni-Cad or AGM sealed Lead Acid. The battery keeps all necessary items running for times
between 30 minutes and 3 hours.
7.1.8

BURGLAR ALARMS

Backup batteries are almost always used in burglar alarms. The backup battery
prevents the burglar from disabling the alarm by turning off power to the building.
Additionally these batteries power the remote cellular phone systems that thwart phone line
snipping as well mains power. Universal Battery
7.1.9

COMPUTERS

Every motherboard that runs a computer has a backup battery to run the circuit while
turned off. This battery runs the real-time clock (RTC) and is referred to as the CMOS battery.
By keeping the clock active and running even when the computer is switched off, power
up/down cycles can be logged and before the internet, your computer could keep dates
accurately. It also serves to maintain the system configuration settings in BIOS memory based
on RAM or FLASH RAM.
Computers, workstations and servers often have the power fed to them backed up with
a UPS system discussed below. This protects hard drives, motherboards, cups, and ram by
providing clean power un-interrupt able power supply
7.1.10

HOSPITALS

Hospitals must have clean power. Lives depend on it. The blood pumps, breathing
machines, monitors, EKG machines, and the computers to distribute the records throughout
mustn't fail due to power loss ever. So hospitals have large banks of batteries to hold them
over while their generators spin up and to clean the power coming into the system in general.
Uninterruptable power supply

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