Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (published by the University of Chicago Press and commonly

known as Turabian style), is a style guide for writing and formatting research papers (such as the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies). The 7th edition, published on April 15, 2007 (U.S.) and May 10, 2007 (UK), updates "The material on source citation and style … to reflect the recommendations of The Chicago Manual of Style, fifteenth edition," and "includes advice on citing a wider range of sources—including online sources—and on other aspects of writing influenced by electronic technology" (U of Chicago P book site). It aims to cover "every aspect of the research and writing process" (U of Chicago P book site). According to its publisher's book site, prior to "its most extensive revision," Turabian's Manual "sold more than eight million copies since it was first published in 1937."

Contents
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• • • • •

1 New features of the 7th edition 2 Turabian style 3 Notes 4 References 5 External links

[edit] New features of the 7th edition
This edition of Turabian's Manual was revised by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams—authors of The Craft of Research—and the University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff. Another feature of the revised 7th edition is its appended "updated guidelines for formatting research papers, theses, and dissertations and preparing them for submission using today’s electronic technology" (book site).

[edit] Turabian style
"Turabian style" is named after the book's original author, Kate L. Turabian, who developed it for the University of Chicago.[1] Except for a few minor differences, Turabian style is the same as The Chicago Manual of Style. However, while The Chicago Manual of Style focuses on providing guidelines for publishing in general, Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations focuses on providing guidelines for student papers, theses and dissertations.

In some aspects (sometimes only minor punctuation details), however, Turabian differs from the styles that are developed and published in style guides by professional scholarly organizations, such as MLA style and APA style.[citation needed] The most recent version of Turabian (7th ed.), like MLA style and APA style, and also like the most recent edition of The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago style), enables use of footnotes and/or endnotes in combination with parenthetical referencing; for comparison, see, for example, MLA style "content notes".[2] According to the description of the 7th edition, Turabian's Manual "presents two basic documentation systems, notesbibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and parenthetical citations–reference list style (or reference list style). These styles are essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers."[2] Turabian's key contrast with the APA style is that it was developed specifically for the purpose of being used in papers written for a class and not for publication, whereas APA was originally developed by the American Psychological Association for use in writing intended for publication in professional journals, although college writing course textbooks (e.g., those published by Bedford-St. Martin's) present APA style as the documentation style to use for student research papers in the social sciences and related fields.[3] Whereas the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers is directed to high-school and college and university undergraduate students (and their teachers), and the MLA Style Manual is directed to more advanced graduate students, scholars, and professional writers, Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is directed to both levels of students who are writing graduate-level (M.A. and Ph.D.) theses and dissertations as well as undergraduate research papers. Journals that require Chicago style for publication will generally accept Turabian's forms, which are based on it.[citation needed] Some academic journals in musicology, history, art history, women's studies, and theology require use of Chicago style or the Turabian style for published articles in them. After articles are submitted for consideration (which may require another set of style guidelines at that time, usually the prevailing format of the discipline [MLA or APA]), the journals generally send their specific publishing house style sheets for authors to follow in preparing the accepted articles for final publication, indicating

Turabian Quick Guide
Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations presents two basic documentation systems, notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and parenthetical citations– reference list style (or reference list style). These styles are essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.

Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography. The more concise reference list style has long been used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in parentheses in the text by author’s last name and date of publication. The parenthetical citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided. Below are some common examples of materials cited in both styles. Each example is given first in bibliography style (a note [N], followed by a bibliographic entry [B]) and then in reference list style (a parenthetical citation [P], followed by a reference list entry [R]). For a more detailed description of the styles and numerous specific examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian’s Manual for bibliography style and chapters 18 and 19 for reference list style. If you are uncertain which style to use in a paper, consult your instructor. Online sources that are analogous to print sources (such as articles published in online journals, magazines, or newspapers) should be cited similarly to their print counterparts but with the addition of a URL and an access date. For online or other electronic sources that do not have a direct print counterpart (such as an institutional Web site or a Weblog), give as much information as you can in addition to the URL and access date. The following examples include some of the most common types of electronic sources.
Book
One author N: 1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65. B: Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. P: (Doniger 1999, 65) R: Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Two authors N: 6. Guy Cowlishaw and Robin Dunbar, Primate Conservation Biology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 104–7. B: Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. P: (Cowlishaw and Dunbar 2000, 104–7)

R: Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. 2000. Primate conservation biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Four or more authors N: 13. Edward O. Laumann et al., The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 262. B: Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. P: (Laumann et al. 1994, 262) R: Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. 1994. The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author N: 4. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92. B: Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951. P: (Lattimore 1951, 91–92) R: Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Rudolf (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 22. B: Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. P: (Bonnefoy 1995, 22) R:

Bonnefoy, Yves. 1995. New and selected poems. Ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chapt N: 5. Andrew Wiese, “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States,” in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.

Wiese, Andrew. “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States.” In The New Suburban History, edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

(Wiese 2006, 101–2)

Wiese, Andrew. 2006. “The house I live in”: Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

8. Quintus Tullius Cicero. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship,” in Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35.

Cicero, Quintus Tullius. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

(Cicero 1986, 35)

Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. Handbook on canvassing for the consulship. In Rome: Late republic and principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago readings in western civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

17. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx–xxi.

Rieger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

(Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)

Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

(Kurland and Lerner 1987)

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.

Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

(Smith 1998, 639)

Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639–40.

33. Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-ofLife and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002), http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

(Hlatky et al. 2002)

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Qualityof-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

29. Steve Martin, “Sports-Interview Shocker,” New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.

Martin, Steve. “Sports-Interview Shocker.” New Yorker, May 6, 2002.

(Martin 2002, 84)

Martin, Steve. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. New Yorker, May 6.

10. William S. Niederkorn, “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery,” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.

Niederkorn, William S. “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery.” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.

(Niederkorn 2002)

Niederkorn, William S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition.

1. James Gorman, “Endangered Species,” review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert, New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16.

Gorman, James. “Endangered Species.” Review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002.

(Gorman 2002, 16)

Gorman, James. 2002. Endangered species. Review of The last American man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2.

22. M. Amundin, “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena” (PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991), 22–29, 35.

Amundin, M. “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena.” PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991.

(Amundin 1991, 22–29, 35)

Amundin, M. 1991. Click repetition rate patterns in communicative sounds from the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. PhD diss., Stockholm University.

13. Brian Doyle, “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59” (paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19– 22, 2002).

Doyle, Brian. “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59.” Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002.

(Doyle 2002)

Doyle, Brian. 2002. Howling like dogs: Metaphorical language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, June 19–22, in Berlin, Germany.

11. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000– 2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

(Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees)

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

eference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

8. Peter Pearson, comment on “The New American Dilemma: Illegal Immigration,” The BeckerPosner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006, http://www.becker-posnerblog.com/archives/2006/03/the_new_america.html#c080052 (accessed March 28, 2006).

Becker-Posner Blog, The. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/ (accessed March 28, 2006).

(Peter Pearson, The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006)

Becker-Posner blog, The. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/ (accessed March 28, 2006).

hy or reference list. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

2. John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2005.

7. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, ed. John Bostock and H. T. Riley, in the Perseus Digital Library, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plin.+Nat.+1.dedication (accessed November 17, 2005).

Perseus Digital Library. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/ (accessed November 17, 2005).

(Pliny the Elder, Perseus Digital Library)

Perseus Digital Library. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/ (accessed November 17, 2005).

Who was Kate Turabian?
Kate Larimore Turabian (1893–1987) was the graduate school dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for nearly three decades, from 1930 to 1958. She was also the editor of official publications for the University. She was born Laura Kate Larimore on Chicago’s south side, where she was also raised, graduating from Hyde Park High School. A serious illness prevented Kate from attending college. Instead she took a job as a typist at an advertising agency, where she worked alongside a young Sherwood Anderson. She met her husband, Stephen Turabian, in 1919, and began working at the University as a departmental secretary a few years later. In 1930 she became the University’s dissertation secretary, a newly created position in which every accepted doctoral thesis had to cross her desk. It was there that she wrote a small pamphlet describing the correct style for writing college dissertations. That pamphlet eventually became A Manual for Writers and has gone on to sell more than eight million copies in seven editions. She also authored The Student’s Guide for Writing College Papers. Chicago has always insisted on the highest standards for the substantive content of dissertations at the University; Kate Turabian enforced the highest standards for the form of those dissertations as well. A Manual for Writers carried her reputation for exactitude well beyond the halls of Chicago. One of her colleagues in the Office of Official Publications, Lois F. Madsen, described Kate as a legend on the University of Chicago quadrangles. … A devout Episcopalian, an accomplished cook, an enthusiastic and adventurous traveler, and a voracious reader whose erudition earned the respect of scholars of all ranks despite her lack of the customary academic credentials. After her years of devoted service to the University, trudging in her sturdy oxfords from her apartment on the south side of the Midway to her office on the third floor of the Administration building, she acceded to her husband Stephen’s longing for a warmer clime, and retired to California. Her husband died in 1967, while they were on a vacation in Paris. Kate passed away twenty years later, at the age of ninety-four. John Marshall, now the books editor for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, wrote a warm tribute in the October 27, 1987 edition: Kate L. Turabian was our trusted guide and mentor, the absolute authority, the one who knew all there was to know about the strange world of proper term papers. … A Manual for Writers was one of the first books we bought in college and it was one of the only books we kept with us through all four years and probably beyond. To write a term paper without a well-warn copy of Turabian handy was unthinkable. Our writing on term

papers might be weak, our research haphazard, our insights sophomoric, but, thanks to Kate L. Turabian, our footnotes could always be absolutely flawless.

What’s New in the Seventh Edition
A substantial new section by the authors of the best-selling Craft of Research discusses what research is and how to think about it. This section includes information on such topics as
• • • • • • • •

searching your own interests for research topics building a storyboard to organize your thoughts reading sources critically rather than passively anticipating your reader’s questions sensing when it is time to stop researching and start writing managing anxiety and working through writer’s block presenting evidence visually learning from an instructor’s comments

The material on source citation and style has been thoroughly updated to reflect the recommendations of The Chicago Manual of Style, fifteenth edition. It now includes advice on citing a wider range of sources—including online sources—and on other aspects of writing influenced by electronic technology. The appendix offers updated guidelines for formatting research papers, theses, and dissertations and preparing them for submission using today’s electronic technology.

Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide
The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, the humanities style (notes and bibliography) and the author-date system. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars. The humanities style is preferred by many in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system. The more concise author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Below are some common examples of materials cited in both styles. Each example is given first in humanities style (a note [N], followed by a bibliographic entry [B]) and then in author-date style (an in-text citation [T], followed by a reference-list entry [R]). For numerous specific examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition. Online sources that are analogous to print sources (such as articles published in online journals, magazines, or newspapers) should be cited similarly to their print counterparts but with the addition of a URL. Some publishers or disciplines may also require an access date. For online or other electronic sources that do not have a direct print counterpart (such as an institutional Web site or a Weblog), give as much information as you can in addition to the URL. The following examples include some of the most common types of electronic sources.

Book

As part of the Chicago Style is "A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations," written by Kate L. Turabian. Turabian served as the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for almost 30 years, and she created the Turabian Manual as a complement to the Chicago Style Manual. The Turabian Manual was designed to give students a list of rules and guidelines to follow for various writing projects. The first Turabian Manual was a pamphlet Turabian created in the 1930s describing the correct style for formatting a dissertation. The Turabian manual is now in its sixth edition, which was printed in 1996. Turabian died in 1987.