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SAE TECHNICAL
PAPER SERIES

2002-01-0251

A Study of the Pulsations in a 3/4 Open Jet


Wind Tunnel
John Lacey
Aero Systems Engineering, Inc.

Reprinted From: Vehicle Aerodynamics Studies


(SP1667)

SAE 2002 World Congress


Detroit, Michigan
March 4-7, 2002
400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 U.S.A.

Tel: (724) 776-4841 Fax: (724) 776-5760

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Copyright 2002 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
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2002-01-0251

A Study of the Pulsations in a 3/4 Open Jet Wind Tunnel


John Lacey
Aero Systems Engineering, Inc.

Copyright 2002 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

ABSTRACT
Some open jet wind tunnels have been operating under
limitations due to a phenomenon that causes large
pressure fluctuations at some speeds. The matter has
been studied over several years and no configuration
has been found to eliminate these fluctuations without
introducing new noise sources.
This paper describes test results from a sub-scale facility
that demonstrates this phenomenon. The facility is then
tested with a configuration that does not exhibit these
phenomena over a wide range of speeds. It is possible
to retrofit this configuration in existing facilities.
(The modification is the subject of a pending patent
application.)

INTRODUCTION
While the pulsing of open jet wind tunnels may have
always been present, two criteria have been increasing;
test section size and test speeds. These increases have
aggravated the effects of the pulsing phenomena.

The data reported in this paper are for a wide range of


tunnel speeds in small increments to find all resonant
points. The range of spacings from the nozzle to the
collector as a multiple of the nozzle hydraulic radius,
L/Dh, is from 2.6 to 4.3. This paper also presents a new
approach to deal with this resonance and test results
that show the resonance is no longer present with the
tested configuration.

DISCUSSION
TEST APPARATUS (STANDARD) - The model open jet
wind tunnel facility is shown in Figure 1; however, a floor
is also included in the test section as shown in Figure 2.
Nominal centerline dimensions are 3.05 m (10) long x
0.61 m (2) wide. A 5 HP vaneaxial blower with variable
speed control powers the facility. A 3:1 hexcell
honeycomb and two 12-mesh screens are mounted at
the inlet to the contraction to smooth the flow. The
contraction is a square-to-rectangular transition with
area ratio of 7.6. The high-speed diffuser (just
downstream of the test section) has an equivalent
expansion of 2.3 deg half-angle. Evenly spaced turning
vanes are placed in all four corners.

These surges are mentioned by Hucho in Reference 1


as a disadvantage of open jet wind tunnels. In Reference
2 Holthusen and Kooi present the phenomena as a
major consideration for the DNW Wind Tunnel. And, as
recognition that this is a continuing problem, the
phenomena was studied as reported by Arnette et al in
Reference 3 to try to find a non-resonant configuration.
One facility has installed active suppression to mitigate
the problem (see Wickern et al in Reference 4).
Reference 4 and other papers have focused on the
pulsing phenomena as originating by resonance of the
nozzle vortex frequency with the tunnel natural
frequencies as determined by the dimensions of the
tunnel. The data presented herein tend to support this
concept as the pulsing phenomena occur at certain
frequencies depending on test velocities and facility
dimensions.

Figure 1. Photo of Model Open Jet Wind Tunnel

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Pressure Distribution in Nozzle


(exit at 254mm)
kph

Pressure Differential
(P-Pa), Pa

3500
3000

256

2500

222

2000

187

1500

153

1000

118

500

44

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Axial Location in Nozzle mm

The test section has a rectangular nozzle 89 mm (3.5)


high x 120 mm (4.75) wide. The collector has a throat
size of 108 mm (4.25) high x 146 mm (5.75) wide,
giving an area ratio At/An=1.47. A floor spans the
distance from the nozzle exit to the collector to form the
3/4 open jet configuration. The collector leading edge is
cylindrical with a radius of 38 mm (1.5); there are no
ramps to the collector throat and there is no breather (a
device that allows a portion of the test flow to bypass the
collector, entering the diffuser downstream of the
collector).
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, there is no enclosure
around the test section. Such an enclosure is called a
plenum and is a part of all open jet wind tunnel designs.
Most of the test data in this report are for the
configuration as shown, without a plenum. This was
done as a matter of convenience to simplify the
exchange of the collector. In retrospect, this may have
made the acoustic data for the tunnel more definitive,
since addition of the plenum introduces other
frequencies.
PRESSURE DATA (STANDARD) - Pressure data is
taken with a transducer rated up to 2 H2O pressure
differential. All pressures are referenced to room
ambient pressure. The local barometric pressure and
temperature are inputs to compute the absolute
pressures and the test velocity based on the nozzle
pressure ratio method. A typical chart of nozzle wall
pressure is shown in Figure 3. (The nozzle exit is at the
254 mm (10) station.) Typical wall pressure distribution
for the high-speed diffuser is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 3. Pressure Distribution Nozzle

Pressure Distribution in Diffuser

Pressure Differential
(P-Pa), Pa

Figure 2. Isometric Drawing of Standard Test Section

kph

2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

256
222
187
153
118
44

400

800

1200

1600

Axial Location - mm

Figure 4. Pressure Distribution Diffuser

A multi-probe rake was installed in the test section to


document the flow characteristics in a vertical plane
along the centerline. This information records the flow
uniformity in the upper portion of the test section. It also
shows the growth of the shear layer and gives some
evidence of the expansion of the dividing streamline
(between flow from the nozzle and the entrained flow
from the ambient surroundings).
The rake data is shown in Figure 5 for two spacings
downstream of the nozzle exit. The data is the average
of 7 speeds from 49 to 307 kph. Note that the shear
layer has decelerated the flow near the top of the test
section. Thus, for continuity, the dividing streamline
would have to expand, about 1.6 mm (0.06) in this area
of the test section. Any effect of a plenum on this
expansion was not tested. In the presence of a model,
the dividing streamline would be expanded further to
account for the velocity deficit in the wake of the model.

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Je t Uniformity (Nozzle Exit at 89 mm)


Axial Location - mm
254

203

120

80
60

Total sound results


43 to 304 kph

40
20
0
0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

1.1

Velocity Ratio - V/Vref

Figure 5. Velocity Distributions Test Section

A more detailed chart of the rake data is shown in Figure


6. The 99% velocity ratio is at about 77 mm (3.05)
above the floor at the 203 mm (8) location and about 74
mm (2.9) above the floor at the 254 mm (10) location.
These two points are nearly linear back to the nozzle exit
(89 mm at 0). This means that the shear layer is
expanding into the core at about 3.5 deg.

Je t Uniformity (Nozzle Exit at 89 mm)


Axial Location - mm

254

203

84

Height Above Floor - mm

82
80
78
76
74
72
70
0.9

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

1.02

Velocity Ratio - V/Vref

Figure 6. Velocity Distribution - Shear Layer

The above pressure data indicate that the model tunnel


performs as expected for low speed wind tunnels and
can be used to evaluate different configurations.
ACOUSTICAL DATA (STANDARD) - Acoustic data is
taken with a single channel system that includes a real
time analyzer. A Type 1 microphone was used. It has
a frequency response of 2.6 to 20,000 Hz and a
windscreen was used to avoid any influence of the very
slight movement in the room air. The measurements
were made outside the flow (in the nozzle exit plane, 12
off the wind tunnel axis).

Total SPL 0-1000 Hz - dB

Height Above Floor - mm

100

The facility was operated over a range of velocities to


determine the acoustic response. In each case, the flow
was increased from about 43 kph to about 304 kph in 66
steps; each step was a velocity increase of 3%. Some
typical data is shown in Figure 7. (All dB measurements
are referenced to 20 Pa.)

110
105
100
95

L = 350

90
85
80
75
43

58

78

106

143

194

262

Test Speed - kph (log scale)

Figure 7. Overall Sound Pressure Level

This shows the total sound pressure level over 0-1000


Hz as determined by an integration of the 400 step FFT
data (2.5 Hz bandwidth). Some resonances are present,
with major resonances at approximately 85, 106, 150,
185, and 214 kph respectively. In terms of velocity, the
resonances are about +10% wide; any testing with
velocity increments of 10% or more might miss the
highest peaks of acoustic resonance. The slope at the
highest speeds (above 240 kph) is approximately 18
dB/octave; that is, an increase of 18 dB for each
doubling of speed. This implies that Sound Pressure
Level (SPL) at these low speeds is dipole in nature and
proportional to the 6th power of speed (V6) as mentioned
in Reference 6 and similar to the full-scale facilities
reported in Reference 1.
The acoustic spectrum at one of these resonances is
shown in Figure 8. In this figure, the major sound energy
comes from the resonant condition at 102 Hz. This
model facility scale is about 1/40 compared to a 200 sq ft
full-scale aeroacoustic facility; thus the 102 Hz
resonance would appear in full scale at about 2.5 Hz.
Such low frequencies can excite structural vibration
potentially causing structural damage.
In some cases the spectrum includes multiple peaks. An
example is shown in Figure 9. To simplify the
discussions, this paper will focus on the highest peaks,
in this example at 138 Hz. However, designers of such
facilities should be aware that multiple frequencies could
be excited at some test conditions (including 103, 180,
and the harmonic condition at 275 Hz in this case).

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speed. The data for the different collector spacings were


shifted on the horizontal axis to align with a reference
run. The vertical axis is also shifted to simplify the
comparison. These shifted data are very similar for all
spacings. The length and velocity shifts are nearly
proportional as shown in Figure 12.

Frequency Spectra
82 kph, 350 mm Spacing

Sound Pressure Level,


2.5 Hz Bandwidth - dB

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
0

200

400

600

800

1000

Frequency - Hz

Figure 8. Frequency Spectra Single Peak

In each resonant case, a resonant frequency can be


determined as is shown by the typical spectra in Figure 8
and Figure 9. Five primary frequencies have been
identified; 61, 91, 103, 138, and 188Hz. (There is also a
harmonic of the 138 Hz frequency at 275 Hz.) At these
frequencies, a Shear Layer Frequency and a Tunnel
Frequency resonate to cause the high acoustic levels.

Fundamental

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
0

100

Comparison of Acoustic Response for Four Test


Section Lengths

Harmonic

200

300

Peak SPL - dB

Sound Pressure Level,


2.5Hz Bandwidth - dB

Typical Frequency Spectra - Multiple Peaks


144 kph

Frequency - Hz
Test Speed

Figure 9. Frequency Spectra, 350 mm Spacing Multiple Peaks

Figure 11. Correlation of Shifted Spectra

These resonant conditions occur at different flow speeds


depending on the spacing between the collector and the
nozzle exit. Two typical results are shown in Figure 10.
The flow speed at a certain resonance condition
increases with increasing collector spacing. In the figure,
the speed increases about 13% for an 11% change in
spacing (from 264 mm (10.4) to 315 mm (12.4)).

110
105

Spacing
(mm)

100
95

L = 264
L = 315

90
85

2
Ratio of Test Section
Velocity

Total SPL 0-1kHz - dB

Total Sound with Collectors at Different Spacings

Shift of Resonant Velocity with Test Section


Length

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
1

80

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Ratio of Test Section Length

75
43 52 62 74 89 106 127 152 182 218 262

Test Speed - kph (log scale)


Figure 10. Effect of Collector Spacing

The collector spacing was set at four locations (from 2.6


to 4.3 nozzle hydraulic diameters) and the comparison is
shown in Figure 11. This figure presents the peak
narrow band (2.5 Hz) energy as a function of test section

Figure 12. Relation of Shifts - Velocity and Collector Spacing

These frequencies are plotted in Figure 13 as a function


of the flow velocity for each of the four collector
locations. Note, that for each of the spacings, the
resonant frequency follows two distinct trends. For ease
of discussion these will be called the Low Speed and
High Speed modes.

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Collector
Spacing (mm)

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

264
315
351

50

100

150

200

250

300

Flow Velocity - kph

Figure 13. Resonant Frequencies versus Velocity

These same data have been charted for the Low Speed
and High Speed modes in separate figures (Figure 14 &
Figure 15) along with the Strouhal numbers (St = f * Dh /
V) that best fit the data, based on the 102 mm (4.03)
hydraulic diameter of the nozzle exit.

Resonant Frequency - Hz

Resonant Frequencies _ Low Speed


Collector
Spacing (mm) /
Strouhal
Number

120

90

264

St = f * Dh / V

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

Data & kph

n=3

Low Speed
High Speed

n=2

100
200
300

Collector Spacing ( L / Dh )
Figure 16. Shear Layer Strouhal Numbers

The decrease in Strouhal number with increasing


separation is consistent with the comments by Wickern
et al in Reference 4. This means that excitation of the
same tunnel frequency at increased separation requires
an increase in velocity; this agrees with the data shown
in Figure 10.

315
60

351
442

30

0.44
0.39

0.35
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

0.29

Flow Velocity - kph

Figure 14. Low Speed Mode

Resonant Frequencies - High Speed


Collector
Spacing (mm)
& Strouhal
Number

200

Figure 17 and Figure 18 present the resonance data in a


format that shows predicted tunnel frequencies from two
different references. In Figure 17 the predictions of
Reference 3 match the data only at the frequency near
100 Hz based on a test leg length of 2.6 meters. In
Figure 18, Reference 4 can be used to predict four
frequencies that are slightly higher than the observed
values; this was based on the circuit path of 7 meters
(23). However, just one of the two frequencies near 100
Hz is predicted and there is no rationale to decide which
mode numbers should apply (note that mode numbers 1,
2, 5, and 7 are not shown since they are not close to the
observed data).
Resonant Frequencies Compared
Collector Spacing
to the Predictions of Ref. 3

264

150

315
351

100

442
0.32

50

0.295
0.265
0.22

0
0

50

100

150

200

Flow Velocity - kph

250

300

Figure 15. High Speed Mode

(mm) & Mode


Number n

200

Resonant Frequency - Hz

Resonant Frequency - Hz

Strouhal Number at Resonance


Compared to Predictions From Ref. 3

442

Strouhal Number

Resonant Frequency - Hz

Resonant Frequencies

Reference 3) in Figure 16. The High Speed data and


the predictions for mode number n=2 are in agreement
for collector spacing greater than 3. The Low Speed data
has the same general trend as predicted using mode
number n=3 but the theory over predicts the observed
Strouhal number.

180

264

160
140

315
351

120

442

100
80

60
40

2
1

20
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Flow Velocity - kph

The data are also summarized and compared to the


predictions of shear layer frequency (as taken from

Figure 17. Comparison of Test Data with the Predictions of


Reference 3.
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Resonant Frequencies Compared


Collector Spacing
to the Predictions of Ref. 4
(mm) & Mode
Number n

Resonant Frequency - Hz

200
175

315

125

351

100

442

75

50

6
4

25

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Figure 18. Comparison of Test Data with Predictions of Reference 4.

Another analysis of the phenomena as mentioned by


Ahuja in Reference 5 relates the excitation frequency to
the reflection of the nozzle vortices off the collector. This
suggests that the vortices travel from the nozzle at a
fraction of the free stream velocity and then impact on
the collector reflecting a sound wave back to the nozzle.
The total transit time defines an excitation frequency:
Freq = 1 / (L / (k u) + L/a)
This analysis is applied to the present data in Figure 19.
In this case, three points are presented (one at the peak
resonance and one on either side of peak) for each of
the 5 major frequencies and the one harmonic
frequency. The data for all collector spacings can be
collapsed into one set of data by selection of the velocity
factor k for each collector spacing. However, the factor
k is higher than expected, and the measured
frequencies are higher than computed for the lower
frequencies.
Collector
Spacing "L" (mm) &
Velocity Factor "k"

3.00

c
2f

In each case there is a facility dimension that is close to


the computed length. Since these lengths were not
changed significantly during these tests, it is not possible
to state that this is a valid correlation.
Table 1. Comparison of Resonant Frequencies with
Model Tunnel Dimensions

Flow Velocity - kph

Frequency Ratio (Measured /


Computed)

L=

264

150

2.50

The tunnel frequencies may correlate with longitudinal


dimensions of the wind tunnel as shown in Table 1. The
length shown is from the half-wave length equation:

1 / fc = L/(k*u) + L/a

2.00

264_0.86

1.50

315_0.93

1.00

351_0.93

0.50

442_0.96

Frequency
61

Length m
(ft)
2.8 (9.3)

91
103
138
188

1.9 (6.2)
1.7 (5.4)
1.2 (4.0)
0.9 (3.0)

Possible Tunnel
Reference
Honeycomb/screen to
Corner 1
Corner 2 to Fan
0.5 of Overall Length
Fan to Corner 3
Overall tunnel width

EVIDENCE IN FULL SCALE - The above development


of a Strouhal number correlation and reference to tunnel
dimensions has application in full scale. As presented in
Reference 2, the DNW has a 8x6 meter nozzle with an
18.7 meter collector spacing. Therefore, the nozzle
hydraulic diameter is 6.86 meters and the collector
spacing (L/Dh) is 2.7. The predicted, high speed,
Strouhal number is 0.31 (see Figure 16). Thus, at 288
kph (80 m/sec), the predicted shear layer frequency is
3.6 Hz.
Reference 2 shows a large amplitude vibration
fluctuation at 7 Hz. Per Reference 7 this frequency has
been correlated to the plenum dimensions and a natural
frequency in the roof structure. This roof frequency could
be excited by the 3.6 Hz shear layer frequency.
In Reference 2, Figure 10 also shows peak accelerations
at 3.6 and 5.1 Hz. These frequencies can be related to
tunnel dimensions as shown in Table 2. It may be
possible that the 5.1 to 5.7 Hz roof frequencies are
excited by the 5.1 Hz tunnel frequency.

0.00
279
275
271
190
188
185
140
138
135
93
91
90
105
103
100
63
61
58
Approx. Meas. Freq.

Figure 19. Comparison with Feedback Model

Additional data from DNW mentioned in Reference 7 is a


large amplitude 1.0 Hz oscillation at 20 m/sec when the
large nozzle (9.5 x 9.5 meter) is in place. This 1.0 Hz
frequency (given the + 10% frequency resolution) nearly
relates to a half-wave length of the circuit length (318
meters). This is also included in Table 2. The condition
also correlates with the Low Speed Strouhal concept
as shown in Figure 20.

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Frequency

Length m

1.0
3.6
5.1

170
47
33

Possible Tunnel
Reference
0.5 of Circuit Length
Overall tunnel width
Corner 2 to Fan

TESTS WITH PLENUM - The model tunnel was also


tested with a surrounding plenum. The plenum
dimensions were 355 mm H x 711 mm W x 635 mm L
(14 x 28 x 25). The plenum width was centered on the
tunnel axis and the floor was flush with the floor of the
test section. The collector was spaced 442 mm (17.4)
from the nozzle exit.

The above data is presented primarily to show that the


performance of the model tunnel is in accordance with
expectations to establish that this model can be used for
comparative tests of new configurations. No further
analysis is made of these results.
Open Jet Collector at 120 kph, 442 mm
With Plenum

Without Plenum

120

Strouhal Number at Resonance

100

St = f * Dh / V

Strouhal Number

tests without a plenum. With the plenum there are lower


SPL peaks at 202 and 302 Hz and broad peaks at 272,
360, 425, and 497 Hz that may be caused by the plenum
(see Figure 23). However, at this spacing and maximum
speed, the Shear Layer Frequencies are less than 120
Hz, see Figure 13, and are not high enough to resonate
with these plenum frequencies. These same frequencies
are present at other speeds as shown in Figure 24
although the shaper peaks do not appear at all speeds.

SPL 2.5 Hz Bandwidth dB

Table 2. Correlation of DNW Resonant Frequencies


with Tunnel Dimensions

0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20

Low Speed
High Speed
Ref 7 20 m/sec

80
60
40
0

100

200

300

400

500

Frequency - Hz
1

Collector Spacing ( L / Dh )

Figure 22. Spectra Comparisons

Figure 20. Comparison of Model with Full Scale Information


Model Open Jet Plenum Frequencies
Mode Number nx

600

Plenum Natural
Frequency - Hz

The acoustical results with and without the plenum are


shown in Figure 21. (The sound level with the plenum is
higher since the plenum did not have an acoustic lining.)
The resonances in both conditions can be clearly seen
near 74 kph and 127 kph. (Data at the higher speeds
with the plenum is subject to possible overload and is
not shown.)

500
400
300
200
100
0
1,1 2,1 3,1 1,2 2,2 3,2 1,3 2,3 3,3

Acoustical Results with


Standard Collector @ 442 mm

Figure 23. Natural Frequencies of the Plenum (from Reference 3)

No Plenum

120

Spectra with Plenum and Standard


Collector at 442mm
Series are in order as given in legend

110
100
90
80
70
43

52

62

74

89 106 127 152 182 218 262

Test Speed - kph - (log scale)

Figure 21. Sound Level with and without Plenum

As shown in Figure 22, the spectra at a resonant point


shows the same dominant peaks with a plenum as for

2.5 Hz Bandwidth
SPL - dB

Total SPL - dB - 0-1kHz

Plenum

Mode Num bers ny,nz

110
100
90
80
70
60
50
200

262
225
172
123
300

400

Frequency - Hz

Figure 24. Detail Spectra Standard Collector

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500

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This proposed configuration has the collector plane nonparallel to the nozzle. This has the following two
potential effects:

Spectra for the two configurations are shown in Figure


27 at a condition that was resonant in the Standard
configuration. This confirms that no resonances are
present in the Proposed configuration. Subjective
observations confirmed that there are no significant
other sounds in the audible range.
Spectra with Standard and Proposed Collectors
at 225 kph and 315 mm Separation

Sound Pressure
Level, 2.5 Hz
Bandwidth - dB

TEST APPARATUS (PROPOSED COLLECTOR) - As


shown earlier in Figure 2 the industry-standard collector
configuration places the face of the collector in a plane
parallel to the nozzle exit. Based on the above data, the
excitation frequency is dependent on collector spacing
and would be constant around the periphery of the
collector. A new proposed configuration is shown in
Figure 25.

110
100
90

Standard

80
70
60
50

Proposed

200

400

600

800

1000

Frequency - Hz

Figure 27. Comparisons of Spectra for Two Collectors

The collector was tested at a second position and the


data is shown in Figure 28. Again, no resonances are
present. (Without the resonances, the trend of 18 dB per
octave is more apparent.)
Figure 25. Isometric with Proposed Collector

Total SPL with Proposed Collector @ 224 mm


Proposed
Total SPL - dB - 0-1kHz

1. It may detune the facility so that there are


no critical tunnel frequencies.
2. The shear layer frequency will not be
constant at all points around the collector
entrance. Therefore, the energy at any
specific frequency may be reduced enough
to avoid resonance with natural frequencies
in the facility.

95
90
85
80
75
43

ACOUSTIC RESULTS (PROPOSED COLLECTOR)


The acoustic results of this configuration are compared
with the results of the standard collector in Figure 26.
The resonances of the standard configuration are no
longer present in the proposed configuration. This
proposed collector configuration appears to eliminate the
resonance phenomenon.
Total Sound with Different Collectors at 315 mm

Total SPL 0-1kHz - dB

110
105
100
95

Standard

90

Proposed

18dB / Octave

100

52

62

74

89

106 127 152 182 218 262

Test Speed - kph - (log scale)

Figure 28. Sound Pressure Level with Proposed Collector - 224 mm

Results with a plenum are shown in Figure 29 for the


Proposed Collector spaced 315 mm from the nozzle exit
compared to data with the Standard Collector at 442
mm. The results are similar to the results without a
plenum; that is, the resonances are no longer present in
the acoustic results when the Proposed Collector is
installed. Again, data at the higher speeds is not shown
due to possible saturation.

85
80
75
43 52 62 74 89 106 127 152182 218 262
Test Speed - kph (log scale)

Figure 26. Sound Pressure Level with Proposed Collector - 315 mm


Author:Gilligan-SID:13235-GUID:29564880-131.151.244.7

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Total SPL w ith Plenum

Effect of Plenum, Proposed Collector


at 225 kph

Prop Collector - 315 mm

120

SPL 2.5 Hz Bandwidth

Total SPL - 0-1kHz - dB

Std Collector - 442 mm


115
110
105
100
95
90

100
90

With Plenum

80

W/O Plenum

70
60
100

120

85
43

52

62

74

89

106

127

152

182

140

160

180

200

Frequency - Hz

218

Test Speed - kph (log scale)


Figure 31. Detailed Spectra - Proposed Collector - 100 to 200 Hz
Figure 29. Sound Pressure Level with Plenum

Figure 30 shows the effect of the plenum on the spectra


of the Proposed Collector at one speed. In general, the
spectra are higher than the tests without the plenum and
there is a larger increase in SPL at the low frequencies.

100
90
With Plenum

80

W/O Plenum

70

Spectra with Plenum and Proposed Collector


at 315 mm

60
0

100

200

300

400

Series are in order as given in legend

500

Frequency - Hz
Figure 30. Spectra for Proposed Collector

The detailed spectra with the plenum and the Proposed


Collector are plotted in Figure 31 at 225 kph and in
Figure 32 for several speeds. Some peaks near the 103,
138, and 188 Hz tunnel frequencies can be seen in
Figure 31 although they are not as sharp or as high
since there is no resonance. In Figure 32, broad peaks
are seen again; these may be associated with the
plenum frequencies. These frequencies are at 247,332,
355, 415, and 487 Hz. In this case the Shear Layer
Frequencies are less than 170 Hz (see Figure 13) and
cannot resonate with the Plenum Frequencies (see
Figure 23). The low frequency range, below 60 Hz,
dominates the overall SPL (see Figure 30).

2.5 Hz Bandwidth
SPL - dB

SPL 2.5 Hz Bandwidth

Effect of Plenum, Proposed Collector - 225 kph

While many points can be further examined to


investigate what causes resonances, the significant
finding of this work is this; it appears that the proposed
collector configuration can correct the resonance
problem in open jet facilities. Since open jet collectors
are free to expand into the test section, this design
concept may be retrofitted to existing facilities. Prior to
application to full-scale facilities, additional tests should
be made to test other collector configurations and the
potential interactions between the collector spacing and
the plenum dimensions. The centerline pressure
distribution should also be documented.

100

262

90

225

80

182

70
60
200

kph

143
300

400

500

Frequency - Hz

Figure 32. Detailed Spectra - Proposed Collector 200 to 500 Hz

CONCLUSIONS
A new scale model open jet facility has been operated
over a wide range of speeds and collector positions. The
aerodynamic and acoustic performance has been shown
to be similar to the performance of other facilities.
The observed shear layer frequencies have been
correlated to the Strouhal number for two modes (lowspeed and high-speed) as a function of nozzle-collector
spacing. The trend of Strouhal number with collector
spacing agrees with the predictions.

Author:Gilligan-SID:13235-GUID:29564880-131.151.244.7

Licensed to Missouri University of Science and Technology


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The observed tunnel frequencies compare to the


predicted frequencies only for selected modes. The
observed frequencies do have an approximate
correlation to facility dimensions both in the model tunnel
and in a full-scale facility.
The data with the plenum in place indicate some of the
predicted plenum frequencies. The shear layer
frequencies are not high enough to resonate with these
plenum frequencies. Thus, the plenum is shown to have
virtually no effect on the major resonance problem for
the configuration tested.
A proposed collector design has been tested both with
and without a plenum and it shows the possibility of
eliminating the resonance problem. This design may be
retrofitted to existing facilities. Additional testing is
suggested prior to full-scale application.

REFERENCES
1. Hucho, Wolf-Heinrich, Aerodynamics of Road
Vehicles Fourth Edition, SAE International, 1998
2. Holthusen, H. and Kooi, J.W., Model and Full Scale
Investigations of the Low Frequency Vibration
Phenomena of the DNW Open Jet, AGARD CP-585,
1996
3. Arnette, Stephen A.; and Buchanan, Tony D., On
Low-Frequency Pressure Pulsations and Static Pressure
Distribution in Open Jet Automotive Wind Tunnels, SAE
1999-01-0813.
4. Wickern, G., vonHeesen, W., Wallman, S., Wind
Tunnel Pulsations and their Active Suppression, SAE
2000-01-0869, March 2000
5. Ahmed, Syed R., A survey of Automobile
Aeroacoustic Activities in Germany, SAE 950623.
6. Ahuja, K. K., Aeroacoustic Performance of Open-Jet
Wind Tunnels With Particular Reference To Jet/Collector
Interactions, GTRI Project A-9730, 1994.
7. Holthusen, H., Private Communication, November
2001

CONTACT
The author may be contacted at:
jlacey@aerosysengr.com

Author:Gilligan-SID:13235-GUID:29564880-131.151.244.7