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787

The Enhancement of Aerodynamic Characteristics on Blu


Bodies near a Moving Ground
Tae-Yoon KIM , Bo-Sung LEE , Yo-Cheon KU ,
Dong-Ho LEE and Yasuaki KOHAMA
In this study, passive control methods for attaching horizontal and vertical fences on
the lower surface of the cylinder near a moving ground were adopted to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics with the changes in gap height. The horizontal fences increase the
domain where the lower separated shear layer is interfered by viscous eect on the ground.
In a moving ground, this viscous eect is only slightly observed due to elimination of shear
layer induced by relative ground motion. However, vertical fences diminish the momentum
provision intended to roll up to wake region by blocking the gap flow, thereby suppressing
the vortex shedding irrespective of ground conditions. Therefore, the horizontal fences in a
moving ground have the advantage of reducing averaged lift and drag though cannot suppress
the vortex-induced oscillation. Even though vertical fences have an advantage of suppressing
vortex shedding past a cylinder, the existence of the vertical fences themselves causes the
averaged drag to increase above the critical gap height due to the existence of vertical fences.

Key Words: Vortex Shedding, Passive Control, Vertical & Horizontal Fences, Moving
Ground

1.

Introduction

An understanding of the flow around a blu body


close to a ground is very important in automobile, aeronautical and wind engineering fields because of aerodynamic characteristic and instability resulting from flow
separation. It has been reported that the trac accidents
such as overturning or slipping induced by the abrupt
cross-wind at tunnel exit of highway and on the long
bridge. Under such strong cross-wind conditions, it is
noteworthy that vortex shedding past blu shape vehicles,
such as sports utility vehicles, articulated lorries, large

Received 6th May, 2006 (No. 05-5040)


Hyundai/Kia Motors, Whasung-Si, Gyunggi-Do and
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul
National University, Seoul 445706, Korea
Samsung SDS, Seoul 135918, Korea
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul
National University, Seoul 151742, Korea
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul
National University, BD 3011213, San 561, Shinrimdong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151742, Korea.
E-mail: donghlee@snu.ac.kr
Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980
8577, Japan

JSME International Journal

buses etc. The separation from blu bodies produces a


strong loss of pressure recovery and vortex-induced oscillation, which result in the increase of aerodynamic drag
and instability. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate aerodynamic characteristics at the conceptual design stage of a
bridge, heavy ground vehicle, or building near the ground.
For the past several decades, numerous studies on
the vortex shedding formation past a cylinder have been
performed by Bearman(1) , Huerre(2) , Lyn(3) , Bosch(4) ,
Bailey(5) , Martinnuzi(6) , etc. Various active and passive
control methods have been suggested to suppress the vortex shedding and enhance the aerodynamic characteristic.
Active control methods, such as blowing, suction, installation of mechanical devices or excitation by micro wave
have been introduced. Also the passive control methods
include modification of trailing-edge shape, installation of
trip wires or plates, adapting ventilated and closed cavity, etc. Despite the fact that extensive studies have been
conducted, active control methods still have intrinsic problems in that they are mechanically too complex such that
it is dicult to be applied in practice. Hence, the passive
control methods have been more widely adopted than the
active control methods for actual realization rather than
the active control methods.

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Tamura et al.(7) studied the averaged and fluctuating statistics of lift and drag acting on a square sectioned
cylinder with sharp corners, chamfered and rounded corners. With these controlled shapes of a square cylinder,
the shear layers were close to the side surface. Accordingly reattachment was enhanced and drag forces were reduced. Choi and Kwon(8) investigated physical mechanism of aerodynamic and aero-elastic instability of a blu
body with various corner cuts and attack angles experimentally. They claimed the corner cut method showed
better performance for the galloping but could not suppress the vortex shedding. Duell et al.(9) investigated the
eect of the mounted cavity in the base region experimentally. They reported that the mean base pressure was increased to 4% and 11% when the ratio of depth and height
of cylinder (D/H) were 0.2 and 0.8 respectively. Takemori et al.(10) reported that the drag could be reduced by
installing upper and lower corner vanes in the wake region, and these wake control vanes were found to be attractive and eective for drag reduction. Khalighi et al.(11)
reported that the presence of the plates in the wake region reduces the intensity of the re-circulating velocity of
the base region, which in turn reduces the vortex shedding and increases the pressure at the base region. B. Lee
et al.(12) reported the passive control attached the vertical
and horizontal fences in the lower surface of the cylinder
can suppress the vortex shedding past a cylinder.
Even though numerous studies have been conducted
on cylinders placed near a stationary ground, only a few
studies have been investigated on the blu body placed
near a moving ground. Arnal et al.(13) performed a numerical simulation of square cylinder under the condition of the free-stream, fixed and sliding wall conditions
with changes in the Reynolds number. They claimed
that the presence of the fixed wall reduced the Strouhal
number where the periodic vortex shedding occurred. In
contrast, the sliding wall at the free-stream velocity resulted in vortex shedding which was extremely periodic.
Kim and Geropp(14) investigated flow around some twodimensional blu bodies with wind tunnel experiments
equipped by moving-belt and reported that a larger lift
forces and longer wakes was apparent with decreasing
clearance. Bhattacharyya and Maiti(15) performed a numerical simulation at the square cylinder placed on a
moving ground in laminar Reynolds number range below
Re = 1 000. Therefore, the results showed that the averaged drag experienced by moving ground was higher than
the corresponding stationary case. Even though numerous studies have been conducted on blu bodies near a
ground, there is little information on the square cylinder
near a moving ground in turbulent Reynolds number region as O(104 ).
Therefore, the objective of this study is to provide
additional information of the flow-field around a square
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cylinder on a moving as well as stationary ground with


gap heights. So, based on this investigation, we will discuss the eects of the horizontal and vertical fences near a
moving ground in connection with the enhancement of the
unsteady aerodynamic characteristics and stability. To this
end, two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes
equations were used to investigate the flow characteristics such as the Strouhal number, aerodynamic coecients
and vortex formation mechanism past a square cylinder
according to the change in the gap height at a Reynolds
number of 20 000.
2. Governing Equations and Numerical Approaches
The governing equations used in this study are
the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations. To calculate incompressible flow-field for eciency, the continuity equation
was transformed into the pressure equation by the pseudocompressibility scheme(16) . The governing equations can
be written in dimensionless form as
p
ui
=
(1)
tc
xi



ui u j
ui ui u j
p

ui
+
=
+
+
( + t )

tc
x j
xi x j
x j xi
t
(2)
All geometric variables in Eqs. (1) and (2) are nondimensionalized by the height of the cylinder D, static
pressure p by the pressure of free stream p , and velocity u, v by the free stream velocity u , respectively, and
time by D/u . The third-order upwind biased scheme
was employed for the discretization of convection terms,
and the central dierence scheme for the viscous terms.
To calculate the time-dependent flow-field, a dual time
stepping method was used, where the physical time terms
were treated as the source on the right hand side as shown
in Eq. (2). Then, sub-iterations were performed for the
pseudo time tc until the right hand side of Eq. (2) converged with physical time t kept constant. Parallel computing was adopted to analyze eectively the unsteady
flows by dividing the physical domain into several subdomains through the domain decomposition technique.
Data Parallel Symmetric Gauss-Seidel method(17) which
was developed to conduct ecient parallel computing was
employed for temporal integration. Also, in order to accurately predict the large separated flow fields such as a blu
body, the -SST turbulence model(18) , which is a modification of the Menters SST model(19) , was used. The performance and applicability of the -SST turbulence model
are well illustrated in the previous researches of the authors(20) .
2. 1 Grid system and boundary condition
It is dicult to generate a single block grid around a
square cylinder. In the case of a sequential solver, a multiblock grid system is the most appropriate choice due to its
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Table 1 Numerical parameters and results with various grids
and time steps

Fig. 1 Grid distribution of a cylinder

cost-ecient computation. However, there exists a load


balancing problem that arises in parallel solver. Therefore, in this study, the solver adopted the H-type single
block structured grid system with blanked cells(21) . This
approach can be seen as a kind of Chimera grid technique(22) . In the domain, the cells in the cylinder are
marked as zero and the outer cells are marked as one.
The only additional memory requirement is for the array
needs to denote which cells are blanked. Furthermore,
only minimal modifications need to be made to the solution algorithm. In the computation process, the cells
marked as zero are automatically excluded, and the wall
boundary conditions are applied during the calculation of
fluxes. Figure 1 shows the geometry of the cylinder and
computational grid, where D and B denote the height and
width of the cylinder, respectively, and G means the gap
height from the ground. In this study, the aspect ratio
(B/D) was fixed as 1. The gap height (G/D) was varied
from 0.2 to 1.0, the Reynolds number Re = U D/ was set
as 20 000. The first grid spacing from the cylinder surface
and ground was set as xi /D = 0.005 for x+i < 5 for the
whole surface of the cylinder and the ground. To accommodate the unsteady flows, physical time step was set as
t = 0.05 and the sub-iterations were performed to obtain
the converged solutions at the fixed physical time. At the
inflow, 1/7 power law with adequate boundary layer thickness (/D = 4) was imposed at 6.7D, in front of the cylinder. At the outlet, flow properties were extrapolated and
symmetry boundary conditions were imposed on the upper
boundaries. No-slip boundary condition was imposed on
the cylinder wall surface and stationary ground cases, but
the same inflow speed was imposed on the moving ground.
To investigate the eects of the grid size and the first grid
spacing on the numerical solutions, grid refinement tests
were carried out with 398 298 grid, where the first grid
spacing xi /D = 0.002 5, 198 148 where xi /D = 0.005,
and 98 73 where xi /D = 0.01. The eect of the physical time step on the unsteadiness of the solution was also
investigated with t = 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 cases in 198 148
grid. Table 1 summarizes the preliminary grid refinement
test results. Based on this, we concluded that the 198148
grid and t = 0.05 can be used for the following numeriJSME International Journal

(a) No vortex shedding

(b) Vortex shedding

(c) Blocked upwash by


horozontal plates

(d) Blocked upwash by


vertical plates

Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of vortex shedding mechanism and


passive control methods

cal experiments in view of the fact that they are almost


identical with the Strouhal numbers and aerodynamic coecients from 198 148 and 398 298 grid.
2. 2 Passive control method
In order to suppress vortex-induced oscillation for
reducing aerodynamic drag of a cylinder near stationary
ground, B. Lee et al.(12) suggested installing vertical and
horizontal fences under the lower surface of the cylinder.
Generally, the decrease in gap height or the increase in aspect ratio makes the periodic vortex shedding to be suppressed. When the vortex shedding is suppressed, the
only long recirculation zone is found in Fig. 2 (a), while
the vortex shedding can be induced by the interaction of
the upper and lower shear layers above the critical gap
height as shown in Fig. 2 (b). This vortex shedding can
be suppressed by installing horizontal and vertical fences
at the lower surface of the cylinder, the vortex shedding
can be suppressed. This is because horizontal fences act
like to increase aspect ratio of cylinder and vertical fences
prevent the momentum provision from the gap region to
the wake region in Fig. 2 (c) and (d) respectively. In this
study, investigated whether horizontal and vertical fences
have the same influence in terms of suppressing the vortex shedding in a moving ground. From the preliminary
studies related with fence lengths and gap heights, the two
fences having the length of 0.1D and thickness of 0.07D,
respectively, were installed horizontally and vertically on
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Fig. 3 Controlled geometry with horizontal and vertical fences

the front and rear lower surface of the square cylinder as


shown in Fig. 3.
3.

Results and Discussion

3. 1 Strouhal number
Figure 4 shows the Strouhal numbers (St = Df /u )
according to gap heights (G/D). The shedding frequency
was determined by FFT for the time history of lift coefficient. In the case of a stationary ground, the critical
gap height of baseline, where the periodic vortex shedding occurs, exists around G/D = 0.55. However in the
case of moving ground, it is at G/D = 0.35. This suggests that the cylinder near moving ground is more likely
to experience higher instability and aerodynamic drag due
to unsteady wind loading than a stationary ground. The
Strouhal number in the case of stationary ground shows
a peak value immediately after the critical gap height due
to the ground eect(20) , and decreases to the value of free
standing cases as the gap height increases. However, in
case of moving ground, the Strouhal number rapidly increases at G/D = 0.30.45 but remains almost constant
thereafter. In the case of controlled shapes, vortex shedding at G/D = 0.55 is suppressed by both horizontal and
vertical fences in a stationary ground. Meanwhile, in a
moving ground, only vertical fences can suppress oscillation at G/D < 0.45, while horizontal fences cannot suppress and instead show similar pattern with baseline.
Figure 5 shows the variation of lift and drag coecients at G/D = 0.55 in a stationary ground and at G/D =
0.35 in a moving ground respectively. The amplitude of
lift and drag coecient in the case of moving ground at
G/D = 0.35 is larger than stationary ground at G/D = 0.55.
In a stationary ground, the oscillation of lift and drag is
suppressed by horizontal and vertical fences as shown in
Fig. 5 (a) and (c). The lift and drag of vertical fences
are higher than the case of horizontal fences. This can
be described as installed vertical fences, perpendicular to
the flow direction. However, horizontal fences in a moving ground make aerodynamic oscillations more amplify
rather than baseline. Otherwise, vertical fences can reduce
averaged drag as well as suppress the vortex shedding in
Fig. 5 (b) and (d). It is worthy to note that in a stationary
ground, two dominant shedding frequencies are observed,
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Fig. 4 Strouhal numbers according to Gap heights; a)


Stationary Ground, b) Moving Ground (: Baseline, :
Horizontal Fence, : Vertical Fence)

whereas in moving ground, there is no second shedding


frequency due to absence of separated shear layer on the
ground(12), (20) .
3. 2 Vortex shedding mechanism
Figure 6 shows the instantaneous vorticity contours
of cylinder when has maximum lift. When the square
cylinder approaches stationary ground, there are three separated shear layers: two clockwise separated shear layers
with negative vorticity that develop on the upper of cylinder and the ground, and another counter-clockwise separated by shear layer generated on the lower surface of
the cylinder with positive vorticity(15) . For periodic vortex shedding, there must be interaction between the upper
and lower separated shear layers in wake region. However in a stationary ground, the clockwise separated shear
layer from the ground cancels the vorticity concentration
of counter-clockwise shear layer on the lower surface of
the cylinder. Consequently, this prevents rolling up to
in wake region. In addition, both horizontal and vertical fences attached to the lower surface of cylinder reinforce that mechanism and suppress the vortex-induced osJSME International Journal

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Fig. 5 Time evolution of Aerodynamic Coecients; a) Lift in Stationary Ground at G/D =


0.55, b) Lift in Moving Ground at G/D = 0.35, c) Drag in Stationary Ground at
G/D = 0.55, d) Drag in Moving Ground at G/D = 0.35 (: Baseline, : Horizontal
Fence, : Vertical Fence)

cillation. On the other hand, though the cylinder moves


closer to the ground than the case of stationary ground in
Fig. 6 (b), strong vortex shedding may occur due to the existence of the very weak shear layer on a moving ground.
Figure 6 (c) and (d) shows the eects of horizontal fences.
The horizontal fences have similar role as in that it increases the aspect ratio of cylinder, hence extending the
domain where the lower separated shear layer is interfered
by viscous eect from the ground. As the viscous eect is
strong in a stationary ground, the longer horizontal fences
is more eective in suppressing make the vortex shedding
more eciently suppressed, but the viscous eect does not
exist in a moving ground where shear layer induced by relative ground motion is almost eliminated. However, vertical fences can suppress the vortex shedding irrespective
of ground conditions, because they diminish the momentum provision to the wake region by blocking the gap flow
actually in Fig. 6 (e) and (f).
Figure 6 (b) and (d) shows that vortex on a moving
ground is detached from ground, and pushed out horizontally downward. However, the separated shear layer from
the stationary ground at G/D = 0.55 in Fig. 6 (a) is connected to the upper separated shear layer interrupted by
the lower shear layer in the wake region behind a square
JSME International Journal

cylinder, and together sheds downward.


Figure 7 shows instantaneous streamline distributions
in an oscillation cycle. In a stationary ground at G/D =
0.55 in Fig. 7 (a), the vortex generated past a cylinder
is connected to separation bubble on the ground, separated from the ground directly. This phenomenon produces secondary shedding frequency in the wake region
past a square cylinder as mentioned in Fig. 6. However,
in cases of baseline and horizontal fences on a moving
ground in Fig. 7 (b) and (d), strong vortex is generated in
the wake region without any interference of the shear layer
on the ground. Only a large recirculation zone is found in
Fig. 7 (c), (e) and (f), due to vortex shedding which is suppressed by passive control devices.
3. 3 Aerodynamic characteristics
Figure 8 shows the time-averaged streamwise xdirectional velocity distributions measured at the exit region of gap between a square cylinder and ground for various gap heights. Time-averaged parameters were calculated by averaging the computational results over an entire
shedding cycle. In cases where the vortex shedding occurs
in a moving and stationary ground, the higher momentum
provided to the wake region than the cases without vortex
shedding. Also, the position (y/G) where maximum veSeries B, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006

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Fig. 6 Vorticity contour at maximum Lift; a) Stationary Ground at G/D = 0.55, b) Moving
Ground at G/D = 0.35 (solid line: clockwise, dotted line: counter-clockwise)

Fig. 7 Instantaneous Streamline in a cycle of Oscillation; a), c), e) Stationary Ground at


G/D = 0.55, b), d), f) Moving Ground at G/D = 0.35
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Fig. 8 Averaged x-directional velocity profiles for various gap heights (: Suppression,
: Vortex shedding); a), c), e) Stationary Ground, b), d), f) Moving Ground

locity denoted as (u/u )max was measured can be seen to


move closer to the lower surface of the square cylinder. In
case of a moving ground, a higher momentum is observed
which is due to weak wall boundary layer than stationary
cases at the same gap height. A square cylinder located
near a stationary ground, the reattached flow at the lower
surface of cylinder makes the position of maximum velocity move closer to the ground. The gap flow, like a jet
flow, does not roll up the wake region but expands along
the ground. This deters interaction between the upper separated shear layer and the gap flow, consequently resulting
in the suppression of the vortex shedding below the critical gap height. In cases of horizontal fences near a stationary ground in Fig. 8 (c), the gap velocity is large interfered
and canceled by viscous eects from the ground. But, the
viscous eect becomes negligible in a moving ground as

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shown in Fig. 8 (d). This confirms that the vertical fences


diminish momentum provision to the wake region, more
so than the baseline and horizontal fences and irrespective
ground conditions.
Figure 9 shows the Y-directional velocity profiles in
gap region. In both cases of stationary and moving ground,
the Y-directional velocity in the periodic vortex shedding
is higher than in the suppression cases. Also, as the gap
height increase, the position (y/G) where maximum velocity denoted as (v/u )max located closer to the lower surface
of the square cylinder as Fig. 8. For the periodic vortex
shedding, the gap flow has to roll up behind a square cylinder, then the vortex core location approaches closer to the
lower surface of a square cylinder, which is supported by
the results illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9.
Figure 10 shows the time-averaged pressure coe-

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Fig. 9 Averaged y-directional velocity profiles for various gap heights (: Suppression,
: Vortex shedding); a), c), e) Stationary Ground, b), d), f) Moving Ground

cient along the surface of the cylinder with the passive


control methods and ground condition. The stagnation
point where located at the center of front face (A-B) has
high pressure. The pressure of the cases where vortex
shedding is suppressed is a higher than shedding cases,
and also, an adverse pressure gradient at gap region (B-C)
is found. The averaged pressure at the top and lee side of
cylinder is uniformly distributed and is almost the same
with the exception of baseline and horizontal fences in a
moving ground where vortex shedding occurs. This result
is qualitatively similar with the experimental finding performed by Martinuzzi et al.(6) at stationary ground with
G/D = 0.6. The pressure distribution of vertical fences at
G/D = 0.35 in a moving ground is very similar to cases
at G/D = 0.55 in a stationary ground. There is no signifiSeries B, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006

cantly dierence between stationary and moving ground at


front side (A-B), except that the moving ground show the
lower pressure recovery in wake region (C-D) than case
of a stationary ground. Consequently, the dierence in the
pressure distribution in the wake region causes the aerodynamic drag of cylinder near a moving ground to increase
as shown in Fig. 11.
Figure 11 shows the averaged lift and drag coecients for various gap heights. Concerning with the average coecients, horizontal fences in both ground conditions show good performance in terms of the reduction of the aerodynamic lift and drag all gap heights irrespective of vortex shedding. At 0.3 < G/D < 0.4 for the
case of a moving ground, vertical fences showed a good
performance of aerodynamic drag and stability as vor-

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tex shedding can be suppressed by only vertical fences.
The drag of baseline and horizontal fences in a moving
ground rapidly increases until G/D < 0.4, and then remain

almost constant like Strouhal number distributions thereafter as shown in Fig. 4. As a cylinder is brought closer to
a ground the lift coecient initially decrease. Then as the
flow accelerated in the gap between the cylinder and the
ground causs the pressure on the lower side of cylinder
drop and lower the lift. The downward force of cylinder
is maximized around G/D = 0.3 in both cases of a moving
and stationary ground. Furthermore the horizontal fences
make this Venturi eect stronger, preventing the horizontal
fences in a moving ground from suppressing the vortexinduced oscillation. Despite this, it still has the advantage
of reducing averaged lift and drag. On the other hand, vertical fences have a strong point of suppression of vortex
shedding past a cylinder, but the averaged drag increases
above the critical gap height.
4.

Fig. 10 Averaged Pressure Coecient along the surface of


square cylinder (  : Vortex shedding, :
Suppression) (Stationary Ground for G/D = 0.55 in
Solid line, : Baseline : Horizontal Fence, :
Vertical Fence in; Moving Ground for G/D = 0.35
in Dash line, : Baseline, : Horizontal Fence, :
Vertical Fence)

Conclusion

In this study, passive control methods which attach


horizontal and vertical fences on the lower surface of the
cylinder near a moving ground were investigated. The horizontal fences enlarge the domain where the lower separated shear layer is interfered by viscous eect on the
ground. No eect is observed in moving ground due to

Fig. 11 Averaged Lift and Drag Coecient for various gap heights with Stationary and Moving Ground (: Baseline, : Horizontal Fence, : Vertical Fence)
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796
elimination of shear layer induced by relative ground motion. However vertical fences actually block the gap flow
and diminish the momentum provision to the wake region,
can suppress the vortex shedding irrespective of ground
conditions. In conclusion, the horizontal fences in a moving ground have the advantage of reducing averaged lift
and drag without suppressing the vortex-induced oscillation. Whereas the vertical fences have a strong point of
suppressing vortex shedding past a cylinder, but the drag
increases above the critical gap height. Therefore, it is
important to choose between horizontal or vertical fences
at the design stage in accordance with the objective and
application.

(10)

(11)

(12)

Acknowledgement

(13)

This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21


Project in 2005 and the Sixth Strategic Supercomputing
Support Program in KISTI.

(14)

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(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

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