The Enhancement of Aerodynamic Characteristics on Bluff Bodies Near a Moving Ground

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The Enhancement of Aerodynamic Characteristics on Bluff Bodies Near a Moving Ground

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Bodies near a Moving Ground

Tae-Yoon KIM , Bo-Sung LEE , Yo-Cheon KU ,

Dong-Ho LEE and Yasuaki KOHAMA

In this study, passive control methods for attaching horizontal and vertical fences on

the lower surface of the cylinder near a moving ground were adopted to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics with the changes in gap height. The horizontal fences increase the

domain where the lower separated shear layer is interfered by viscous eect on the ground.

In a moving ground, this viscous eect is only slightly observed due to elimination of shear

layer induced by relative ground motion. However, vertical fences diminish the momentum

provision intended to roll up to wake region by blocking the gap flow, thereby suppressing

the vortex shedding irrespective of ground conditions. Therefore, the horizontal fences in a

moving ground have the advantage of reducing averaged lift and drag though cannot suppress

the vortex-induced oscillation. Even though vertical fences have an advantage of suppressing

vortex shedding past a cylinder, the existence of the vertical fences themselves causes the

averaged drag to increase above the critical gap height due to the existence of vertical fences.

Key Words: Vortex Shedding, Passive Control, Vertical & Horizontal Fences, Moving

Ground

1.

Introduction

close to a ground is very important in automobile, aeronautical and wind engineering fields because of aerodynamic characteristic and instability resulting from flow

separation. It has been reported that the trac accidents

such as overturning or slipping induced by the abrupt

cross-wind at tunnel exit of highway and on the long

bridge. Under such strong cross-wind conditions, it is

noteworthy that vortex shedding past blu shape vehicles,

such as sports utility vehicles, articulated lorries, large

Hyundai/Kia Motors, Whasung-Si, Gyunggi-Do and

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul

National University, Seoul 445706, Korea

Samsung SDS, Seoul 135918, Korea

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul

National University, Seoul 151742, Korea

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul

National University, BD 3011213, San 561, Shinrimdong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151742, Korea.

E-mail: donghlee@snu.ac.kr

Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980

8577, Japan

strong loss of pressure recovery and vortex-induced oscillation, which result in the increase of aerodynamic drag

and instability. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate aerodynamic characteristics at the conceptual design stage of a

bridge, heavy ground vehicle, or building near the ground.

For the past several decades, numerous studies on

the vortex shedding formation past a cylinder have been

performed by Bearman(1) , Huerre(2) , Lyn(3) , Bosch(4) ,

Bailey(5) , Martinnuzi(6) , etc. Various active and passive

control methods have been suggested to suppress the vortex shedding and enhance the aerodynamic characteristic.

Active control methods, such as blowing, suction, installation of mechanical devices or excitation by micro wave

have been introduced. Also the passive control methods

include modification of trailing-edge shape, installation of

trip wires or plates, adapting ventilated and closed cavity, etc. Despite the fact that extensive studies have been

conducted, active control methods still have intrinsic problems in that they are mechanically too complex such that

it is dicult to be applied in practice. Hence, the passive

control methods have been more widely adopted than the

active control methods for actual realization rather than

the active control methods.

788

Tamura et al.(7) studied the averaged and fluctuating statistics of lift and drag acting on a square sectioned

cylinder with sharp corners, chamfered and rounded corners. With these controlled shapes of a square cylinder,

the shear layers were close to the side surface. Accordingly reattachment was enhanced and drag forces were reduced. Choi and Kwon(8) investigated physical mechanism of aerodynamic and aero-elastic instability of a blu

body with various corner cuts and attack angles experimentally. They claimed the corner cut method showed

better performance for the galloping but could not suppress the vortex shedding. Duell et al.(9) investigated the

eect of the mounted cavity in the base region experimentally. They reported that the mean base pressure was increased to 4% and 11% when the ratio of depth and height

of cylinder (D/H) were 0.2 and 0.8 respectively. Takemori et al.(10) reported that the drag could be reduced by

installing upper and lower corner vanes in the wake region, and these wake control vanes were found to be attractive and eective for drag reduction. Khalighi et al.(11)

reported that the presence of the plates in the wake region reduces the intensity of the re-circulating velocity of

the base region, which in turn reduces the vortex shedding and increases the pressure at the base region. B. Lee

et al.(12) reported the passive control attached the vertical

and horizontal fences in the lower surface of the cylinder

can suppress the vortex shedding past a cylinder.

Even though numerous studies have been conducted

on cylinders placed near a stationary ground, only a few

studies have been investigated on the blu body placed

near a moving ground. Arnal et al.(13) performed a numerical simulation of square cylinder under the condition of the free-stream, fixed and sliding wall conditions

with changes in the Reynolds number. They claimed

that the presence of the fixed wall reduced the Strouhal

number where the periodic vortex shedding occurred. In

contrast, the sliding wall at the free-stream velocity resulted in vortex shedding which was extremely periodic.

Kim and Geropp(14) investigated flow around some twodimensional blu bodies with wind tunnel experiments

equipped by moving-belt and reported that a larger lift

forces and longer wakes was apparent with decreasing

clearance. Bhattacharyya and Maiti(15) performed a numerical simulation at the square cylinder placed on a

moving ground in laminar Reynolds number range below

Re = 1 000. Therefore, the results showed that the averaged drag experienced by moving ground was higher than

the corresponding stationary case. Even though numerous studies have been conducted on blu bodies near a

ground, there is little information on the square cylinder

near a moving ground in turbulent Reynolds number region as O(104 ).

Therefore, the objective of this study is to provide

additional information of the flow-field around a square

Series B, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006

gap heights. So, based on this investigation, we will discuss the eects of the horizontal and vertical fences near a

moving ground in connection with the enhancement of the

unsteady aerodynamic characteristics and stability. To this

end, two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes

equations were used to investigate the flow characteristics such as the Strouhal number, aerodynamic coecients

and vortex formation mechanism past a square cylinder

according to the change in the gap height at a Reynolds

number of 20 000.

2. Governing Equations and Numerical Approaches

The governing equations used in this study are

the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations. To calculate incompressible flow-field for eciency, the continuity equation

was transformed into the pressure equation by the pseudocompressibility scheme(16) . The governing equations can

be written in dimensionless form as

p

ui

=

(1)

tc

xi

ui u j

ui ui u j

p

ui

+

=

+

+

( + t )

tc

x j

xi x j

x j xi

t

(2)

All geometric variables in Eqs. (1) and (2) are nondimensionalized by the height of the cylinder D, static

pressure p by the pressure of free stream p , and velocity u, v by the free stream velocity u , respectively, and

time by D/u . The third-order upwind biased scheme

was employed for the discretization of convection terms,

and the central dierence scheme for the viscous terms.

To calculate the time-dependent flow-field, a dual time

stepping method was used, where the physical time terms

were treated as the source on the right hand side as shown

in Eq. (2). Then, sub-iterations were performed for the

pseudo time tc until the right hand side of Eq. (2) converged with physical time t kept constant. Parallel computing was adopted to analyze eectively the unsteady

flows by dividing the physical domain into several subdomains through the domain decomposition technique.

Data Parallel Symmetric Gauss-Seidel method(17) which

was developed to conduct ecient parallel computing was

employed for temporal integration. Also, in order to accurately predict the large separated flow fields such as a blu

body, the -SST turbulence model(18) , which is a modification of the Menters SST model(19) , was used. The performance and applicability of the -SST turbulence model

are well illustrated in the previous researches of the authors(20) .

2. 1 Grid system and boundary condition

It is dicult to generate a single block grid around a

square cylinder. In the case of a sequential solver, a multiblock grid system is the most appropriate choice due to its

JSME International Journal

789

Table 1 Numerical parameters and results with various grids

and time steps

balancing problem that arises in parallel solver. Therefore, in this study, the solver adopted the H-type single

block structured grid system with blanked cells(21) . This

approach can be seen as a kind of Chimera grid technique(22) . In the domain, the cells in the cylinder are

marked as zero and the outer cells are marked as one.

The only additional memory requirement is for the array

needs to denote which cells are blanked. Furthermore,

only minimal modifications need to be made to the solution algorithm. In the computation process, the cells

marked as zero are automatically excluded, and the wall

boundary conditions are applied during the calculation of

fluxes. Figure 1 shows the geometry of the cylinder and

computational grid, where D and B denote the height and

width of the cylinder, respectively, and G means the gap

height from the ground. In this study, the aspect ratio

(B/D) was fixed as 1. The gap height (G/D) was varied

from 0.2 to 1.0, the Reynolds number Re = U D/ was set

as 20 000. The first grid spacing from the cylinder surface

and ground was set as xi /D = 0.005 for x+i < 5 for the

whole surface of the cylinder and the ground. To accommodate the unsteady flows, physical time step was set as

t = 0.05 and the sub-iterations were performed to obtain

the converged solutions at the fixed physical time. At the

inflow, 1/7 power law with adequate boundary layer thickness (/D = 4) was imposed at 6.7D, in front of the cylinder. At the outlet, flow properties were extrapolated and

symmetry boundary conditions were imposed on the upper

boundaries. No-slip boundary condition was imposed on

the cylinder wall surface and stationary ground cases, but

the same inflow speed was imposed on the moving ground.

To investigate the eects of the grid size and the first grid

spacing on the numerical solutions, grid refinement tests

were carried out with 398 298 grid, where the first grid

spacing xi /D = 0.002 5, 198 148 where xi /D = 0.005,

and 98 73 where xi /D = 0.01. The eect of the physical time step on the unsteadiness of the solution was also

investigated with t = 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 cases in 198 148

grid. Table 1 summarizes the preliminary grid refinement

test results. Based on this, we concluded that the 198148

grid and t = 0.05 can be used for the following numeriJSME International Journal

horozontal plates

vertical plates

passive control methods

identical with the Strouhal numbers and aerodynamic coecients from 198 148 and 398 298 grid.

2. 2 Passive control method

In order to suppress vortex-induced oscillation for

reducing aerodynamic drag of a cylinder near stationary

ground, B. Lee et al.(12) suggested installing vertical and

horizontal fences under the lower surface of the cylinder.

Generally, the decrease in gap height or the increase in aspect ratio makes the periodic vortex shedding to be suppressed. When the vortex shedding is suppressed, the

only long recirculation zone is found in Fig. 2 (a), while

the vortex shedding can be induced by the interaction of

the upper and lower shear layers above the critical gap

height as shown in Fig. 2 (b). This vortex shedding can

be suppressed by installing horizontal and vertical fences

at the lower surface of the cylinder, the vortex shedding

can be suppressed. This is because horizontal fences act

like to increase aspect ratio of cylinder and vertical fences

prevent the momentum provision from the gap region to

the wake region in Fig. 2 (c) and (d) respectively. In this

study, investigated whether horizontal and vertical fences

have the same influence in terms of suppressing the vortex shedding in a moving ground. From the preliminary

studies related with fence lengths and gap heights, the two

fences having the length of 0.1D and thickness of 0.07D,

respectively, were installed horizontally and vertically on

Series B, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006

790

shown in Fig. 3.

3.

3. 1 Strouhal number

Figure 4 shows the Strouhal numbers (St = Df /u )

according to gap heights (G/D). The shedding frequency

was determined by FFT for the time history of lift coefficient. In the case of a stationary ground, the critical

gap height of baseline, where the periodic vortex shedding occurs, exists around G/D = 0.55. However in the

case of moving ground, it is at G/D = 0.35. This suggests that the cylinder near moving ground is more likely

to experience higher instability and aerodynamic drag due

to unsteady wind loading than a stationary ground. The

Strouhal number in the case of stationary ground shows

a peak value immediately after the critical gap height due

to the ground eect(20) , and decreases to the value of free

standing cases as the gap height increases. However, in

case of moving ground, the Strouhal number rapidly increases at G/D = 0.30.45 but remains almost constant

thereafter. In the case of controlled shapes, vortex shedding at G/D = 0.55 is suppressed by both horizontal and

vertical fences in a stationary ground. Meanwhile, in a

moving ground, only vertical fences can suppress oscillation at G/D < 0.45, while horizontal fences cannot suppress and instead show similar pattern with baseline.

Figure 5 shows the variation of lift and drag coecients at G/D = 0.55 in a stationary ground and at G/D =

0.35 in a moving ground respectively. The amplitude of

lift and drag coecient in the case of moving ground at

G/D = 0.35 is larger than stationary ground at G/D = 0.55.

In a stationary ground, the oscillation of lift and drag is

suppressed by horizontal and vertical fences as shown in

Fig. 5 (a) and (c). The lift and drag of vertical fences

are higher than the case of horizontal fences. This can

be described as installed vertical fences, perpendicular to

the flow direction. However, horizontal fences in a moving ground make aerodynamic oscillations more amplify

rather than baseline. Otherwise, vertical fences can reduce

averaged drag as well as suppress the vortex shedding in

Fig. 5 (b) and (d). It is worthy to note that in a stationary

ground, two dominant shedding frequencies are observed,

Series B, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006

Stationary Ground, b) Moving Ground (: Baseline, :

Horizontal Fence, : Vertical Fence)

frequency due to absence of separated shear layer on the

ground(12), (20) .

3. 2 Vortex shedding mechanism

Figure 6 shows the instantaneous vorticity contours

of cylinder when has maximum lift. When the square

cylinder approaches stationary ground, there are three separated shear layers: two clockwise separated shear layers

with negative vorticity that develop on the upper of cylinder and the ground, and another counter-clockwise separated by shear layer generated on the lower surface of

the cylinder with positive vorticity(15) . For periodic vortex shedding, there must be interaction between the upper

and lower separated shear layers in wake region. However in a stationary ground, the clockwise separated shear

layer from the ground cancels the vorticity concentration

of counter-clockwise shear layer on the lower surface of

the cylinder. Consequently, this prevents rolling up to

in wake region. In addition, both horizontal and vertical fences attached to the lower surface of cylinder reinforce that mechanism and suppress the vortex-induced osJSME International Journal

791

0.55, b) Lift in Moving Ground at G/D = 0.35, c) Drag in Stationary Ground at

G/D = 0.55, d) Drag in Moving Ground at G/D = 0.35 (: Baseline, : Horizontal

Fence, : Vertical Fence)

closer to the ground than the case of stationary ground in

Fig. 6 (b), strong vortex shedding may occur due to the existence of the very weak shear layer on a moving ground.

Figure 6 (c) and (d) shows the eects of horizontal fences.

The horizontal fences have similar role as in that it increases the aspect ratio of cylinder, hence extending the

domain where the lower separated shear layer is interfered

by viscous eect from the ground. As the viscous eect is

strong in a stationary ground, the longer horizontal fences

is more eective in suppressing make the vortex shedding

more eciently suppressed, but the viscous eect does not

exist in a moving ground where shear layer induced by relative ground motion is almost eliminated. However, vertical fences can suppress the vortex shedding irrespective

of ground conditions, because they diminish the momentum provision to the wake region by blocking the gap flow

actually in Fig. 6 (e) and (f).

Figure 6 (b) and (d) shows that vortex on a moving

ground is detached from ground, and pushed out horizontally downward. However, the separated shear layer from

the stationary ground at G/D = 0.55 in Fig. 6 (a) is connected to the upper separated shear layer interrupted by

the lower shear layer in the wake region behind a square

JSME International Journal

Figure 7 shows instantaneous streamline distributions

in an oscillation cycle. In a stationary ground at G/D =

0.55 in Fig. 7 (a), the vortex generated past a cylinder

is connected to separation bubble on the ground, separated from the ground directly. This phenomenon produces secondary shedding frequency in the wake region

past a square cylinder as mentioned in Fig. 6. However,

in cases of baseline and horizontal fences on a moving

ground in Fig. 7 (b) and (d), strong vortex is generated in

the wake region without any interference of the shear layer

on the ground. Only a large recirculation zone is found in

Fig. 7 (c), (e) and (f), due to vortex shedding which is suppressed by passive control devices.

3. 3 Aerodynamic characteristics

Figure 8 shows the time-averaged streamwise xdirectional velocity distributions measured at the exit region of gap between a square cylinder and ground for various gap heights. Time-averaged parameters were calculated by averaging the computational results over an entire

shedding cycle. In cases where the vortex shedding occurs

in a moving and stationary ground, the higher momentum

provided to the wake region than the cases without vortex

shedding. Also, the position (y/G) where maximum veSeries B, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006

792

Fig. 6 Vorticity contour at maximum Lift; a) Stationary Ground at G/D = 0.55, b) Moving

Ground at G/D = 0.35 (solid line: clockwise, dotted line: counter-clockwise)

G/D = 0.55, b), d), f) Moving Ground at G/D = 0.35

Series B, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006

793

Fig. 8 Averaged x-directional velocity profiles for various gap heights (: Suppression,

: Vortex shedding); a), c), e) Stationary Ground, b), d), f) Moving Ground

move closer to the lower surface of the square cylinder. In

case of a moving ground, a higher momentum is observed

which is due to weak wall boundary layer than stationary

cases at the same gap height. A square cylinder located

near a stationary ground, the reattached flow at the lower

surface of cylinder makes the position of maximum velocity move closer to the ground. The gap flow, like a jet

flow, does not roll up the wake region but expands along

the ground. This deters interaction between the upper separated shear layer and the gap flow, consequently resulting

in the suppression of the vortex shedding below the critical gap height. In cases of horizontal fences near a stationary ground in Fig. 8 (c), the gap velocity is large interfered

and canceled by viscous eects from the ground. But, the

viscous eect becomes negligible in a moving ground as

diminish momentum provision to the wake region, more

so than the baseline and horizontal fences and irrespective

ground conditions.

Figure 9 shows the Y-directional velocity profiles in

gap region. In both cases of stationary and moving ground,

the Y-directional velocity in the periodic vortex shedding

is higher than in the suppression cases. Also, as the gap

height increase, the position (y/G) where maximum velocity denoted as (v/u )max located closer to the lower surface

of the square cylinder as Fig. 8. For the periodic vortex

shedding, the gap flow has to roll up behind a square cylinder, then the vortex core location approaches closer to the

lower surface of a square cylinder, which is supported by

the results illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9.

Figure 10 shows the time-averaged pressure coe-

794

Fig. 9 Averaged y-directional velocity profiles for various gap heights (: Suppression,

: Vortex shedding); a), c), e) Stationary Ground, b), d), f) Moving Ground

control methods and ground condition. The stagnation

point where located at the center of front face (A-B) has

high pressure. The pressure of the cases where vortex

shedding is suppressed is a higher than shedding cases,

and also, an adverse pressure gradient at gap region (B-C)

is found. The averaged pressure at the top and lee side of

cylinder is uniformly distributed and is almost the same

with the exception of baseline and horizontal fences in a

moving ground where vortex shedding occurs. This result

is qualitatively similar with the experimental finding performed by Martinuzzi et al.(6) at stationary ground with

G/D = 0.6. The pressure distribution of vertical fences at

G/D = 0.35 in a moving ground is very similar to cases

at G/D = 0.55 in a stationary ground. There is no signifiSeries B, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006

front side (A-B), except that the moving ground show the

lower pressure recovery in wake region (C-D) than case

of a stationary ground. Consequently, the dierence in the

pressure distribution in the wake region causes the aerodynamic drag of cylinder near a moving ground to increase

as shown in Fig. 11.

Figure 11 shows the averaged lift and drag coecients for various gap heights. Concerning with the average coecients, horizontal fences in both ground conditions show good performance in terms of the reduction of the aerodynamic lift and drag all gap heights irrespective of vortex shedding. At 0.3 < G/D < 0.4 for the

case of a moving ground, vertical fences showed a good

performance of aerodynamic drag and stability as vor-

795

tex shedding can be suppressed by only vertical fences.

The drag of baseline and horizontal fences in a moving

ground rapidly increases until G/D < 0.4, and then remain

almost constant like Strouhal number distributions thereafter as shown in Fig. 4. As a cylinder is brought closer to

a ground the lift coecient initially decrease. Then as the

flow accelerated in the gap between the cylinder and the

ground causs the pressure on the lower side of cylinder

drop and lower the lift. The downward force of cylinder

is maximized around G/D = 0.3 in both cases of a moving

and stationary ground. Furthermore the horizontal fences

make this Venturi eect stronger, preventing the horizontal

fences in a moving ground from suppressing the vortexinduced oscillation. Despite this, it still has the advantage

of reducing averaged lift and drag. On the other hand, vertical fences have a strong point of suppression of vortex

shedding past a cylinder, but the averaged drag increases

above the critical gap height.

4.

square cylinder ( : Vortex shedding, :

Suppression) (Stationary Ground for G/D = 0.55 in

Solid line, : Baseline : Horizontal Fence, :

Vertical Fence in; Moving Ground for G/D = 0.35

in Dash line, : Baseline, : Horizontal Fence, :

Vertical Fence)

Conclusion

horizontal and vertical fences on the lower surface of the

cylinder near a moving ground were investigated. The horizontal fences enlarge the domain where the lower separated shear layer is interfered by viscous eect on the

ground. No eect is observed in moving ground due to

Fig. 11 Averaged Lift and Drag Coecient for various gap heights with Stationary and Moving Ground (: Baseline, : Horizontal Fence, : Vertical Fence)

JSME International Journal

796

elimination of shear layer induced by relative ground motion. However vertical fences actually block the gap flow

and diminish the momentum provision to the wake region,

can suppress the vortex shedding irrespective of ground

conditions. In conclusion, the horizontal fences in a moving ground have the advantage of reducing averaged lift

and drag without suppressing the vortex-induced oscillation. Whereas the vertical fences have a strong point of

suppressing vortex shedding past a cylinder, but the drag

increases above the critical gap height. Therefore, it is

important to choose between horizontal or vertical fences

at the design stage in accordance with the objective and

application.

(10)

(11)

(12)

Acknowledgement

(13)

Project in 2005 and the Sixth Strategic Supercomputing

Support Program in KISTI.

(14)

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