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In this project our object is to develop a “Biomedical Monitoring System” that is capable to
transmit the patient’s heartbeat collected by microcontroller unit and display it on the LCD.


This project is very useful for continuous monitoring of the patient’s heartbeats this is a very
useful product in hospital


Components required in this project are as follows:

1. 8-bit Microcontroller (89c2051).

2. Operation Amplifier LM 358.
3. Encoder IC HT 12E.
4. 16x2 LCD.
5. Buzzer.
6. Voltage regulator 78XX.
7. Resistors, Capacitors, Diode (IN 4007).


When we have to learn about a new computer we have to familiarize about the machine
capability we are using, and we can do it by studying the internal hardware design (devices
architecture), and also to know about the size, number and the size of the registers.
A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the CPU), non-volatile memory for
the program (ROM or flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an I/O
control unit. Also called a "computer on a chip," billions of microcontroller units (MCUs) are
embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to appliances to automobiles. For example,
a single vehicle can use 70 or more microcontrollers. The following picture describes a general
block diagram of microcontroller.

The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 2K bytes of

Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using
Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard
MCS-51 instruction set. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the
AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective
solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89C2051 provides the following standard
features: 2K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five
vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analog comparator, on-
chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for
operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The
Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system
to continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator
disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.


The LM158 series consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated
operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply
over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low
power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, dc gain blocks and all the conventional op amp
circuits, which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For example,
the LM158 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is
used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring
the additional ±15V power supplies. The LM358 and LM2904 are available in a chip sized
package (8-Bump micro SMD) using National’s micro SMD package technology.


• Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package,

• Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
• Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB
• Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated)
• Wide power supply range:
— Single supply: 3V to 32V
— or dual supplies: ±1.5V to ±16V
• Very low supply current drain (500 μA)—essentially independent of supply voltage
• Low input offset voltage: 2 mV
• Input common-mode voltage range includes ground
• Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage
• Large output voltage swing

Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)

Connection Diagram
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electro-optical amplitude modulator realized as a thin, flat
display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light
source or reflector. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very
small amounts of electric power.

Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned

between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters, the axes of transmission of which
are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. With no liquid crystal between the
polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed)

The surfaces of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material
are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. This treatment
typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using, for example, a cloth.
The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. Electrodes
are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO

A buzzer or beeper is a signaling device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles,
household appliances such as a microwave oven, or shows. buzzer is a ceramic-based piezoelectric
sounder like a Son alert which makes a high-pitched tone.

It is a three pin IC used as a voltage regulator. It converts unregulated DC current into regulated
DC current.

Pin Description of 78xx

1. Vin
2. GND
3. Vout

A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave
rectification. This is a widely used configuration, both with individual diodes wired as shown and
with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally.


In spite of the improvement of communication link and despite all progress in advanced
communication technologies
, There is still very few functioning commercial Wireless
Monitoring Systems, which are most off-line, and there are still a number of issues to deal with.
Therefore, there is a strong need for investigating the possibility of design and implementation of
an interactive real-time wireless communication system. In our project, a generic real-time
wireless communication system was designed and developed for short and long term remote
patient-monitoring applying wireless protocol. The primary function of this system is to monitor
the temperature and Heart Beat of the Patient and the Data collected by the sensors are sent to the
Microcontroller. The Microcontroller transmits the data over the air.
At the receiving end a receiver is used to receive the data and it is decoded and fed to
Microcontroller, which is then displayed over the LCD display. If there is a dangerous change in
patient's status an alarm is also sounded.

The greatest learning experience in this project comes from the design and construction of “PC Based
Appliance Controller” which answer a lot of questions regarding the real implementation of embedded
system, Microcontroller, LCD.
During the development of our project we studied and analyzed many real world applications
of Electronics and Software Engineering. Some of the theoretical knowledge that was inculcated in us
within our engineering program, which we have applied practically, is:

1. Use of voltage regulation and filtering in power supply.

2. Study of LCD.
3. Study of Microcontroller.