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AMET UNIVERSITY

8.1.22

Production of an Alternating E.M.F.


Let a single turn coil be rotated with constant angular velocity in a uniform
magnetic field, its axis of revolution being perpendicular to the magnetic lines.
Let l m. = length of coil side Parallel to axis.
r m = radius of path.
= angular velocity of coil (i.e., number of radians/ sec.)
B Wb/m2 = flux density

Reckon time from the instant when The coil lies in the plane of reference XOX.
Linear velocity of coil sides v = r m/ sec.
Angle turned through in t sec. = t
Velocity of coil side at right angles to field = AD = v sin .
If the conductor continued its motion in the direction AC, then
Flux cut per sec. = B l v sin .
E.M.F. generated in coil side at time t = B l v sin volts.
E.M.F. generated in coil at time t,
= 2 B l v sin volts.
= 2 B l r sin t volts.
= sin t volts.
Where = 2 B l r = maximum flux linking coil.
Max. value of e.m.f., Em = volts, since the max. value
of sine t is 1.
E.M.F. equation may be written e = Em sin t or e = Em sin,
where e = instantaneous e.m.f. after t secs.
Such an e.m.f. is called a Sinusoidal or Simple harmonic E.M.F.

This is the ideal wave Form. If a wave deviates from this, it is regarded as
a distorted wave. The sine wave has the advantage that it greatly
simplifies the theory and calculation of the a.c.circuit. since = 2 f ,
the e.m.f. equation may be written e = Em sin 2 f t.
In the same way an alternating current may be written
i = Im sin t or I = Im sin 2 f t, where I is the instantaneous
value and Im the maximum value.

8-1-23

Again, since = 2 f, f =
2
An Alternating quantity, either current or e.m.f., is one which periodically
passes through a definite cycle of changes, each cycle consisting of two
half cycles, during one of which the quantity acts in one direction around
the circuit and during the other, in the opposite direction
E.M.F. generated in coil side at time t = B l v sin volts.
E.M.F. generated in coil at time t,
= 2 B l v sin volts.
= 2 B l r sin t volts.
= sin t volts.
Where = 2 B l r = maximum flux linking coil.
Max. value of e.m.f., Em = volts, since the max. value
of sine t is 1.
E.M.F equation may be written e = Em sin t, or e = Em sin,
where e = instantaneous e.m.f. after t secs.
Short Notes:
i)
Alternating e.m.f.: An Alternating e.m.f., is one which
periodically passes through a definite cycle of changes, each cycle
consisting of two half cycles, during one of which the quantity acts in one
direction around the circuit and during the other, in the opposite direction
ii)
Frequency or cycle: frequency is the number of cycles passed
through per sec. symbol ~
iii)
Amplitude: The maximum value of positive or negative which an
alternating quantity attains during one complete cycle is called Amplitude
or Peak value or Maximum value. The amplitude of alternating voltage
and current is represented by Em or Im.
iv)
RMS value (Root Mean Square Value): The RMS value of an
alternating current is defined as that steady current which when flowing
through a given resistance for a given time produces the same amount of
heat as produced by the alternating current when flowing through the same
resistance for the same time. It is also known as effective value of an
alternating current.
The RMS value is given thus:
I RMS = area under the squared wave

Period
RMS value of voltage, Erms = 0.707 Em
RMS value of current, I rms = 0.707 Im
v)
Average Value: The Arithmatical average of all the valuesof an
alternating quantity over one cycle is called Average value.
Average value = Area under the curve
Base (period)
For alternating voltage or current varying sinusoidally is given by:
E av = 0.637 Em
I av = 0.637 Im
vi) Form factor: The ratio of RMS value to Average value of an
alternating quantity is called Form factor.
Form factor = RMS value = 1.11
Average value
8.1.24

a) A.C.circuit containing Resistance only: A pure resistive circuit is


one which has negligible inductance compared to its resistance.
Ordinary filament lamps, water heater etc.are the examples.
Following are the Important properties of Resistance circuits:
(i)
Current is in phase with the voltage.
(ii)
Current I = V/R, where V and I are RMS values.
(iii)
Power consumed in the circuit = I2 R = V x I.

(b) A.C.circuit containing Inductance only: A circuit which has neither


resistance nor capacitance is called pure Inductive circuit. Whenever an
alternating voltage is applied to a circuit, an alternating magnetic field is
set up. Its effect is to produce back e.m.f. due to self-induction of the coil.
There is no ohmic resistance. So, the applied voltage has to overcome the
self induced e.m.f.only. The applied e.m.f. is equal and opposite to-self
induced e.m.f. at every instant.
The effective resistance of the inductive coil is called Inductive
Reactance and is denoted by XL and its unit is Ohms.

XL = 2 f L, where f is the frequency and L is the Inductance


in Henry.

Following are the Important points of Inductive circuit.


(i) Current I = V amps. = V
amps.
XL
2fL
(ii) Current lags behind the voltage by 90.
(iii) Power consumed in the circuit is 0.

Variation of XL with f.
As XL = L = 2 f l
Where L is a constant.
X L f.
(c) A.C.circuit containing Capacitance only: A circuit which
has neither resistance nor inductance is called pure capacitive
circuit.Whenever a capacitor is connected to an a.c.supply, the
capacitor charges and discharges during alternate quarter cycle
and their charge and discharge give rise to a.c.currents in the
circuit. The effective resistance of capacitor is denoted by
Xc =
1
ohms.
2fC
Where f is the frequency of the a.c. supply and C is the

Capacitance of the condenser in farad.

Following are the Important points of capacitive circuit:


(i)
I = V = V x 2 f C amps.
Xc
(ii)
Current leads the voltage by 90
(iii)
Power consumed in the circuit is 0.

8.1.25.

a) Impedance: Total opposition offered by a series circuit


containing resistance, Inductance and capacitance is called
Impedance. It is measured in Ohms and is denoted by Z.
Z = R 2 + ( XL ~ Xc ) 2 ohms.
In D.C. circuit, I = V/R
In A.C. circuit, I = V/Z

b) Relationship between Impedance, Voltage, Current and


Power Factor:
The Power factor ( P.F.) relationship of a circuit:
(i)
The ratio of resistance and Impedance = R/Z
(ii)
The ratio = Watts
= True power = V x I x cos
Volt amperes Apparent power
VxI
(iii)
The cosine of the angle of lead or lag of the current from applied
voltage.
8.1.26.

Ship board installations produce poor demand with a lagging power factor is
due to running many induction motors below full load, lighting of fluorescent
tubes and using transformers.
Power factor improvement is necessary in an installation because Low
power factor has the following adverse effects :
(i) For given power to be supplied, the current is increased due to low p.f., it
causes increase in copper losses and decreases efficiency of both
apparatus and the supply system.
(ii) With low p.f. generators, transformers, switches, transmission lines
become over loaded.
(iii) Low p.f. makes the voltage regulation of generators, transformers and
transmission lines greater.
(iv) With low p.f. cost of generation and transmission increases due to the
increase in current and use of thicker wires and bigger switches etc.

8.1.27.

a) The Power factor may be defined in any of the following ways:


i) The ratio of resistance and Impedance = R/Z
ii) The ratio = Watts
= True power = V x I x cos
Volt amperes
Apparent power
VxI
iii) The cosine of the angle of lead or lag of the current from applied
voltage.

b)

P = I2 R
175 = 2.5 2 R

therefore, R = 175 = 28 ohms.


6.25
Z = V/ I
= 100 = 40 ohms.
2.5
Z = R 2 + X 2 therefore, X = 402 282
= 816 = 28.566 ohms.
Therefore, 2 f L = 28.566
L =

28.566 = 0.28566 henry = 0.0909 henry.


2 x 50

P = V x I x cos

175 = 100 x 2.5 x cos

Cos = 175 / 50 = 0.7. Therefore, Power Factor = 0.7