1 views

Uploaded by Ashok Kumar

basics of electrical

- Visual Inspection
- Rodney Wells Pulse Motor
- PLCC workbook 1 pdf.pdf
- Mixer
- Potential Transformer
- IEEE 650-1990 _Battery Chargers and Inverters
- ps
- ATPQG Tutorial ATP
- Design of harmonic containing network.pdf
- Technical Application Papers No. 23 - Medium voltage capacitor switching.pdf
- Agilent U1190 Series Clamp Meters Datasheets
- Electricity Paper-2 With Ans.
- 1 Magnetic Actuator
- Regeneration of ZVS Converter with Resonant Inductor
- lelm501
- 01 Pcb Power Decoupling Myths Debunked
- 4-2 Operating & Calibration Procedures
- Assignments 2015
- Cal Table
- Pg Brainstormer - 4c (Electromagnetism)635452000703671915 (1)

You are on page 1of 7

8.1.22

Let a single turn coil be rotated with constant angular velocity in a uniform

magnetic field, its axis of revolution being perpendicular to the magnetic lines.

Let l m. = length of coil side Parallel to axis.

r m = radius of path.

= angular velocity of coil (i.e., number of radians/ sec.)

B Wb/m2 = flux density

Reckon time from the instant when The coil lies in the plane of reference XOX.

Linear velocity of coil sides v = r m/ sec.

Angle turned through in t sec. = t

Velocity of coil side at right angles to field = AD = v sin .

If the conductor continued its motion in the direction AC, then

Flux cut per sec. = B l v sin .

E.M.F. generated in coil side at time t = B l v sin volts.

E.M.F. generated in coil at time t,

= 2 B l v sin volts.

= 2 B l r sin t volts.

= sin t volts.

Where = 2 B l r = maximum flux linking coil.

Max. value of e.m.f., Em = volts, since the max. value

of sine t is 1.

E.M.F. equation may be written e = Em sin t or e = Em sin,

where e = instantaneous e.m.f. after t secs.

Such an e.m.f. is called a Sinusoidal or Simple harmonic E.M.F.

This is the ideal wave Form. If a wave deviates from this, it is regarded as

a distorted wave. The sine wave has the advantage that it greatly

simplifies the theory and calculation of the a.c.circuit. since = 2 f ,

the e.m.f. equation may be written e = Em sin 2 f t.

In the same way an alternating current may be written

i = Im sin t or I = Im sin 2 f t, where I is the instantaneous

value and Im the maximum value.

8-1-23

Again, since = 2 f, f =

2

An Alternating quantity, either current or e.m.f., is one which periodically

passes through a definite cycle of changes, each cycle consisting of two

half cycles, during one of which the quantity acts in one direction around

the circuit and during the other, in the opposite direction

E.M.F. generated in coil side at time t = B l v sin volts.

E.M.F. generated in coil at time t,

= 2 B l v sin volts.

= 2 B l r sin t volts.

= sin t volts.

Where = 2 B l r = maximum flux linking coil.

Max. value of e.m.f., Em = volts, since the max. value

of sine t is 1.

E.M.F equation may be written e = Em sin t, or e = Em sin,

where e = instantaneous e.m.f. after t secs.

Short Notes:

i)

Alternating e.m.f.: An Alternating e.m.f., is one which

periodically passes through a definite cycle of changes, each cycle

consisting of two half cycles, during one of which the quantity acts in one

direction around the circuit and during the other, in the opposite direction

ii)

Frequency or cycle: frequency is the number of cycles passed

through per sec. symbol ~

iii)

Amplitude: The maximum value of positive or negative which an

alternating quantity attains during one complete cycle is called Amplitude

or Peak value or Maximum value. The amplitude of alternating voltage

and current is represented by Em or Im.

iv)

RMS value (Root Mean Square Value): The RMS value of an

alternating current is defined as that steady current which when flowing

through a given resistance for a given time produces the same amount of

heat as produced by the alternating current when flowing through the same

resistance for the same time. It is also known as effective value of an

alternating current.

The RMS value is given thus:

I RMS = area under the squared wave

Period

RMS value of voltage, Erms = 0.707 Em

RMS value of current, I rms = 0.707 Im

v)

Average Value: The Arithmatical average of all the valuesof an

alternating quantity over one cycle is called Average value.

Average value = Area under the curve

Base (period)

For alternating voltage or current varying sinusoidally is given by:

E av = 0.637 Em

I av = 0.637 Im

vi) Form factor: The ratio of RMS value to Average value of an

alternating quantity is called Form factor.

Form factor = RMS value = 1.11

Average value

8.1.24

one which has negligible inductance compared to its resistance.

Ordinary filament lamps, water heater etc.are the examples.

Following are the Important properties of Resistance circuits:

(i)

Current is in phase with the voltage.

(ii)

Current I = V/R, where V and I are RMS values.

(iii)

Power consumed in the circuit = I2 R = V x I.

resistance nor capacitance is called pure Inductive circuit. Whenever an

alternating voltage is applied to a circuit, an alternating magnetic field is

set up. Its effect is to produce back e.m.f. due to self-induction of the coil.

There is no ohmic resistance. So, the applied voltage has to overcome the

self induced e.m.f.only. The applied e.m.f. is equal and opposite to-self

induced e.m.f. at every instant.

The effective resistance of the inductive coil is called Inductive

Reactance and is denoted by XL and its unit is Ohms.

in Henry.

(i) Current I = V amps. = V

amps.

XL

2fL

(ii) Current lags behind the voltage by 90.

(iii) Power consumed in the circuit is 0.

Variation of XL with f.

As XL = L = 2 f l

Where L is a constant.

X L f.

(c) A.C.circuit containing Capacitance only: A circuit which

has neither resistance nor inductance is called pure capacitive

circuit.Whenever a capacitor is connected to an a.c.supply, the

capacitor charges and discharges during alternate quarter cycle

and their charge and discharge give rise to a.c.currents in the

circuit. The effective resistance of capacitor is denoted by

Xc =

1

ohms.

2fC

Where f is the frequency of the a.c. supply and C is the

(i)

I = V = V x 2 f C amps.

Xc

(ii)

Current leads the voltage by 90

(iii)

Power consumed in the circuit is 0.

8.1.25.

containing resistance, Inductance and capacitance is called

Impedance. It is measured in Ohms and is denoted by Z.

Z = R 2 + ( XL ~ Xc ) 2 ohms.

In D.C. circuit, I = V/R

In A.C. circuit, I = V/Z

Power Factor:

The Power factor ( P.F.) relationship of a circuit:

(i)

The ratio of resistance and Impedance = R/Z

(ii)

The ratio = Watts

= True power = V x I x cos

Volt amperes Apparent power

VxI

(iii)

The cosine of the angle of lead or lag of the current from applied

voltage.

8.1.26.

Ship board installations produce poor demand with a lagging power factor is

due to running many induction motors below full load, lighting of fluorescent

tubes and using transformers.

Power factor improvement is necessary in an installation because Low

power factor has the following adverse effects :

(i) For given power to be supplied, the current is increased due to low p.f., it

causes increase in copper losses and decreases efficiency of both

apparatus and the supply system.

(ii) With low p.f. generators, transformers, switches, transmission lines

become over loaded.

(iii) Low p.f. makes the voltage regulation of generators, transformers and

transmission lines greater.

(iv) With low p.f. cost of generation and transmission increases due to the

increase in current and use of thicker wires and bigger switches etc.

8.1.27.

i) The ratio of resistance and Impedance = R/Z

ii) The ratio = Watts

= True power = V x I x cos

Volt amperes

Apparent power

VxI

iii) The cosine of the angle of lead or lag of the current from applied

voltage.

b)

P = I2 R

175 = 2.5 2 R

6.25

Z = V/ I

= 100 = 40 ohms.

2.5

Z = R 2 + X 2 therefore, X = 402 282

= 816 = 28.566 ohms.

Therefore, 2 f L = 28.566

L =

2 x 50

P = V x I x cos

- Visual InspectionUploaded byAli Hassan
- Rodney Wells Pulse MotorUploaded byKWojtek
- PLCC workbook 1 pdf.pdfUploaded bysvk1974
- MixerUploaded byMinal Junghare
- Potential TransformerUploaded byVijay Pandit
- IEEE 650-1990 _Battery Chargers and InvertersUploaded bylalvith04
- psUploaded bykarthiksrinivas
- ATPQG Tutorial ATPUploaded byAngie Gineth
- Design of harmonic containing network.pdfUploaded bySuranjana Das
- Technical Application Papers No. 23 - Medium voltage capacitor switching.pdfUploaded byAndré Luiz
- Agilent U1190 Series Clamp Meters DatasheetsUploaded byDeepa Devaraj
- Electricity Paper-2 With Ans.Uploaded byPritamjit Rout
- 1 Magnetic ActuatorUploaded byvenky123456789
- Regeneration of ZVS Converter with Resonant InductorUploaded byeditor9891
- lelm501Uploaded byHriday Garg
- 01 Pcb Power Decoupling Myths DebunkedUploaded byhardih123
- 4-2 Operating & Calibration ProceduresUploaded byu2006262918
- Assignments 2015Uploaded byyamaha355
- Cal TableUploaded byBaskar Mani
- Pg Brainstormer - 4c (Electromagnetism)635452000703671915 (1)Uploaded byshivamgarg18
- ChapterUploaded bySaikumarVavila
- Método para medir campos eletromágnéticos de baixa frequênciaUploaded byEdval Rodrigues de Viveiros
- 4. Jin-Hong JeonUploaded bykanda71
- ABD0000CE25.pdfUploaded byprizm3d
- SolvedUploaded byJatin hemwani
- 3RT13251AP00 Datasheet EnUploaded byErick MeloHuamán
- Complementary++Test+FyBCh16 19,+20NVCO08+Electricity+and+Magnetism+PublishedUploaded byEpic Win
- pceldeUploaded byapi-290101261
- 6_ACUploaded bykay
- Part-IIIUploaded byJaymilyn Rodas Santos

- 16.10.2016 METUploaded byAshok Kumar
- New Motor Questions of October 2014 KolkataUploaded bySahil Mishra
- Phase II Steering Gear Q&AUploaded byNithin Varghese
- 11_Reversing of Two Stroke EngineUploaded byAisha Zaheer
- 22460881-MAN-Marine-Diesel-instruction-book.pdfUploaded byBFeather Nephilim
- Kristiansen 2012 WasteUploaded byAshok Kumar
- 11. Marine IncineratorsUploaded byAshok Kumar
- TS_mmis_incin_guide.pdfUploaded byAshok Kumar
- incinerator.eia_s4s.pdfUploaded byAshok Kumar
- BR Industrial Boiler Beginners EnUploaded byJm Yan C
- Boiler docUploaded byVikas Saini
- L01-03Uploaded byeadaladarenu
- ESM-Seafarers-Application-Form.xlsxUploaded byAshok Kumar
- SOT NEW 1Uploaded byAshok Kumar
- VRIDHI CV Application for Employment(1)-1Uploaded byAshok Kumar
- Welding Electrode ClassificationsUploaded byajaykrishna_99
- Bunkering ProcedureUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Gold Rate in ErodeUploaded byAshok Kumar
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Coc Oral Exam PreparationUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Function 5 ELECTRICAL Quick Reference NotesUploaded byAshok Kumar
- MEO Assesment ChecklistUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Marine CompressorsUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Chain BlockUploaded byAshok Kumar
- PlcUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Standard Safety High Voltage 12Uploaded byclinthen

- MIR-144_part4.pdfUploaded bydxd
- TunnelUploaded byqaisarmehboob82
- 4.Two Phase MicrochannelUploaded byAnkit Lonare
- heat TransferUploaded byV Dhinakaran
- LG Plasma ManualUploaded bymisaho96
- Kenichi L. Ishikawa, Eiji J. Takahashi and Katsumi Midorikawa- Single-attosecond pulse generation using a seed harmonic pulse trainUploaded byPocxa
- Purification of salt for chemical and human consumptionUploaded bymr sina
- ebara-gencatUploaded byapi-247320049
- Valve SizingUploaded byvasanth_paul8508
- notesonhydraulic00owenrich_djvuUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Technical Submittals Report 31.05.2018Uploaded bymahesh bandara
- Analysis of Methane Yields From Energy CropsUploaded byMario Ricardo Urdaneta Parra
- Lab Fisca IIUploaded byMelissa Andrea Figueredo Montes
- grace finalUploaded byapi-253597675
- eeeUploaded byrashesranjan
- List of Medium Voltage Inverters for Industrial ControlUploaded bykatesunshine9
- fire pumpUploaded byArt James
- Shape Memory Alloy ActuatorsUploaded byJees Janesh
- Standardizing Work Practices for Offshore Cargo OperationsUploaded byegypure
- CMOS MATLAB CODEUploaded byratan3838
- KOC-G-007 R2 KOC Standard for Basic Design DataUploaded bydjilnef
- P&ID Dry gas sealUploaded bytungluong
- Flat Spots Bright Spots 01Uploaded byMazhar Badr
- Geostrategic SignificanceUploaded byQambar
- IntelligentTransportationSystems(ITS)Uploaded byAnonymous gmNTrHs
- Adhesive+Bonding+and+Self-Curing+Characteristics+of+α-Starch++Based+Composite+Binder+for+Green+Sand+Mould%2FCoreUploaded byTanveer Alam
- case study on guilUploaded byvineetH_Sl2000
- On-Site Inspection of Magnetic Separators-1Uploaded byjamilvora
- AtomUploaded bypuput123
- Power System 101 AssessmentUploaded byJayson Francisco