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Attendance Quiz 21-1, 21-2

State the principle of conservation of charge in


your own words, maximum of 2 sentences.

Attendance Quiz 21-1, 21-2


Principle of conservation of charge:
The algebraic sum of all the electric charges in
any closed system in constant.

Electric Charge

Objective
Discuss the dichotomy, quantization and conservation of electric

charge
Given the initial charge distribution, calculate the final charge

distribution using conservation principles

Electric Charge
scalar; no direction
SI unit of electric charge: Coulomb (C)
Electrostatics: study of

the interactions between electric charges


that are at rest in an observers reference frame.

Three properties of electric charge:


1.

Dichotomy

2.

Conservation

3.

Quantization

3 properties of electric charge


Dichotomy
Electric charge is either positive or negative
Like charges repel; opposite charges attract

3 properties of electric charge


Conservation
The algebraic sum of all the electric charges in any closed system

is constant.
In charging, charge is neither created nor destroyed; it is only

transferred from one body to another


This is a universal conservation law

3 properties of electric charge


Quantization
The magnitude of charge of the electron or proton is a natural

unit of charge.
Basic unit of charge

e = 1.602 x 10-19 C

Proton: + 1.602 x 10-19 C = +e


Electron: - 1.602 x 10-19 C = -e

Every observable amount of electric charge is always an integer

multiple of this basic unit

Consider 2 conducting spheres of the same size, with


initial charges as shown:

Q1 = +3Q Q2 = -Q

1.What is the final charge upon reaching equilibrium on


each sphere when the two are brought into contact?
2.Are the final charges attractive or repulsive?

Consider 2 conducting spheres of the same size, with


initial charges as shown:

Q1 = +3Q Q2 = -Q

1.What is the final charge upon reaching equilibrium on


each sphere when the two are brought into contact?
Net charge: +2Q so Q1 = +Q = Q2

2.Are the final charges attractive or repulsive?


Both have same sign: Repulsive

Objective
Discuss the dichotomy, quantization and conservation of electric
charge
Given the initial charge distribution, calculate the final charge
distribution using conservation principles

Conductors, Insulators
& Induced Charges

Objectives
Predict charge distributions, and the resulting attraction or

repulsion, in a system of charged insulators and conductors


Outline the process of charging

Types of materials in terms of


electric conduction
Conductors
Insulators
Semiconductors
Superconductors

Conductors

Conductors
Objects that permit easy movement of electrons through them
In most metals, mobile charges are always negative electrons: sea

of electrons
The earth can act as an infinite source or sink of electrons:

grounding

Conductors
Most metals are good conductors

Insulators
Objects that DO NOT permit easy movement of electrons through

them
Examples include most nonmetals, ceramic, wood, plastic, rubber,
air

The charges within the molecules of an insulator can shift slightly:

polarization

Semiconductors
Objects with properties between conductors and insulators

Examples include silicon, diodes, transistors

Superconductors
Objects with zero resistance against the movement of electrons
Examples include some compounds at very low temperatures

Ways of charging a material


Charging by rubbing
charge of charger changes; electrons transfer

Ways of charging a material


Charging by rubbing

Ways of charging a material


Charging by contact
charge of charger changes; electrons transfer

Ways of charging a material


Charging by induction (w/o grounding)
charge of charger DOES NOT change

Ways of charging a material


Charging by induction (w/ grounding)
charge of charger DOES NOT change
negative charger induces a positive charge

(positive charger induces a negative charge)

Ways of charging a material


Charging by induction (w/ grounding)

Ways of charging a material


Charging by polarization
charge of charger DOES NOT change
charged object can still attract a neutral object by polarization

Electric Charge and the Structure of Matter


Atomic structure:

electron, proton,neutron
Proton and neutron are

made up of quarks

Electric Charge and the Structure of Matter


Standard model

-current state of classification


of all elementary particles

Example 1

Consider 2 conducting spheres of the same size, with


initial charges as shown:

Q1 = Q

Q2 = 0

What is the final charge on each sphere when the two are
brought into contact?
A.

Q and Q

C. Q/2 and Q/2

B.

Q and Q

D.Q/2 and Q/2

Example 1

Consider 2 conducting spheres of the same size, with


initial charges as shown:

Q1 = Q

Q2 = 0

What is the final charge on each sphere when the two are
brought into contact?
A.

Q and Q

C. Q/2 and Q/2

B.

Q and Q

D.Q/2 and Q/2

Index card exercise

Objectives
Predict charge distributions, and the resulting attraction or
repulsion, in a system of charged insulators and conductors
Outline the process of charging

Summary
Electric charge: fundamental quantity in electrostatics
Electric interactions are chiefly responsible for the structure of
atoms, molecules and solids.
Conductors are materials that permit electric charge to move
easily within them
Insulators permit charge to move much less readily.

Jan 22 Discussion 1 coverage


1) Read and answer questions in How to Succeed in Physics by
Really Trying.
2) Syllabus signature: statement of acceptance
I hereby acknowledge that I have read, understood and accepted
the contents of the Physics 72 2nd semester 2014-15 syllabus.

Jan 23 Attendance Quiz coverage


Sec 21-3: Coulombs Law
Sec 21-4: Electric Field & Electric Forces