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School of Engineering, University of Durham

Abstract

A Gurney ap is a thin strip of material attached at the trailing edge of the upper surface

of a racing car wing in order to increase the downforce of a wing of limited size. The

ow around a single element racing car wing with and without a 4.7% Gurney ap has

been investigated experimentally and computationally. Attention has been concentrated

on the unsteady wake which is characterized by alternate vortex shedding as is observed

behind circular cylinders, at plates and other two-dimensional bluff bodies. Using

novel experimental and postprocessing techniques it has been possible to determine

the instantaneous velocity and pressure elds in the intermediate and far wake. The

uctuating pressures on the surface of the aerofoil have been measured and integrated to

determine the uctuating lift and pitching moment on the wing. These were found to

be small compared with the time-averaged values despite the strong uctuations in

the wake. Steady-state computational uid dynamic simulations were performed and

the aerofoil surface pressure distribution was predicted accurately. The relationship

between wake unsteadiness and the pressure acting on the rear of bluff bodies (the base

pressure) is discussed and its importance to Gurney aps is assessed.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Gurney, motorsport, vortex shedding, computational uid

dynamics (CFD)

Nomenclature

C

CD

CL

CL0

CM

0

CM

Cp

Cp0

Cp o

D

f

H

aerofoil chord

drag coefcient drag force/[C Span (Po ) Ps)]

lift coefcient downforce/[C Span (Po ) Ps)]

lift coefcient uctuation [standard deviation of CL(t)]

pitch coefcient [tail-down moment at x/C 0.25)/(C2 Span (Po ) Ps)]

pitch coefcient uctuation [standard deviation of CM(t)]

static pressure coefcient (Ps ) Ps)/(Po ) Ps)

pressure coefcient uctuation [standard deviation of Cp(t)]

total pressure coefcient (Po ) Ps)/(Po ) Ps)

base dimension

frequency of vortex shedding

Gurney height

Correspondence address:

David B. Sims-Williams, School of Engineering,

University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.

Tel.: +44 (0)191 3743935. Fax: +44 (0)191 3742550.

E-mail: d.b.sims-williams@durham.ac.uk

221

Po

Po

Ps

Ps

s

S

t

u

u0hw

U

v

x

y

q

f

free stream total pressure

local static pressure

free stream static pressure

streamwise position

Strouhal number

time

axial (or streamwise) velocity

uctuating hot-wire effective velocity (standard deviation)

free stream velocity

vertical velocity

axial position

vertical position

density

vorticity in xy plane

Introduction

The aerodynamic design of racing cars inevitably

requires compromise between the high downforce

that is required for high cornering speeds and the

low drag that increases the potential straight line

velocity. With a few, rare exceptions the balance

leans towards the high downforce conguration

since the increased corner entry and exit speeds

largely compensate for lower top speed in terms

of total elapsed times along the straights whilst

maintaining the gains made through the corners.

The constraints imposed by the regulations for

the majority of racing formulae make it difcult,

if not impossible, for engineers to achieve the

downforce that they would wish to achieve. These

constraints are mostly geometric which directly or

indirectly limit the size of the aerodynamic devices

that are used to create the required downforce. One

of the most signicant constraints that is commonly enforced relates to the maximum height and

rearward projection of the rear wing. Because the

downforce that is generated depends upon both the

wing shape and its size, the obvious means to

increase its downforce is to make it larger. Owing

to the constraints on the trailing edge location, this

can only be achieved by moving the leading edge

forward and downwards but this moves the wing

further into a region of low energy, highly turbulent ow that does little to enhance performance.

222

achieve high downforce from a small aerofoil with a

high leading edge. The device that is most commonly adopted is the `Gurney ap' which consists

of a thin strip of material that projects upwards

from the trailing edge of the wing in a direction

that is approximately perpendicular to the surface.

Typically these devices have a height of between

2% and 6% of the wing chord. Gurney aps are

equally commonly used on the front wings of single

seat racing cars where the driving constraints are

different but the objectives are the same, namely

to generate high downforce.

Liebeck (1978) was the rst to publish data from

experiments on an aerofoil tted with a small

Gurney ap and his results demonstrated clear

increases in both lift and drag. He also hypothesized a trailing edge wake ow consisting of a pair

of counter-rotating vortices in the near wake. Katz

& Largman (1989) presented similar results from a

two-element aerofoil with specic application to

race cars although no attempt was made to investigate the ow physics. Surface pressure distributions

about a two-element race car wing by Dominy

(1992) demonstrated that the primary inuence of

the Gurney ap was to increase the pressures acting

over the pressure surfaces of both the ap and the

main section with a smaller but signicant pressure reduction on the suction surface of the ap.

Complementary experimental and computational

Sports Engineering (1999) 2, 221233 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd

test case

+1 deg

18

test case

+1 deg

16

14

12

CL/CD

generally good validation of their Navier-Stokes

predictions, particularly in terms of lift, but little

was added to our understanding of the ow physics.

Ross et al. (1995) extended the application of

Gurney aps to their attachment to the trailing

edge of the main element of a two-component

aerofoil. The effect was to increase the lift and the

maximum lift to drag ratio. Despite the widespread

use of Gurney aps in motor sport, it is only

recently that the wake ow has been studied in any

1 depth. Jeffrey et al. (1998) used a Laser Doppler

Anemometer (LDA) to examine the ow around

the Gurney. Although their time-averaged data

showed the twin vortex structure suggested by

Liebeck (1978), they also found indications of

alternate vortex shedding from the Gurney which

they conrmed using smoke ow and ash photography. They concluded that it was the combined

effects of base pressure reduction associated with

vortex shedding and the stagnating ow ahead of

the device that generated an increase in circulation

and hence lift.

2 Various studies (e.g. Jeffrey et al. 1998, Lomas

1998, Jones 1999) have mapped out the combined

effects of Gurney height and wing incidence on lift

and drag. Fitting a Gurney can be expected to

increase lift and drag at a given incidence, this

allows lower incidence to be used for a given

lift which, in the case of a rear wing, raises the

leading edge away from the low energy ow behind

the car. Fitting a Gurney also increases the

maximum lift of the aerofoil for situations where

maximum downforce is required irrespective of

drag. Finally, the maximum lift /drag (efciency) of

a wing with a Gurney will generally be lower than

without but this will occur at a signicantly higher

lift. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 which shows lift/

drag plotted against lift for the aerofoil used in the

present investigation tested over a range of incidence angles with and without a 4.7% Gurney. As

indicated by this gure, increases in lift beyond

the plain aerofoil's maximum CL/CD condition are

much better accomplished by using a Gurney (or

increasing Gurney height) than by increasing

incidence.

10

8

6

No Gurney

4.7% Gurney

2

0

0

CL

Figure 1 CL/CD vs. CL with and without a 4.7% Gurney ap.

greater insight into the unsteady aspects of the ow

around a typical wing and Gurney conguration,

focusing in particular on large scale unsteady

structures (i.e. with scales similar to that of the

Gurney) rather than on small scale unsteadiness

generally referred to as turbulence. The Gurney

ap height was 4.7% of the wing chord and the test

condition was at +1 horn-line incidence (i.e. the

incidence of a straight edge resting on top of the

wing). This incidence is near the optimum lift/drag

incidence both with and without the Gurney,

erring on the side of higher lift, as shown in

Fig. 1. From an academic point of view, the impact

of the unsteadiness on the time-averaged ow is

an interesting issue, while from a more practical

viewpoint the frequency and magnitude of any

unsteady forces on the wing is of potential importance in the design of the wing supports. Also,

as greater use is made of Computational Fluid

Dynamics (CFD), the usefulness of including

unsteadiness in simulations is a further issue which

has been raised. Depending on the type of solver

used and the time-scale of the unsteadiness, timeresolved calculations can be expected to increase

simulation times by orders of magnitude.

Experimental arrangement

The wing had a chord of 214 mm and a span of

430 mm. The Gurney height was 10 mm. The

223

one of Durham University's 457 457 mm wind

tunnels at 21 m s)1. This resulted in a chord based

Reynolds number in the region of 3.1 105. End

plates were used on the wing to reduce the

inevitable three-dimensionality which will be present at limited aspect ratio. The reference static and

total pressures (and hence velocity) were measured

with a pitot-static probe upstream of the wing. No

adjustment was made for tunnel blockage because

the aim of this study is ow structure understanding and, although tunnel blockage will affect the

absolute values of the force and pressure coefcients, trends and ow structures will be well

represented. The wing was supported on a Plint

three-component force balance which was used

to obtain steady measurements of lift, drag and

pitching moment. Force measurements were repeatable to within 1% on CL and 3% on CD.

The wing had 34 pressure tappings at mid-span

which were relayed via hypodermic tubing embedded in the wing to a scanivalve. This allows all of

the pressures to be measured successively using the

same pressure transducer so pressure coefcient

errors will be due only to drift of the transducer

and tunnel dynamic pressure during the course of

the run and so will be less than 1%. Wake surveys

were performed using a 5-hole probe. This type of

probe is used to determine ow velocity and

direction as well as total and static pressure from

the pressures at the ve holes in the probe head.

The probe was of the forward facing pyramid type

(as classied by Dominy & Hodson 1993), and was

constructed from 21-gauge hypodermic tubing,

resulting in a probe head diameter of 2.4 mm. By

optimising the shape of the head it was possible to

calibrate the probe over an incidence range of 50

pitch and 30 yaw. A computer controlled, twoaxis traverse gear was used for probe positioning in

the wind-tunnel. In the case of the 5-hole probe, a

set of Sensor-Technics 108LP01D pressure transducers were used to record simultaneously the

pressures at the ve tubes and the reference pressures at the pitot-static probe. Errors here may

be caused by drift in the relative sensitivity of the

ve transducers since their last calibration and by

224

these errors could be as large as 23% of the

dynamic head but where the errors could be

determined directly they were always below 1%.

Surface pressure tappings and pneumatic probes

(e.g. 5-hole probes) are generally applicable only

for steady measurements. This is because the

length of tubing between the point of measurement

(the probe head or the wing surface) and the

pressure transducer distorts pressure uctuations

due to resonance in the tubes and due to viscous

damping. In the present work this distortion is

overcome by measuring the distortion and correcting for it using a technique based on that described

by Irwin et al. (1979). An audio loudspeaker is used

to generate a uctuating pressure (a swept sine

wave from 5 to 1000 Hz was used here) within a

small closed chamber. For the pressure tappings in

the wing surface this chamber was sealed to the

surface of the wing around a pressure tapping while

for the 5-hole probe the probe head was sealed

into the chamber. A reference pressure transducer

measures the time-varying pressure inside the

chamber (i.e. at the `point of measurement') while

the distorted pressure at the other end of the tube/

probe is measured using another pressure transducer as will be done in the eventual wind-tunnel

experiment. Fourier transforms are computed for

the recorded pressure uctuations at the reference

and test pressure transducers and their ratio provides a complex transfer function. The magnitude

of this transfer function corresponds to the tubing

attenuation and its phase corresponds to the phase

shift caused by the nite time taken for pressure

waves to travel the length of the tubing. When

measurements are made in the wind tunnel the

tubing distortion is removed by computing a

Fourier transform of the pressure uctuation

reaching the transducer, dividing this by the known

transfer function for the tubing and then performing an inverse Fourier transform in order to infer

the pressure uctuation at the probe head or the

wing surface. More details of this technique can be

found in Sims-Williams & Dominy (1998a) and

some validation work has been published in SimsWilliams & Dominy (1998b). A similar technique

Sports Engineering (1999) 2, 221233 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd

Musgrove (1997).

Unsteady data was generally recorded at 3000 Hz

per channel, with 10 sets of 2048 points in time

being recorded for each channel for each location.

A set of 1000 Hz, 4th order, low pass lters were

used to provide antialiasing. During unsteady measurements, a single-element hot-wire probe (Dantec

55P01) was used with a Dantec 55M01 constant

temperature anemometer to provide a phase reference in the wake, as will be described later.

Gurney ap present.

Time-averaged wakes

Figure 2 shows the value of time-averaged total

pressure coefcient (Cp o ) in the wake of the wing

without a Gurney, while Fig. 3 shows the same

quantity with the 4.7% Gurney. Total pressure

coefcient provides an index to loss in steady ows,

a value of unity indicating no loss. The trailing

edge and Gurney ap have been drawn in for

clarity, no measurements were made in the white

region surrounding the trailing edge and it should

be noted that even outside this area, in the region

of reversed ow behind the Gurney, the probe is

unable to make meaningful measurements. The

most obvious difference between the two plots is

the width of the wake, this being, unsurprisingly,

much larger with the Gurney. The angle of the

wake is also worth noting, the wing with Gurney

provides higher turning corresponding to the

higher lift (recall that the wing is at the same

incidence in both cases). The bending of the wake

back towards axial will be partly a function of the

proximity of the upper tunnel wall (at approximately y/C 1.0) but this curvature would still be

present in an unbounded domain. Perhaps less

obvious but of very signicant importance is the

much greater rate of wake closure with the Gurney

than without. This is apparent through the larger

angles between the Cp o contours with the Gurney

and the correspondingly higher contour and

streamline curvature. A higher rate of wake closure

higher velocities near the rear of the body, both of

which act to reduce the base pressure (the pressure

on the rear of bluff bodies). A nal note on Fig. 2 is

the concentration of low total pressure towards the

lower surface of the wing, indicating the effect of

the adverse pressure gradient on the suction surface

boundary layer.

Figure 4 shows the vorticity (dened in equation 1) distribution in the wake. Vorticity been

non-dimensionalised based on the wing chord and

free-stream velocity. Lighter shades of grey indicate counter-clockwise (positive) vorticity. Note

that the sharp outboard edge of the Gurney

produces more intense vorticity (i.e. a thinner shear

layer) than the shear layer resulting from the thick

boundary layer on the wing suction surface.

f

ov ou

ox oy

225

present.

Wake unsteadiness

A single hot-wire probe was traversed across the

wake behind the wing with and without the Gurney

at axial positions corresponding to 0.2 chord lengths

and 3.3 times the base dimension (the sum of the

Gurney height and the trailing edge thickness)

downstream of the trailing edge (for the wing with

the Gurney these two positions are coincident). In

all cases, levels of unsteadiness were highest at the

edges of the wake with a calmer region at the wake

centre. Figure 5 compares the level of u0hw /U across

the wake of the aerofoil with and without the

Gurney. We would expect any unsteadiness generated by the trailing edge of the aerofoil to be of

much smaller scale than that generated by the

higher frequency and will dissipate in a shorter

length, therefore, in order to provide an unbiased

comparison of unsteadiness, a 1000 Hz low-pass

lter was used with the Gurney while a 5000 Hz

lter was used without it. Also, the axial position of

the traverses in Fig. 5 is 3.3 base heights behind the

trailing edge, so the traverse with the Gurney is

much further downstream of the aerofoil than

without it (40 mm compared with 7 mm). Nevertheless, levels of unsteadiness with the Gurney are

still higher than without it. More striking than the

difference in levels of unsteadiness is the difference

in the power spectra with and without the Gurney.

With the Gurney a sharp spectral peak was present

at 320 Hz, corresponding to a Strouhal number

(dened in equation 2) based on base dimension of

0.18. The logical explanation for periodic unsteadiness at this Strouhal number is alternate vortex

shedding similar to that observed for circular

cylinders and other two dimensional bluff bodies.

Strouhal numbers for vortex shedding from at

plates at this Reynolds number are in the region of

0.14 while Jeffrey et al. (1998) measured Strouhal

numbers between 0.08 and 0.15 for various Gurney

heights and wing incidences. Without the Gurney,

no spectral spikes could be identied.

S

fD

U1

226

information at only one point in space at a time.

If the ow is assumed to be steady or if timeaveraging is performed at each point then it is

possible to build a picture of the time-averaged

ow. Alternatively, it is possible to analyse the time

histories at each point in order to identify characteristics of the unsteady ow (e.g. Strouhal number). Using a stationary reference probe along with

a traversing probe makes it possible to perform

cross-spectral analyses that aid our understanding

of the structure of the unsteady ow (e.g. Goh

1994, Sims-Williams & Dominy 1998a, b) but the

Sports Engineering (1999) 2, 221233 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd

observations are indirect and require interpretation. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV ) is the best

known quantitative technique that actually provides

a snap-shot of the instantaneous velocity eld,

however it cannot provide information on total

or static pressure. For this reason, a technique has

been developed at Durham for the analysis of

periodic unsteady pressure and velocity elds.

The technique uses a stationary reference probe

to provide a phase reference for time-accurate

measurements taken by another probe which is

mounted on a traverse gear and located successively at a range of positions in the wake. If the

unsteadiness of the ow were perfectly periodic

then it would be possible to use the signal from the

reference probe to trigger sampling at a traversing

probe. Perry & Watmuff (1981) used this approach in conjunction with a `ying hot-wire'. They

achieved some success but frequency and amplitude

modulations caused sufcient difculties that they

ultimately resorted to oscillating the body in order

to impose perfect periodicity (Watmuff et al. 1983).

A more involved technique has therefore been used

here which is applied at the postprocessing stage

when entire time histories can be used to determine

phase more accurately. Although the main element

of the technique is a frequency domain convolution

which synchronises time-histories at the traversing

probe, it also involves frequency domain ensemble

averaging, digital ltering and frequency shifting

operations which are crucial in preventing background noise and modulation of frequency and

amplitude from obscuring the periodic structure of

interest. Details of the technique are given in SimsWilliams & Dominy (1999). For our purposes, it

is sufcient to say that the output of the technique

is a set of synchronised, idealised, time-histories

at all of the measurement positions and this data

is then rearranged into a set of instantaneous snapshots of the unsteady ow.

Figure 6 shows a sequence of plots of total

pressure in the wake of the wing with the Gurney

c

Figure 6 Unsteady total pressure coefcient Cp o with a 4.7%

Gurney ap present.

227

between frames in the sequence is 0.7 ms. Figure 7

shows a similar sequence of plots of vorticity. The

difference between the time-averaged vorticity plot

of Fig. 4 and the instantaneous plots of Fig. 7

is striking. The benign appearance of the time3 averaged vorticity eld belies the high levels of

positive and negative vorticity in the instantaneous

far wakes. To some extent the mechanism postulated by Gerrard (1966) and popularised by many

others since can be seen here. He described vorticity

on one side of the wake drawing uid carrying

opposite signed vorticity across from the far side of

the wake. The approach of this opposite signed

vorticity serves to cut off the ow vorticity on the

rst side at which point the vortex is said to have

been shed. The sequence of total pressure elds in

Fig. 6 provides some surprises for aerodynamicists

who have been weaned on plots of time-averaged

total pressure. As mentioned earlier, total pressure

coefcient in a time-averaged ow cannot exceed

unity, however Fig. 6 shows light coloured regions

just outside the wake where the instantaneous total

pressure coefcient reaches values as high as 1.35.

Bernoulli's equation for inviscid (loss-free) ows,

when derived assuming steady ow, tells us that

total pressure is constant along a streamline (see

equation 3). However, if we remove the assumption

of steady ow in our derivation (as in SimsWilliams & Dominy 1998b) we nd an extra term

(see equation 4) which can produce total pressure

uctuations due to purely inviscid effects. He (1996)

discusses the uncoupling of entropy and total

pressure in unsteady ows and comes to a similar

conclusion: that it is possible to obtain variations in

total pressure with constant entropy (i.e. isentropic

ow). The extra term in equation 4 is assumed to

be the source of the transient high total pressure

regions seen here and in other instantaneous

experimental and computational ow elds.

qu2

0

3

DPo D Ps

2

c

Figure 7 Unsteady vorticity with a 4.7% Gurney ap present.

228

Z

qu2

ou

os 0

q

D Ps

ot

2

While unsteady ow structures and their impact

on time-averaged parameters may be of scientic

interest and of some practical importance with a

view to improving the accuracy of CFD simulations, the possible existence of unsteady forces is

generally of greater practical concern. For circular

cylinders at similar Reynolds numbers to that of the

present investigation, uctuating surface pressures

between Cp0 0.1 and Cp0 0.4 are typical, resulting in uctuating lift coefcients in the region of

CL0 0.15 (see Basu 1986). The tubing transfer

function correction method described earlier was

applied to the static tappings in the racing car wing

of the present work. It is generally easiest to ensure

that all the tappings in the body are identical so that

one tapping can be specially mounted for the

transfer function measurement rig. The tappings in

the wing used here had been installed with the

intention of measuring only steady pressures so the

precise geometry of the tubing within the blade

varied from tap to tap and the transfer function

measurement had to be performed with the tappings in situ. This was accomplished by sealing the

pressure uctuation chamber to the surface of the

wing surrounding one tapping at a time. Based on

tests of several tappings it was found that the

variation in transfer function between tappings was

always within about 5%, and so the same transfer

function was assumed for all tappings. The uctuating pressures were recorded sequentially at each

tap using a scanivalve and the reference hot-wire in

the wake was logged simultaneously to provide a

phase reference. Cross-spectral analysis between

the hot-wire and the surface pressures indicated

that the uctuating surface pressures were highly

correlated with the vortices being shed in the wake.

The pressure uctuations along each surface were

in phase, with a phase shift of approximately 150

degrees between the two surfaces. This phase

distribution provides close to the maximum uctuating lift force for a given level of pressure

1999 Blackwell Science Ltd Sports Engineering (1999) 2, 221233

uctuation. The pressure uctuations at the shedding frequency were, however, only of the order of

2% of the dynamic head. The unsteady reconstruction method used for the wake traverses was

used to synchronise the surface pressure uctuations and the instantaneous pressure distributions

were then integrated in order to determine approximate instantaneous lift and pitching moments.

As could be expected from the low levels of

uctuating pressure, the uctuating forces were

also small. The uctuating lift coefcient was

CL0 0.02 on an average value of CL 1.88 while

the uctuating quarter chord pitching moment,

0

, was less than 0.01 on an average value of

CM

CM 0.37. The very low levels of uctuating

pressure on the wing surface are probably a

function of two things. Firstly, the vortex shedding

mechanism is largely a wake instability which has

only a secondary inuence on the ow upstream.

This is supported by the approximately constant

phase along the surfaces of the wing, indicating that

the unsteadiness is propagating upstream as a

pressure wave at the speed of sound and does not

involve the local ow (in the wake the streamwise

phase shift corresponds to a propagation velocity of

about 0.85 times the free-stream velocity). The

theory that the instability occurs in the wake is

further supported by experiments with short splitter plates (1D) used on the wake centreline behind

bluff bodies to inhibit vortex shedding, much

greater effects on the shedding are achieved by

placing the splitter some distance behind the bluff

body (Roshko 1954). Unpublished CFD simulations performed by the authors in which vortex

shedding was obtained in the absence of a body by

specifying an inlet vorticity distribution similar to

the time-averaged vorticity distribution just downstream of a two-dimensional bluff body also demonstrate the shedding to be a wake instability. The

second justication for the low uctuating surface

pressures are the xed separation points at the tip

of the Gurney and at the wing trailing edge

(provided that the ow on the suction surface is

attached). These could serve to partition the wake

ow from the ow around the wing itself. This last

theory is weakened, however, by the surprising fact

229

the pressure surface, where the separation point

should be better dened.

Preliminary steady ow calculations were carried

out using a Navier-Stokes ow solver. The computer code used, NEWT, was developed by Dawes

(1991) and a detailed description of it may be

found in this reference. Briey, NEWT solves the

three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on an

unstructured, tetrahedral mesh, and incorporates a

standard k-e model for turbulence closure. The

unstructured mesh facilitates modelling of the

difcult trailing edge/Gurney ap geometry. The

tetrahedral mesh will inevitably be three-dimensional although inviscid end-walls were used in

order to produce an effectively two-dimensional

simulation and the mesh is only three nodes thick

in the spanwise direction in order to minimize

computational cost. Since NEWT is a time-marching code that was initially developed primarily

for compressible ow applications, the calculations

were performed at an elevated Mach number

(M 0.3) compared with the experiments. However, it was anticipated that this would not significantly affect the results.

Inviscid steady-ow calculations were carried out

for the wing with and without Gurney at the +1

incidence condition used throughout this paper

and a viscous calculation was also performed with

the Gurney. The use of a steady CFD simulation

eliminates any impact of large-scale unsteadiness

on time-averaged parameters such as the base

pressure. The CFD predictions were performed

`blind', so that the researcher performing the

simulations did not have prior knowledge of the

experimental pressure distributions. The calculated

static pressure eld (viscous case) with the Gurney

is shown in Fig. 8 and clearly indicates the increased pressure in the stagnation region upstream

of the Gurney ap. A similar pressure eld was

predicted for the inviscid case. Predicted surface

pressure distributions are compared with experimental results in Fig. 9. The agreement is very

230

the aerofoil.

the Gurney ap may be adequately predicted by a

steady, inviscid calculation (which would require

only a few minutes CPU time for a two-dimensional case). A localised low pressure occurs at

the sharp corner between the suction surface and

trailing edge for the inviscid solution without

Sports Engineering (1999) 2, 221233 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd

corner without separation. In the case of the

solutions with the Gurney ap, however, the suction surface pressure is continuous with the base

pressure. The similarity between the viscous and

inviscid predictions with the Gurney ap is perhaps

not surprising since the modications to the pressure distribution brought about by the stagnation

upstream of the ap and the associated increase in

circulation on the aerofoil are both inviscid effects.

Viscosity would play a much greater role if the

aerofoil approached a stall condition and an inviscid

calculation will obviously not quantify the drag due

to skin friction.

The most obvious mechanism by which a Gurney

ap increases lift is by causing stagnation at the

rear of the pressure surface and hence increasing

the pressure on this surface of the aerofoil. This

increase in pressure extends all the way to the

leading edge where it changes the angle of the

incident ow onto the wing, resulting in lower

pressures on the suction surface. Jeffrey et al.

(1998) suggest an additional mechanism, that the

vortex shedding lowers the base pressure and

this in turn lowers the suction surface pressure.

Unsteadiness in the wake will increase mixing

between the wake and the surrounding, higher

energy, uid. This means that the wake will close

more rapidly and, as discussed earlier, faster wake

closer is synonymous with reduced base pressure

because it implies greater streamline curvature and

higher velocities in the area behind the base.

Gurney base pressure measurements from Jeffrey

et al. (1998) and the CFD work performed here

indicate that the base pressure is continuous with

the suction surface pressure at the trailing edge, so

a reduction in base pressure can be expected to be

synonymous with a reduction in the suction surface

pressure. Figure 10 summarises the various links

between different ow characteristics. The connection between base pressure and vortex shedding

has proved a popular topic for uid dynamists

through the years. Various researchers (e.g. Roshko

1999 Blackwell Science Ltd Sports Engineering (1999) 2, 221233

and base pressure with the aim of determining the

drag of any two-dimensional bluff body from its

shedding frequency. Among Roshko's test cases are

several examples of bluff bodies with centreline

splitter plates behind the body in order to inhibit

vortex shedding. He found that a small (1.03D)

splitter plate in the wake of a normal at plate

increased the base pressure from Cp )0.84 to

Cp )0.54. As part of the present investigation a

similar experiment was performed using a at plate

normal to the ow, however a longer splitter plate

(3.5D) was used downstream in order to eliminate

rather than simply diminish the shedding. Additionally, a splitter plate was used upstream in order

to preclude the possibility of wake oscillations

affecting the incidence onto the normal plate (as for

a Gurney ap on the trailing edge of an aerofoil).

The base pressure was found to be constant over

the rear surface of the plate, as expected, and had a

value of Cp )0.54 with the downstream splitter

and Cp )1.02 without. The downstream splitter

plate was mounted on a force balance in order to

remove any question of the blockage of the splitter

231

splitter was approximately zero, to within the

accuracy of the balance, so the maximum reactive

inuence it could have had on the base pressure was

4 DCp 0.02. This test conrms that the unsteady

action of vortex shedding dramatically lowers the

base pressure on a body with xed separation

points and no coupling of the unsteadiness with the

incidence onto the body. We would therefore

expect vortex shedding in the wake of a Gurney ap

to reduce the base pressure and hence increase the

lift on the aerofoil, following the right hand side of

the diagram in Fig. 10 from top to bottom.

However, the ability of a steady CFD simulation

to predict the suction surface pressure distribution

(and presumably therefore the base pressure) argues against any signicant impact of vortex

shedding on base pressure in the case of a wing

and Gurney ap. This argument is strengthened

further by the fact that Gurney base pressures,

although lower than those for aerofoils without

Gurneys, are signicantly higher than those for

other two-dimensional bluff bodies exhibiting vortex shedding. Jeffrey et al. (1998) report Gurney

base pressures between Cp )0.14 and )0.4 for

device heights between 1% and 4%, respectively,

and a base pressure of about Cp )0.3 can be

inferred from the suction surface pressure distribution in the present investigation. Roshko (1954)

and Grifn (1981) report base pressures between

Cp )0.56 and Cp )1.53 for a range of different

two-dimensional bodies exhibiting vortex shedding. Even if vortex shedding does not signicantly

affect the Gurney ap base pressures, some base

pressure reduction can be explained by traversing

counter clockwise around Fig. 10, so that the

pressure surface trailing edge stagnation increases

circulation and effective incidence, lowers the

suction surface pressure and hence the base pres5 sure. Regardless of the mechanism, Jeffrey et al.'s

(1998) measured base pressures, the CFD simulations performed here, and the rapid closure of the

steady-state Gurney wake in Fig. 3 all indicate that

Gurney aps do result in some decrease in base

pressure.

232

Conclusions

The wake of a single element racing car wing with

and without a 4.7% Gurney ap has been examined

from time-averaged and unsteady viewpoints.

Alternate vortex shedding has been observed in

detail with a Strouhal number of 0.18. The ow

structure and Strouhal number are similar to those

of other two-dimensional bluff bodies.

Pressure uctuations on the surface of the

aerofoil were observed to be highly correlated

to the vortices being shed in the wake, however

the magnitude of these uctuations was small.

Unsteady lift and pitching moment were determined by integrating reconstructed instantaneous

surface pressures; the uctuating lift coefcient,

CL0 , was 0.02 while the uctuating quarter-chord

0

, was less than 0.01.

pitching moment, CM

It is usual for vortex shedding to greatly reduce

base pressure. A at plate normal to the ow with

a centreline splitter plate upstream and optionally

downstream has been used to demonstrate this

and vortex shedding reduced the base pressure

from Cp )0.54 to Cp )1.02. Although Gurney

aps do reduce base pressure, their effect is less

strong than that of other two-dimensional bluff

bodies.

Steady-state inviscid and viscous CFD simulations have been performed for the wing with and

without the Gurney and the aerofoil pressure

distribution was predicted accurately. This implies

that CL can be predicted by a steady, inviscid

calculation. CD will be harder to predict accurately,

however, because of its dependence on skin friction.

The relatively high Gurney base pressures,

relative to other bodies exhibiting vortex shedding,

and the surprising accuracy of steady-state CFD

simulations indicates that vortex shedding does not

signicantly affect Gurney base pressures.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Prof. W. N. Dawes of

Cambridge University for the use of his CFD code,

NEWT.

References

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11

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