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Brake and Engine Cooling Flows Influences and Interactions

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Interactions

Dr. R H Barnard and Prof. P R Bullen

ACM Engineering, University of Hertfordshire

Dr. Jun Qiao

Jaguar Cars Ltd.

SYNOPSIS

Aspects of the interaction between engine cooling and brake cooling flows have been

investigated. The practical and theoretical implications of attaching the engine

cooling outlet flow to the underside of the vehicle have been studied, and show

significant advantages both in terms of drag reduction and potential for improved

brake cooling flow. Wind tunnel tests on a nominal scale generic vehicle with

modelled radiator and internal flow were conducted. It was found that the simple

expedient of radiusing the rear edge of the cooling flow outlet aperture was sufficient

to promote attachment of the cooling flow outlet jet, and that this reduced the cooling

flow drag and the front lift. It also lowered the front wheel well pressure, thus

improving the potential brake cooling effectiveness. This finding has important

implications, for the design of the cooling system and underbody geometry, which are

fairly straightforward to implement. The usefulness and limitations of established

theoretical relationships for cooling flow efficiency have been investigated, and

relevant comments are included.

1

NOTATION

Af

Ac

AO

CD

CpO

kp

pstag

pstatic

Radiator core area

Cooling flow outlet aperture area

drag coefficient

static pressure coefficient at outlet

radiator core pressure loss coefficient

free-stream stagnation pressure

static pressure

p

pO

Vc

VO

V

static pressure at outlet

radiator normalising or "core" velocity

outlet air speed

free-stream air speed (synonymous with car speed on road)

inclination of outlet jet to horizontal

inclination of outlet plane to vertical

air density

BACKGROUND

performance cars. For such vehicles it is normal to provide a supply of cooling air

through a duct connected to an aperture at the front. Since the flow at intake will

have lost little or no energy, the flow rate will be governed by the duct size and loss

characteristics, and the static pressure in the wheel well. An understanding of the

factors affecting this static pressure is therefore vital for the design of the brake

cooling flow system.

The impetus for the work described here came primarily from a desire to study

the factors influencing brake cooling flows. However, the work also provided an

opportunity to look at the effects of promoting attachment of the engine cooling air

outlet flow. From theoretical considerations, described later, it was expected that

such attachment would considerably reduce the drag increment due to cooling. It was

appreciated that with an attached outlet flow, some significant revision of the

commonly accepted expressions for cooling drag would be necessary. Previous work

by Barnard et al [refs. 1, 2 and 3] had validated existing theories only for cases with

separated outlet jets.

3

ENGINE COOLING FLOW

Although expressions for cooling drag flow were developed for aeronautical purposes

some time ago, the expressions most commonly used in current automotive practice

are based on a paper published by Soja and Wiedemann [4]. A modified version of

this was presented by Barnard [3 and 5] as

CD (cooling)= 2

Vc Ac Ac Vc

A

1

cos CpO O cos

V Af AO V

Af

(1)

differences across a control volume illustrated in figure 1. This version of the

expression allows for the fact that the outlet aperture is not generally perpendicular to

the outlet jet flow. In practice most of the drag force is attributable to the momentum

change. In vehicle arrangement shown in figure 1, the aperture area is horizontal, so

= 90o, and the pressure term thus has no influence in the drag.

V

Vc

VO

Figure 1 The control volume used for equation 1, illustrated for the case of the

Ahmed shape model, as described in refs. [1 and 2].

The expression has been shown to work well for special cases (Barnard [1, 2 and 3]),

but is based on some assumptions that are not valid in many practical cases. There

are two primary defective assumptions.

1. The first is that drawing air through the inlet to produce a cooling flow does not

influence the external flow of the basic vehicle shape. Clearly, there can be strong

influences both in the intake and outlet regions. This problem has been

addressed by Williams [6 and 7] who has introduced appropriate modifications to

the momentum/pressure equation.

2. The second assumption is that the cooling air leaves the control volume in the

form of a jet emanating from the outlet aperture, as illustrated in figure 1.

The second assumption was valid for the Ahmed model tested in refs. [1 and 2],

since the outlet was very close to the rear of the model. It was also partly true for the

case of the sports car tested by Barnard [3], since the outlet aperture was sharp and

the flow did not tend to attach to the vehicle body. However, if the flow does tend to

attach, it is necessary to use a different control volume, as illustrated in figure 2. The

problem with this model is that the outlet jet velocity and area are no longer easy to

estimate, as they are not simply related to the geometry of the outlet aperture.

Although equation 1 now contains an unknown exit area AO, and an unknown exit

velocity VO (see figure 2), it is still useful in that it shows that with attached flow, the

outlet jet should be nearly axial ( = 0 in equation 1), so the axial momentum change

is at a minimum for a given outlet jet speed (VO). The cooling drag penalty should

thus be small.

Voo

OA

o

Vo

Figure 2. An appropriate control volume for the case of an attached outlet jet.

The outlet area Ao is now not generally equal to the area of the

engine bay outlet aperture.

The experimental result given here indicate that if the control volume outlet velocity is

assumed to be axial in direction and similar in magnitude to the jet speed at the outlet

aperture, then equation 1 will produce a useful first estimate of the cooling drag. The

justification for adopting these assumptions and the attendant limitations are given

later. The tests described here involved a simplified vehicle with a well-rounded and

ideally situated intake aperture, so modifications to the external flow at intake were

probably small, though no attempt has yet been made to validate this experimentally.

4

The flow speed through the radiator is controlled primarily by the conditions at the

outlet aperture: namely the outlet pressure coefficient CpO and by the ratio of the

radiator core area to the outlet aperture area Ac /AO. The core speed Vc may be

obtained from

1 C pO

Vc

=

2

V

Ac

+k p

A

O

(2)

This expression is derived in reference [2]. The radiator pressure loss coefficient kp

is the normalised stagnation pressure loss through the core: defined by

ptotal

k p =

2

0.5 Vc

(3)

For a ram-driven cooling air flow, the mass flow will be determined by the area and

speed of the jet of cooling air. The maximum theoretical speed that can be obtained

depends on the stagnation pressure at intake pstag and the static pressure

surrounding the outlet jet pstatic. If the intake is placed on the front surface of the

vehicle, the stagnation pressure will be close to that of the free stream. Thus, it will

be seen that the controlling influence will be the static pressure in the vicinity of the

outlet jet near the brake disc, which is in turn defined by the pressure field in the

wheel well. The maximum mass flow rate is given by

= AV = A 2 (pstag pstatic )

m

(4)

In our preliminary studies, we found that for a conventional front-engined vehicle, the

wheel well pressure is significantly influenced by the engine cooling flow. This is

hardly surprising in view of the close proximity of the cooling flow outlet to the wheel

well. In this investigation, the relationship has been studied in some detail.

6

EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT

Rather than study any particular production vehicle, it was decided that a simplified

generic vehicle model would be constructed in roughly scale. The model is shown

in figures 3 and 4, and takes the form of an MPV which gives an aerodynamically

simple shape.

Figure 3 The scale MPV model shown on the moving belt facility.

Pitot-static tube

static

tappings

pitot

tube

6

7

radiator

core

1&2

adjustable

aperture

slide

Core area

AC = 0.0088 m2

Tunnel speed V =18.5 m/s

optional

rounded

edge

Frontal area Af = 0.1273 m2

The underside was mostly flat, but with a diffuser section starting slightly upstream of

the rear wheels. An engine cooling radiator was modelled using the same system of

wire mesh and honeycomb described in ref. [1]. The cooling air intake was of a

simple rounded rectangular cross-section with smooth entry, and the short intake

duct has zero diffuser angle. The outlet aperture was sharp-edged and rectangular,

with the area being varied by means of a sliding plate. A rounded roughened fairing

could be added to the downstream edge to promote attachment of the outlet jet to the

vehicle underside. The wheel wells were modelled with dimensions typical of a

production vehicle.

The model was suspended over a fixed groundboard and used an internal twocomponent force balance with an external force balance connected to a rear sting to

provide pitching moment information from which the rear-wheel/front-wheel lift

distribution could be determined. It is intended that further measurements will be

made using the moving belt facility, but for present purposes, the fixed ground was

employed, as it provides a simpler and quieter arrangement. The purpose of the work

was to provide comparative rather than absolute data.

In addition to force measurements, several internal pressure tappings were provided,

and seven of these were attached to a bank of transducers. For reasons of

hardware/software compatibility, pressure and force data were measured

consecutively rather than simultaneously.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

on the inside face of the front wheel well close to the axle line,

at a position close to the wheel hub, corresponding to the location of a brake disc,

on the underside just downstream of the cooling air outlet aperture,

on the underside upstream of the cooling air outlet aperture,

near the bottom of the rear face of the vehicle (to determine the base pressure).

in the wall of the inlet duct,

in the centre of the inlet duct facing forward as a pitot tube so as to record the

inlet flow stagnation pressure.

DETERMINATION OF COOLING AIR MASS FLOW RATE

The two latter tapping (6 and 7) allowed estimates of the cooling air mass flow rate to

be made by using equation 4 with pstatic now being the static pressure in the intake

duct. Dividing this mass flow rate by the duct cross-sectional area and the air density,

the mean intake flow speed can also be determined. The radiator core reference

velocity VC can then be determined from the ratio of the intake duct area to the core

area. This ratio was 1.125 for the first set of tests (results shown in Table 1) and 1.0

for the second set (results shown in Table 2). Knowing VC and the free-stream

velocity V (which was measured with a pitot-static tube), the velocity ratio Vc/V

may be calculated.

8

UNDERSIDE

For the first set of experiments, the outlet aperture was set with an area exactly equal

to the core area. The model was run both with the inlet blanked, and with it open.

Two sets of tests were conducted, one with a sharp-edged rectangular outlet (the

baseline configuration), and the other with the radiused downstream edge. For the

second case, it was found that with an unchanged outlet aperture area, there was an

increase in the mass flow rate. The aperture was therefore reduced so as to maintain

the same mass flow rate as for the baseline sharp-edged outlet.

Table 1 shows the results. CD represents the difference in vehicle drag coefficient

between the radiator open and blanked cases, and thus the drag increment due to

the effects of the cooling flow. Theoretical values of Vc/V are given, and also the

theoretical momentum change component of the drag increment due to cooling, for

the cases of an axial outlet jet flow direction ( = 0o) and for a vertical outlet direction

( = 90o). The theoretical values of CD and Vc /V are based on equations 1 and 2.

In calculating the theoretical velocity ratio, the measured pressure coefficient just

upstream of the outlet aperture (from tapping 4) has been used as the value of CpO.

The theoretical drag coefficient increment figures are based on the experimentally

measured values of Vc /V. The experimental values of Vc/V are probably too high,

as no account has been taken of the intake boundary layer. A discharge coefficient of

around 0.98 might be appropriate for the determination of the core velocity. This

would bring the theoretical and experimental values more into line.

Pressure

tapping

No.

2

1

3

4

5

Intake

blanked

Change in CD between

blanked and open radiator

CD

Theoretical CD based on

= 0o

measured values

= 90 o

of Vc /V

CL (front wheels)

CL (rear wheels)

Cp (wheel disc)

Cp (wheel well)

Cp (underside downstream)

Cp (underside upstream)

Cp (base)

Vc /V (measured)

Vc /V (theory:- equation 2)

Cooling air mass flow rate

(kg/s)

-0.268

-0.198

-0.323

-0.393

-0.217

Sharp

edge

outlet

aperture

AC/AO = 1

Rounded

rear edge

outlet

aperture

AC/AO = 1

0.039

0.032

0.0306

0.0456

+0.0645

-0.0639

-0.279

-0.132

-0.878

-0.134

-0.224

0.330

0.321

0.067

0.0308

0.0462

+0.028

-0.0691

-0.282

-0.142

-0.810

-0.190

-0.225

0.334

0.329

0.067

It will be seen that radiusing the outlet aperture to provide well attached, and thus

axial outlet flow ( =0 in equation 1), reduces the drag increment due to cooling

(CD), and that the increment is now quite close to that predicted by equation 1 for an

axial jet. There is no reason why this should necessarily be the case, because the

speed and area of the cooling air flow as it leaves the control volume will not

generally be the same as that at outlet from the aperture. However, it will be seen

that the underside pressure coefficient just upstream of the outlet aperture -0.190 is

quite similar to the base pressure coefficient in the region where the flow leaves the

control volume -0.225. The control volume outlet and aperture outlet speeds should

thus be similar. The attached outlet flow will of course be subjected to viscous drag,

but this merely replaces a similar drag on the underbody flow. The base pressure

falls slightly when the cooling flow is on, and this will result in a small additional drag

increment of approximately 0.001.

The influence of the outlet aperture radiusing may be seen in the change in the value

of the pressure coefficient just downstream of the aperture. For the sharp-edged

case, there is a strong separation bubble, giving rise to a strongly negative coefficient

value. With a wool-tuft wand, it was easy to detect the presence of this separation

bubble. Partial reattachment was seen to occur, but with a wide unsteady flow. For

the radiused-edge case, a clean attached underside flow was found. The overall lift

coefficient is not changed much by the radiusing, but there is a change in the

front/rear lift distribution. Both the front and rear wheel lift coefficients are lower for

the case of the radiused rear edge, with the greater effect being at the front wheels.

This is consistent with the reduction in the underbody static pressure upstream of the

aperture that occurred with the radiused edge. Also, due to the outlet jet being near

axial, a reduction in the lift is to be expected, since there is no cooling flow vertical

momentum at outlet.

9

The influence of the cooling flow on the wheel well pressures may be seen Table 1.

In general, the presence of the cooling flow serves to raise the wheel well pressure,

and hence restrict the potential flow speed for the brake cooling air. However, it will

be seen that attaching the cooling air outlet flow, by means of the radius, improves

the situation. This is fortunate, as it means that with the radiused outlet, one can

have improved brake cooling as well as a reduced cooling drag penalty.

10

The effect of increasing this area ratio from 1 to 2 was investigated both for sharp

and radiused edge cases. From equations equation 1 and 2, it is predicted that this

will reduce the drag due to cooling. It will also however reduce the core flow velocity,

so to compensate, the core area has to be increased to preserve the mass flow rate.

In the case of our model, an attempt was made to achieve this by removing a small

partial banking plate which had been deliberately introduced for the tests with the

smaller area ratio. Removing this increased the core area to 0.0099 m2. The

predicted reduction in drag is small if the outlet jet is vertical, since the same mass

flow rate is involved, so the momentum changes should be unaltered. If the outlet

flow is nearly axial (due to attachment), however, there should be a significant

reduction in drag as the outlet jet momentum is increased, and the horizontal

momentum loss is thus reduced.

Pressure and force data were again collected for both a sharp edged outlet aperture

and for a radiused rear edge aperture. The results are shown in Table 2. For the

radiused outlet case, the measured value of CD again tends towards that predicted

from equation 1 for = 0o, and is usefully lower than for the case where the area

ratio Ac /AO =1. The theoretical values are only an approximate guide, for the reasons

given earlier. In addition, it is difficult to be certain about what value of CPO to use.

For present purposes, the underside pressure just upstream of the outlet aperture

has been used.

The lift coefficient increments show the same trend as in table 1

Pressure

Port no.

Intake

Sharp edge

blanked outlet

aperture

AC/AO = 2

2

1

3

4

5

11

Experimental change in CD

between blanked and open

CD

radiator

Theoretical CD based on

= 0o

measured values

= 90 o

of Vc /V

CL (front wheels)

CL (rear wheels)

Cp (wheel disc)

Cp (wheel well)

Cp (underside downstream)

Cp (underside upstream)

Vc /V (measured)

Vc /V (theory:- equation 2)

Cooling air mass flow rate

(kg/s)

-0.268

-0.198

-0.323

-0.393

rounded rear

edge outlet

aperture

AC/AO = 2

0.0365

0.027

0.0186

0.0468

+.064

-0.052

-0.177

-0.132

-0.956

-0.149

0.301

0.287

0.0675

0.0186

0.0467

+.031

-0.050

-0.192

-0.134

-0.864

-0.209

0.3005

0.294

0.0675

For these tests, the intake was deliberately designed to produce predominantly

attached flow for both the blanked and open conditions, and is not representative of

the kind of complex intake geometries that result from styling and packaging

constraints on real vehicles. The influence of intake geometry on the drag increment

has not yet been properly investigated by the authors although some tentative

measurements were made that showed that the intake did influence the results. This

is to be expected, since the intake flow can affect the attachment of the external flow

in appropriate cases. The important influence of the intake effects has been studied

by Williams [6 and 7].

Apart from the inlet geometry, the model used was untypical of current real road

vehicles, in that it had a largely smooth flat underside. The attachment produced by

the radiused outlet would therefore be more effective than on a vehicle with a

typically rough and geometrically complex underside. This said, however, a

measurable improvement was obtained in a production saloon car fitted with a

radiused outlet (not reported, for commercial reasons). It is also likely that there will

be increasing attention to smoothing the underside of vehicles in the future, since this

is one area where significant aerodynamic improvements can be made and, most

importantly, made without upsetting the stylists. Full underfloor fairings are now quite

such under-trays help reduce drive-by noise.

12

It has been found that the drag due to the cooling flow can be reduced by attaching

the outlet flow to the underside of the vehicle. The simple expedient of radiusing the

rear edge of the outlet aperture was sufficient to make a worthwhile improvement for

the vehicle studied here. This may not work for all underbody geometries.

Further drag reductions can be made by increasing the ratio of core area to outlet

area ratio Ac /AO. This will only be effective if the outlet flow approaches the axial

direction. For a vertical discharge, the cooling drag is constant for a given mass flow

rate, since that mass of air always loses its axial momentum.

The simple theoretical expression of equation 1 is not really valid for an attached

outlet flow, but although it does not allow accurate predictions to be made, it still

indicates the parametric trends.

Attaching the outlet flow for a front-engined vehicle may lower the wheel-well

pressure, and hence improve the potential for brake cooling flow.

For this vehicle, attaching the outlet flow reduced the front lift, as expected. This is a

beneficial effect, as reducing the front end lift can be quite difficult to achieve without

changing the styling.

More work is required in order to investigate the effect of the intake geometry, and

the influences of underbody roughness.

13

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to acknowledge Jack Williams for sharing his information and

thoughts on the subject, and for his helpful criticisms and suggestions.

14

REFERENCES

1. Barnard R. H., and Ledakis N., Physical modelling and optimisation of radiator

cooling flow systems, Procs. 2nd MIRA Conference on Vehicle Aerodynamics,

Session 5, October 1998.

2. Barnard R.H., Theoretical and experimental investigation of the aerodynamic drag

due to automotive cooling systems, Procs. of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers,

Journal of Automobile Engineering, Proceedings Part D, vol. 214, no. D8, 2000, pp.

919-927. ISSN 0954-4070.

3. Barnard R.H., Minimising the cooling system drag for a small sports car, Procs. 3rd

MIRA International Vehicle Aerodynamics Conference, (MIRA 2000), 18-19 October

2000, Rugby, U.K.

4. Soja H., and Wiedemann J., The interference between internal and external flow

on road vehicles, Ingenieurs d'Automobile, Sept 1987 pp. 101-105.

5. Barnard R. H., Road Vehicle Aerodynamic Design, MechAero Publishing, 2001,

ISBN 0-9540734-0-1.

6. Williams, Jack, Walt Oler, and Dinakara Karanth, Cooling Inlet Aerodynamic

Performance and System Resistance, SAE report 2002-01-0256, March 2002.

7. Williams, Jack, Aerodynamic drag of engine-cooling airflow with external

interference, Procs. 4th MIRA International Vehicle Aerodynamics Conference, (MIRA

2002), 16-17 October 2002, Gaydon, U.K.

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