A Report of the Meeting held under the auspices of the United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task

Force

Held on January 24, 2003 At the United Nations Headquarters, New York,NY

A Publication of the United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force

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UNFIP

“Information technology is not a magic formula that is going to solve all our problems. But it is a powerful force that can and must be harnessed to our global mission of peace and development. This is a matter of both ethics and economics; over the long term, the new economy can only be productive and sustainable if it spreads worldwide and responds to the needs and demands of all people. I urge everyone in a position to make a difference to add his or her energies to this effort.” Kofi Annan, Secretary-General, United Nations Kofi Annan’s IT Challenge to Silicon Valley, 5 November 2002

Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Concept Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Digital Diaspora network for the Caribbean (DDN-C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Diaspora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Building the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Expected Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Caribbean Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Strategic Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Application of ICTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Project Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Current Status of ICT in Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Teledensity and Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Legal and Regulatory Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Policy Framework for Action Setting the Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Policy Forums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Policy Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ICT Issues and Challenges Impact on Existing Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Potential for Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Skills Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Resource Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Bridging the Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Appendices Table 1 Teledensity in CARICOM Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table 2 ICT Access – Internet Users and Number of PCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table 3 Telephone and Internet Accounts in CARICOM Countries . . . . . . . . . 15 iii

The Meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Main Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Roundtable Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1. ICT Policy Framework for the Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2. Infrastructural Framework, Connectivity and Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3. Human Capacity Development - e-Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Health and Telemedicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5. e-Business Environment: Enabling effective e-Commerce . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6. Enabling Efficiency and Productivity in the Tourism Sector . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7. Strengthening Civil Society and Governance – Focus on e-Government . . 24 8. Developing Agriculture with Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9. Identifying Resources for the Caribbean Digital Diaspora Network . . . . . 27 10. ICT and Outsourcing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Appendices Meeting Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 List of Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

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Preface
Convinced of the positive potential of ICT to accelerate economic growth and social development, the United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force (United Nations ICT TF), in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP), embarked on an initiative to contribute to the development process in the Caribbean. The initiative aims at the establishment of a Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean (DDN-C) that will seek to bring together qualified members of the Caribbean Diaspora -- high-tech professionals, entrepreneurs and business leaders -- into a network with their counterparts in the Caribbean. Through the Network, Caribbean expatriates working in the high-tech sector in North America will seek to jump-start ICT initiatives in their home region. Thousands of Internet nodes and digital activities are taking shape in the Caribbean, but usually lack the capital, expertise and networking ability to stabilize and grow. The Network will mobilize expatriate leaders and entrepreneurs to underwrite and mentor these developments. The initiative is modeled on the successful Digital Diaspora Network for Africa, launched in July 2002 by the United Nations ICT Task Force, in collaboration with the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP), the Digital Partners Institute (Seattle, United States) and Gruppo CERFE (Italy). The Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean was formally launched on 24 January 2003. The meeting on Bridging the Digital Divide for the Caribbean was held in partnership by the United Nations ICT Task Force, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships and the United Nations Foundation (UNF), while also supported by the CARICOM Permanent Missions to the United Nations, the CARICOM Secretariat, the Caribbean American Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The following publication contains two informative resources providing a variety of details on the Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean. The first part contains the concept paper detailing the original proposal for the network, while the second part provides a summary of the launch meeting of the Digital Diaspora Network, held on 24 January 2003. For further information please contact the United Nations ICT Task Force: http://www.unicttaskforce.org/

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Concept Paper
Summary
The Mission
The mission of the Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean is to promote ICT development in the Caribbean (CARICOM Countries) by providing a rich source of ideas, skills and support and acting as a platform for the exchange of information and other resources to create and sustain digital opportunities in the region. It is recognized that there are other initiatives focusing on the Caribbean, each with its own particular objectives and methodology. However, it is also accepted that new synergies and potentials can be created within the proposed network. Furthermore, acting partly as a forum for motivating, facilitating and evaluating ICT development in the Caribbean, it could also stimulate further rationalization in the application of resources to the challenges facing the Caribbean and lead to a more integrated and effective ICT development process. A defining component in the development of the DDN-C is a meeting scheduled for January 24th 2003 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. This conference is meant to review the current status of ICT development, the challenges which must be faced, the proposed DDN-C initiative, and the expected benefits. The meeting is also expected to lead to identification of necessary resources such as skills, finance and technical assistance that may be mobilized for ICT development purposes in the Caribbean. Further, an organizational framework needs to be established to promote and manage the resulting network of interest and to ensure continuity.

The Rationale
It appears that many Caribbean oriented businesses along with entrepreneurs and professionals from the Caribbean but now residing in North America are willing to commit time and other resources in support of ICT development activities in the Caribbean. This represents an important resource, which properly empowered through networking, could assist in addressing the Caribbean challenges and responding to identified needs. It is also known that Caribbean based ICT entrepreneurs and professionals, would welcome a beneficial integration into the network of increasingly knowledge - based North American business potential. Building a platform for cooperation between these two groups with a common interest in the Caribbean would therefore enable both to benefit from the digital development process taking place there. The United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force along with the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP), Digital Partners Institute and Gruppo Cerfe developed a similar initiative for the African continent. Launched on 12 July 2002, that initiative has already led to the development of (a) Afrishare - an African database of ICT skills, (b) a social venture fund for Africa, and (c) the Digital Diaspora Network for Africa (DDN-A) - a steering committee to manage implementation of the process.

The Process
Caribbean Governments have also taken action at the national, regional (CARICOM) and the hemispheric (Summit of the Americas) levels in specifying strategies for ICT development in and between their countries. These will therefore help to determine the policy framework within which developments will take place. In particular it should be noted that the CARICOM Secretariat has been charged with the responsibility of proposing a comprehensive Caribbean ICT strategy at the 14th Heads of Government Summit, scheduled for early in 2003. The DDN-C initiative is therefore expected to feed into the CARICOM process for determining the regional strategy. In this respect, the conference organizers have received strong support from the Permanent Representatives of Caribbean Countries to the United Nations and from the CARICOM Secretariat. Throughout the planning period, the Permanent Representatives in New York served as an expanded forum in which the ideas and plans were discussed and developed. In addition they helped to identify appropriate participants for the conference and its likely follow up programme.

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Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean
The Diaspora
It is known that significant numbers of ICT professionals and entrepreneurs now living in North America originated from developing countries, including the Caribbean. There are two main explanations for this. The first has to do with the issue of economic opportunity and the second with professional development. This outcome is a consequence of the fact that: Partly due to their stage or circumstances of development, most developing countries have not recognized the full value of their own knowledge capability and rewarded it sufficiently. Therefore skills naturally flowed outwards to those countries where knowledge is viewed as an asset, and represents a greater value proposition for the professional. In this context, much has been written about ‘the brain drain’, a paradoxical situation in which skills and knowledge are motivated to flow from the areas of origin and of greatest need to the areas of greatest abundance. It has however been recognized that the highly skilled and professional migrants in particular consider themselves to be a community overseas notwithstanding their loyalties to their adopted countries. This community expresses itself as an informal and unstructured network, but with a defining characteristic, which is, to support development in their home countries or region. This is sometimes referred to as a “Diaspora”. In addition to the economic and professional choices of the individual, there are many corporations that are involved in ICT activities in the Caribbean and may wish to be part of the initiative. They could assist in identifying investment opportunities therefore contributing to job creation and foreign exchange earnings capability for the Caribbean countries. Indeed early investment wins could help countries to “leapfrog” the digital divide in attempting to harness and manage information and knowledge for development.

Building the Network
The United Nations ICT Task Force, along with UNDP and UNFIP consider that these forces, particularly those professionally and entrepreneurially associated with ICTs can be brought together into a Caribbean Digital Diaspora Network, to bring focus and solutions to some of the challenges of the Caribbean ICT development process. This Caribbean North American Diaspora Network will by definition consist of policy makers, managers, entrepreneurs, researchers and other ICT professionals representing a resource to be mobilized. It therefore allows for pooling of experience, leveraging of resources, and coordinated strategies. This network will also include Caribbean based counterparts, who are keen to draw on the anticipated benefits in the interest of ICT development in the Caribbean region. This network will therefore be transnational in character and highly skills based. Furthermore, by considering the appropriate policy context, the initiative can be directed towards the priority areas identified by the Caribbean countries themselves, generating a synergy with the international agendas now redefining the global development process.

Expected Results
The initiative will be discussed and elaborated at a meeting on Bridging The Digital Divide 24th January 2003 at the United Nations Headquarters. Modeled partly on a similar successful initiative for Africa, the Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean is expected to begin with four (4) main commitments. 1. Network Structure Agreement on a structure and platform for empowering the Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean to facilitate the collection and dissemination of information and to undertake mobilization of resources for ICT development in the Caribbean. 2. Venture Fund & Resource Identifying a corporate, international and professional resource base capable of providing financial, technical, skill and other support to ICT development initiatives in the Caribbean.

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3. Steering Team The formation of a steering team, coordinated by the CARICOM Secretariat and/or the University of the West Indies is proposed. It is envisaged that this steering team will oversee, monitor and evaluate followup activities, including any new initiatives implemented from time to time. 4. Areas of Focus Identification of thematic areas and programme directions on which the network should focus initially.

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Caribbean Strategies
The proposed Caribbean Digital Diaspora Network is consistent with the strategies being outlined at the regional CARICOM level. In general ICT should not be considered to be an end in itself, but a catalyst for the achievement of specified national objectives and development of other sectors. It however requires special focus because of its cross sectoral and integrative capabilities and especially because national competitive advantage is now being redefined in the globalizing economy. Very high asset value is now attached to the concept and reality of the knowledge society, which is emerging as the driving force in development. The ICT strategies for the Caribbean must therefore now necessarily be based on principles that derive partly from the agreed ICT policy frameworks and from the development agendas specified at the regional and national levels.

Strategic Objectives
The CARICOM Secretariat is developing the ICT strategy for the Caribbean. They have already identified the following strategic objectives. • Promotion of e-enabled human capital, to enhance human capacity through on-line communities and on-line learning (e-communities) • An enabling e-business environment for the growth of on-line business (e-business) and creation of new business opportunities. • Efficient functioning of governmental machinery to build civil society and democratic governance (egovernment) The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Secretariat is also formulating an ICT policy and moving ahead with implementation at the country level.

Application of ICTs
To achieve the strategic objectives, implementation of the action plan will target the major sectors of the region’s economies, along with some cross-sectoral activities where important to achieving a broader national or regional goal. The application of ICT in the Caribbean will therefore be focused • ICT policy Framework • Human Capacity development - Education • e- Business Environment • Enabling Efficiency & Productivity in the Tourism sector • Developing agriculture with Information • Culture & recreation • Environmental Stability • Disaster Recovery • Infrastructure, Connectivity & Costs • Health & Telemedicine • e-Government for Civil Society & Democratic Governance Economic Opportunities • Resources for ICT development in the Caribbean • Outsourcing • Economic opportunities • International Business Services • Manufacturing

Project Implementation
It is intended that project implementation should also be used as a learning process. This will require systematic documentation, which in turn could lead to more efficient processes in similar projects in the future, and the development of model sharing and of training materials for use at the national and regional levels. These may even be made available for sharing with other developing countries. The normal project life cycle will therefore require that there is definition and analysis of the concept, documentation of the business case, specification of action plan and provision for on-going and periodic evaluation.

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Current Status of ICT in the Caribbean
Overview
ICT activities in the Caribbean have been developing along a traditional continuum, focusing progressively on telecommunications infrastructure, computerization, development of informatics as an economic sector, and most recently on e-business facilitation. This process may be categorized as a sector enhancement approach. It is illustrated in figure 1.

Figure I
A typology of the ICT Development Continuum In The CARICOM Countries Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4

- Regulatory Frameworks - National ICT Strategies - Liberalization of telecommunications sector E-Business Facilitation Promoting informatics as an economic sector

Computerization Development of telecommunications infrastructure

TIME However, the dawning of the new millennium and the emergence of a globalized economic system reflected in the WTO process, brings a new sense of urgency to define and leverage national competitive advantage for growth and development. Furthermore according to Drucker1 “Developing countries can no longer expect to base their development on their comparative labour advantage. The competitive advantage that now counts is the application of knowledge.”2 This objective requires a new approach to setting development goals, as growth will now be conditioned, if not determined, by global positioning of the economy. ICT therefore becomes a powerful catalyst, for comprehensive cross sector strategies to stimulate and facilitate a “wider economic process, and enhance global positioning.” The sector enhancement approach outlined in Figure 1 has inevitably led to slow project-based, rather than process driven growth of ICT in the individual CARICOM countries. Because of this not only is the region as a whole lagging behind the leader countries e.g. USA, Canada, and Europe in ICT development, but also there is significant disparity in the levels of “e-readiness” between the CARICOM countries themselves.

Teledensity and Access
Teledensity is a measure of basic network capacity, which in turn is a major requirement for Internet access. It is defined as the number of telephone lines per 100 persons in the population. Best estimates by the ITU indicate that Teledensity is still rather low in the CARICOM countries averaging 27.7% compared to 65.51% in Canada and 66.45% in the USA. See Appendices – Table 1 for ITU estimates. Network access is also critical. In the ICT context access requires three main components viz. basic tele-

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phone access, PC penetration and Internet access. All are necessary because the Internet currently relies on the telecommunications network for transmission and the PC still provides the main interface to the Internet. (a) Network Access Network access can be measured through the statistics on ’household penetration.’ The available estimates relate to the wire-line service only, but it must be remembered that the growth of mobile service will eventually modify the significance of the term ‘household penetration’ It must nevertheless be noted that if populations do not have access to basic telephone service, which is an important communication technology, the scope for moving further up the continuum is severely restricted. However, as the world moves towards the development of knowledge-societies and as global economic positioning becomes more directly defined by it, basic telephone access while still important will not be sufficient. Internet access will also become very critical. (b) Penetration of PC’s On average there are only 9.14 PC’s per 100 persons in the CARICOM Countries, which while being above the average for The Americas as a whole, contrasts very unfavorably with estimates for the leading countries of 40.31 PC’s per 100 persons in the Canada and 62.50 in the USA. In general therefore, Internet access is still at an incipient stage in the Caribbean countries. (See Appendices - table 2) (c) Internet Access Table 2 also provides the ITU estimates of the number of Internet users in the CARICOM countries. The contrast with the USA and Canada is similar to that observed for PC penetration. For instance whereas there are approximately 2,014 users in Canada and 5,015 in the USA for every 1,000 inhabitants, the average for the Caribbean is only 507.96. However it can be seen that there is not a linear relationship between PC penetration and the number of Internet users. There is a perception in the Caribbean that this is very much related to the cost of service provided by the ISPs, and to the extent to which the internet is used in business processes where there will be multiple users per service.

Legal and Regulatory Framework
It was observed earlier that ICT development in the CARICOM countries developed on a project-by-project sector- enhancement basis. It is therefore not surprising that enabling legislation and regulations are not comprehensive and therefore generally inadequate. Even in the nineties when all governments were targeting informatics development to become an important sector of activity in their economies, no specific ICT legislation was put in place. The emerging informatics sector had to piggyback on incentives and regulations that were already in place for manufacturing, merchandise trade and general-purpose international business corporations. Where new regulations were actually put in place they were not outlined within the context of integrated national ICT plans. However the most recent focus in the ICT sectoral enhancement continuum, e-commerce development, has seen the recent drafting and in some cases the proclamation, of e-commerce legislation. This came as a reaction to demands for a legal framework for e-commerce transactions, and even to facilitate some e-government functions. More recently, a few of the countries have also drafted some form of a computer misuse act. Only Jamaica may be said to have developed and proclaimed a national ICT policy. Antigua, Barbados, Grenada, Guyana, St. Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago are understood to have drafts under consideration. The position of the other countries is unclear. However, it is questionable whether countries should try to pursue this path alone. Therefore it is now accepted that a more efficient and cost effective strategy would be to develop a regional approach. The countries have therefore put in place a CARICOM mechanism for determining a regional ICT policy.

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The process has so far included the following: i. The 13th Heads of Government Meeting in Georgetown Guyana recognized the potential of ICT for enhancing and integrating Caribbean societies in education, health, poverty reduction, delivery of public information and governance. All these principles are enunciated in the CARICOM Charter of Civil Society. ii. Accepted recommendations of the special meeting of CARICOM Ministers responsible for information, communication and or technology from their June 2000 meeting in Antigua & Barbuda. These recommendations related to a process for outlining policy, agenda and strategy for development of ICT in the CARICOM region. iii. Mandated the CARICOM Secretariat to present the CARICOM ICT strategy for consideration at its 14th meeting scheduled for early 2003.

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Policy Framework for the Caribbean
Setting the Agenda
Caribbean countries are party to a number of processes, protocols and agreements that will impact on the shaping of their regional and national ICT policies. Some of these forums set the social, political and economic agenda; others relate directly to regional, hemispheric and even global ICT processes. The following processes among others will therefore influence the policy framework: • The WTO negotiations • The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) • The Summit of the Americas process • The Proposed CARICOM ICT Strategy (to be presented at the 14th Inter-sessional Meeting in early 2003). • National ICT policies Each of these processes will be driven by its own specific goals, and its own ‘raison d’etre’. There is however a point of convergence. That point is the resolve that ICT should be pursued not simply as an end in itself, but more importantly as a catalyst for human social and economic development, notwithstanding the fact that it is also an area of dynamic business activity. This position emerges partly from the realization that the difference between developing and developed countries is not only reflected in, but is also being exacerbated by the dramatic shift from a global income divide to a global knowledge divide. The modern development process is therefore being driven more by the harnessing of knowledge, rather than by simply managing production. ICT, the enabling process, will therefore be required to play an increasingly more crucial role in the development of developing countries.

Policy Forums
As indicated earlier, the eventual ICT policy of the CARICOM countries will be greatly influenced by the agendas of the several forums to which the region is a party. Significantly, all of these recognize that ICT will play a defining role in the development process. ICT has therefore been a subject of special focus in the international, hemispheric, regional and national development policies and agendas which impact on the Caribbean. (a) The Summit of the America’s process At its Montreal meeting the development agenda was prefaced with the following statement regarding connectivity. “We, the democratically elected Heads of State and Government of the Americas, meeting in Quebec City3, recognize that a technological revolution is unfolding and that our region is entering a new economy, one defined by a vastly enhanced capacity to access knowledge and to improve flows of information. We are convinced that the promotion of a Connectivity Agenda for the Americas will facilitate the beneficial integration of the hemisphere into an increasingly knowledge-based society. We share the goal of providing all citizens of the Americas with the opportunity to develop the tools to access and share knowledge that will allow them to fully seize opportunities to strengthen democracy, create prosperity and realize their human potential. Connectivity will open new opportunities to our society in all areas, for which equal access and appropriate training are necessary.” A connectivity agenda was also outlined as follows: 1) Individually and collectively move towards expanding access to global knowledge and full integration with the knowledge society 2) Promote the modernization of the telecommunications sector 3) Establish conditions taking into account national legal frameworks that promote and strengthen free and fair competition in telecommunications services

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4) Seek out innovative ways of facilitating access to and usage of computers and software in our learning environments (b) The CARICOM Strategy In a communiqué following the most recent meeting4 it was reaffirmed that the CARICOM Heads of Government: “… Recognized the potential of information and communications technologies (ICTs) for enhancing and integrating our societies in areas such as education, health, poverty- reduction, delivery of public information and governance – objectives articulated in the CARICOM charter of civil Society. They also noted the potential (of ICTs) for transforming our economic landscape, growing the CSME and advancing the regional trade agenda, by increasing competitiveness in services and seizing opportunities offered by e-commerce. The heads are however not unmindful of increasing challenges the digital revolution has posed for smaller economies such as ours, underscoring the need for a regional approach. The CARICOM Secretariat was mandated to present a CARICOM ICT strategy for ratification at the next meeting scheduled for early in the year 2003 and a commitment was made to “… further pursue meaningful participation in hemispheric and other policy-making fora on the global information society.” Special mention was made of: a. Full participation in the hemispheric ICT process under the OAS through the Inter-American Telecommunications Commission (CITEL); as outlined at the Quebec meeting, detailed later in this report b. Participate fully in the global process working with the European Latin America& Caribbean alliance for information Society. (IEU-LAC) c. Cooperate with the United Nations task force for information society set up by Secretary-General Kofi Annan.

Policy Summary
It is therefore clear that development of a Caribbean ICT policy framework is in process. The outstanding features and overall principles may be summarized as: • Participation in regional, hemispheric and global strategies for development of the information society. • Implementation Process requiring:

° The support and participation of civil society i.e. The private sector, the public sector, NGOs and
the general population. plans of action.

° A forum where the players can participate in formulating policies, defining priorities, strategies, and ° A high-level government entity empowered to coordinate the short, medium, and long-term.
• A high level national executing agency to manage the planning, executing, and financing processes. The process should involve the entities responsible for defining economic policy and budgetary allocation at the applicable central, regional and sub-regional levels. • A long-term commitment extending at least ten years

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ICT Issues and Challenges
Within the policy framework identified above, an ICT enabled development process in the Caribbean would need to address a variety of issues or major challenges ranging from its impact on existing activities to its potential for future development.

Impact on Existing Activities
• ICT is employed as a tool for providing new and faster means of communication, including real-time communication and efficient storing, accessing and retrieving information. • Both CARICOM governments and the private sector have identified the cost of telecommunications as a major concern. They consider that it has a negative impact on the rate of ICT deployment in the region. Cost has also been highlighted as an important consideration in the recent drive to liberalize and introduce more competition into the sector. • Nevertheless, ICT is already creating a gateway for new business processes, e.g. e-commerce and customer relationship management (CRM) and for identifying new business opportunity areas e.g. in call centre business and informatics. • ICT is also being introduced for the purpose of bringing greater efficiency and productivity to public and private sector activities.

Potential for Development
In addition to faster and more systematic deployment into existing activities, ICT also has the potential for facilitating the achievement of stated objectives in the new paradigm for social, economic and human development i.e. the drive to the knowledge based society. It can facilitate: • Restructuring of governmental and societal interaction patterns so that shared information becomes the foundation for action. This can be achieved when information is no longer circumscribed by, or confined to, privileged niches. • Stimulating social, economic and political empowerment, because each individual would potentially have access to the same information base, and become both a recipient and a generator of information, thus contributing to knowledge development. This in turn stimulates a demand and supply equation for information and ICT management. • Operating as a “force multiplier” through rapid and reliable dissemination of relevant information, products, and best practices. In this way additional new ideas will be propagated and new societal capabilities stimulated. • Bridging the divide between developing and developed countries and stimulating the competitive advantage of countries as they are drawn progressively into a globalized economy. However, in striving to benefit from this potential offered by ICT, a number of critical issues must be addressed. The issues include: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Connectivity Skills Development Content Resource allocation Bridging the digital divide

Connectivity
At the national level connectivity infrastructure must be treated as a critical factor in the development of access to ICT capability. This implies the need for investment in a national telecommunications infrastructure. The basic capability would be based on a high-speed broadband Digital Diaspora Network, providing adequate bandwidth, with access to the international information superhighway at affordable cost. Even with the current levels of connectivity, cost is considered a major problem and deterrent to speedier development of the ICT sector.

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Apart from putting the connectivity infrastructure in place at the national level, individuals need to have access capability either on a personal or community basis. This may be facilitated through the governments and the private sector acting as propagators by bringing ICT into their standard and on-going business processes. This would naturally have both a demonstration and a motivational effect, in encouraging personal use. Access would then more rapidly be brought into individual homes, or at least into local centres for community use.

Skills Development
Next to providing connectivity and access, skills development must be made a critical component of the ICT strategy. This issue is most important in areas where basic literacy is low. Even in countries with high literacy, e-literacy will be a necessary objective of skills development. However, basic literacy and e-literacy need not be treated as separate processes. For Example, pupils using laptops in the classroom, or a classroom with an interactive whiteboard connected to a computer and to the Internet, can simultaneously facilitate teacher and student input, intellectual stimulation, creativity, downloading of content from the internet, and distance learning. All of the major learning processes, especially the cognitive and affective, are therefore integrated and need only to be managed through good lesson plans. Smart Technologies website (www.smarttech.com) among others provides guidance for teachers on how to use this type of technology in the classroom. If ICT can be incorporated into the education processes and classroom methodologies, especially at an early point in the educational cycle, a smooth and effective solution would have been achieved. The Edutech programme being implemented by the Ministry of Education in Barbados is an example of this approach. A comprehensive ICT skills development strategy will not be confined to the classroom and will require development of both end-user and technical skills. The end-user skills would include basic keyboarding skills, net literacy, handling ICT, hosting information, retrieving information etc. The technical skills would revolve around the development, management and maintenance of hardware and software systems and of course networking and connectivity.

Content
The next important issue and challenge in developing a comprehensive ICT policy relates to content. Content must be understandable not only to highly trained professionals but also to the average citizen in the community. For example, a farmer in a rural community could also benefit directly from information about market prices for his products, best agricultural practices for the crops he produces, or the latest government assistance programmes for farmers without awaiting the uncertain visit of an extension officer. Therefore the way information is presented through ICTs will also be an important factor. This will have implications for the development of content in a contextual framework, including where possible, in the local language or idiom. In addition, content need not be restricted to written-text format, as in many communities voice data or graphics may be the most effective communication tools. Moreover, the use of culturally relevant icons in the software and hybrid voice/text technologies would be a distinct advantage. These factors will in turn have a linkage effect to the skills training programmes and also present business and or career development opportunities for programmers and developers.

Resource Allocation
The deep linkages and interrelationships between ICT and all sectors of the economy have been established; consequently an effective ICT programme should be developed within a strategic planning framework. Governments therefore will need not only to spell out the vision, but also to break that vision down into manageable components with specific targets and time frames for each. This in turn would lead to rational resource allocation in a logical developmental framework. Each country’s sustainable development needs should determine the national strategy in each case. Furthermore at the national level, Governments need to demonstrate the political will to incorporate more ICT into the operational and other aspects of governance (e-government), and to allocate appropriate resources for achieving this objective. In addition to governments’ resource allocation strategy and deployment of ICT, the business sector, NGO’s and international organizations will be required to contribute resources. This in turn is likely to lead to new business opportunities to be explored by the private sector participants.

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Bridging the Digital Divide
Another major issue, the digital divide, exists at two levels. Firstly it can be observed within countries i.e. at the national level and secondly between countries, i.e. at the international level. The most dramatic manifestation of the digital divide, however, is at the international level between developed and developing countries. It is precisely because of this that international intermediary organizations, e.g. The United Nations agencies, World Bank, Inter American Development Bank, will be required to play a major role in helping to bridge that digital divide. Fortunately, the issue of the digital divide is at the top of the international political and economic agenda. This is reflected in: • The adoption of the Information Society Charter by the G-8 countries at the Okinawa Summit in July 2000 • The United Nations Economic and Social Council establishing a Task Force on ICT and Development. • The Proposed World Summits on “information society” scheduled for 20035 and 2005. • The establishment of the Infodev programme by The World Bank for identifying, developing and supporting fundable ICT projects in eligible member countries. • The FTAA process has outlined a connectivity agenda for the hemisphere of the Americas, with implementation to be managed by The Inter-American Telecommunications Agency (CITEL)6 . In addition to the policy positions, practical initiatives have also been created to address this issue. Some of these specifically target the Caribbean basin and/or the hemisphere. The Caribbean countries should actively seek to benefit directly from these. • UNDP’ Sustainable Development Networking Programme (www.sdnp.undp.org) • World Bank’s Global Development Network (www.gdnet.org) • The Global Knowledge Partnership (www.globalknowledge.org). This is an informal partnership between public sector, business, NGO’s and international organizations including UNDP and the World Bank. • World Bank’s Global Information and Communication Technologies Department of the IFC. (GITC) (http://info.worldbank.org/ict/policy). • Institute for Connectivity, a department within IDRC – Canada. This capability was established by Canada as a contribution to the Summit of the Americas process. It assists with developing and financing qualifying ICT projects in the developing countries of the hemisphere.

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References
1. ICT for Development, Poverty Reduction, Disaster Recovery, and Initiatives to Enhance Human Development by Denis Gilhooly Senior Adviser to the Administrator, Director ICT for Development, UNDP. 2. Digital Bridge to Africa:Tthe launch of the Digital Diaspora Network – Africa (DDN-A) a final report on the meeting held under the auspices of the Un ICT Task Force - Prepared by Digital Partners with consultant Jennifer Sly (UNICTTF 111/2002/14) 3. Bridging The Digital Divide – A New Challenge for the African Diaspora in Europe presented at first meeting of the Digital Diaspora Network for Africa – Europe, Brussels, September 27th 2002 – CERFE 4. Summit of the Americas, 2001, http://www.americascanada.org/eventsummit 5. The Institute for Connectivity in the Americas (ICA) http://www.icamericas.net 6. UNDP - Sustainable Development Networking Programme (www.sdnp.undp.org) 7. World Bank’s Global Development Network (www.gdnet.org) 8. The Global Knowledge Partnership (www.globalknowledge.org). 9. World Bank’s Global Information and Communication Technologies Department of the IFC. (GITC) (http://info.worldbank.org/ict/policy.)

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Appendices
Table 1 Teledensity in CARICOM Countries (Wire-line Service)
Country Antigua & Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Dominica Grenada Guyana Haiti Jamaica Montserrat St Vincent & Grenadines St. Kitts / Nevis St. Lucia Suriname Trinidad & Tobago Caribbean Average Population 64,362 264,600 222,820 70,000 98,600 770,139 2,515,500 4,000 111,214 43,530 145,213 408,401 1,269,100 Main lines per 100 persons 47.35 40.03 46.29* 14.44 29.06 32.75 9.19 0.97 19.73 21.96 56.88 17.58 23.91 27.70
* This Figure is for the year 2000

Fixed Lines Year - 2001 37,300 123,300 123,800 35,200 23,300 32,800 79,900 562,827 24,900 21,900

311,800

Table 2 ICT Access – Internet Users & Number of PC’s (As estimated by the ITU - see http://itu.int/itu-d/ict/statistics) Year 2001
Country Antigua & Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Dominica Grenada Guyana Haiti Jamaica Montserrat St. Kitts / Nevis St Vincent & Grenadines St. Lucia Suriname Trinidad & Tobago Caribbean Average Canada USA Internet Users Per 10,000 inhabitants 652.03 549.45 553.99 737.70 777.37 520.00 1,091.95 36.38 384.91 516 308 330 923.08 507.96 2,014.15 5,014.91 Number of PC’s per 100 Inhabitants NA NA 9.23 13.52 7.50 13.00 2.64 NA 5.0 NA 17.45 11.61 NA 4.55 6.92 9.14 40.31 62.50

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Table 3 Telephone & Internet Accounts In CARICOM Countries - Household Penetration
Country
Antigua & Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Dominica Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat
St Vincent & Grenadines Fixed Lines 2001 Number Of ISP’s

Number of Internet Subscribers 27,600 6,000 3,500 3,200 3,000 70,000 N.A 2,700 3,200 4.500 5,800 60,000

37,300 123,300 123,800 35,200 23,300 32,800 79,900 562,827 24,900 21,900

2 6 1 2 1 5 40 1 1 2 1 3 6

St. Kitts / Nevis St. Lucia Suriname Trinidad & Tobago

311,800

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The Meeting “Meeting on Bridging the Digital Divide for the Caribbean” Summary
The meeting on Bridging the Digital Divide for the Caribbean was initiated by the United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force (United Nations ICT TF) in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF), while also supported by the CARICOM Permanent Missions to the United Nations, the CARICOM Secretariat, the Caribbean American Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The key achievement of the meeting was the establishment of a Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean. This meeting built on three previous Caribbean ICT Conferences on bringing ICT systems to the Caribbean.7 In the spirit of new partnerships to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, this initiative tapped the extensive talent and financial potential of the Caribbean Diaspora living in North America. In addition to representatives from United Nations organizations and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), over 140 participants attended the meeting, including the CARICOM Permanent Representatives to the United Nations, senior officials of Government and CARICOM Secretariat and the University of the West Indies. Close to seventy percent of the participants were Caribbean nationals living in North America who offered their technical, entrepreneurial and other skills to assist in closing the digital divide. The daylong meeting included a morning session, moderated by Dr. Jerrold Thompson, Minister of Telecommunications, Science, Technology and Industry, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, with a keynote address given by Senator Philip Goddard, the Special Envoy for Information Technology and International Trade to the Prime Minister of Barbados. Other speakers included Mr. Sarbuland Khan, Dr. Christopher Hackett, Mr. Amir Dossal, Amb. June Clarke, Ms. Jennifer Britton, and Dr. Roy Hastick. This session was followed by a panel discussion moderated by Courtney Betty, CEO of Caribtel. Panelists made presentations on the status of ICT development in the Caribbean and the challenges to be faced, and included Mr. George Goodwin, Ms. Jennifer Britton, Mr. Roderick Sanatan, and Mr. Patrick Hayford. Moderated by Amb. Bartholomew Lawson, the luncheon session’s discussion revolved around the issues of Applied ICT in Education, presented by Ms. Lolita Applewaite, and Youth in ICT Development, which was presented by Makonnen Blake. In the afternoon, participants broke into ten roundtables, providing an opportunity for lively interactive discussions on a variety of issues. The discussions where summarized later by the Roundtable moderators and are included in the following sections. The meeting was concluded with closing remarks given by the representatives of the sponsoring agencies and partners, acknowledging the this determined historical path of United Nations involvement in vital activities for human development.

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Main Recommendations
The outcome of the meeting can be summarized into the following list of main recommendations: 1. Establishment of the Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean (DDN-C) It was agreed that the Network would initially consist of the meeting participants as well as non-attendees who had expressed support for implementing the concept. A web site will be established as the initial contact mechanism and used in formulating an action plan. 2. DDN-C steering committee A Steering Committee will be formed with the task of establishing an organizational framework to promote and manage the resulting network of interest, to ensure continuity and to oversee and monitor follow-up activities. The Steering Committee will include individual members of the DDN-C, corporate institutions in North America with a proven track record of investing and undertaking work in the Caribbean, donor agencies, relevant regional institutions, representatives of the Caribbean-based ICT community and the sponsoring United Nations agencies. The Steering Committee will convene in mid-2003 to determine the work plan and priorities. 3. Facilitating role of the United Nations The participants requested the sponsoring United Nations agencies to continue to support and nurture the initiative to ensure its effective implementation. 4. Institutional grounding The meeting recognized the need for Caribbean institutional grounding and considered that the CARICOM Secretariat and/or The University of the West Indies would be appropriate institutions. Their role should quickly be defined. 5. Action Plan An action plan will be developed based on the findings of the Roundtables after discussion between the steering committee and the network. These findings relate to the following themes: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) ICT Policy Framework for the Caribbean Infrastructural Framework, Connectivity and Costs Human Capacity Development- E-education Health and Telemedicine E-business Environment – Enabling Effective E-commerce Enabling Efficiency and Productivity in the Tourism sector Strengthening civil society and Governance – Focus on E-government Developing Agriculture with Information Identifying resources for the Caribbean Digital Diaspora Network ICT and Outsourcing.

In addition, the network will support and build synergies with a number of already established ICT based activities in the Caribbean. 6. Funding The need for a financial resource base for the network is important. It is therefore necessary to develop appropriate funding sources as an essential element in the development of the DDN-C’s programme. New York Healthcare Plus made an immediate initial pledge of $20,000 for the network.

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Roundtable Reports Roundtable 1 - ICT Policy Framework for the Caribbean
Moderator: Mr. Peter King, Advisor to the Minister of Commerce, Science & Technology, Jamaica, and Chairman of the Trade Board Rapporteur: Mr. Selwin Hart, Permanent Mission of Barbados to the United Nations Background Issues & Challenges 1. A clear understanding of the issues and urgency can be assisted by benchmarking and comparison. There is a need to base understanding on accurate data e.g. United Nations studies, World Bank Surveys, IADB, National and Regional Indices, etc. 2. Support is needed at the highest level in public, and private sectors. 3. A vision should be defined. 4. Leadership is needed at the national level to drive the process. 5. There has to be a balanced policy framework notwithstanding conflicting social, economic, business and political objectives. Strategies for moving forward: 1. Partnerships should be developed in order to craft a vision with international, regional & local players (government, private sector; NGOs) which fits with global directions but retains national objectives and is technology neutral. 2. The concerns of special groups including women, the disabled and youth, should be taken into consideration in the interest of the vision. 3. Framework policies (best practices), which are already in place, should be used as a basis for crafting a regional ICT policy. Legislation • Liberalization • E-Government • Institution building • Utility Regulator • Spectrum Management • Telecom Advisory Council 4. Time lines for the collaboration should be set and an action plan should be developed accordingly. 5. A team should be appointed to track implementation and apply pressure where timeframes are lagging. 6. A strong institution/leader should be appointed to drive the process. 7. The process should be supported visibly at the highest political event. 8. The process should be spoken and communicated publicly. Time frames suggested: 1. Establish an agreed vision, specific objectives: 3 months 2. Identify a base framework policy: 4 months 3. Use this to craft a Regional ICT Policy: 4 months 4. “3” to have subsets: a. Identify working team: 1 month b. Communicate the process: ongoing c. Developing first draft: 2 months d. Communicate through the CARICOM machinery and get sign off at the highest level: 6 months 5. Provide continuing support for member states to shape regional policy to local objectives and for local value: ongoing.

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Roundtable 2 -Infrastructural Framework, Connectivity and Costs
Moderator: Mr. Philip Cross, Director, ITU Caribbean Office Rapporteur: Mr. Richardson Franklin, Senior Associate, Booz Allen Hamilton Background Issues & Challenges 1. Liberalization: Governments must embark on the liberalization of the telecommunications sector which will foster competition, reduce costs and introduce new service offerings. Governments must establish clear policy, legislation and regulations, in a transparent manner. 2. Regulatory Bodies: It is recommended that regulatory bodies be established and strengthened so that they are technically and legally competent, financially secure and possess the authority to fully enforce the Telecommunications act of each respective country. 3. Licenses: Licenses should be transparent and contain provisions for quality of service, build out requirements and reporting requirements with specific timeframes for providing information requested by the regulator. Additionally, special considerations should be given for qualified local entities that wish to partner with foreign or other Caribbean investors/operators. 4. Interconnection Regulation: All countries should have a model Reference Interconnection Offer. Interconnection should be mandatory, with multiple points of Interconnect. Interconnection regulation should provide for penalties, such as liquidated and consequential damages and specific timeframes for the completing interconnection agreements. Interconnection must have provisions for the regulator to intervene where negotiations have stalled within a predetermined period of time. Strategies for moving forward: 1. Infrastructure: Governments must ensure that dominant carriers have the ability to provide the required access, capacity and connectivity required by new entrants. Where there is a need for scarce resources (spectrum, numbers and rights of way as noted in the WTO’s Basic Agreement), countries must ensure that such resources are allocated in a fair, non-discriminatory and transparent manner. Affordable, efficient and reliable high-speed data communications is vital to the development of ICT in the region. Redundancy should be built into the networks. Because the Caribbean is in a hurricane zone operators should be required to utilize underground ducting and increased wind ratings for towers to ensure continuity of services during natural emergencies. A database of infrastructure development should be maintained, which would guide investment. Governments should also consider offering certain incentives to new operators who will make investments into the rural and less developed areas of their respective economies. 2. Costs: Proper cost models, should be utilized to develop cost-based tariffs and interconnection expenses. Pricing in the region should mirror acceptable international trends. 3. E-room: It is recommended that an e-room be established to serve as a follow up to the conference. It is also recommended that the members of the Caribbean Diaspora contribute and follow critical events such as the World Summit on the Information Society.

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Round Table 3 - Human Capacity Development: e- Education
Moderator: Prof. Fay Durrant, Head of Information and Communication Technologies, University of the West Indies Rapporteurs: Ms. Melissa Dow-Richardson, UNFIP & Winnie Robinson, Caribbean Life Background Issues 1. The Caribbean must acquire knowledge of the relatively new technology of E-education. 2. It is necessary to outline strategy and initiatives that will apply to the “Digital Divide” as it impacts the academic and economic development of the peoples of the Caribbean and the role of the DDN-C. 3. The development of the human capacity of communities is directly impacted by Internet access in each country. Strategies for moving forward 1. People in the Caribbean should be trained on how to benefit from ICT by learning IT related skills, such as using software, developing programmes and building hardware. 2. Newspapers and websites should be used as tools of communication and networking and the public should be made more aware of the need to become IT conscious. A publicity model should be established to promote the project to the local user and sponsor organizations. 3. People within the region should be trained to restore and upgrade used corporate computers for use in communities, which cannot bear the full costs of computers along with local production, maintenance and upgrading of hardware. 4. ICT education Committees should be formed in each country to provide varying perspectives. 5. Chat rooms and web pages should be developed for people to join discussions and share ideas. 6. Linkages between the University of the West Indies and Caribbean student populated universities in the United States such as Medgar Evers College, MIT and Howard University should be set up 7. Training capacity should be expanded with financial and technical support from the Diaspora network. 8. E-education models evidenced by online ventures such as Tech School (Jamaica) and the venture involving school children sponsored by UWI/Barbados should be adopted. 9. Basic education and literacy needs among the growing number of undereducated and unemployed youth should be addressed. 10. The senior population should be exposed and educated to IT issues, hardware and software in order to engage the participation in the wealth of knowledge and process possessed by the Elders of our Diaspora. 11. Basic and advanced IT training should be offered in order to multi-task target populations to optimize IT proficiencies within the community; highlighting the experiences and concerns of the indigenous citizen. Action Points 1. Establish working groups to organize strategies and develop e-fever. As we create “E-Fever” we must remember that the medium is not the message; it is the relevance of the application that is paramount. 2. Establishment of computer competition among CARICOM constituencies. 3. Development of an ICT web page and chat rooms to create linkages between policy and input from the community. 4. Maintain a broad area of focus to address the needs of basic classical academics, the academic and proprietary needs of the unemployed youth and the engagement of seniors in IT e-education. 5. Model a program to address the illiteracy that inhibits economic stability and success in the islands. 6. Plan and execute on-site ICT task force training conferences, to promote E-education to the citizens, and government.

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Round Table 4 - Health and Telemedicine
Moderators: Mr. Jerrol Thompson, Minister of Telecommunications, Science, Technology and Industry, St. Vincent & the Grenadines and Christine Melton, Aravind Eye Care Hospital Rapporteur: Ms. Melissa Kushner, UNFIP Background Issues 1. There is a shortage of medical expertise in Caribbean, therefore enormous possibilities are for Virtual hospitals, old age homes and Tele-radiology; linking patients and under qualified doctors to high tech interventions. 2. Assessment and formal systems with a critical focus are needed; identifying the areas where telemedicine can be both a cost and time effective remedy to shortcomings in the medical system. For example HIV, diabetes, cardiology, physical therapy and speech therapy. 3. Technological and Medical Infrastructure are necessary for the maintenance of a good health system. E.g. Laboratories, economical and methodological drug distribution (group purchasing of medicine) and pharmacy benefit management. 4. Compensation for Doctors is needed to create a two-way system, where it is give and take and not just volunteer based. 5. Unifying the different international medical standards is important for enabling and facilitating actions, for example, an American doctor can legally offer medical advice to patients being treated abroad. 5. Liability issues should be taken into consideration, for example do doctors simply gather data on the best course of action regarding the care of their patients or are the diagnoses and treatments specified via computer. 6. Support from governments is essential. Useful examples and information sources include: Eye care in India (Christine Melton’s project Aravan); Cornell’s ocular oncology telemedicine system; the expertise and experience of the group members in experimenting with the building and managing of telemedicine systems; Community Development Corporations; NASA (who has spearheaded much research in telemedicine); United States Department of Defense. Strategies for moving forward 1. Multi-stakeholder forum to develop the specifics of a telemedicine programme 2. Network with individuals in Diaspora to get: a. A strong base for funding, b. Infrastructure building tactics, c. A web of qualified and specialized doctors to volunteer their time to the Cause. 3. Enlist medical school graduates from the various medical schools in the Caribbean to volunteer their time and expertise. 4. Use the HIV and AIDS Platform. 5. Begin establishing technological infrastructure now starting with temporary yet immediate solutions to the lack of specialized medical care for the most desperate cases.

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Roundtable 5 - e-Business Environment – Enabling Effective e-Commerce
Moderator: Mr. James Quashie-Idun, Legal Consultant Rapporteur: Ms. Lotta Tahtinen, UNDESA Background Issues and Considerations 1. Digital networks offer a wide variety of opportunities in various areas including information dissemination, distance-learning, financial services, remittances, statistical support and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. 2. E-commerce policy and the legislative and regulatory frameworks are crucial parts of an enabling environment for e-commerce. Some countries in the Caribbean have adopted e-commerce legislation, however more work is needed in that domain, especially in the creation of a regional e-commerce policy (which is in process). 3. The architecture of ICT infrastructure and its suitability for business applications must be carefully monitored. Upgrading and expansion should be programmed on a process rather than on a periodic basis. 4. The Internet can be a powerful marketing tool including the arts and culture of Caribbean countries. However with this tool protection of intellectual property rights should be safeguarded. 5. Education, capacity-building and awareness-raising about ICT is needed especially on the grass-roots level and focused on business and commercial education e.g. how to set up a company, have access to finance, and managing taxation. Strategies for moving forward 1. The diverse factors that prevent individuals from using ICT should be examined to develop a program to counteract this. This includes issues such as trust, security, and privacy, which are all inhibitors to ecommerce. 2. An e-commerce bibliography or resource guide should be compiled and made available. 3. Caribbean countries should actively participate in relevant discussions on international trade such as tariffs, open access to markets and e-commerce in the WTO, UNCTAD, WIPO and ACP. 4. An inventory and sharing of best practices and lessons learned is needed in order to avoid previous mistakes in e-commerce such as inappropriate methods of attracting customers, inability to meet demands and mismanagement of supply chains. 5. The creation of databases or directories of commercial and economic information that would facilitate marketing products online and targeting marketing efforts. 6. The development and adoption of a common code of classification, similar to the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS). 7. A research team should be included within the Steering Committee. 8. The CARICOM website should be inter-linked with national web sites as a tool to ensure broad distribution of information. 9. The United Nations Foundation, the Ford Foundation and the Gates Foundation among others should be approached for funding.

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Roundtable 6 – Enabling Efficiency and Productivity in the Tourism Sector
Moderator: Mr. Allen Chastanet, Vice-President, Marketing & Sales, Air Jamiaca Rapporteur: Mr. Evan Reiss, UNFIP Background Issues and Challenges “The most critical industry in the Caribbean is the most poorly managed.”
Philip Goddard

1. From a marketing perspective ICT offers the opportunity to be involved in the distribution of tourism (e.g. http://Go Caribbean.com) offering full services to hotels and other tourism related businesses. However, this site has been under-utilized because entrepreneurs are not well educated in technology. ICT education is therefore needed in the tourism sector. 2. Technology can be used to improve the processes in official tourism related functions such as immigration, customs, and obtaining licenses (e.g. driver’s licenses and marriage licenses). 3. ICT can facilitate the planning of multi-destination travel in the Caribbean. This could be accomplished by allowing immigration and customs documents to be applied for online, in addition to allowing a visitor to visit several islands on a single trip to the Caribbean. 4. Improving technology services for hotel guests e.g. in-room email and Internet access. This includes offering lower cost services than currently exists. Strategies for moving forward 1. An ICT education programme targeted at the needs of the tourism sector. This could be achieved through seminars for hoteliers, security, finance, investment, customs and immigration officials. 2. Identify sources of funding for the needs of the sector and for the general work of the DDN-C. 3. Process re-engineering in tourism support activities especially those provided via the public sector. Current best practices from selected countries may be used as a guide.

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Round table 7 - Strengthening Civil Society and Governance with Focus on e-Government
Moderator: Mr. Michael Lackey, CEO, AIT Global Rapporteur: Ms. Yukie Hori, UNDESA Background issue and challenges 1. Providing access so that all members of society are able to enjoy the benefit of ICT. ICT should therefore be mainstreamed into all development processes, particularly those for achieving economic growth, poverty eradication and millennium development goals. 2. The dilemma in allocating limited resources to ICT investment while basic needs are still to be fulfilled. Governments must therefore be open for partnerships with civil society, private sector and funding agencies. 3. Limited ICT infrastructure is also a critical concern. However, the momentum of introducing ICT should be captured even if infrastructure is not fully there. New ICT does not necessarily require the traditional means of communication such as telecommunication cable. Therefore, developing countries could leapfrog with the advanced ICT. 4. Finding the best ways to utilize available human resources especially those with appropriate skills in the Diaspora. 5. The digital divide exists not only between developed and developing countries but also between rural and urban areas within one country. Equitable and sustainable development is therefore vital for ensuring equal access to ICT. 6. E-government as a process cannot be achieved only by project implementations but must be accompanied by awareness and education. Some countries do already have experienced successful initiatives of their country’s e-governance process Strategies for moving forward 1. Strengthening the relationships between government and civil society at the national level (private sector and NGOs) to bring together a consolidated voice in the policy making process as exemplified in the United Nations Global Compact. 2. Strengthening of partnership between islands at the regional level may secure one solid front and the necessary economies of scale for attracting significant international private sector investment. In this regard CARICOM could play a crucial role. 3. Establishing partnership with the Diaspora could bring tremendous benefits to the CARICOM countries in obtaining necessary skills and resources. 4. Securing financial and technical support at the international level. Civil society can contribute to the international level policy making if they are enabled them to participate in national policy making meetings. Action points 1. The steering committee should function as an ICT forum to address common problems and institutional challenges of Caribbean island nations. 2. Involvement of the Digital Diaspora Network in the CARICOM agenda is extremely important. The network could provide critical knowledge, experience and resources. 3. A regional data bank of experts could be established specifying expertise and contacts. A web site could promote the use of such data bank. 4. Education is a key to promote the ICT use for development. Skills and knowledge are needed at all levels but the education of younger generations is particularly important.

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5. Strong, united and concrete participation by the Caribbean in WSIS is needed to bring the voice of the Caribbean community. 6. The outcome of this meeting should be brought to the preparatory meeting of the follow-up conference of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, which will be held next month. 7. E-government should be results oriented and citizen centered, with interactive processes promoting innovation and development.

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United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force

Roundtable 8 - Developing Agriculture with Information
Moderator: Ms. Florence Chenoweth, Director, Food and Agriculture Organization, Liaison Office to the United Nations Rapporteur: Mr. Ivan Boban, United Nations ICT Task Force Secretariat Background Issues and Challenges 1. The United Nations Millennium Declaration reaffirmed the target established at the World Food Summit, a target that aims to halve, by 2015, the number of people who suffer from hunger. FAO United Nations estimates that there are 60 million households in developing countries that fall under this category. 2. Infrastructure, legal and regulatory framework, skills development and human capacity are challenges along the road to development 3. Even the most skilled farmers do not use ICT to exchange information. Technology might be there but will the farmers access it? Therefore how can important information about crop growing, fertilizers, and weather be filtered to farmers and how can farmers be educated to use information and technology for their own benefit? Even when farmers have access to communication it is not used for agricultural business purposes. 4. With the current infrastructure, farmers in developing countries simply cannot compete with the costeffective agricultural industry model of the west because of economies of scale, quantity and quality, and timely marketing. Many hotels in Caribbean are importing agricultural products rather than buying them from local farmers. 5. In summary the main background challenges to ICT development in the agricultural sector are poverty, health, the Information gap, education, globalization and modern political economy. Strategies for moving forward 1. Mobilize the political will and the human, technical and financial resources to achieve the twin objectives of fighting and defeating hunger and poverty.). 2. Ensure that the Digital Diaspora Network is people centered. 3. Further on, it was suggested that was that one of the best ways to fight poverty was by improving and developing the agricultural sector of the economy. Developing agriculture with information technology is not a magic formula that is going to solve all problems, but it is definitely a great leap forward. 4. Develop programs to educate and filter crucial information to farmers through creation of media and communication strategies. For this, a website should be developed. 5. At a later stage, a portal should also be created where farmers could trade on e-markets and access information that they might need. 6. Benchmarking based best practices is of a great importance. Action Points 1. Media and Communication Strategy should be shaped to create awareness. To make this effective, an ongoing relationship with the farmers needs to be developed and maintained. 2. Establish a Website and a Portal where farmers can look at various recommendations, policies, programs, opportunities for trade etc. Agriculture-trade-related links should be available on the site. This initiative should preferably connect the farmers across the region and not simply nationally. 3. A portal with a database of small businesses should be created to build a network for business opportunities. 4. Promote development of an e-market to permit conduct of businesses by farmers and fishermen. Government should be a facilitator in these processes.

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Digital Bridge to the Caribbean

Roundtable 9 Identifying Resources for the Caribbean Digital Diaspora Network
Moderators: Mr. Danilo Piaggesi, Chief, Information and Communication Technology for Development Division, Inter-American Development Bank, IDB and Ms. Gillian Marcelle, Member, United Nations ICT Task Force Rapporteur: Ms. Ursula Germann, United Nations ICT Task Force Secretariat Background Issues and Challenges 1. Efforts should be taken to mobilize as wide a resource base as possible. The range of resources for the Digital Diaspora Network for the Caribbean should include human talent and energy, financial resources and material (in-kind) resources. The importance of using the Network to identify and recruit a pool of human resources was stressed. The group took note of the proposal presented by CARINFO to assist with the development of an electronic database of ICT professionals, entrepreneurs, community leaders, etc. 2. The Network should consist of ICT entrepreneurs, professionals, financiers, non-profit organizations, students, the youth, religious groups, business associations, community centers, trade unions, and media who have links with Caribbean development. 3. The participants noted that a number of inputs were needed to establish a successful Network: i.e., equipment, entrepreneurship skills as well as technical, educational and networking opportunities. 4. An inventory of projects could be established for the region. This would create opportunities for Caribbean experts – in the region as well as in the Diaspora – and permit a matching of projects and transfer of knowledge. Development partners should be aware that it was important to have Caribbean nationals participate in technical assistance programmes and projects. The funding source for projects should be as broad as possible, including national governments, regional organizations, venture capital firms, and philanthropic networks. This group developed a specific proposal. Which was to set guidelines for tender processes and technical assistance programmes in the Caribbean ICT sector to encourage and facilitate the use of Caribbean expertise, both Diaspora professionals and local professionals. Further it was proposed to include capacity development and mentoring guidelines in any ICT programmes to ensure that Caribbean nationals acquire increasing levels of skills and competence in the field. 5. The roundtable supported the establishment of a steering committee and recommended expansion of its composition. The steering committee should include representatives of national governments, corporate entities, as well as individual members of the DDN-C. It was stressed that the DDN-C should seek participation from members of the artistic and business community as well as youth representatives on the steering committee. Project management capability must also be available. 6. E-rooms could be set up as a multi-media messaging tool as a means of facilitating on-going communication among members of the DDN-C. Also, the DDN-C, with the help of the steering committee, should ensure media coverage in advancing ICT-for-development activities. The entertainment community could assist in developing and promoting an outreach programme/information campaign for the DDN-C. Strategies for moving forward 1. Implement a media awareness campaign on ICT-for-development, which could be linked to the forthcoming World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Geneva in December 2003. 2. Delivery of basic and high-level training and mentoring programmes. 3. Identify high-level champions to work with DDN-C to attract attention to ICT-for-development activities in the Caribbean region, and to establish public access to ICT facilities including telecentres, multimedia community centers, etc. 4. Launch a creative financial resources mobilization programme. 5. Establish a creative partnership programme among development partners.

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United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force

Roundtable 10 - ICT and Outsourcing
Moderators: Mr. Khalid Iqbal, Principal SKI Group and Mr. Carl Pilgrim, St. Lucia National Development Corporation Rapporteur: Mr. Yacoub El Hillo, UNFIP Background Issues and Challenges In the last 20 years, the Caribbean Governments placed a great degree of emphasis on the information services industry as part of a strategy to diversify their economies from agricultural to more service based economies. The early components of this strategy were the attraction of back office operations from major US corporations by offering incentives to encourage companies to establish data processing operations. The creation of hundreds of jobs resulted from such activity. The segments of the back- office operations for which Caribbean countries felt they had comparative advantages were as follows: • Information processing which included data entry, capture and repair, electronic publishing, medical and insurance claims processing and credit card transaction processing. • Calls centres for international corporations especially in-bound activity comprising customer service, order taking, reservations, and technical support centres (i.e. help desk for ICT companies) along with outbound activities such as sales, debt account management, market research etc. • Business process outsourcing such as account receivable and accounts payable • Web development and design. • Applications development. The industry has created over 11,000 agent jobs in over 50 call centres in the region. IT outsourcing will continue to dominate the offshore outsourcing space with IT maintenance and back office operations accounting for 70 percent of the market. Vertical expertise is expected to become a competitive differentiator in the offshore outsourcing segment. As more companies in the United States and Europe continue to recognize the need to reduce costs and diversify operations globally, the Caribbean is expected to become a location of choice for offshore back office operations and IT-Enabled services because its proximity to the United States and basic skills. A recent study by TMC Research on Customer Interest for Contact Centre Offshore Outsourcing, ranked the Caribbean as the third most desirable location. To capitalize on this potential the Caribbean must offer among other things a sound ICT capability featuring cost savings in telecoms, labour and real estate or office space. In addition it must offer a skilled and motivated workforce comprising of skilled workers, training centres, positive “can do” attitudes, and low turnover rates. Another important aspect is quality assurance - which includes ISO certification standards and international benchmarks. Competitive infrastructure includes the following: a. Rapid and reliable telecommunications facilities b. Redundancy and rapid maintenance response time c. High bandwidth capacity Strategies for moving forward 1. Develop a Mission Statement that will position the Caribbean as the Near-Shore location for outsourcing services offering clients financial benefits, customer satisfaction and process improvement 2. Develop successful “go to” market strategies 3. Pursue high growth areas of offshore outsourcing 4. Develop strategies that mitigate the risks associated with Offshore outsourcing. 5. Leverage the Caribbean region’s competitive advantages (including its proximity to the United States and Canada)

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Digital Bridge to the Caribbean

Action points 1. Build a database with information on the Caribbean Digital Diaspora in North America as phase one; Europe (as phase two) and other regions of the world (as phase three). Action by the Steering Committee is expected by April 2003 for phase one. 2. When outsourcing is inevitable, Governments should have training and knowledge transfer components “built-in” contracts with foreign companies and experts. Action by Steering Committee in collaboration with CARICOM and Governments in the Region is expected by June 2003. 3. ICT Companies and vendors in the region should be encouraged to have international quality management standard certification such as ISO 9000 and SMM in order to satisfy international best practices and benchmarks. 4. The formation of an organizing committee to help develop a Caribbean Center for ICT Outsourcing (based in NY) as part of the Digital Network whose responsibility will be to identify Corporations and other interests seeking to use the Caribbean as location for Outsourcing activities. Action by ICT Outsourcing Steering Committee to be completed (by March 2003).

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United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force

Appendices
Meeting Agenda 8:30 – 9:00 9:00 - 9:30 Registration Welcome Remarks Dr. Jerrol Thompson, Moderator, Minister of Telecommunications, Science, Technology and Industry, St. Vincent & the Grenadines Opening Remarks Mr. Sarbuland Khan, Director, Division for ECOSOC Support and Coordination, United Nations ICT Task Force Mr. Christopher Hackett, Chief of Caribbean Division, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Mr. Amir Dossal, Executive Director, United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) Ambassador June Clarke – Permanent Representative of Barbados to the United Nations Ms. Jennifer Britton, Senior Project Officer, Integrated Information Systems, CARICOM Secretariat Dr. Roy Hastick, Chairman, Caribbean American Chamber of Commerce & Industry (CACCI) 9:30 - 9:45 Plenary Keynote Address “Bridging the Digital Divide in the Caribbean” Senator Philip Goddard – Prime Minister’s Special Envoy on ICT, Barbados Q&A Session Panel Discussion Moderator: Mr. Courtney Betty, CEO, Caribtel The Caricom ICT Strategy Ms. Jennifer Britton, Senior Project Officer, Integrated Information Systems, CARICOM Secretariat OECS Agenda “New Initiatives” Mr. George Goodwin, Director-General, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, OECS Critical Analysis of the ICT situation in the CARICOM countries Mr. Roderick Sanatan, Centre for International Services – University of the West Indies, Cave Hill The African Digital Diaspora Network & The Caribbean ICT Challenges Mr. Patrick Hayford, Director - African Affairs, Office of the Secretary-General of the United Nations 11:30 – 12:00 12:00 – 1:30 Q&A Session Lunch Welcome: Ambassador Bartholomew Lawson, Ambassador-at-Large for Grenada Applied ICT in Education – The Edutech Programme in Barbados Ms. Lolita Applewaite, Centre for International Services, University of the West Indies Remarks: Mr. MaKonnen David Blake, Youth Technology Consultant to the Minister of Commerce and Technology, Jamaica

9:45- 10:00 10:00 - 11:30

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Digital Bridge to the Caribbean

1:30 – 3:30

Roundtable Discussions: Roundtable 1 – ICT Policy Framework for the Caribbean Moderator: Ambassador Peter King, Advisor to the Minister of Commerce, Science & Technology, Jamaica, and Chairman of the Trade Board Roundtable 2 – Infrastructural Framework, Connectivity & Costs Moderator: Mr. Philip Cross, Director, ITU Caribbean Office Roundtable 3 – Human Capacity Development – E-education Moderator: Prof. Fay Durrant, Head of Information and Communication Technologies, University of the West Indies-Mona Roundtable 4 – Health & Telemedicine Co-Moderators: Dr. Jerrol Thompson, Minister of Telecommunications, Science, Technology and Industry, St. Vincent & the Grenadines Dr. R. Christine Melton, Aravind Eye Care Hospital Roundtable 5 – E-business environment – Enabling Effective E-commerce Moderator: Mr. James Quashie Idun, Legal Consultant Roundtable 6 – Enabling Efficiency and Productivity in the Tourism sector Moderator: Mr. Allen Chastenet, Vice-President, Marketing & Sales, Air Jamiaca Roundtable 7 – Strengthening Civil Society and Governance – Focus on E-government Moderator: Mr. Michael Lackey, CEO, AIT Global Roundtable 8 – Developing Agriculture with Information Moderator: Ms. Florence Chenoweth, Director, Food and Agriculture Organization, Liaison Office to the United Nations Roundtable 9 – Identifying Resources for the Caribbean Digital Diaspora Network Moderator: Mr. Danilo Piaggesi, Chief, ICT for Development Division, Inter-American Development Bank, IDB Roundtable 10 – ICT & Outsourcing Co-Moderators: Mr. Khalid Iqbal, Principal SKI Group Mr. Carl Pilgrim, St. Lucia National Development Corporation

3:30 – 5:00

Closing Session Moderator: Dr. Gillian Marcelle, Member, United Nations ICT Task Force Presentation of Roundtable Reports – Recommendations and Decisions: Closing Plenary Mr. Sarbuland Khan, Director, Division for ECOSOC Support and Coordination, United Nations ICT Task Force Mr. Christopher Hackett, Chief of Caribbean Division, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Mr. Amir Dossal, Executive Director, United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) Ambassador June Clarke – Permanent Representative of Barbados to the United Nations Ms. Jennifer Britton, Senior Project Officer, Integrated Information Systems, CARICOM Secretariat Dr. Roy Hastick, Chairman, Caribbean American Chamber of Commerce & Industry (CACCI)

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United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force

List of Participants
# 1 2 Sal Mr Amb Last Name Abdul-Akbar Alexander First Name Amir Abdullah Muhammed Jean C. Organization Name Caribbean-American Program for Empowerment (USA) Inc Permanent Mission of Haiti Permanent Representative to the United Nations Director Co-ordinator: Strategic Partnerships and Outreach President Managing Director of IT Consultancy Senior Economist Treasurer CEO Special Advisor Intern Consultant PhD Candidate Representative Senior Liaison Officer Senior Project Officer: Title Director

3 4

Ms Mr

Applewaithe Bailey

Lolita Christopher

Centre for International Services, University of the West Indies Business Council for the United Nations

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Ms Mr Mr Ms Ms

Batson Bekoe Belt Belton Betty Binger Blake Boban Borno Bowman Braithwaite Brennen-Haylock Britton Systems

Blake Martin Juan Ralph Courtney Herbert Ivan Roseline Dane Ryan Sharon Jennifer

SkillCore Inc. IT Consultancy Inter-American Development Bank Friends of Grenada Inc. Caribtel Spectrum Cable United Nations ICT Task Force RMBorno Management LLC Pace University Techwave Inc FAO CARICOM Secretariat Integrated Information Friends of Grenada Inc. Cable and Wireless

Makonnen David Ministry of Commerce and Information

18 19

Dr Mr

Buckmire Butler

Francis Winston

President Executive Vice President - Strategy and Information Partner VP, Marketing and Sales Director - Liaison Office Student Permanent Representative Minister of State for External Affairs

20 21 22 23 24

Mr Mr Ms Mr Amb

Carbonne Chastenet Chenoweth Clarke Clarke

Anthony Allen Florence Dwaine June Yvonne

Bingham Dana LLP Air Jamaica FAO Massechusettes Institute of Technology Permanent Mission of Barbados to the United Nations

25 26

Min Mr

Corbin Cornish

Carlysle Lascelles

Government of the Virgin Islands

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Digital Bridge to the Caribbean

# 27 28 29

Sal Ms Mr Mr

Last Name Cousins Cross Daniel

First Name Katherine Phillip Lennox

Organization Name Dalberg Development LLC - UNDP International Telecommunications Union: Regional Office for the Caribbean Permanent Mission of St. Vincent & the Granadines to the United Nations West-Oak High School District of Oconee Co., SC, USA Booz Allen Hamilton ICT Expert UNFIP UNFIP University of Alabama Jamaica Trade Commission Jamaica Telecommunications Advisory Council

Title Consultant Director Deputy Permanent Representative

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Mr Mr Mr Mr Ms Dr Ms Dr Mr Prof

Davis Dawkins Delpesche Dossal Dow-Richardson Duggan Duncan-Milner Dunn Durandisse Durrant

Mark Wilbert Hugh Amir Melissa Evan Mary Hopeton Jean C. Greg Fay

Teacher Senior Associate Senior Mechanical Engineer Executive Director Business Associate Intern Assistant Professor Director of Trade Chairman Executive Director Head: Department of Library and Information Studies CEO

Haitian Enlightenment & Literacy Project University of the West Indies

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

Mr Mr Mr Mr Ms Ms Ms Mr Amb Mr Ms Mr Mr Ms Ms Sen Ms

Eason Edghill El Hillo Elliston Elsayed Exeter Fenton Ferguson Ferrari Forman Foubister-Chung Fough Franklin Germann Giacomelli Goddard Gogia

David H. Anthony David Yacoub Isaac J Nema Faith Laurine A. Kenneth Margaret Hughes Anthony Marcia Brian Richardson Ursula Daniela Philip Nisha

The Lewis Group

Permanent Mission of Trinidad and Tobago Counsellor to the United Nations UNFIP Empire State Development Corporation United Nations ICT Task Force Caribtel Verizon Communications Permanent Mission of the Bahamas to the United Nations Permanent Mission of St. Vincent and Grenadines to the United Nations Representative of Congressman Ed Towns Empire State Development Corporation The Kerry Company Booz Allen Hamilton United Nations ICT Task Force United Nations ICT Task Force Barbados: The Prime Minister's Office United Nations ICT Task Force Partnership Officer Economic Development Program Specialist Intern Representative Manager Systems Developer Permanent Representative Asst. Director/Office Manager Representative Senior Associate Programme Officer Programme Officer Special Envoy to the Prime Minister Intern

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United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force

# 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

Sal Mr Ms Amb Mr Mr Ms Mr Mr Ms Mr Dr Mr

Last Name Goodwin Greg–McTaggart Gregoire Griffith Hackett Hahn Hairston Harrington Harrisingh Hart Hastick Hayford

First Name George Margaret K Crispin Rean Christopher Natalie Gary Neil Ruby Selwin Roy Patrick

Organization Name Organsation of Eastern Caribbean States Permanent Mission of Dominica to the United Nations Columbia University UNDP UNFIP Citicorp Investment Services/Citibank Caribbean-American Program for Empowerment (USA) Inc Permanent Mission of Barbados to the United Nations Caribbean American Chamber of Commerce Executive of the Secretary-General of the United Nations United Nations ICT Task Force ICT Expert Principal DESA NY Council Consultant Permanent Mission of the Bahamas to the United Nations The Hartford Technology Services Company CACCI Ernst and Young Caribbean Rockefeller Philantropy Advisors Japan International Cooperation Agency Sandaleo United Nations ICT TF/ DESA Government of Jamaica UNFIP Caribbean Tourism Organisation AIT Global Inc.

Title Director-General Permanent Representative Student Chief of Caribbean Division Senior Private Sector Advisor Financial Executive Member

President Director for African Affairs Intern Entrepreneur Economic Affairs Officer

69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

Ms Mr Dr Ms Mr Mr Amb Mr Ms Mr Ms Ms Mr Mr Amb Mr Mr Mr

Hersutanto Hewitt Hickson Hori Hylton Iqbal Jackson Jackson Jacob Jaggernath Jules Kaneko Khan Khan King Kottulinsky Labonte Lackey

Begi Nigel Robert Yukie Christian Khalid Rhoda Trevor Veronica Rabindra Michelle Kazuyo Reza Sarbuland Peter Franz Rony Micheal

Deputy Permanent Representative IT Consultant/ Application Developer Partner - Management Advisory Services Program Associate JICA Consultant Senior Vice President Director Chairman of the Board of Trade Business Associate/Intern Information Management Specialist President

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Digital Bridge to the Caribbean

# 87

Sal Amb

Last Name Lawson

First Name Bartholomew

Organization Name Care Plus Health Plan

Title Ambassador at Large for Grenada/President for Care Plus Health Plan Advisor/Consultant

88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Mr Amb Mr Mr. Mr Ms Dr Ms Ms Ms Mr Dr Amb

Leach Limon Locke Lugisse Majeed Makonnen Marcelle Matsuura McCarthy McCue McMillan Melton Mohammed

Claude Ewald Hugh Arthur Halim Barbara Gillian Rika Georgia Sarah Augustus Christine Hamid

St. Vincent and the Grenadines Development Corporation Permanent Mission of Suriname to the United Nations Locke Associates Inc. Triple Tech International CACCI Tech School Jamaica United Nations ICT Task Force United Nations Foundation Attorney UNDP New York City Housing Authority Friends of Arivand Office of the Permanent Observer for the Caribbean Community to the United Nations Nortel Networks Consultant Kynaston & Associates Inter-American Development Bank Merit Systems Inc. St. Lucia National Development Corporation Center for Strategic and International Studies Oracle Corporation Legal Consultant Care Entrée United Nations Foundation Ministry of Commerce, Science and Technology Jamaica St. Vincent and the Grenadines Humanitarian Organisation Permanent Mission of St. Kitts to the United Nations

Ambassador President Managing Director Consultant Principal Member Business Associate Intern Manager Associate Analyst Optamologist Permanent Representative

101 102 103 104 105 106

Mr Dr Mr Mr Mr Mr

Nixon Nurse Perreira Piaggesi Picinich Pilgrim

Richard Lawson Kynaston Danilo Kenneth Carl

Director of Sales Chairman/CEO Chief ICT for Development Division President International Marketing Officer Program Co-ordinator Americas Program Senior Applications Engineer Representative Business Associate Intern Director-General Committee Member Counsellor

107

Mr

Pinto

Luis

108 109 110 111 112 113 114

Ms Mr Mr Mr Ms Mr Mr

Prevost Quashie-Idun Rambissoon Reiss Rhone Richards Richardson

Janelle James Babooram Evan Camella Mulraine Carlisle

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United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force

# 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

Sal Ms Ms Mr Mr Ms Mr Mr Amb Mr Amb Mr Mr Mr Ms Mr Ms Ms Mr Mr Dr

Last Name Roberts Robinson Rosborough Rosenbaum Samuels Sanatan Sankar Sealy Southwell Stanislaus Stephenson Stewart Symes Tahtinen Talbot Taylor-Roberts Theodore Thomas Thomas Thompson

First Name Arlene Winnifred Brian Marcos Ayanna Roderick Zamal Philip Cardinal Lamuel A. Oronde Kevin F.G. Fred Lotta George Norma Zilpha Cyril

Organization Name Organisation of the Sons and Daughters of Jamaica Caribbean Life Digital Nations Trust MIT Space System Lab in the Aerospace Department Centre for International Services Caribbean Daylight Newspaper Permanent Mission of Trinidad and Tobago to the United Nations Epoch Solutions Permanent Mission of Grenada to the United Nations Qadar Royal Enterprises LLC TIDCO Global Sun Telecom DESA Permanent Mission of Guyana to the United Nations Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations Permanent Mission of Dominica to the United Nations

Title Attorney Contributing Writer President

MS Student CEO Ambassador Vice President Ambassador Founder Team Leader-Wallerfield Business Park President Programme Officer Charge D' Affaires Deputy Permanent Representative Consul-General (Ag.)/Attache Caribbean Projects Coordinator Minister

Percival Theodore Wallerson International Consultants Inc. Jerrol Ministry of Telecommunications, Science, Technology and Industry for St. Vincent and the Grenadines Conquest Systems Inc.

135 136 137 138

Mr Amb Mr Ms

Thorpe Tobing-Klein Vieira Virtue

David

Design Engineer/Sr. Developer Former Permanent Representative Chief Operating Officer Senior Writer, Executive Communications Manager Chairman/Founder Professor of Electrical Engineering President Vice President

Imma E. Loemban Permanent Mission of Suriname to the United Nations Paul Grace IDL Communications Howard University

139 140 141 142

Mr Dr Mr Mr

Walker Warde White-Davis Williams

Keith Cardinal Gerald Valence

WIISCOM Technologies, Inc. Massechusettes Institute of Technology International Consortium of Caribbean Professionals Maxim Group

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Digital Bridge to the Caribbean

Footnotes
1 2

Drucker (1994) See ICT for Development, Poverty Reduction, Disaster Recovery and Initiatives to enhance Human Development by Denis Gilhooly Senior Adviser to the Administrator, Director, ICT for Development UNDP – presented at the Jamaica Conference 29 May 2002. The 2001 Summit of the Americas held in Quebec, Canada 2001 The 23rd meeting of CARICOM Heads of Government held in Georgetown, Guyana July 2002. At this meeting a document was presented by the Secretariat outlining strategy for development of a CARICOM ICT policy. The 2003 conference is presently proposed for December 2003, in Geneva, and expected to be at the level of Heads of State and Government. The process leading up to the summit will include four regional preparatory conferences. The regional preparatory conference for the Caribbean is scheduled for the end of January 2003 in the Dominican Republic. CITEL has already started working with the CARICOM Secretariat on devising a regional connectivity strategy. Towards CARICOM Connectivity, Guyana, July 2002: International Forum: Latin America and the Caribbean in the Information Society, Rio de Janeiro, September 2002; and the Caribbean ICT Roundtable, Barbados, October 2002.

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