You are on page 1of 51

1. What are the extractor types?

Application Specific
o BW Content FI, HR, CO, SAP CRM, LO Cockpit
o Customer-Generated Extractors
Cross Application (Generic Extractors)
o DB View, InfoSet, Function Module
2. What are the steps involved in LO Extraction?
The steps are:
o RSA5 Select the DataSources
o LBWE Maintain DataSources and Activate Extract Structures
o LBWG Delete Setup Tables
o 0LI*BW Setup tables
o RSA3 Check extraction and the data in Setup tables
o LBWQ Check the extraction queue
o LBWF Log for LO Extract Structures
o RSA7 BW Delta Queue Monitor
3. How to create a connection with LIS InfoStructures?
LBW0 Connecting LIS InfoStructures to BW
4. What is the difference between ODS and InfoCube and MultiProvider?
ODS: Provides granular data, allows overwrite and data is in transparent tables, ideal for drilldown and RRI.
CUBE: Follows the star schema, we can only append data, ideal for primary reporting.
MultiProvider: Does not have physical data. It allows to access data from different InfoProviders (Cube, ODS,
InfoObject). It is also preferred for reporting.
5. What are Start routines, Transfer routines and Update routines?
Start Routines: The start routine is run for each DataPackage after the data has been written to the PSA and before
the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no
return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global DataStructures. This
structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire DataPackage in the transfer structure format is
used as a parameter for the routine.
Transfer / Update Routines: They are defined at the InfoObject level. It is like the Start Routine. It is independent of
the DataSource. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks.
6. What is the difference between start routine and update routine, when, how and why are they called?
Start routine can be used to access InfoPackage while update routines are used while updating the Data Targets.
7. What is the table that is used in start routines?
Always the table structure will be the structure of an ODS or InfoCube. For example if it is an ODS then active table
structure will be the table.
8. Explain how you used Start routines in your project?
Start routines are used for mass processing of records. In start routine all the records of DataPackage is available
for processing. So we can process all these records together in start routine. In one of scenario, we wanted to apply
size % to the forecast data. For example if material M1 is forecasted to say 100 in May. Then after applying size %

(Small 20%, Medium 40%, Large 20%, Extra Large 20%), we wanted to have 4 records against one single record that
is coming in the info package. This is achieved in start routine.
9. What are Return Tables?
When we want to return multiple records, instead of single value, we use the return table in the Update Routine.
Example: If we have total telephone expense for a Cost Center, using a return table we can get expense per
10. How do start routine and return table synchronize with each other?
Return table is used to return the Value following the execution of start routine
11. What is the difference between V1, V2 and V3 updates?
V1 Update: It is a Synchronous update. Here the Statistics update is carried out at the same time as the document
update (in the application tables).
V2 Update: It is an Asynchronous update. Statistics update and the Document update take place as different tasks.
o V1 & V2 dont need scheduling.
Serialized V3 Update: The V3 collective update must be scheduled as a job (via LBWE). Here, document data is
collected in the order it was created and transferred into the BW as a batch job. The transfer sequence may not be
the same as the order in which the data was created in all scenarios. V3 update only processes the update data that
is successfully processed with the V2 update.
12. What is compression?
It is a process used to delete the Request IDs and this saves space.
13. What is Rollup?
This is used to load new DataPackages (requests) into the InfoCube aggregates. If we have not performed a rollup
then the new InfoCube data will not be available while reporting on the aggregate.
14. What is table partitioning and what are the benefits of partitioning in an InfoCube?
It is the method of dividing a table which would enable a quick reference. SAP uses fact file partitioning to improve
performance. We can partition only at 0CALMONTH or 0FISCPER. Table partitioning helps to run the report faster as
data is stored in the relevant partitions. Also table maintenance becomes easier. Oracle, Informix, IBM DB2/390
supports table partitioning while SAP DB, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2/400 do not support table portioning.
15. How many extra partitions are created and why?
Two partitions are created for date before the begin date and after the end date.
16. What are the options available in transfer rule?
17. How would you optimize the dimensions?
We should define as many dimensions as possible and we have to take care that no single dimension crosses more
than 20% of the fact table size.
18. What are Conversion Routines for units and currencies in the update rule?

Using this option we can write ABAP code for Units / Currencies conversion. If we enable this flag then unit of Key
Figure appears in the ABAP code as an additional parameter. For example, we can convert units in Pounds to Kilos.
19. Can an InfoObject be an InfoProvider, how and why?
Yes, when we want to report on Characteristics or Master Data. We have to right click on the InfoArea and select
Insert characteristic as data target. For example, we can make 0CUSTOMER as an InfoProvider and report on it.
20. What is Open Hub Service?
The Open Hub Service enables us to distribute data from an SAP BW system into external Data Marts, analytical
applications, and other applications. We can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object
for exporting data is the InfoSpoke. We can define the source and the target object for the data. BW becomes a hub
of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the
distribution status in the BW system.
21. How do you transform Open Hub Data?
Using BADI we can transform Open Hub Data according to the destination requirement.
22. What is ODS?
Operational DataSource is used for detailed storage of data. We can overwrite data in the ODS. The data is stored
in transparent tables.
23. What are BW Statistics and what is its use?
They are group of Business Content InfoCubes which are used to measure performance for Query and Load
Monitoring. It also shows the usage of aggregates, OLAP and Warehouse management.
24. What are the steps to extract data from R/3?
Replicate DataSources
Assign InfoSources
Maintain Communication Structure and Transfer rules
Create and InfoPackage
Load Data
25. What are the delta options available when you load from flat file?
The 3 options for Delta Management with Flat Files:
o Full Upload
o New Status for Changed records (ODS Object only)
o Additive Delta (ODS Object & InfoCube)
Q) Under which menu path is the Test Workbench to be found, including in earlier Releases?
The menu path is: Tools - ABAP Workbench - Test - Test Workbench.
Q) I want to delete a BEx query that is in Production system through request. Is anyone aware about it?
A) Have you tried the RSZDELETE transaction?
Q) Errors while monitoring process chains.

A) During data loading. Apart from them, in process chains you add so many process types, for example after loading
data into Info Cube, you rollup data into aggregates, now this rolling up of data into aggregates is a process type
which you keep after the process type for loading data into Cube. This rolling up into aggregates might fail.
Another one is after you load data into ODS, you activate ODS data (another process type) this might also fail.
Q) In Monitor----- Details (Header/Status/Details) Under Processing (data packet): Everything OK Context menu
of Data Package 1 (1 Records): Everything OK Simulate update. (Here we can debug update rules or transfer rules.)
SM50 Program/Mode Program Debugging & debug this work process.

Q) PSA Cleansing.
A) You know how to edit PSA. I don't think you can delete single records. You have to delete entire PSA data for a
Q) Can we make a datasource to support delta.
A) If this is a custom (user-defined) datasource you can make the datasource delta enabled. While creating
datasource from RSO2, after entering datasource name and pressing create, in the next screen there is one button at
the top, which says generic delta. If you want more details about this there is a chapter in Extraction book, it's in last
pages u find out.
Generic delta services: -

Supports delta extraction for generic extractors according to:

Time stamp
Calendar day
Numeric pointer, such as document number & counter
Only one of these attributes can be set as a delta attribute.

Delta extraction is supported for all generic extractors, such as tables/views, SAP Query and function modules
The delta queue (RSA7) allows you to monitor the current status of the delta attribute

Q) Workbooks, as a general rule, should be transported with the role.

Here are a couple of scenarios:

1. If both the workbook and its role have been previously transported, then the role does not need to be part of the
2. If the role exists in both dev and the target system but the workbook has never been transported, and then you
have a choice of transporting the role (recommended) or just the workbook. If only the workbook is transported, then
an additional step will have to be taken after import: Locate the WorkbookID via Table RSRWBINDEXT (in Dev and
verify the same exists in the target system) and proceed to manually add it to the role in the target system via
Transaction Code PFCG -- ALWAYS use control c/control v copy/paste for manually adding!
3. If the role does not exist in the target system you should transport both the role and workbook. Keep in mind that a
workbook is an object unto itself and has no dependencies on other objects. Thus, you do not receive an error
message from the transport of 'just a workbook' -- even though it may not be visible, it will exist (verified via Table
Overall, as a general rule, you should transport roles with workbooks.

Q) How much time does it take to extract 1 million (10 lackhs) of records into an infocube?
A. This depends, if you have complex coding in update rules it will take longer time, or else it will take less than 30

Q) What are the five ASAP Methodologies?

A: Project plan, Business Blue print, Realization, Final preparation & Go-Live - support.

1. Project Preparation: In this phase, decision makers define clear project objectives and an efficient decision making
process (i.e. Discussions with the client, like what are his needs and requirements etc.). Project managers will be
involved in this phase (I guess).
A Project Charter is issued and an implementation strategy is outlined in this phase.
2. Business Blueprint: It is a detailed documentation of your company's requirements. (i.e. what are the objects we
need to develop are modified depending on the client's requirements).
3. Realization: In this only, the implementation of the project takes place (development of objects etc) and we are
involved in the project from here only.
4. Final Preparation: Final preparation before going live i.e. testing, conducting pre-go-live, end user training etc.
End user training is given that is in the client site you train them how to work with the new environment, as they are
new to the technology.

5. Go-Live & support: The project has gone live and it is into production. The Project team will be supporting the end

Q) What is landscape of R/3 & what is landscape of BW. Landscape of R/3 not sure.
Then Landscape of b/w: u have the development system, testing system, production system
Development system: All the implementation part is done in this sys. (I.e., Analysis of objects developing, modification
etc) and from here the objects are transported to the testing system, but before transporting an initial test known as
Unit testing (testing of objects) is done in the development sys.
Testing/Quality system: quality check is done in this system and integration testing is done.
Production system: All the extraction part takes place in this sys.

Q) How do you measure the size of infocube?

A: In no of records.

Q). Difference between infocube and ODS?

A: Infocube is structured as star schema (extended) where a fact table is surrounded by different dim table that are
linked with DIM'ids. And the data wise, you will have aggregated data in the cubes. No overwrite functionality
ODS is a flat structure (flat table) with no star schema concept and which will have granular data (detailed level).
Overwrite functionality.

Flat file datasources does not support 0recordmode in extraction.

x before, -after, n new, a add, d delete, r reverse

Q) Difference between display attributes and navigational attributes?

A: Display attribute is one, which is used only for display purpose in the report. Where as navigational attribute is
used for drilling down in the report. We don't need to maintain Navigational attribute in the cube as a characteristic
(that is the advantage) to drill down.
A: But how is it possible? If you load it manually twice, then you can delete it by requestID.


Sure you can. ODS is nothing but a table.


A) Yes of course. For example, for loading text and hierarchies we use different data sources but the same


A) Data flows from transactional system to analytical system (BW). DataSources on the transactional system needs
to be replicated on BW side and attached to infosource and update rules respectively.




Q) AS WE USE Sbwnn, sbiw1, sbiw2 for delta update in LIS THEN WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE IN LO-COCKPIT?
No LIS in LO cockpit. We will have datasources and can be maintained (append fields). Refer white paper on LOCockpit extractions.

Q) Why we delete the setup tables (LBWG) & fill them (OLI*BW)?
A) Initially we don't delete the setup tables but when we do change in extract structure we go for it. We r changing the
extract structure right, that means there are some newly added fields in that which r not before. So to get the required
data (i.e.; the data which is required is taken and to avoid redundancy) we delete n then fill the setup tables.

To refresh the statistical data. The extraction set up reads the dataset that you want to process such as, customers
orders with the tables like VBAK, VBAP) & fills the relevant communication structure with the data. The data is stored
in cluster tables from where it is read when the initialization is run. It is important that during initialization phase, no
one generates or modifies application data, at least until the tables can be set up.

It holds granular data (detailed level).


In PSA table.


The volume of data one data target holds (in no. of records)

Q) Different types of INFOCUBES.

Basic, Virtual (remote, sap remote and multi)

Virtual Cube is used for example, if you consider railways reservation all the information has to be
updated online. For designing the Virtual cube you have to write the function module that is linking to
table, Virtual cube it is like a the structure, when ever the table is updated the virtual cube will fetch
the data from table and display report Online... FYI.. you will get the
information : and search for Designing Virtual Cube and you will
get a good material designing the Function Module

Can be made of ODS's and Characteristic InfoObjects with masterdata.


In R/3 or in BW? 2 in R/3 and 2 in BW

Exist in the InfoObject, transfer routines, update routines and start routine


Rows and Columns, you can create structures.


Different Variable's are Texts, Formulas, Hierarchies, Hierarchy nodes & Characteristic values.

Variable Types are

Manual entry /default value
Replacement path
SAP exit
Customer exit


You can drill down to any level by using Navigational attributes and jump targets.


Indexes are data base indexes, which help in retrieving data fastly.


Help! Refer documentation




KPI's indicate the performance of a company. These are key figures


After image (correct me if I am wrong)


Help! Refer documentation.


ST22, Number ranges, delete indexes before load. Etc

There should be some tool to run the job daily (SM37 jobs)

Profile generator

What are you expecting??


Of course


Refer help. What are you expecting? MultiCube works on Union condition


Dev-Q and Dev-----P

Q) What types of partitioning are there for BW?

There are two Partitioning Performance aspects for BW (Cube & PSA)
Query Data Retrieval Performance Improvement:
Partitioning by (say) Date Range improves data retrieval by making best use of database execution plans and
indexes (of say Oracle database engine).
B) Transactional Load Partitioning Improvement:
Partitioning based on expected load volumes and data element sizes. Improves data loading into PSA and Cubes by
infopackages (Eg. without timeouts).
Q) How can I compare data in R/3 with data in a BW Cube after the daily delta loads? Are there any standard
procedures for checking them or matching the number of records?
A) You can go to R/3 TCode RSA3 and run the extractor. It will give you the number of records extracted. Then go to
BW Monitor to check the number of records in the PSA and check to see if it is the same & also in the monitor header
A) RSA3 is a simple extractor checker program that allows you to rule out extracts problems in R/3. It is simple to
use, but only really tells you if the extractor works. Since records that get updated into Cubes/ODS structures are
controlled by Update Rules, you will not be able to determine what is in the Cube compared to what is in the R/3
environment. You will need to compare records on a 1:1 basis against records in R/3 transactions for the functional
area in question. I would recommend enlisting the help of the end user community to assist since they presumably
know the data.
To use RSA3, go to it and enter the extractor ex: 2LIS_02_HDR. Click execute and you will see the record count, you
can also go to display that data. You are not modifying anything so what you do in RSA3 has no effect on data quality
afterwards. However, it will not tell you how many records should be expected in BW for a given load. You have that
information in the monitor RSMO during and after data loads. From RSMO for a given load you can determine how
many records were passed through the transfer rules from R/3, how many targets were updated, and how many
records passed through the Update Rules. It also gives you error messages from the PSA.

Q) Types of Transfer Rules?

A) Field to Field mapping, Constant, Variable & routine.

Q) Types of Update Rules?

A) (Check box), Return table

Q) Transfer Routine?

A) Routines, which we write in, transfer rules.

Q) Update Routine?
A) Routines, which we write in Update rules

Q) What is the difference between writing a routine in transfer rules and writing a routine in update rules?
A) If you are using the same InfoSource to update data in more than one data target its better u write in transfer rules
because u can assign one InfoSource to more than one data target & and what ever logic u write in update rules it is
specific to particular one data target.

Q) Routine with Return Table.

A) Update rules generally only have one return value. However, you can create a routine in the tab strip key figure
calculation, by choosing checkbox Return table. The corresponding key figure routine then no longer has a return
value, but a return table. You can then generate as many key figure values, as you like from one data record.

Q) Start routines?
A) Start routines u can write in both updates rules and transfer rules, suppose you want to restrict (delete) some
records based on conditions before getting loaded into data targets, then you can specify this in update rules-start
Ex: - Delete Data_Package ani ante it will delete a record based on the condition

Q) X & Y Tables?
X-table = A table to link material SIDs with SIDs for time-independent navigation attributes.
Y-table = A table to link material SIDs with SIDS for time-dependent navigation attributes.
There are four types of sid tables
X time independent navigational attributes sid tables
Y time dependent navigational attributes sid tables
H hierarchy sid tables
I hierarchy structure sid tables

Q) Filters & Restricted Key figures (real time example)

Restricted KF's u can have for an SD cube: billed quantity, billing value, no: of billing documents as RKF's.

Q) Line-Item Dimension (give me an real time example)

Line-Item Dimension: Invoice no: or Doc no: is a real time example

Q) What does the number in the 'Total' column in Transaction RSA7 mean?
A) The 'Total' column displays the number of LUWs that were written in the delta queue and that have not yet been
confirmed. The number includes the LUWs of the last delta request (for repetition of a delta request) and the LUWs
for the next delta request. A LUW only disappears from the RSA7 display when it has been transferred to the BW
System and a new delta request has been received from the BW System.

Q) How to know in which table (SAP BW) contains Technical Name / Description and creation data of a particular
Reports. Reports that are created using BEx Analyzer.
A) There is no such table in BW if you want to know such details while you are opening a particular query press
properties button you will come to know all the details that you wanted.
You will find your information about technical names and description about queries in the following tables. Directory of
all reports (Table RSRREPDIR) and Directory of the reporting component elements (Table RSZELTDIR) for
workbooks and the connections to queries check Where- used list for reports in workbooks (Table RSRWORKBOOK)
Titles of Excel Workbooks in InfoCatalog (Table RSRWBINDEXT)

Q) What is a LUW in the delta queue?

A) A LUW from the point of view of the delta queue can be an individual document, a group of documents from a
collective run or a whole data packet of an application extractor.

Q) Why does the number in the 'Total' column in the overview screen of Transaction RSA7 differ from the number of
data records that is displayed when you call the detail view?
A) The number on the overview screen corresponds to the total of LUWs (see also first question) that were written to
the qRFC queue and that have not yet been confirmed. The detail screen displays the records contained in the
LUWs. Both, the records belonging to the previous delta request and the records that do not meet the selection
conditions of the preceding delta init requests are filtered out. Thus, only the records that are ready for the next delta

request are displayed on the detail screen. In the detail screen of Transaction RSA7, a possibly existing customer exit
is not taken into account.

Q) Why does Transaction RSA7 still display LUWs on the overview screen after successful delta loading?
A) Only when a new delta has been requested does the source system learn that the previous delta was successfully
loaded to the BW System. Then, the LUWs of the previous delta may be confirmed (and also deleted). In the
meantime, the LUWs must be kept for a possible delta request repetition. In particular, the number on the overview
screen does not change when the first delta was loaded to the BW System.

Q) Why are selections not taken into account when the delta queue is filled?
A) Filtering according to selections takes place when the system reads from the delta queue. This is necessary for
reasons of performance.

Q) Why is there a DataSource with '0' records in RSA7 if delta exists and has also been loaded successfully?
It is most likely that this is a DataSource that does not send delta data to the BW System via the delta queue but
directly via the extractor (delta for master data using ALE change pointers). Such a DataSource should not be
displayed in RSA7. This error is corrected with BW 2.0B Support Package 11.

Q) Do the entries in table ROIDOCPRMS have an impact on the performance of the loading procedure from the delta
A) The impact is limited. If performance problems are related to the loading process from the delta queue, then refer
to the application-specific notes (for example in the CO-PA area, in the logistics cockpit area and so on).
Caution: As of Plug In 2000.2 patch 3 the entries in table ROIDOCPRMS are as effective for the delta queue as for a
full update. Please note, however, that LUWs are not split during data loading for consistency reasons. This means
that when very large LUWs are written to the DeltaQueue, the actual package size may differ considerably from the
MAXSIZE and MAXLINES parameters.

Q) Why does it take so long to display the data in the delta queue (for example approximately 2 hours)?
A) With Plug In 2001.1 the display was changed: the user has the option of defining the amount of data to be
displayed, to restrict it, to selectively choose the number of a data record, to make a distinction between the 'actual'
delta data and the data intended for repetition and so on.

Q) What is the purpose of function 'Delete data and meta data in a queue' in RSA7? What exactly is deleted?
A) You should act with extreme caution when you use the deletion function in the delta queue. It is comparable to
deleting an InitDelta in the BW System and should preferably be executed there. You do not only delete all data of

this DataSource for the affected BW System, but also lose the entire information concerning the delta initialization.
Then you can only request new deltas after another delta initialization.
When you delete the data, the LUWs kept in the qRFC queue for the corresponding target system are confirmed.
Physical deletion only takes place in the qRFC outbound queue if there are no more references to the LUWs.
The deletion function is for example intended for a case where the BW System, from which the delta initialization was
originally executed, no longer exists or can no longer be accessed.

Q) Why does it take so long to delete from the delta queue (for example half a day)?
A) Import PlugIn 2000.2 patch 3. With this patch the performance during deletion is considerably improved.

Q) Why is the delta queue not updated when you start the V3 update in the logistics cockpit area?
A) It is most likely that a delta initialization had not yet run or that the delta initialization was not successful. A
successful delta initialization (the corresponding request must have QM status 'green' in the BW System) is a
prerequisite for the application data being written in the delta queue.

Q) What is the relationship between RSA7 and the qRFC monitor (Transaction SMQ1)?
A) The qRFC monitor basically displays the same data as RSA7. The internal queue name must be used for selection
on the initial screen of the qRFC monitor. This is made up of the prefix 'BW, the client and the short name of the
DataSource. For DataSources whose name are 19 characters long or shorter, the short name corresponds to the
name of the DataSource. For DataSources whose name is longer than 19 characters (for delta-capable DataSources
only possible as of PlugIn 2001.1) the short name is assigned in table ROOSSHORTN.
In the qRFC monitor you cannot distinguish between repeatable and new LUWs. Moreover, the data of a LUW is
displayed in an unstructured manner there.

Q) Why are the data in the delta queue although the V3 update was not started?
A) Data was posted in background. Then, the records are updated directly in the delta queue (RSA7). This happens
in particular during automatic goods receipt posting (MRRS). There is no duplicate transfer of records to the BW
system. See Note 417189.

Q) Why does button 'Repeatable' on the RSA7 data details screen not only show data loaded into BW during the last
delta but also data that were newly added, i.e. 'pure' delta records?
A) Was programmed in a way that the request in repeat mode fetches both actually repeatable (old) data and new
data from the source system.

Q) I loaded several delta inits with various selections. For which one is the delta loaded?
A) For delta, all selections made via delta inits are summed up. This means, a delta for the 'total' of all delta
initializations is loaded.

Q) How many selections for delta inits are possible in the system?
A) With simple selections (intervals without complicated join conditions or single values), you can make up to about
100 delta inits. It should not be more.
With complicated selection conditions, it should be only up to 10-20 delta inits.
Reason: With many selection conditions that are joined in a complicated way, too many 'where' lines are generated in
the generated ABAP source code that may exceed the memory limit.

Q) I intend to copy the source system, i.e. make a client copy. What will happen with may delta? Should I initialize
again after that?
A) Before you copy a source client or source system, make sure that your deltas have been fetched from the
DeltaQueue into BW and that no delta is pending. After the client copy, an inconsistency might occur between BW
delta tables and the OLTP delta tables as described in Note 405943. After the client copy, Table ROOSPRMSC will
probably be empty in the OLTP since this table is client-independent. After the system copy, the table will contain the
entries with the old logical system name that are no longer useful for further delta loading from the new logical
system. The delta must be initialized in any case since delta depends on both the BW system and the source system.
Even if no dump 'MESSAGE_TYPE_X' occurs in BW when editing or creating an InfoPackage, you should expect
that the delta have to be initialized after the copy.

Q) Is it allowed in Transaction SMQ1 to use the functions for manual control of processes?
A) Use SMQ1 as an instrument for diagnosis and control only. Make changes to BW queues only after informing the
BW Support or only if this is explicitly requested in a note for component 'BC-BW' or 'BW-WHM-SAPI'.

Q) Despite of the delta request being started after completion of the collective run (V3 update), it does not contain all
documents. Only another delta request loads the missing documents into BW. What is the cause for this "splitting"?
A) The collective run submits the open V2 documents for processing to the task handler, which processes them in
one or several parallel update processes in an asynchronous way. For this reason, plan a sufficiently large "safety
time window" between the end of the collective run in the source system and the start of the delta request in BW. An
alternative solution where this problem does not occur is described in Note 505700.

Q) Despite my deleting the delta init, LUWs are still written into the DeltaQueue?

A) In general, delta initializations and deletions of delta inits should always be carried out at a time when no posting
takes place. Otherwise, buffer problems may occur: If a user started the internal mode at a time when the delta
initialization was still active, he/she posts data into the queue even though the initialization had been deleted in the
meantime. This is the case in your system.

Q) In SMQ1 (qRFC Monitor) I have status 'NOSEND'. In the table TRFCQOUT, some entries have the status
'READY', others 'RECORDED'. ARFCSSTATE is 'READ'. What do these statuses mean? Which values in the field
'Status' mean what and which values are correct and which are alarming? Are the statuses BW-specific or generally
valid in qRFC?
A) Table TRFCQOUT and ARFCSSTATE: Status READ means that the record was read once either in a delta
request or in a repetition of the delta request. However, this does not mean that the record has successfully reached
the BW yet. The status READY in the TRFCQOUT and RECORDED in the ARFCSSTATE means that the record has
been written into the DeltaQueue and will be loaded into the BW with the next delta request or a repetition of a delta.
In any case only the statuses READ, READY and RECORDED in both tables are considered to be valid. The status
EXECUTED in TRFCQOUT can occur temporarily. It is set before starting a DeltaExtraction for all records with status
READ present at that time. The records with status EXECUTED are usually deleted from the queue in packages
within a delta request directly after setting the status before extracting a new delta. If you see such records, it means
that either a process which is confirming and deleting records which have been loaded into the BW is successfully
running at the moment, or, if the records remain in the table for a longer period of time with status EXECUTED, it is
likely that there are problems with deleting the records which have already been successfully been loaded into the
BW. In this state, no more deltas are loaded into the BW. Every other status is an indicator for an error or an
inconsistency. NOSEND in SMQ1 means nothing (see note 378903).
The value 'U' in field 'NOSEND' of table TRFCQOUT is discomforting.

Q) The extract structure was changed when the DeltaQueue was empty. Afterwards new delta records were written to
the DeltaQueue. When loading the delta into the PSA, it shows that some fields were moved. The same result occurs
when the contents of the DeltaQueue are listed via the detail display. Why are the data displayed differently? What
can be done?
Make sure that the change of the extract structure is also reflected in the database and that all servers are
synchronized. We recommend to reset the buffers using Transaction $SYNC. If the extract structure change is not
communicated synchronously to the server where delta records are being created, the records are written with the old
structure until the new structure has been generated. This may have disastrous consequences for the delta.
When the problem occurs, the delta needs to be re-initialized.

Q) How and where can I control whether a repeat delta is requested?

A) Via the status of the last delta in the BW Request Monitor. If the request is RED, the next load will be of type
'Repeat'. If you need to repeat the last load for certain reasons, set the request in the monitor to red manually. For the
contents of the repeat see Question 14. Delta requests set to red despite of data being already updated lead to
duplicate records in a subsequent repeat, if they have not been deleted from the data targets concerned before.

Q) As of PI 2003.1, the Logistic Cockpit offers various types of update methods. Which update method is
recommended in logistics? According to which criteria should the decision be made? How can I choose an update
method in logistics?
See the recommendation in Note 505700.

Q) Are there particular recommendations regarding the data volume the DeltaQueue may grow to without facing the
danger of a read failure due to memory problems?
A) There is no strict limit (except for the restricted number range of the 24-digit QCOUNT counter in the LUW
management table - which is of no practical importance, however - or the restrictions regarding the volume and
number of records in a database table).
When estimating "smooth" limits, both the number of LUWs is important and the average data volume per LUW. As a
rule, we recommend to bundle data (usually documents) already when writing to the DeltaQueue to keep number of
LUWs small (partly this can be set in the applications, e.g. in the Logistics Cockpit). The data volume of a single LUW
should not be considerably larger than 10% of the memory available to the work process for data extraction (in a 32bit architecture with a memory volume of about 1GByte per work process, 100 Mbytes per LUW should not be
exceeded). That limit is of rather small practical importance as well since a comparable limit already applies when
writing to the DeltaQueue. If the limit is observed, correct reading is guaranteed in most cases.
If the number of LUWs cannot be reduced by bundling application transactions, you should at least make sure that
the data are fetched from all connected BWs as quickly as possible. But for other, BW-specific, reasons, the
frequency should not be higher than one DeltaRequest per hour.
To avoid memory problems, a program-internal limit ensures that never more than 1 million LUWs are read and
fetched from the database per DeltaRequest. If this limit is reached within a request, the DeltaQueue must be
emptied by several successive DeltaRequests. We recommend, however, to try not to reach that limit but trigger the
fetching of data from the connected BWs already when the number of LUWs reaches a 5-digit value.

Q) I would like to display the date the data was uploaded on the report. Usually, we load the transactional data
nightly. Is there any easy way to include this information on the report for users? So that they know the validity of the
A) If I understand your requirement correctly, you want to display the date on which data was loaded into the data
target from which the report is being executed. If it is so, configure your workbook to display the text elements in the
report. This displays the relevance of data field, which is the date on which the data load has taken place.

Q) Can we filter the fields at Transfer Structure?

Q) Can we load data directly into infoobject with out extraction is it possible.
Yes. We can copy from other infoobject if it is same. We load data from PSA if it is already in PSA.

a) We can set the time.

a) VPN.Virtual Private Network, VPN is nothing but one sort of network where we can connect to the client
systems sitting in offshore through RAS (Remote access server).


Prepare Project Plan and Environment
Define Project Management Standards and
Define Implementation Standards and Procedures
Testing & Go-live + supporting.

Go to TCode sm66 then see which one is locked select that pid from there and goto sm12
TCode then unlock it this is happened when lock errors are occurred when u scheduled.

Q) Can anybody tell me how to add a navigational attribute in the BEx report in the rows?
A) Expand dimension under left side panel (that is infocube panel) select than navigational attributes drag and drop
under rows panel.


In current systems (BW 3.0B and R/3 4.6B) these Tcodes don't exist!


A) Transactional InfoCubes differ from standard InfoCubes in that the former have an improved write access
performance level. Standard InfoCubes are technically optimized for read-only access and for a comparatively small
number of simultaneous accesses. Instead, the transactional InfoCube was developed to meet the demands of SAP

Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM), meaning that, data is written to the InfoCube (possibly by several users at
the same time) and re-read as soon as possible. Standard Basic cubes are not suitable for this.

Q) Is there any way to delete cube contents within update rules from an ODS data source? The reason for this would
be to delete (or zero out) a cube record in an "Open Order" cube if the open order quantity was 0.
I've tried using the 0recordmode but that doesn't work. Also, would it
be easier to write a program that would be run after the load and delete
the records with a zero open qty?
A) START routine for update rules u can write ABAP code.
A) Yap, you can do it. Create a start routine in Update rule.
It is not "Deleting cube contents with update rules" It is only possible to avoid that some content is updated into the
InfoCube using the start routine. Loop at all the records and delete the record that has the condition. "If the open
order quantity was 0" You have to think also in before and after images in case of a delta upload. In that case you
may delete the change record and keep the old and after the change the wrong information.

Q) I am not able to access a node in hierarchy directly using variables for reports. When I am using Tcode RSZV it is
giving a message that it doesn't exist in BW 3.0 and it is embedded in BEx. Can any one tell me the other options to
get the same functionality in BEx?
A) Tcode RSZV is used in the earlier version of 3.0B only. From 3.0B onwards, it's possible in the Query Designer
(BEx) itself. Just right click on the InfoObject for which you want to use as variables and precede further selecting
variable type and processing types.

Q) Wondering how can I get the values, for an example, if I run a report for month range 01/2004 - 10/2004 then
monthly value is actually divide by the number of months that I selected. Which variable should I use?

Q) Why is it every time I switch from Info Provider to InfoObject or from one item to another while in modeling I
always get this message " Reading Data " or "constructing workbench" in it runs for minutes.... anyway to stop this?

Q) Can any one give me info on how the BW delta works also would like to know about 'before image and after
image' am currently in a BW project and have to write start routines for delta load.

Q) I am very new to BW. I would like to clarify a doubt regarding Delta extractor. If I am correct, by using delta
extractors the data that has already been scheduled will not be uploaded again. Say for a specific scenario, Sales.
Now I have uploaded all the sales order created till yesterday into the cube. Now say I make changes to any of the
open record, which was already uploaded. Now what happens when I schedule it again? Will the same record be
uploaded again with the changes or will the changes get affected to the previous record.

Q) In BW we need to write abap routines. I wish to know when and what type of abap routines we got to write. Also,
are these routines written in update rules? I will be glad, if this is clarified with real-time scenarios and few examples?
A) Over here we write our routines in the start routines in the update rules or in the transfer structure (you can choose
between writing them in the start routines or directly behind the different characteristics. In the transfer structure you
just click on the yellow triangle behind a characteristic and choose "routine". In the update rules you can choose "start
routine" or click on the triangle with the green square behind an individual characteristic. Usually we only use start
routine when it does not concern one single characteristic (for example when you have to read the same table for 4
characteristics). I hope this helps.

We used ABAP Routines for example:

To convert to Uppercase (transfer structure)
To convert Values out of a third party tool with different keys into the same keys as our SAP System uses (transfer
To select only a part of the data for from an infosource updating the InfoCube (Start Routine) etc.

Q) What is ODS?
A) An ODS object acts as a storage location for consolidated and cleaned-up transaction data (transaction data or
master data, for example) on the document (atomic) level.
This data can be evaluated using a BEx query.
Standard ODS Object
Transactional ODS object:
The data is immediately available here for reporting. For implementation, compare with the Transactional ODS
A transactional ODS object differs from a standard ODS object in the way it prepares data. In a standard ODS object,
data is stored in different versions ((new) delta, active, (change log) modified), where as a transactional ODS object
contains the data in a single version. Therefore, data is stored in precisely the same form in which it was written to
the transactional ODS object by the application. In BW, you can use a transaction ODS object as a data target for an
analysis process.
The transactional ODS object is also required by diverse applications, such as SAP Strategic Enterprise Management
(SEM) for example, as well as other external applications.

Transactional ODS objects allow data to be available quickly. The data from this kind of ODS object is accessed
transactionally, that is, data is written to the ODS object (possibly by several users at the same time) and reread as
soon as possible.
It offers no replacement for the standard ODS object. Instead, an additional function displays those that can be used
for special applications.
The transactional ODS object simply consists of a table for active data. It retrieves its data from external systems via
fill- or delete- APIs. The loading process is not supported by the BW system. The advantage to the way it is structured
is that data is easy to access. They are made available for reporting immediately after being loaded.

Q) What does InfoCube contains?

A) Each InfoCube has one FactTable & a maximum of 16 (13+3 system defined, time, unit & data packet)

Q) What does FACT Table contain?

A FactTable consists of KeyFigures.

Each Fact Table can contain a maximum of 233 key figures.

Dimension can contain up to 248 freely available characteristics.

Q) How many dimensions are in a CUBE?

A) 16 dimensions. (13 user defined & 3 system pre-defined )

Q) What does SID Table contain?

SID keys linked with dimension table & master data tables (attributes, texts, hierarchies)

Q) What does ATTRIBUTE Table contain?

Master attribute data

Q) What does TEXT Table contain?

Master text data, short text, long text, medium text & language key if it is language dependent

Q) What does Hierarchy table contain?

Master hierarchy data

Q) What is the advantage of extended STAR Schema?

Q). Differences between STAR Schema & Extended Schema?
A) In STAR SCHEMA, A FACT Table in center, surrounded by dimensional tables and the dimension tables contains
of master data. In Extended Schema the dimension tables does not contain master data, instead they are stored in
Masterdata tables divided into attributes, text & hierarchy. These Masterdata & dimensional tables are linked with
each other with SID keys. Masterdata tables are independent of Infocube & reusability in other InfoCubes.

Q) As to where in BW do you go to add a character like a ; # so that BW will accept it. This is transaction data which
loads fine in the PSA but not the data target.
A) Check transaction SPRO ---Then click the "Goggles"-Button => Business
Information Warehouse => Global Settings => 2nd point in the list. I
hope you can use my "Guide" (my BW is in german, so i don't know all the english descriptions).

Q) Does data packets exits even if you don't enter the master data, (when created)?

Q) When are Dimension ID's created?

A) When Transaction data is loaded into InfoCube.

Q) When are SID's generated?

A) When Master data loaded into Master Tables (Attr, Text, Hierarchies).

Q) How would we delete the data in ODS?

A) By request IDs, Selective deletion & change log entry deletion.

Q) How would we delete the data in change log table of ODS?

A) Context menu of ODS Manage Environment change log entries.

Q) What are the extra fields does PSA contain?

A) (4) Record id, Data packet

Q) Partitioning possible for ODS?

A) No, It's possible only for Cube.

Q) Why partitioning?
A) For performance tuning.

Q) Have you ever tried to load data from 2 InfoPackages into one cube?
A) Yes.

Q) Different types of Attributes?

A) Navigational attribute, Display attributes, Time dependent attributes, Compounding attributes, Transitive attributes,
Currency attributes.

Q) Transitive Attributes?
A) Navigational attributes having nav attrthese nav attrs are called transitive attrs

Q) Navigational attribute?
A) Are used for drill down reporting (RRI).

Q) Display attributes?
A) You can show DISPLAY attributes in a report, which are used only for displaying.

Q) How does u recognize an attribute whether it is a display attribute or not?

A) In Edit characteristics of char, on general tab checked as attribute only.

Q) Compounding attribute?

Q) Time dependent attributes?


Q) Currency attributes?

Q) Authorization relevant object. Why authorization needed?


Q) How do we convert Master data InfoObject to a Data target?

A) InfoArea Infoprovider (context menu) Insert characteristic Data as DataTarget.

Q) How do we load the data if a FlatFile consists of both Master and Transaction data?
A) Using Flexible update method while creating InfoSource.

Q) Steps in LIS are Extraction?


Q) Steps in LO are Extraction?

A) * Maintain extract structures. (R/3)

Maintain DataSources. (R/3)

Replicate DataSource in BW.

Assign InfoSources.

Maintain communication structures/transfer rules.

Maintain InfoCubes & Update rules.

Activate extract structures. (R/3)

Delete setup tables/setup extraction. (R/3)

InfoPackage for the Delta initialization.

Set-up periodic V3 update. (R/3)

InfoPackage for Delta uploads.

Q) Steps in FlatFile Extraction?


Q) Different types in LO's?

A) Direct Delta, Queued Delta, Serialized V3 update, Unserialized V3 Update.
Direct Delta: - With every document posted in R/3, the extraction data is transferred directly into the BW delta queue.
Each document posting with delta extraction becomes exactly one LUW in the corresponding Delta queue.

Queued Delta: - The extraction data from the application is collected in extraction queue instead of as update data
and can be transferred to the BW delta queue by an update collection run, as in the V3 update.

Q) What does LO Cockpit contain?

A) * Maintaining Extract structure.

Maintaining DataSources.

Activating Updates.

Controlling Updates.

Q) RSA6 --- Maintain DataSources.

Q) RSA7 -

Delta Queue (allows you to monitor the current status of the delta attribute)

Q) RSA3 Extract checker.

Q) LBW0 --- TCode for LIS.

Q) LBWG --- Delete set-up tables in LO's.

Q) OLI*BW --- Fill Set-up tables.

Q) LBWE TCode for Logistics extractors.

Q) RSO2 --- Maintaining Generic DataSources.

Q) MC21 Creating user-defined Information Structure for LIS (It is InfoSource in SAP BW).

Q) MC24 Creating Updating rules for LO's.

Q) PFCG Role maintenance, assign users to these roles.

Q) SE03 -- Changeability of the BW namespace.

Q) RSDCUBEM --- For Delete, Change or Delete the InfoCube.

Q) RSD5 -- Data packet characteristics maint.

Q) RSDBC - DB Connect

Q) RSMO --- Monitoring of Dataloads.

Q) RSCUSTV6 -- Partitioning of PSA.

Q) RSRT -- Query monitor.

Q) RSRV - Analysis and Repair of BW Objects

Q) RRMX - BEx Analyzer

Q) RSBBS - Report to Report interface (RRI).

Q) SPRO -- IMG (To make configurations in BW).

Q) RSDDV - Maintaining Aggregates.

Q) RSKC -- Character permit checker.

Q) ST22 - Checking ShortDump.

Q) SM37 - Scheduling Background jobs.

Q) RSBOH1 -- Open Hub Service: Create InfoSpoke.

Q) RSMONMESS -- "Messages for the monitor" table.

Q) ROOSOURCE - Table to find out delta update methods.

Q) RODELTAM - Finding for modes of records (i.e. before image & after image)
Q) SMOD - Definition
Q) CMOD - Project Management enhancing
Q) SPAU - Program Compare
Q) SE11 - ABAP Dictionary
Q) SE09 - Transport Organizer (workbench organizer)
Q) SE10 - Transport Organizer (Extended View)
Q) SBIW - Implementation guide

Q) Statistical Update?

Q) What are Process Chains?

A) TCode is RSPC, is a sequence of processes scheduled in the background & waiting to be triggered by a specific
event. Process chains nothing but grouping processes. Process variant (start variant) is the place the process chain
knows where to start.
There should be min and max one start variant in each process chain, here we specify when should the process
chain start by giving date and time or if you want to start immediately
Some of theses processes trigger an event of their own that in-turn triggers other processes.

Ex: - Start chain Delete BCube indexes Load data from the source system to PSA
Load data from PSA to DataTarget ODS Load data from ODS to BCube Create Indexes for BCube after loading
data Create database statistics Roll-Up data into the aggregate Restart chain from beginning.

Q) What are Process Types & Process variant?

A) Process types are General services, Load Process & subsequent processing, Data Target Administration,
Reporting agent & Other BW services.

Process variant (start variant) is the place the process type knows when & where to start.

Q) Difference between MasterData & Transaction InfoPackage?

A) 5 tabs in Masterdata & 6 tabs in Transaction data, the extra tab in Transaction data is DATA TARGETS.

Q) Types of Updates?
A) Full Update, Init Delta Update & Delta Update.

Q) For Full update possible while loading data from R/3?

A) InfoPackage Scheduler Repair Request flag (check).
This is only possible when we use MM & SD modules.

Q) InfoPackage groups?

Q) Explain the status of records in Active & change log tables in ODS when modified in source system?

Q) Why it takes more time while loading the transaction data even to load the transaction without master data (we
check the checkbox, Always Update data, even if no master data exits for the data)?
A) Because while loading the data it has to create SID keys for transaction data.

Q) For what we use HIDE fields, SELECT fields & CANCELLATION fields?
A) Selection fields-- The only purpose is when we check this column, the field will appear in InfoPackage Data
selection tab.
Hide fields -- These fields are not transferred to BW transfer structure.
Cancellation - It will reverse the posted documents of keyfigures of customer defined by multiplying it with -1...and
nullifying the value.

I think this is reverse posting

Q) Transporting.
A) When it comes to transporting for R/3 and BW, u should always transport all the R/3 Objects firstonce you
transport all the R/3 objects to the 2nd system, you have to replicate the datasources into the 2nd BW systemand
then transport BW objects.
First you will transport all the datasources from 1st R/3 system to 2nd R/3 System. Second, you will replicate the
datasources from 2nd R/3 system into 2nd BW system. Third, you will transport all the BW Objects from 1st BW
system to 2nd BW system.

You have to send your extractors first to the corresponding R/3 Q Box and replicate that to BW. Then you have to do
this transport in BW.

Development, testing and then production

Q) Functionality of InitDelta & Delta Updates?


Q) What is Change-run ID?


Q) Currency conversions?

Q) Difference between Calculated KeyFigure & Formula?


Q) When does a transfer structure contain more fields than the communication structure of an InfoSource?
A) If we use a routine to enhance a field in the communication from several fields in the transfer structure, the
communication structure may contain more fields.

A) The total no of InfoObjects in the communication structure & Extract structure may be different, since InfoObjects
can be copied to the communication structure from all the extract structures.

Q) What is the PSA, technical name of PSA, Uses?

A) When we want to delete the data in InfoProvider & again want to re-load the data, at this stage we can directly
load from PSA not going to extract from R/3.
A) For cleansing purpose.

Q) Variables in Reporting?
A) Characteristics values, Text, Hierarchies, Hierarchy nodes & Formula elements,

Q) Variable processing types in Reporting?

A) Manual, Replacement path, SAP Exit, Authorizations, Customer Exit

Q) Why we use this RSRP0001 Enhancement?

A) For enhancing the Customer Exit in reporting.

Q) What is the use of Filters?

A) It Restricts Data.

Q) What is the use of Conditioning?

A) To retrieve data based on particular conditions like less than, greater than, less than or equal etc.,

Q) Difference between Filters & Conditioning?


Q) What is NODIM?
A) For example it converts 5lts + 5kgs = 10.

Q) What for Exception's? How can I get PINK color?

A) To differentiate values with colors, by adding relevant colors u can get pink.

Q) Why SAPLRSAP is used?

A) We use these function modules for enhancing in r/3.

Q) What are workbooks & uses?


Q) Where are workbooks saved?

A) Workbooks are saved in favorites.

Q) Can Favorites accessed by other users?

A) No, they need authorization.

Q) What is InfoSet?
A) An InfoSet is a special view of a dataset, such as logical database, table join, table, and sequential file, and is used
by SAP Query as a source data. InfoSets determine the tables or fields in these tables that can be referenced by a
report. In most cases, InfoSets are based on logical databases.
SAP Query includes a component for maintaining InfoSets. When you create an InfoSet, a DataSource in an
application system is selected.

Navigating in a BW to an InfoSet Query, using one or more ODS objects or InfoObjects.

You can also drill-through to BEx queries and InfoSet Queries from a second BW system, that is
Connected as a data mart.

_The InfoSet Query functions allow you to report using flat data tables (master data reporting).
Choose InfoObjects or ODS objects as data sources. These can be connected using joins.
__You define the data sources in an InfoSet. An InfoSet can contain data from one or more tables that are connected
to one another by key fields.

__The data sources specified in the InfoSet form the basis of the InfoSet Query.

Q) LO's?
Synchronous update (V1 update)
Statistics update is carried out at the same time as the document update in the same task.
Asynchronous update (V2 update)
Document update and the statistics update take place separately in different tasks.
Collective update (V3 update)
Again, document update is separate from the statistics update. However, in contrast to the V2 update, the V3
collective statistics update must be scheduled as a job.

Successfully scheduling the update will ensure that all the necessary information
Structures are properly updated when new or existing documents are processed.
Scheduling intervals should be based on the amount of activity on a particular OLTP
system. For example, a development system with a relatively low or no volume of new documents may only need to
run the V3 update on a weekly basis. A full production environment, with hundreds of transactions per hour may have
to be updated every 15 to 30 minutes.
SAP standard background job scheduling functionality may be used in order to schedule the V3 updates successfully.
It is possible to verify that all V3 updates are successfully completed via transaction SM13. This transaction will take
you to the UPDATE RECORDS: MAIN MENU screen. At this screen, enter asterisk as your user (for all users), flag
the radio button 'All' and hit enter. Any outstanding V3 updates will be listed. While a non-executed V3 update will not
hinder your OLTP system, by administering the V3 update jobs properly, your information structures will be current
and overall performance will be improved.

Business Content

Business Content is the umbrella term for the preconfigured BW objects delivered by SAP. These objects provide
ready-made solutions to basic business information requirements and are used to accelerate the implementation of a

Business Content includes:

R/3 extractor programs, DataSources, InfoObjects, InfoSources, InfoCubes, Queries, Roles, and

From the Grouping menu, choose the additional Business Content objects that you want to include.

Groupings gather together all of the objects from a single area:

Only Necessary Objects: Only those additional objects that are needed to activate the objects that you have
selected are included (minimum selection).

In Data Flow Before: All the objects that pass data on to another object are collected.

In Data Flow Afterwards: All the objects that receive data from another object are collected.

In Data Flow Before and Afterwards: All the objects that both deliver and receive data are

Backup for System Copy: You use this setting to collect some of the objects into a transport
request. This request can be added again after a system copy has been made.

Q) I found 0fiscyear has no master data table, and 0fiscper has master data table t009. Does anyone know how the
system gets the data for these 2 info objects?
A) From context menu of source system transfer global settings, based on FISCVARNT you can take data for

Q) I am facing an odd problem in my dev box. I am using 0FIAP_O03 to load 0FIAP_C03 (InfoSource 0FI_AP_4
loads the ODS). I have loaded the ODS with R/3 data without any problem. I saw the data in New Data table and then
after activation I am able to see the data in Active Data table and Change Log table. Now, when I want to do the delta
initialization in the cube using ODS data, the request fails miserably. In fact, all the update rules are active between
ODS and cube and all of them are one to one mappings (not even a single ABAP routine in UpdateRules). If the cube
and the corresponding update rules are active and the data loads immaculately perfect until ODS, why would the load
from ODS to cube fail? (There are no lock entries in the system). Does anyone have any idea?
A) You must have a Job Log in SM37. If not the job was never started.

Q) I have checked up sm37, the job shows as complete! But the request status under InfoCube manage request
tab is still showing yellow. Assuming a false status, I have checked for the data in the cube. Nope. No data there
either. Do you have any clue why would the job log show as complete, where as no data appears in the cube?
Regarding the export datasource issue, I have tried that too before posting the question. In fact, why would you want
to go with export datasource when you would have already created an export datasource by creating update rules
between ODS and cube! Sorry for the silly question, but any help in this regard is highly appreciated.
A) Hi, Maybe you have to do a 'Generate Export Datasource' by right-click on the ODS.

Q) Actually I'm trying to create a simple standard, ODS, while I tried activating it in Info provider- RSA1, it gets saved
but not getting activated, throws up error. I'm working on BW-3.1version; I enabled only BEx report in Settings. The
errors are
1. I couldn't find the 0RECORDMODE object. BW Delta process: updatemode object in the left hand side KF or Char
Info objects. So, I tried to insert the 0RECORDMODE object on the right hand side, to Data fields folder, it shows the
object while trying to find 0RECORDMODE in INSERT INFOOBJECTS options , But once I enter this object, said
continue, it didn't add to the DATA FILED Folder side along with my keyfigures.
2 Could not write in to the output device T'- Error: So, I just tried to activate the ODS object I'm getting the error 'could
not write in to the output device T' in status bar. Also the status is inactive. What could be the error?

Q) I need to populate the results of my query into another InfoCube. Any ideas on how I should go about this?

Q) For the current project I am looking at, they have 2 major companies in their Group. Both companies are on
different clients in R3. Their configuration and system setup is different in R3. Is it advisable to separate their BW
systems to 2 different clients as well? Or is it recommended to actually fit both in one? What's the best practice?

Q) I am creating a CO-PA datasource. I successfully set the business content datasources into active versions in R/3.
Then, I try to create CO-PA datasource for Transaction data using KEB0. However, I cannot see any value fields....
you know all the VVOCO and those things.
Characteristics from Segment Item and Line model and others including Calculated Key
figures are available fine, except the value fields. Is there any way I can set to make value fields available?

Q) While executing the query it generally takes the default name of the excel sheet as BOOK1, BOOK2, but My client
wants that the default name should be the same name as query name.
A) Embed the query in a workbook saved as the name of the query and have your client open the workbook as
opposed to the query.

Q) Considering that I have in this infocube 6 dimensions, 30 characteristics and 20 key figures, do you see any
simply any way to make my upload process easier? Do you think that the server will support that amount of data? Or
which considerations should I add to make sure that this upload process would run?

Q) We need to find the table in which query and variable assignments are stored. We must read this table in a userexit to get which variables are used in a query.
A) Check out tables RSZELTDIR and RSZCOMPDIR for query BEx elements. I found this info on one of the previous
posting, variable table, RSZGLOBV, query table - get query id from table RSRREPDIR (field RSRREPDIRCOMPUID), use this id for table start with RSZEL* When 'ZFISPER1' name of the variable when VNAM = 'ZVC_FY1'
- characteristics.
Step 1 - before selection
Step 2 - after selection
Step 3 - processed all variable at the same time

Q) Actually the ODS has data till date (09 Dec) which is coming from 2 datasources, but the infocube has data upto 8
November only as we have deleted few requests because there was mismatch of notification complaints encountered
during reporting. So we tried to update the data thru "Update ODS Data in data target" by selecting the delta update
option, we are getting an error message called "Delta update for ZUODEC02 (ODS) is invalidated". Please let me
know the solution to come out this problem. Can we go for Initialize delta update again for cube?

Q) How is the display of USD in currency controlled to be seen as USD or $?

A) You can control Currency display with the following customizing point. In BW customizing

BW Customizing Implementation Guide Reporting-relevant Settings General Reporting Settings Set Alternative
Currency Display
In this table, you can specify the symbol or string you want to use.
If this table is empty USD, the symbol used in BEx restitution is $.

Q) Deleting Data from PSA?

A) Context menu PSA and delete data or context menu Edit several requests delete the required request and in
reconstruction tab of cube manage delete request.

Q) If u update data from ODS to data target. System will generate InfoSource with one prefix name?
A) It will generate with prefix name starting with 8 along with InfoSource name.

Q) How to check physically about data load?

A) At the bottom while updating. tRFC8 ani naming convention tho executing avuthu untundhi -- just have a look
when u update from ODS.

Q) What is an aggregate?
A) Aggregates are small or baby cubes. A subset of InfoCube.
Flat Aggregate --when u have more than 15 characteristics for aggregate system will generate that aggregate as flat
aggregate to increase performance.

Roll-up--when the data is loaded for second time into cube, we have to roll-up to make that data available in

Q) X & Y Tables?
A) X-tables and Y-tables only have primary key.
X-table (SID- key relationship plus SID columns per time-independent navigational attribute) or a Y-table (SID- key
relationship. Timestamp, SID columns per time-dependent navigational attribute)

Q) Routine with Return Table

A) Update rules generally only have one return value. However, you can create a routine in the tab strip key figure
calculation, by choosing Return table. The corresponding key figure routine then no longer has a return value, but a
return table. You can then generate as many key figure values, as you like from one data record.
In the routine editor, you will find the calculated characteristic values in the structure ICUBE_VALUES. Change these
values accordingly (in the above example: Employee), fill the field for the relevant key figure (in the above example:
Sales revenue), and use this to fill the return table RESULT_TABLE

Q) What is Line-Item Data, in which scenario u use line item dimension?

A) A line item dimension in a fact table does not have the dimension table, it connects directly with the SID table at its
sole characteristic. When there is only one characteristic in a dimension, it will eliminate the dimension table. Fact
table directly linked to the SID table.

Compressing InfoCubes
When you load data into the InfoCube, entire requests can be inserted at the same time. Each of these requests has
its own request ID, which is included in the fact table in the packet dimension. This makes it possible to pay particular
attention to individual requests. One advantage of the request ID concept is that you can subsequently delete
complete requests from the InfoCube. However, the request ID concept can also cause the same data record (all
characteristics agree, with the exception of the request ID) to appear more than once in the fact table. This
unnecessarily increases the volume of data, and reduces performance in Reporting, as the system has to aggregate
using the request ID every time you execute a query. Using compressing, you can eliminate these disadvantages,
and bring data from different requests together into one single request (request ID 0).
This function is critical, as the compressed data can no longer be deleted from the InfoCube using its request IDs.
You must be absolutely certain that the data loaded into the InfoCube is correct.


You can choose request IDs and release them to be compressed. You can schedule the function immediately or in
the background, and link it to other events.
Compressing one request takes approx. 2.5 ms per data record. With non-cumulative InfoCubes, compression has
an additional effect on query performance. Also, the marker for non-cumulatives in non-cumulative InfoCubes is
updated. This means that, on the whole, less data is read for a non-cumulative query, and the reply time is therefore
reduced. If you run the compression for a non-cumulative InfoCube, the summarization time (including the time to
update the markers) will be about 5 ms per data record. If you are using an Oracle database as your BW database,
you can also carry out a report using the relevant InfoCube while the compression is running. With other
manufacturers' databases, you will see a warning if you try to carry out a report using an InfoCube while the

compression is running. In this case you can only report on the relevant InfoCube when the compression has finished
running. If you want to avoid the InfoCube containing entries whose key figures are zero values (in reverse posting for
example) you can run a zero-elimination at the same time as the compression. In this case, the entries, where all the
key figures are equal to 0, are deleted from the fact table.
Zero-elimination is permitted only for InfoCubes, where exclusively key figures with the aggregation behavior 'SUM'
appear. You are not permitted to run a zero-elimination with non-cumulative values in particular.

For performance reasons, and to save space on the memory, summarize a request as soon as you have established
that it is correct, and is no longer to be removed from the InfoCube.

Q) You can convert currencies at 2 places?

A) One is at update rule level & one at the front-end (reports lo)

Q) You can create infospokes only on 4 objects.

A) ODS, InfoCubes (Master data attributes and texts) & not on hierarchies and multiproviders.

I mean for data offloading from BW to excel. Not only into excel but also to application server and also to database

Q) If you use process chains, you can

Automate the complex schedules in BW with the help of
Event-controlled processing,
Visualize the schedule by using network applications and
Centrally control and monitor the processes.

Q) Transportation
For BEx you can have only one transport request. There should always be one transport open if you want to create or
edit queries. All the queries which u create or edit are assigned to this request. Suppose there is no open request,
then you cannot edit or create any queries

Once you have some queries in a request and you want to transport then you can release this one and immediately
create a new one so that u can again create or change queries.

Q) Our is a SAP-BW with a non-sap source system. Everyday for client information we usually check the data loading
thru' monitor. Is there any ways so that I can connect our mail-server to it & get automatic e-mails from BW server
about every time after the transaction data is loaded?
A) Go to SBWP Tcode there u have set for getting automatic mails.

A) Write a transfer routine for the infoObjects to extend the length of the data type.

Q) How can we stop loading data into infocube?

A) First you have to find out what is the job name from the monitor screen for this load
monitor screen lo Header Tabstrip lo untadhi. SM37 (job monitoring) in r/3 select this job and from the menu u can
delete the job. There are some options, just check them out in sm37 and also u have to delete the request in BW.
Cancellation is not suggestible for delta load.

Q) If the Ship to address is changed, will it trigger delta for the 2LIS_11_VAITM extractor?
A) I suppose you are talking of changing the Ship to address information in the Ship to master data. That has
nothing to do with Transactional Data. Therefore no delta will be in the 2LIS_11_VAITM extractors.
Address is changed for ShipTo on the sales order document (not Master data) and this address is saved in ADRC

Q) How to reset the data mart status in the ODS. Which transaction is used for resetting the status?
A) Go to the ODS and from context menu, Manage Reset the Data Mart Status (third column). If necessary restart the
load from the DM which at InfoSource = "8ODS-Name" using Update Tab" Initialize Delta Process" Initial Load
without Data Transfer" after resetting the Data Mart Status.

Q) We are facing a problem with authorizations for BPS. We have a large number of agents that need to enter plan
data via a layout. In order to simplify the control of the necessary authorizations, we would like to filter via something
similar to a user exit using a function module in order to avoid having to define authorization objects for each of the
agents who have access to the systems. Right now, we are not sure if there is user exit concept available as it is for
BW variables.

A) In BPS, you can use user specific variables or you can set up a Variable of type exit.
You can also have a variable of type authorization which uses the security / authorization of the BW system.

Q) Here are the steps for Process chain

A) Call transaction RSPC
Create a process chain with the start process; herein you can > schedule > your whole Process chain (at once, by an
event, by day, and so on) Call the icon "process types" > within the process types:
Call the infopackage you need to load the data from the source > system to > ODS >
Activate the ODS Update the ODS into the InfoCube Rollup the data from the InfoCube to the aggregate the
connection between the steps from 2 until 7 are connected by EVENTS; you can create events by pressing the
right mouse click down from the predecessor process to the successor process; the system asks you
independent from error, only by error, only by success". In such a way you can create the process chain

Copying Process chains, there is a way to copy process chain. In the RSPC view, open the desired process chain to
be copied. Type COPY in the transaction-calling field on left top of the screen. The process chain will be copied then.
However, I am using BW 3.1C. Perhaps this works in 3.0 as well.

Q) I want to add the ADNR (address number) of the ship-to party to the standard extractor in LBWE. We have ONETime ship-to recipients and we want to be able to report on the STATE of the recipient rather than the state of the
sold-to. I just wanted verification that I might be going in the right direction.. In order to add this field could I add the
ADNR to the include MCPARTUSR section of the MCPARTNER structure? (And hopefully those fields would then be
available in any of the MCVBAK, MCVBAP Communication structures...?) Or add an additional append ZMCPART,
and then populate the field with a user exit during the extraction process. Or I could add it directly to the MCVBAK in
a "Z". Append (?). Then populate the field with a user exit during the extraction process. Has anyone attempted
something like this before? Is that what I need to do to get it into the communication structures for LBWE the logistic
cockpit to use it? Haven't seen many posts or documentation that talks about specifics. Saw a bunch on master data
augmentation, but not on the transaction extractors
A) We ultimately did add a few fields to the structure, and then populated them with a user exit. Every document is
associated with an ADDR, so why not give the 0DOCUMENT an attribute called ADDR or a full set of attributes that
include addresses. Then build an infoset on R/3 to populate the 0DOCUMENT object directly with addresses. Treat
the addr as "master" data of the 0document object rather than part of the transactional data. I THINK it would work
but am not certain yet.

Q) Can any body know how to create datamarts for Masterdata characteristics? Here for example I have two master
data characteristics like 0Mat_plant and Zmatplt in the same BW system. Now I want to upload the data from
0Mat_plant to Zmat_plant using the delta enabled infopackage.

A) Datamarts are a functionality of an ODS you need one extraction program created by the ODS to make the upload
into the data target) and not a functionality from Master data tables. Therefore create one ODS for jour object like

Q) To check the version of particular infoobject in table RSDIOBJ

Q) I have a break on one document between R/3 and BW. The document does exist in BSEG, but is missing from
BW. All the other documents that were posted during that time were extracted by BW except this one. What could be
the reason?
A) The record may be missing because of any logic in update rules or transfer rules logic. I mean to say that there
may be any filter on that particular record in Update or transfer rules. First check whether the record exist in RSA3.
Then check in PSA whether that record is in BW or not. Then check the update rules.

Q) What's the difference between R3 drill down reporting and BW reporting?

These two reporting seem to function similarly with slice and dice. If they function similarly, then that means we don't
have to implement BW, just use R3 Drill down reporting tool, am I right?
A) The major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3 are in terms of performance and analysis.
1. Performance -- Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3
and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end,
quarter end, or year-end -- now imagine that occurring even more frequently.
2. Data analysis -- BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was
designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would
be easier from a BW.
1) What is process chain? How many types are there? How many we use in real time scenario? Can we define
interdependent processes with tasks like data loading, cube compression, index maintenance, master data & ods
activation in the best possible performance & data integrity.
2) What is data integrityand how can we achieve this?
3) What is index maintenance and what is the purpose to use this in real time?
4) When and why use infocube compression in real time?
5) What is mean by data modelling and what will the consultant do in data modelling?
6) How can enhance business content and what for purpose we enhance business content (becausing we can
activate business content)
7) What is fine-tuning and how many types are there and what for purpose we done tuning in real time. tuning can
only be done for infocube partitions and creating aggregates or any other?
8) What is mean by multiprovider and what purpose we use multiprovider?
9) What is scheduled and monitored data loads and for what purpose?
Ans # 1:
Process chains exists in Admin Work Bench. Using these we can automate ETTL processes. These allows BW guys
to schedule all activities and monitor (T Code: RSPC).

PROCESS CHAIN - Before defining PROCESS CHAIN, let us define PROCESS in any given process chain. Is a
procedure either with in the SAP or external to it with a start and end. This process runs in the background.
PROCESS CHAIN is set of such processes that are linked together in a chain. In other words each process is
dependent on the previous process and dependencies are clearly defined in the process chain.
This is normally done in order to automate a job or task that has to execute more than one process in order to
complete the job or task.
1. Check the Source System for that particular PC.
2. Select the request ID (it will be in Header Tab) of PC
3. Go to SM37 of Source System.
4. Double Click on the Job.
5. You will navigate to a screen
6. In that Click "Job Details" button
7. A small Pop-up Window comes
8. In the Pop-up screen, take a note of
a) Executing Server
b) WP Number/PID
9. Open a new SM37 (/OSM37) command
10. In the Click on "Application Servers" button
11. You can see different Application Servers.
11. Goto Executing server, and Double Click (Point 8 (a))
12. Goto PID (Point 8 (b))
13. On the left most you can see a check box
14. "Check" the check Box
15. On the Menu Bar.. You can see "Process"
16. In the "process" you have the Option "Cancel with Core"
17. Click on that option.
* -- Ramkumar K
Ans # 2:
Data Integrity is about eliminating duplicate entries in the database and achieve normalization.
Ans # 4:
InfoCube compression creates new cube by eliminating duplicates. Compressed infocubes require less storage
space and are faster for retrieval of information. Here the catch is .. Once you compress, you can't alter the InfoCube.
You are safe as long as you don't have any error in modeling.
This compression can be done through Process Chain and also manually.
Tips by: Anand
Indexing is a process where the data is stored by indexing it. Eg: A phone book... When we write somebodys number
we write it as Prasads number would be in "P" and Rajesh's number would be in "R"... The phone book process is
indexing.. similarly the storing of data by creating indexes is called indexing.
Datamodeling is a process where you collect the facts..the attributes associated to facts.. navigation atributes etc..
and after you collect all these you need to decide which one you ill be using. This process of collection is done by
interviewing the end users, the power users, the share holders etc.. it is generally done by the Team Lead, Project
Manager or sometimes a Sr. Consultant (4-5 yrs of exp) So if you are new you dont have to worry about it....But do
remember that it is a imp aspect of any datawarehousing soln.. so make sure that you have read datamodeling
before attending any interview or even starting to work....
We can enhance the Business Content bby adding fields to it. Since BC is delivered by SAP Inc it may not contain all
the infoobjects, infocubes etc that you want to use according to your company's data model... eg: you have a

customer infocube(In BC) but your company uses a attribute for say..apt number... then instead of constructing the
whole infocube you can add the above field to the existing BC infocube and get going...
Tuning is the most imp process in BW..Tuning is done the increase efficiency.... that means lowering time for loading
data in cube.. lowering time for accessing a query.. lowering time for doing a drill down etc.. fine tuning=lowering
time(for everything possible)...tuning can be done by many things not only by partitions and aggregates there are
various things you can do... for eg: compression, etc..
Multiprovider can combine various infoproviders for reporting purposes.. like you can combine 4-5 infocubes or 2-3
infocubes and 2-3 ODS or IC, ODS and Master data.. etc.. you can refer to for more info...
Scheduled data load means you have scheduled the loading of data for some particular date and time you can do it
in scheduler tab if infoobject... and monitored means you are monitoring that particular data load or some other loads
by using transaction RSMON.
Delta records in LO ?
RSA7 , SM13 , LBWQ .
Use of Generic Extractors? Why do we create Generic data source?
When standard business contend cannot fulfil your needs then you go for
generic Extraction . You create generic extraction based on
1. View
2. Infoset
3. Function Module

Performance Tuning ?
You can use Tcodes RSRV , RSRT .
All transactions related to DB02, ST02, ST03, ST05
What is WAD? Use full ness of that?
Web Application Designer . Used to design web based application
Where can I Add a field in the data source? R/3 side?
Follow enhancemenmt procedure .
1. check the extract str using rsa6 tcode
2. go to se11 and enter the extract str.
3. click on append str.
4. it will ask z* name and say ok.
5. add new fields.
6. go to se 37 and enter 'exit_saplrsap_001.
7. you can see include program
8. double click on that and you will editor and write an aabap code to populate
the field.

9. check the datasource using rsa3 tcode.

Difference between Data Target and Info Provider?

Data Targets are the one which stores data physically like Data Store and
Infocube. Infoproviders also contain like Multi Providers which data doesn't
store practically and access from data targets.
When designing an info cube what are the requirements to be gathered?
What will be Char , Key Figures , Attributes ,Hierarchies ..Etc .
Number of Dimensions .
What is the reconciliation?
comparing the R3 data to the BW data in the Reports .. if the figures match
with all the company codes then they say that the data reconciled.
Another purpose of Reconsilation is: For istance if u deleted one request
unknowingly..u can reload that request by reconsilation.

Technical difference between LIS and LO?

1. LIS works on the concept of Transparent Table concept where as LO
uses Cluster table concept.
2. One DS in LIS (2lis_11_s264) is devided in to three DS in LO's namely
2lis_11_vahdr, 2lis_11_vaitm, 2lis_11_vascl. That means we can get
detailed level of information through LO's.
3. LIS uses two transperent tables for delta updates, as for as LO
concerned structures like RSA7,LBWQ,SM13 will come into picture.
4. LIS works under Push Mechanism and LO works under Pull Mechanism.
5. Enhancing the DS is more complex in LIS than LO's.
6. Volume of the data handled by LO's is more than that LIS

Compounding Info Object: How did u use this compounding info object in your
A Compounding attribute is a superior object which must be combined to define an object; for example when you
define cost center then controlling area is the compounding (superior) object.
What is the data mart status in ODS?

If the ODS object request is used as a data source in data marts, that is in other BW systems or the Myself system,
the data mart status for the ODS object is displayed. Use the corresponding pushbutton to manage the distribution of
this request.
The tick icon shows you that the request is retrieved from all connected data targets.
The Compile icon shows you that the request is already updated in other data targets. However, it is possible that you
might have to repeat this request. In the event that you have the impression that the data was not correctly posted,
reset the monitor status and request a repeat so that the request can be posted again. To do this, choose Reverse
Posting of Request in the monitor. You can also read the documentation about the monitor.

What is process type & Process Variant?

There are quite a lot process types which will be available for a process chain. There process types are devided into
basically 6 types.
1. General services
2. Load process and post processing
3. Data target administration
4.Reporting agent
5.Other BW processes
6. Others
Process chains (active object: RSPC / delivery object: DSPC) and process variants (active object: RSPV / delivery
object: DSPV) are not source-system dependent objects. However, they can reference source-system dependent

What is a Conversion Exit? Use of Conversion Exit?

You use a conversion exit to define a jump to a conversion routine for a column of your output table. As the exit you
specify the OUTPUT . For example, you can use conversion exit ALPHA (see function module
CONVERSIONEXIT_ALPHA_OUTPUT ) to suppress leading zeros of account numbers.
What is RSAP00001 & EXIT_SAPLRSAP_001? (Difference)
The first in Enhancement name , Second is component of that enhancement
RSAP0001 Customer function calls in the service API
This is an enhancement , This has following components

Classical steps in LO **** Pit Extraction.

In R3 Side :
RSA3 Check
In BW Side :
Create Infource
Assign Source system
Create info package

How to exclude data source from extraction?

You will not be filling setup for the unneceaasry data source . Hence it will not
Be scheduled . fill
1. Need for replication ?
Data sources from source system will be avail in BW system
2. How many times you did LO Extraction ?
It depends on Requirements
3 . How to do enhancement in LO ?
1. check the extract str using rsa6 tcode
2. go to se11 and enter the extract str.
3. click on append str.
4. it will ask z* name and say ok.
5. add new fields.
6. go to se 37 and enter 'exit_saplrsap_001.
7. you can see include program
8. double click on that and you will editor and write an aabap code to
populte fields
9. check the datasource using rsa3 tcode.
4. Delta method in LO ?

This method will bring the deltas after an Full load has been done . The delta
records Can be seen in delta queue ( RSA7 )
5. Some update methods
Direct Delta . Queued delta , Serialized V3 , Un serialized V3 .
6. Generic data extraction ?
When standard business content does not fulfill your requirment then you go
for Generic extraction . Transaction SBIW .
Extraction Based on : View , Info set query , Function module .
7. Delta methods in Generic Extraction ?
Calendar day , Time stamp , Numeric Pointer .
8. CO PA Tables ?
CE1 *** / CE *** = Line Item tables
CE2 *** = Plan Line item tables
CE3 *** = Value fields
CE4 *** = Segment tables
9. Delta Queue ?
This queue ( RSA7 ) has the delta records it is in R3 side .
10 . LUW ?
Logical Unit of Work , To ensure data base transaction integrity .
A transaction is Committed if success or Rolled back if failure .
1. What is ERP? - ERP is a package with the techniques and concepts for the integrated management of business
as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was
targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core business like production and financial
market. As the growth and merits of ERP package ERP software is designed for basic process of a company from
manufacturing to small shops with a target of integrating information across the company.
2. Different types of ERP? - SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERPs
most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages aver other ERP
3. What is SAP? - SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German name (Systems,
Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package.
4. Explain the concept of Business Content in SAP Business Information Warehouse? - Business Content is a
pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business
Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need
to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources,

InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, Business Applications
and other selected applications.
5. Why do you usually choose to implement SAP? - There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies
are planning to implement SAP. Its highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data
consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.
6. Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation? - Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You
can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer
structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to
connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta,
Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.
7. What is IDES? - International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster
learning and implementation.
8. What is WF and its importance? - Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of crossapplication processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which
needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs
involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.
9. What is SAP R/3? - A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business
function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread
over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are
located at different system.
10. What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3? - The application layer of an R/3 System
is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on
application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also
with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called
database server.
11. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program? - Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and
convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called sap data transfer. Call
transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if success data will
12. Explain open SQL vs native SQL? - ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements
in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different
databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program,
use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables
available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep
ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements
known as Open SQL.
13. What are datasets? - The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used
for file handling in SAP.
14. What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table? - Internal table: It is a standard data
type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. Check table: Check table will be at field level
checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid.
Transparent table: - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same
data and fields.
15. What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3? Would it be sufficient just to Web-enable R/3
Reports? - Performance Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on
the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month
end, quarter end, or year-end now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis BW uses a Data

Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing.
With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.
16. How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business operates? - In order to
use an ERP system, a
business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to
the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as
a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that the
people understand the business processes and how they integrate.
17. What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining? - OLAP - On line Analytical processing is a reporting
tool configured to understand your database schema ,composition facts and dimensions . By simple point-n-clicking,
a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the
schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine builds and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is
to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate
called reporting.
18. What is Extended Star Schema and how did it emerge? - The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables
and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the
characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star
19. Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data - Meta Data: Data that describes the structure of data or
MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data. Master Data: Master data is
data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same
way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or
hierarchies. Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.
20. Name some drawbacks of SAP - Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master data resides,
Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.
21. What is Bex? - Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate reports, view reports, analyze
information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex
browser. Bex has the following components: Bex Browser, Bex analyzer, Bex Map, Bex Web.
22. What are variables? - Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and
are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are
used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing
types, User entry/Default type, Replacment Path.
23. What is AWB?. What is its purpose? - AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling,
monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information
24. What is the significance of ODS in BIW? - An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged
transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more
InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be
updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In
contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat
database tables.
25. What are the different types of source system? - SAP R/3 Source Systems, SAP BW, Flat Files and External
26. What is Extractor? - Extractors is a data retrieval mechanisms in the SAP source system. Which can fill the
extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to
supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.

Line item: This means the dimension contains precisely one characteristic. This means that the system does
not create a dimension table. Instead, the SID table of the characteristic takes on the role of dimension table.
Removing the dimension table has the following advantages:
When loading transaction data, no IDs are generated for the entries in the dimension table. This number range
operation can compromise performance precisely in the case where a degenerated dimension is involved.
A table- having a very large cardinality- is removed from the star schema. As a result, the SQL-based queries
are simpler. In many cases, the database optimizer can choose better execution plans.
Nevertheless, it also has a disadvantage: A dimension marked as a line item cannot subsequently include additional
characteristics. This is only possible with normal dimensions.
High cardinality: This means that the dimension is to have a large number of instances (that is, a high
cardinality). This information is used to carry out optimizations on a physical level in depending on the database
platform. Different index types are used than is normally the case. A general rule is that a dimension has a high
cardinality when the number of dimension entries is at least 20% of the fact table entries. If you are unsure, do not
select a dimension having high cardinality