12 views

Uploaded by Louise Jison

Social Statistics notes

- Nassim Taleb Journal Article - Report on the Effectiveness and Possible Side Effects of the OFR (2009)
- PS 1 Questions
- TOLSTACK
- AP Statistics Project Report
- Prologue and Chapter 1 Test Review
- statistics lesson plan-2
- Darwin College
- Mba Stat
- What is Normal Lesson Plan
- Holocaust Or
- Topic 10 Data Handling
- 1.3 Statistical Concept
- week 6..1
- Normal distribution.pdf
- Assignment 4 Questions
- The Mean and Standard Deviation
- Lecture4 Mech SU
- cursus
- Sampling n Sampling Distribution
- Lecture 7

You are on page 1of 8

-------------------------------------------------------------------------Variable: A characteristic or condition which has different values for different individuals (ex. height,

test scores, gender)

---Independent Variable(IV): The variable that is controlled by an experimenter.

-----Quasi-Independent Variable (Q-IV): A variable that can't be manipulated but is used to determine

groups.(height, hair color, age, gender, etc...)

---Dependent Variable (DV): A variable that is allowed to vary and is observed in relation to the IV.

(dependent on the independent variable).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Statistics:A set of calculations used to organize, summarize and interpret info.

---Descripitive Statistics:Used to organize, simplify and summarize data.

---Inferential Statistics: Using Sample statistics to make generalizations about their population.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------Population: ALL of the individual you wish to study (ex. all students in the US)

---Parameter: A value used to describe a population.

------------------------------------------------------------------------Sample: ONLY SOME of the individuals/objects you wish to study from a population (ex. 1000

students from New York)

---Statistic: A value used to describe a sample.

---Sampling Error: A discrepency which occurs between a sample and its population.

-------------------------------------------------------------------Control Condition: Individuals in this type of experimentation are given no experimental treatment or

are given a type of placebo.(This condition is used to have a base of reference for the experimental

group.)

-Experimental Condition: Individuals in this type of experimentation do recieve the treatment being

tested.

2) Basic Symbols

What do all these symbols mean!

Symbols are used in many formulas that are needed to calculate different statistics.

These are some of the basics:

= Sum

x = each variable score

SS = Sum of squared deviations

sqrt = Square root

df = degrees of freedom

Symbols used to describe a Population

-- = mean

-- = standard Deviation

--= variance

--N = Total number of population scores

Symbols used to describe a Sample

-- M = mean

-- s = Standard Deviation

-- s = variance

-- n = Total number of sample scores

Frequency Distribution: This is a list of the scores for a certain experiment and a measure of the

frequency of each score. This information can be used to contruct tables and graphs

Variability:A quantitative measurement of the degree to which the scores in a distribution are spread

out or clustered together.

Normal Distribution

This type of distribution is seen when the variables are clustered together with gradual decrease on

either side of the distribution.

This type of distribution is used often in calculations assuming a normal population distribution. I will

discuss this type of distribution later in further detail.

It is also called a Gaussian Curve or Bell Curve.

Negative Skew

A negative skew is when the variables in a distribution are clustered together with a few outliers

which change the distribution. (The tail of the graph points to the negative end)

outliers: These are variables that fall outside the normal trends for the distribution.

(ex. Lets say the variable for the graph above is shoe size and most of the data falls within sizes 7 to

10 but if a few individuals had a shoe size of 4. That would skew the distribution negatively.)

tip: greater than 50% of the scores are above the mean

Postive Skew

A positive skew is when the variables in a distribution are clustered together with a few outliers that

change the distribution positively.(The tail of the graph points to the positive end)

(ex. In this case given the same information as the previous example the outlier would have a shoe

size of 13 instead of 4. Making the distribution positively skewed.)

tip: greater than 50% of the scores are below the mean

Central Tendency: A measurement that uses only one score to describe a distribution of scores.

These are a few ways to measure central tendency:

-Mean ( or M): The average (sum of scores/# of scores)

-------Ex. (5,4,3) 5+4+3= 12, 12/3=4, Mean = 4

-Median:The score which divides all scores in half when put into ascending order.

-Mode: The score or scores that occur most often in a set.

------Ex. (5,4,3,3,2) Mode = 3

*For statistics, the mean is most often used in calculations of central tendency.

Variables can be IV, DV, and Q-IV. (see basic terminology above)

They can also be either: Discrete or Continuous

-Discrete: No values can exist between pre-determined categories.

----(ex. categories can be Male/Female or ratings on a scale from 1-5)

-Continuous Variables: Variables that have an infinate number of possibilities usually numerical.

----(ex. temperature could be 98.5F or 97.6F. There are continous values for temp.)

N O I R Scales for Variables

N = Nominal: A discrete set of categories with different names.

-----(ex. Pop categories: Coke, Sprite, Dr. Pepper)

O = Ordinal: A set of categories ordered by sequence.

----- (ex. best, better, fair, worse, worst)

I = Interval: Ordered Categories with exact distances between categories. NO Real Zero..

----- (ex. Temp with same spacing: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50...) (Temperature always exists so NO real zero

value)

R = Ratio:This is a numerical scale with a true zero.

----- (ex. $0.00 is really equal to no money while there can't be true zero temp)

*Later on this information will be important to determine how to collect data and what type of scale is

best for the given situation.*

Order of Operations:

All are done from left to right

1) Calculate (Within Parenthesis)

3) Multiply and Divide (* and /)

4) Summation (= sum)

5) Any other Addition or Subtraction (+ and -)

Calculating Mean:

M=(X)/n

Calculating Sum of squared deviations:

SS=(X-) or

SS = X-(X)/N

* both will result in the same answer*

Calculating Variability:

= SS/N

s = SS/(n-1)

Calculating Standard Error

M = /(sqrt of N)

sM = s/ (sqrt of n)

7) Understanding Variance

Variability: A measurement to show the degree to which the the scores or data are spread out or

clustered in a distribution.

---A good way to describe a distribution in terms of distance (ex. lets say that most adults are within

a foot (12") of 5'5" tall. Variability would show that distance for a normal height and would represent

the heights most likely for someone to fall into if they are a part of that population. There would be

people who are much taller such as basketball players and those that are much shorter but it is

much rarer and would be seen in this distribution as outlying values. )

In certain cases the values may be much closer to the mean or farther from the mean.

---If you look at weight verses height you may find that the range of values for weight will be much

larger than the range of the values for height. An adult could weight between *90lbs or 500lbs* while

the height of a person is much more limited *3'5" to 7'6"*

* these numbers are only used to represent a point not to show accurate representation of the actual

range of weights or height. *

8) Z test

So what is a Z test?

A "Z test" is a way to standardize each score in a distribution and then determine a relation between

all the scores. (A way to know how a certain score compares to the other scores)

You can use a Z test when:

-- estimating a population parameter

-- and there is only one sample group

-- and there is only one score per subject in the group

-- and is given or can be calculated

Once a Z test is calculated then:

all scores are between -4.00 and +4.00

=0

=1

A Z score:

1) replaces the original scores, mean and variance.

2) changes data to have a normal distribution

2) is + or - (+ is above the mean and - is below the mean)

3) is a number that represents distance from the mean (Z score mean = 0)

Calculating Z scores:

(X-)/

9) T Test

What is a T Test?

A "T Test" is very much like a "Z test" in that it standardizes scores in a distribution; However, in a "T

Test" instead of using the population variance() we use the sample variance (s)

You can use a T test when:

-- estimating a population parameter

-- and there is only one score per subject in the group

-- and is NOT given or CANNOT be calculated

Once a T test is calculated then:

=0

=1

A T score is:

1) + or - (+ is above the mean and - is below the mean)

2) a number that represents distance from the mean which is equal 0 (-4.00 to +4.00)

Calculating T scores:

t=(M-) / sM

sM= s/ (sqrt of N)

- Nassim Taleb Journal Article - Report on the Effectiveness and Possible Side Effects of the OFR (2009)Uploaded bycasefortrils
- PS 1 QuestionsUploaded byAlp San
- TOLSTACKUploaded byroygoti
- AP Statistics Project ReportUploaded byPaul Park
- Prologue and Chapter 1 Test ReviewUploaded byVietmonsoo
- statistics lesson plan-2Uploaded byapi-237496321
- Darwin CollegeUploaded byMrWaratahs
- Mba StatUploaded byKalpesh Patel
- What is Normal Lesson PlanUploaded byRenee
- Holocaust OrUploaded byAbraham Davila Andrade
- Topic 10 Data HandlingUploaded byNoorizan Mohd Esa
- 1.3 Statistical ConceptUploaded byrollickingdeol
- week 6..1Uploaded bymaxentiuss
- Normal distribution.pdfUploaded bysamriddha_671019633
- Assignment 4 QuestionsUploaded byAmy Parker
- The Mean and Standard DeviationUploaded byjavieremedina
- Lecture4 Mech SUUploaded byNazeeh Abdulrhman Albokary
- cursusUploaded byAnh Thanh
- Sampling n Sampling DistributionUploaded bystu_aro
- Lecture 7Uploaded byTrina Miller
- Lecture 9 Uniform and Normal DistributionsUploaded byRodney Kevin
- imt hajiUploaded byMuhammad Nashrullah Ilham
- COMPRE~2.DOCUploaded byJasiz Philipe Ombugu
- Statistik IntroUploaded byNSBMR
- Assignment 2- Statistical Concepts-QUploaded byOusama Kadri
- mtechcs10Uploaded bylegendarykx
- Comuter Application in Business1Uploaded byS.i. Chowdhury
- etUploaded byRoger Dalaker
- Dehecq2015RSEUploaded byMarco Loren
- Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis - 5Uploaded byDanielaPulidoLuna

- 2014 Cadillac CTS Owners ManualUploaded byGreg Guhin
- Hesse--Racialized Modernity_An Analytics of White MythologiesUploaded byEric Cheuk
- tumor endokrinUploaded byTher Ray
- 169-574-1-PBUploaded bySome One
- 501 453 UniversalUploaded byaszrol
- 29. terapiUploaded byLailaKhanifatunNisa
- Rolls-Royce Icon(TM) Dynamic Positioning System Class 2 User ManualUploaded byCarlos Garrido
- LS Series Manual (GEN v)Uploaded bymahajoon
- Renewable Energy Snapshot - Kosovo*Uploaded byUNDP in Europe and Central Asia
- Turnbull the Aboriginal Austrailian Brain in the Scientific ImaginationUploaded byBoris Velines
- the albion processUploaded byChristian Sanguinetti
- 1747-BSN.pdfUploaded byDick Tello
- Datasheet JK 74HC73Uploaded bymaragotilla
- Canberra Visitor Guide 2016Uploaded byTO Chau
- Reliability Analysis of Switches and Crossings 2013 v1.4Uploaded byPedro Henriques
- Obs. tableUploaded bymanoj_varma_1
- tuner UV1316 A L H4Uploaded byZoran Kovacevic
- analyzer 500.lit.ETA.1111.pdfUploaded byAlienshow
- Jamie TakenUploaded byCine Dada
- NR 221002 Transducers in InstrumentationUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Muther Vol 2Uploaded byancuta
- DeFunct_ReFunct_catalogue.pdfUploaded bywytnoize
- A Comparative Cost Analysis of Ten ShoreProtection Approaches at Three Sites Under Two Sea Level Rise ScenariosExecutive SummaryUploaded byHRNERR
- 2011 Protection Design Guide for Portable Device InterfacesUploaded bycfmontoya
- Torchwood - 07 - Pack Animals - Peter AnghelidesUploaded byfunstuffrocksbig
- 111Uploaded byDreamrs Tty
- show choir dance instructions 2019 - updatedUploaded byapi-240097827
- Port Stephens Council 2019 summer coastal activities programUploaded byEllie-Marie Watts
- Lost SafariUploaded byMohit Agarwal
- 2SK4213 TransistorUploaded byGustavo Nava