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Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Laws

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8

Basic Concepts & Definitions


Circuit Elements
Sources
Circuit Notation
Kirchhoffs Law
Series and Parallel Resistors Circuit
Delta-Wye Transformations
Application
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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Electric Circuit is the interconnection of electrical
elements
Electric Charge is the electrical property of a
matter that causes it to experience a force when
close to another electrically charged matter,
measured in Coulombs (C)
Electric Current is the rate of change of charge,
measured in Amperes (A)
dQ

I=

1 Ampere = 1 coulomb/second

dt
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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Elementary Charge is 1.6021764871019 C
(1 proton or electron)
Question: How many protons/electrons have
passed from the positive to negative terminal for
1 Ampere of current flowing for 10 seconds?

1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


DC (Direct current)
- current that remains constant
with time
- current flows in uni-directional
AC (Alternating current)
- current that varies sinusoidally
with time
- current flows in bi-directional

1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Resistance (R)
- Resistance is an opposition to the current flows intensity.
- Like the slope that controls the flow of water in pipeline.
- Resistance is measured in ohm ().

l
R=
A

1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Conductance (G)
- Conductance is the tendency to conduct current.
- It is the reciprocal of resistance, measured in siemens (S),
G = 1/R; [S] = []-1
- Electronic engineers also use Mho ().
Question: Beside metals, can water or other fluids conduct
electricity?

1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Current & Voltage are two basic variables in electric
circuits, also serve as signals of information
Voltage/ potential difference = move the electrons in a
particular direction, work must be done on every unit
charge, measured in Volts (V)
dW
V=
dQ
Vab = Va Vb = 9V
Vab = Vba

(+) & (-) signs defines the direction or voltage polarity.


1 V = 1 J/C = 1Nm/C
Energy is capacity to do work, in Joules (J)

1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Ohms Law: The current flowing across a resistor is
proportional to the voltage across the resistor

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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Ground Connections
- The chassis ground should be earthed for safety
precaution.
- The earth is a neutral body with huge electric capacity
(electrons and protons). It can accept or release electrons
and is always 0 V.
- The following shows a return path between two earth
grounds.

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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Measurement of Voltages
a) Grounded
at the bottom
a

b) Grounded
in the middle
a

c) Grounded
at the top
a

b
b

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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Open circuit (OC)
- Two terminals (A & B) are not connected.
- No current flows due to resistance, air is an
insulator.
- If the potential difference, V is too high, air
may breakdown, and current would flow.
Short circuit (SC)
- Two terminals (A & B) are connected with
good conductor such as copper wire, assume to
be zero resistance.
- The assumption of negligible resistance no
longer holds for transmission lines that extend
over longer distance, when dealing in power
system.

A
R=
B

A
R=0
B

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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Electric Shock
Human body has a resistance of, R = 10 ~ 50 k
- Sweat can reduce body resistance up to 10 times.
- It is possible to reduce this resistance down to 1 k by
sweaty hands or holding a conductor tightly.
-The electrocution effect on a human body depends on
the current level:
1 mA
Feeling sensation
10 mA
Immobilizing
20 mA
Breathing difficulty
100 mA
Fatal
- Dangerous voltage level is about 30 V and above. We are safe
as long as insulated from the ground, preventing current to flow
across the heart (wear rubber glove, use wooden stick).
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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Power rate of change of energy, either supplying or
absorbing energy, measured in Watts (W)
dW dQ dW
P=

=
= VI
dQ dt
dt
if current enters through +ve terminal of an element
Element absorbs Power
if current enters through -ve terminal of an element
Element supplies Power
From P = V I (power equation) and V = I R (Ohm's law),
2
V
P = I 2R =
R

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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions


Voltage measurement

Current measurement

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1.1 Basic Concept & Definitions

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1.2 Circuit Elements


2 types of elements:
 Passive elements absorbs energy
e.g. Resistor (R), Capacitor (C) & Inductor
(L), often acts as load that converts
electrical energy to mechanical or thermal
energy.
 Active elements generates energy
e.g. Generator & Battery (voltage source),
operating amplifier (current source)
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1.2 Circuit Elements


(i) Ideal independent sources
- completely independent of other circuit elements

(ii) Ideal dependent sources


- controlled by another voltage / current source

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1.3 Sources
Ideal Voltage Source
Its voltage is independent from the magnitude &
direction of its current
When the current leaves +ve terminal, it delivers power
to external circuit acts as an e.m.f (electromotive
force) source
When the current enters to +ve terminal, it acts as a
load
i

Vi
+
Vi

External
circuit

_
i
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1.3 Sources
Ideal Current Source
Its current is constant irrespective of magnitude &
direction of the voltage across its terminals
The voltage across the terminal depends on the
elements that connected at the external circuit
i

i
+
Vi

External
circuit

_
Vi

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1.3 Sources
Practical Voltage Source
Voltage terminal of a practical source usually
decreases as current drawn from it increases. This is
due to the voltage drop across internal resistor R of
S
the voltage source
VL = VS - ILRS

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1.3 Sources
Practical Current Source
Practical current source has an internal resistance RS.
Hence the supplied current varies.
To compute the Load current & Load voltage:
RS
IL =
IS
RS + RL

RSRL
VL = ILRL =
IS
RS + RL

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1.3 Sources
Source Conversion
Voltage source, VS with a series resistance RS
may be converted to current source, IS with a parallel
resistance, RS without effecting the rest of the circuit &
vice versa.
To convert: voltage source
current source
IS = VS /RS
To convert: current source
voltage source
VS = ISRS

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1.3 Sources
Example 1:
(a) Determine the current IL
(b) Convert the voltage
source to a current source
(c) Use the resulting current
source of part (b),
calculate the current
through the load resistor
and compare your answer
to the result of part (a).

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1.3 Sources
Solution:
(a) applying Ohms law
E

I =
=
= 1A
L R +R
2+4
L
S

(b) IS = E / RS = 6 / 2 =3 A
the equivalent source with load is as follows:
(c) Checking:
RS
2
IL =
IS = (
)3 = 1A
RS + R L
2+4

(Current divider rule)


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1.4 Circuit Notation


Branch

a single two-terminal element in an


electric circuit
Node
a junction point connecting two or more
branches
Loop
a closed path in the circuit
Mesh
a loop which does not contain any other
loops
Ground at zero potential, where voltage of any
node in the circuit is expressed with
reference to the ground (or in the
absence of ground, one of the nodes is
taken as the reference node)
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1.4 Circuit Notation

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1.4 Circuit Notation


Series & Parallel Circuit
Elements in series only share a single node & having
the same flow of current.
Elements in parallel share the same pair of terminals
/nodes & have same voltage drop across them. The
current have more alternate paths to flow.
Series components can be called a string.
Parallel components can be called a bank.
Series-parallel circuit is the combination of strings and
banks

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1.4 Circuit Notation

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1.4 Circuit Notation

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1.4 Circuit Notation

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1.4 Circuit Notation


Series & Parallel Circuit
Bank

String
Another String

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1.4 Circuit Notation


Series & Parallel Circuit
Bank

+
-

Another Bank

String

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1.4 Circuit Notation

Specify reference directions


+ve values means our reference direction is right
-ve values means the opposite direction is true 36

1.4 Circuit Notation

P=VI
+ve values means receiving power
-ve values means giving power

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1.4 Circuit Notation

(a)

(b)

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1.5 Kirchhoffs Law


Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
States that the algebraic sum of all voltages around a
closed loop is zero
Sum of potential drop = sum of e.m.f. (electromotive
force) around the closed loop
Procedure:
1. Choose either a clockwise or counterclockwise around
the closed loop.
2. Assign +ve & -ve signs to the elements of the circuit
3. Apply KVL & write voltage equation for each closed loop

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1.5 Kirchhoffs Law


Example 2: Write a voltage equation
1. Go clockwise around loop
2. Assign +ve & -ve signs to
each elements
3. Apply KVL & write voltage
equation

Solution:
-v1 + v2 + v3 - v4 + v5 = 0 or
v1 - v2 - v3 + v4 - v5 = 0
v2 + v3 + v5 = v1 + v4

=0
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1.5 Kirchhoffs Law


Example 3 (KVL)
Determine the unknown voltage Vx for the
circuit below using Kirchhoffs voltage law.

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1.5 Kirchhoffs Law


Solution:

(1a) Apply KVL around a path (that includes the source in


the clockwise direction,
E + 12 + Vx = 0 Vx = E 12 = 32 12 = 20 V
or
(1b) Alternatively, apply KVL around the clockwise path,
including resistor R3 gives
Vx + 6 + 14 = 0 Vx = 20 V (same answer)
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1.5 Kirchhoffs Law


Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
States that the algebraic sum of all currents entering a
node (or a closed boundary) is zero
Sum of current entering a node = Sum of current leaving
the node
Apply KCL to a closed boundary
n
i1 - i2 + i3 + i4 - i5 = 0
i1 + i3 + i4 = i2 + i5

=0

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1.5 Kirchhoffs Law


Example 4: Write a current equation.
P
o

Solution:
At node p
- IT + I1 - I2 + I3 = 0
IT = I1 - I2 + I3

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1.5 Kirchhoffs Law


Example 5: (KCL)
Determine currents I1, I3, I4 and I5 for the circuit

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1.5 Kirchhoffs Law


Solution:

Applying KCL:
node a
node b
node c
node d

Ii = Io

I = I1 + I2
5 = I1 + 4 I1 = 1 A
I1 = I3 = 1 A
I2 = I4 = 4 A
I5 = I3 + I4
I5 = 1 + 4 = 5 A
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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Series Resistors & Voltage Divider
The two resistors are in series, since the same current i
flows through them.
v1 = iR1
v2 = iR2
apply KVL:
-v + v1 + v2 = 0
v = v1 + v2 = i(R1+ R2 )
v = i(Req) where
Req = R1+ R2
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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Series Resistors
The equivalent resistance of any number of resistors
connected in series is the sum of individual resistances.
N

Req = R1+ R2 + R3++ RN = n=1


Rn

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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Voltage Divider
To determine the voltage across each resistor:
R1
v
v1 =
R1 + R 2
R2
v
v2 =
R1 + R 2
Rn
v
vn =
R1+ R2+ + RN
Principle of Voltage divider the larger the resistance,
the larger the voltage drop
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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Parallel Resistors & Current Divider
The two resistors are connected in parallel and have the
same voltage v across them.
v1 = i1R1 = i2R2
apply KCL at node a:
i = i1 + i2
v + v
1 + 1 v
=
=
i
R1 R2
R1 R2
v
=
i
R eq

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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Parallel Resistors
The equivalent resistance of two parallel resistors is the
product of individual resistances divided by their sum, .

1
1
= 1 +
R eq R 1 R 2
R 1R 2
= R1 // R2
Req=
R1 + R 2
In the case of a circuit with N resistors in parallel
1
1
1
= 1 +
+ +
or
R eq R 1 R 2
RN
Geq = G1+ G2 + G3++ GN

Conductance
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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Current Divider
Principle of current divider total i current is shared by
the resistors in inverse proportion to their resistances
R2
i1 =
i
R1 + R 2
i2 =

R1
i
R1 + R 2

or

G1
i1 =
i
G1 + G 2
i2 =

G2
i
G1 + G 2

If a current divider has N resistors (or conductors) in


parallel with the source current i
in =

Gn
G 1 + G 2 + ... + G

i
N

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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Current Divider
(a) Suppose R2 = 0 R2 is short circuit
R eq

R1 R 2
=
=0
R1 + R 2

R2
i1 =
i=0
R1 + R 2
R1
i2 =
i=i
R1 + R 2
Entire current i flows through
the short circuit

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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Current Divider
(b) Suppose R2 = R2 is open circuit
R eq

R1 R 2
=
= R1
R1 + R 2

R2
i1 =
i=i
R1 + R 2
R1
i2 =
i=0
R1 + R 2

Entire current i flows through


the path of least resistance
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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Example 6(network reduction): Find Req for the circuit.
Solution:
(1+5)=6

6//3=2
(2+2)//6=2.4

Req = 4 + 2.4 + 8 = 14.4


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1.6 Resistors Circuits


Example 7(network reduction): Find Rab for
the circuit.

6//3

Solution:

3//6=2

12//4=3

(1+5)=6

(3//6)+1=3

Rab = 10 + (2 // 3) = 11.2 56

1.7 Delta-Wye Transformation


Consider the bridge circuit in the following figure, where
resistors are neither in series nor in parallel

These network are used in three-phase networks,


electrical filters and matching networks
These are the Wye (Y) and delta () network
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1.7 Delta-Wye Transformation


(i) Wye (Y) or Tee (T) network

(ii) Delta () or pi () network

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1.7 Delta-Wye Transformation


Delta to Wye Conversion
Superimpose a Wye network on the Delta network to
find Req in the Wye network to simplify computation
R12 (Y ) = R12 ()
R12 (Y ) = R1 + R3
R12 () = Rb //( Ra + Rc )
Rb ( Ra + Rc )
R12 = R1 + R3 =
.....(1.1a )
Ra + Rb + Rc
similarly ,
Rc ( Ra + Rb )
R13 = R1 + R2 =
.....(1.1b)
Ra + Rb + Rc
Ra ( Rb + Rc )
R34 = R2 + R3 =
.....(1.1c)
Ra + Rb + Rc

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1.7 Delta-Wye Transformation


Subtract (1.1c) from (1.1a),
Rc ( Rb Ra )
R1 R2 =
.....(1.2)
Ra + Rb + Rc
Add (1.2) to (1.1b),
Rb Rc
R1 =
.....(1.3a)
Ra + Rb + Rc
Subtract (1.2) from (1.1b),
R a Rc
R2 =
.....(1.3b)
Ra + Rb + Rc
Subtract (1.3a) from (1.1a ),
Ra Rb
R3 =
.....(1.3b)
Ra + Rb + Rc

Each resistor in Y network is


the product of resistors in 2
adjacent branches, and
divided by the sum of three
resistors
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1.7 Delta-Wye Transformation


Wye to Delta Conversion
From Eq(1.1a) to (1.1c),
R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1 =

Ra Rb Rc ( Ra + Rb + Rc )

(Ra + Rb + Rc )

Ra Rb Rc
...(1.4)
R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1 = .
Ra + Rb + Rc
Divide Eq(1.4) by Eq(1.3a) to (1.3c),
Ra =

R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1
.....(1.5a )
R1

Subtract (1.2) from (1.1b),


R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1
Rb =
.....(1.5b)
R2
Subtract (1.3a) from (1.1a),
Rc =

R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1
.....(1.5c)
R3

Each resistor in network is


the sum of all possible
products of 2 resistors in Y
network, and divided by the
opposite Y resistor
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1.7 Delta-Wye Transformation


Example 8: convert network to an equivalent Y network

Solution:
Rb Rc
25 10
=
=5
R1 =
Ra + Rb + Rc 25 + 10 + 15
R2 =

Ra Rc
25 15
=
= 7.5
Ra + Rb + Rc 25 + 10 + 15

15 10
Ra Rb
=
=3
R3 =
Ra + Rb + Rc 25 + 10 + 15

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1.7 Delta-Wye Transformation


Example 9: Obtain Rab for the given circuit & find current i.
R1
R3
R2

Solution:
Ra =

R1R2 + R2 R3 + R3R1 (10 20) + (20 5) + (510)


= 35
=
R1
10

Rb =

R1R2 + R2 R3 + R3R1 (10 20) + (20 5) + (510)


=
= 17.5
R2
20

Rc =

R1R2 + R2 R3 + R3R1 (10 20) + (20 5) + (510)


=
= 70
R3
5

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1.7 Delta-Wye Transformation


Solution(continue):

70// 30 = 21

Rab = (7.29 + 10.5) // 21 = 9.63

12.5 //17.5 = 7.29

vs
120
i =
=
= 12.46 A
Rab 9.63

15// 35 = 10.5

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Application

Resistors are often used to model devices that


convert electrical energy into heat or other forms of
energy.
Such devices include conducting wire, light bulbs,
electric heaters, stoves, ovens, and loudspeakers.

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Three light bulbs are connected to a 9-V battery as shown in


Figure (a). Calculate:
(a) the total current supplied by the battery
(b) the current through each bulb
(c) the resistance of each bulb.

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Solution
(a) The total power supplied by the battery
is equal to the total power absorbed by
the bulbs; that is,
P = 15 + 10 + 20 = 45W
Since P = VI, then the total current
supplied by the battery is

P 45
= 5A
I= =
9
V
(b) The bulbs can be modeled as resistors as shown in
Figure (b). Since R1 (20-W bulb) is in parallel with the battery
as well as the series combination of R2 and R3
V1 = V2 + V3 = 9 V
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Solution
The current through R1 is

P 20
I1 = =
= 2.222 A
V
9
By KCL, the current through the series
combination of R2 and R3 is

I 2 = I I1 = 5 2.222 = 2.778 A
(c) Since P = I 2 R

P1
20
R1 = 2 =
= 4.05
2
I1 2.222
P2
15
R2 = 2 =
= 1.945
2
I 2 2.778

P3
10
R3 = 2 =
= 1.279
2
I 2 2.778
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