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ATPL

Table 1 Chart Classifications...............................................................................................2


Table 2 Radio Spectrum Classification................................................................................3
Table 3 Radio Emission Classification................................................................................3
Table 4 HF Frequency Classification...................................................................................3
Table 5 Loading Type Classification...................................................................................4
Table 6 AI Turning Errors....................................................................................................4
Table 7 Jetstreams and Global Latitude Reference..............................................................5
Table 8 Macro Atmosphere Structure..................................................................................6
Table 9 Troposphere Structure.............................................................................................6
Table 10 Pressure Datum Relationships (QNH/QFF)..........................................................6
Table 11 Fire and Extinguisher Classifications...................................................................7
Table 12 Pre-Ingnition and Detonation Characteristics.......................................................7
Table 13 Equipment Requirements......................................................................................7
Table 14 Supplemental Oxygen Requirements....................................................................8
Table 15 Safety Equipment Requirements...........................................................................8
Table 16 Reporting Requirements.......................................................................................8
Table 17 Separation Question Matrix..................................................................................9
Table 18 Separation...........................................................................................................10
Table 19 Light Signals.......................................................................................................10
Table 20 ICAO Annexes....................................................................................................11
Table 21 Licensing Requirements......................................................................................11
Table 22 - Visual Flight Rules............................................................................................11
Table 23AIP Contents and Subdivision.............................................................................12
Table 24 ATS and SAR Classification...............................................................................12
Table 25 Holding Speeds...................................................................................................12
Table 26 Intenational Conventions....................................................................................12

Page 1 of 12

ATPL
Table 1 Chart Classifications

Scale

RL

Mercator
Scale at X =
1/Scale*CosX (Div by
Cos X if going toward
equator).
Or Scale at A*CosB=Scale
at B*CosA

Straight (see below for


variants)
Convergency Correct at tangency (Std
Equator, TVM - central
meridian & equator, OM GC tangency and poles).
Radio
Add conversion to all on
Bearings
Std, Otherwise only to
ADF/AWR.
GC
Poleward of RL
Concave to point of
accurate convergence
(Equator)
Other
Usable to 70N&S and
350nm either side of GC
of tangency.
Variants
Transverse Central
meridian of longitude is
tangency. GCs are
straightish/ concave to
central meridian. RLs
concave to pole. ||s of lat
are elipses xcpt equator.
Oblique Specific Route

Conic/Lambert
Expands outside standard
||s Contracts between,
correct at std ||. || of
origin slightly North of
midpoint. Max Lat
spread 24 2/3 inside, 1/6
ea outside.
Concave to pole

Polar Stereo
Expands away from
pole. Radius of || of lat
is 2R tan(co-lat/2).
For scale map R
=250M/Scale. Co-lat
is 90-lat (ie. degrees
to pole)
Concave to pole

Chart Convergency
longitude(mins) * Sin ||
of origin. Same formula
for grid convergence.
Convergency @ station
to ADF AWR.

longitude (ie. Sin


lat= 1

Poleward of RL
Concave to point of
accurate convergence (||
of origin)
Usable 80N&S.

Poleward of RL
Concave to point of
accurate convergence
(meridian)
Usable 65N up.Light
shone from opposite
pole

Simple Cone touches


earth once, std = origin

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Convergency @
station to ADF AWR.

ATPL
Table 2 Radio Spectrum Classification

VLF
Very
3-30K

Freq
Wavelength

100km10km
Myria

LF
Low
30300K
10Km1Km
Kilo

MF
Med
300K3M
1Km100m
Hecto

HF
High
3M30M
100m10m
Deca

VHF
Very
30M300M
10m1m
Metric

UHF
Ultra
300M-3G

SHF
Super
3G-30G

1m-10cm

10cm1cm
Centi

Deci

Space
Waves
Sky Waves
Surface
4000nm 1000nm 300nm 100nm
Waves
Ionos Duct
Atmos. Attn
Surface
Attn
Ionos Attn
Static
Uses
Loran
NDB
Comms Comms Gldslp
NDB
1750k 2850K- 118M- GPS
190k
22M
137M
1.5G(L1)C/A
1.2G(L2)
SSR
DME

EHF
Extra
30G300G
1cm1mm
Milli

Radalt
4.3G
MLS
ATC/Wx
Radar
9-10G

Table 3 Radio Emission Classification

X3E (Comms)
J HF SSB Sup Carr
A VHF DSB

AXW
8 ILS
9 VOR

X0N
P DME
N NDB Carrier

AXA
1 NDB Ident
2 Alt NDB Ident

Table 4 HF Frequency Classification

Lowest Usable HF
Static & Ionospheric
attenuation

Maximum Usable
Frequency
Best combination use
highest frequency that
works

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Optimum Frequency
End of skip distance a bit
temperamental

ATPL
Table 5 Loading Type Classification

Zero Fuel Mass

Airplane incl
unusable fuel &
oil
Crew & crew
bags, catering,
special
equipment
Passengers &
Freight

Basic Empty
Mass
Variable Load
Traffic Load
Fuel

Fuel
Table 6 AI Turning Errors
Pitch
Over

Under

Turn

90

180

270

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Dry Operating
Mass (Wet if
includes Fuel)
All Up Mass
Useful
(Disposable) Load

ATPL
Table 7 Jetstreams and Global Latitude Reference

Jan

80-120

Jul

80-120

120

2/300

20N*

*10N 25/50

25/35 5S
orW
15S

90
65
65
40
40
35
35
20
20
10
10

Character
Highs, Light Easterlies

EMEA

Disturbed Temperate
(Travelling Westerlies)

Europe (Madrid, Rome,


Istanbul) to Arctic Circle,
Russia,,

Americas
Greenland, Canada Northern
Territories
Nthn California to NY,
Northern US States, Alaska,
Canada

Temperate Transitional
(Mediterranean)

Southern med (Lisbon,


Athens, Izmir, Tehran, Kabul)

Mid California, Colorado,


Virginia

Arid Subtropical
Highs, Desert

Nth Africa (Morocco, Algeria


, Libya, Egypt, Saudi, Middle
East
Oman, Sudan, Mauretania,
Senegal, Mali, Niger, Chad, ,
Yemen
S facing strip of W Africa
(Lagos) to Horn (Addis
Ababa), Congo to Tanzania,
Angola, Zambia, N
Mozambique
Namibia, Sth Africa

Sthn California, Texas,


Georgia, Mexico City & Nth
Mexico
Cuba, Sthn Mexico, Central
America, Carribean

Tropical Transitional
Savannah & Trades
Equatorial Easterlies, weaker
even v light westerly in
winter.
Tropical Transitional
Savannah & Trades
Arid Subtropical
Highs, Desert
Temperate Transitional
(Mediterranean)
Dist Temp

Northern S America
(Panama, Venezuela) to mid
Brazil
Southern Brazil, Bolivia S
Peru
Uruguay, N Argentina

10
10
20
20
90/1T 35
70/80
35
Mid Argentia, Chile
40
60/70 60/70 40
Sth Argentina, Chile, Tierra
65
del Fuego
65 Polar
Antarctica
Antarctica
90
*Bombay/Oman/Sudan Cuba is northern limit of tropical easterlies in summer
*Lagos Addis Ababa/Panama/Singapore is northern limit of tropical easterlies in winter

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Far East/Pacific
Mongolia Kazakhstan &
Russia (Sakhalin,
Kamchatka), Japan
(Hokkaido)
China (Beijing to Xian),
Japan (Honshu, Tokyo)
Korea
Sthn China (Xian to HK)
N India (Kashmir to
Mumbai)
India (Mumbai to
Bangalore) Thailand,
Laos, Vietnam.
Singapore Malaysia
Indonesia, Sri Lanka &
Sthn tip of India
Nth Australia
Central Australia to
Sydney/Perth
Melbourne, Auckland NZ
North Island
NZ South Island,
Tasmania
Antarctica

ATPL

Table 8 Macro Atmosphere Structure

Discontinuity
F Layer (Appleton)
E Layer (Kenelly-Heavyside)
Mesopause
D Layer (Day Only)
Stratopause

Height
225km (150-350Km)
125km (100-150Km)
80km
75km (50-100km)
50km

Thermal Character
Temp Rises
Temp Rises
Temp falls

Low Ion Density.

Temp rises at
0.3C/1000ft
20km
Temp steady -56.5
under ISA drops at
2C/1000ft under JSA
11km Sum Wtr Temp drops at
30
16k 16k 2C/1000ft
50
12k 9k
70
9k
8k

ISA Limit
Tropopause

Other/Notes
High Ion Density
Med Ion Density

Unless tropopause height


specified. Then use
actual tropopause temp.
25,000ft -45C Pole
40,000ft -55C mid lat
55,000ft -75C equator

Table 9 Troposphere Structure

Height.
P dominates T affects P/H

TUC

Press/Ht per HPa

58,000ft
49,000ft
43,000ft
40,000ft

100/200ft

38,000ft
35,000ft
30,000ft
25,000ft
22,000ft

200mb/102ft

18,000ft
10,000ft
5,000ft
Sea Level

500mb/48ft
700mb/36ft
850mb/31ft
1013mb/27ft. Use
this for <2000ft.

Need radiation monitoring


8-12secs
20secs
-min
-1min
2-4min
4-8min

300mb/73ft
376mb

30min
Indefinite

Below ISA
QNH/QFF
QFF/QNH

O2 under pressure required


O3 a problem to 75,000ft

35mm in lungs/
unconsciousness
50mm in lungs

160mm but only 100mm in


lungs due H2O & CO2

Table 10 Pressure Datum Relationships (QNH/QFF)

Above MSL
Below MSL

Other

(2 if from 7-8000ft cabin alt)

96T(A)/P(HPa)

Above ISA
QFF/QNH
QNH/QFF

Page 6 of 12

ATPL

Table 11 Fire and Extinguisher Classifications

Water
Class A Solid
Class B Liquid/Gas
Class C Electrical
Class D Metal

Foam
(oil/fuel not
brakes)

Dry Powder
(metal/brakes)

(or H O atomiser)

Carbon
Dioxide
(engine/elec)

BCF
(elec fire in
cabin)

Table 12 Pre-Ingnition and Detonation Characteristics

Cause
Timing
Increasing RPM
Mixture sensitivity

PreIgnition
Hotspots in cylinder cause
mixture to ignite before spark
Before Spark
Worsens

Detonation
Mixture detonates rather than
burning
After Spark
Improves
Weak mixtures

Table 13 Equipment Requirements

MultiTurbine
With >9 seats
Altitude
Alerting
GPWS
1
DFDR

10h Apr/98 On

CVR

30m Jan/90 On

TCAS II
TAWS
AWR
All press.a/c
Windshield
wipers
Intercom

<5700kgs
pressurised <9
seats may use
stormscope

Max Cert TOM


>5700kgs

Type II
25h All A/C Jun/90 On
Turbine only B4 Jun/90
2hrs Apr/98 On
30 min B4 Apr/98
Jet/turbo plus all a/c >19
seats by 2005
New jet turbo
from 2003

15,000kgs
or 30 seats

27,000kgs

Type I
(Enh. Rec.)

Warning
Required
Visual up,
Aural down.
Aural

Jet/turbo

Jet/turbo
by 2005

Aural and
visual with
display

Or 19 seats

>9 Seats at night or IMC


where TS expec.

Page 7 of 12

ATPL

Table 14 Supplemental Oxygen Requirements

Pressurised
Flight Deck
Cabin Crew
10% Pax
30% Pax
100% Pax
Unpressurised
Flight Deck
Cabin Crew
10% Pax
100% Pax

Over 10,000ft

Over 13,000ft

After 30 mins
After 30 mins
After 30 mins

Entire time
Entire time

Over 14,000ft

Over 15,000ft

Minimum
25kft >25kft
30min
2hr
30 min

Entire time

10 min

Entire time

Entire time
After 30 mins
After 30 mins

Entire time
Entire time

Table 15 Safety Equipment Requirements

Pax Seats
7-30
31-60
61-200
201-300
301-400
401-500
501-600
>601

Fire Extinguishers (Of


which BCF)
1
2 (1)
3 (2)
4 (2)
5 (2)
6 (2)
7 (2)
8 (2)
Plus 1 BCF in Cockpit

Crash axe

Megaphone
/deck

First Aid Kits

1
1+1100
2

<100
<200
<300
<400

1
2
3
4

Table 16 Reporting Requirements

Subject
Unlawful Interference
Nav Irregularity/Met eg. VA, Radiation
Accident
Emergencey which endangers safety & tereby
violates local regs or procs

Reporting
ASAP
ASAP
Quckest available means
Local authority without delay, if required by state
to appropriate authority then to state of origin in
writing within 10 days.
Flight Incidents which (may) endanger safe ops
Authority within 72 hours
Technical defects and excess of tech limitations
Recorded in tech log
Air Traffic Incidents endangerment by other flying ICAO PANS RAC
device/ATC etc.
Birdstrike
ASAP ATC

Page 8 of 12

ATPL

Table 17 Separation Question Matrix

Page 9 of 12

ATPL
Table 18 Separation

Type
Vertical

Description
During ascent or descent 15 mins whilst vertical separation does not exist,
down to 10 where navaids permit, or 5minutes if less than 10 minutes of an
actual timed position report.
VOR/RNAV 15 more than 15nm from facility.
NDB
30 more than 15nm from facility.
DR
45 more than 15nm from intersect
DME (On track) 20nm or 10nm where front a/c is 20kt+ faster. Also 10nm
when climbing or descending through level.
Timing - 15mins, down to 10mins if navaids permit, down to 5 mins if
front a/c is +20kts, to 3mins if +40kts.
Mach number 10-5mins. Each minute less than 10 requires an additional .
01M from leading a/c starting at 0.02M up to 0.06M.RNAV 80nm.

Lateral

Longitudinal

RNP RNAV 80nm (RNP 20) verified every hour, 50nm (RNP 50) verified
every hour. Otherwise 80nm when same on-track waypoint.

Wake Turbulence
2mins UNLESS

Radar Separation 5nm standard, 3nm when conditions allow (UK 40nm
from radar head) and 2.5nm on localiser/approach (5nm on localiser for
wake turbulence).
Departure Lighter AND from intermediate part of runway (3min)
Arrival LIGHT behind heavier (3min), 4/5/6 & 5nm
1, 2, 5mins. 1 if tracks diverge by 45 or more. On same track, 2 if speed
difference of 40kts, 5 otherwise. <1 minute if taking off in different
directions. 5 mins max between departing and arriving traffic

Departure

Table 19 Light Signals

Green
Red
Flashing Red
Flashing White
Flashing Green
Red pyrotechnic

To An a/c on the ground


Go (cleared take off)
Stop
Get clear of landing area.
Go to start
Cleared to taxi

To an a/c in the air


Go (cleared to land)
Stop (ie circle and give way)
Stay clear of landing area (ie do not land)
Go to start (ie land here but await signals)
Come back and await signals
Belay previous instructions - do not land for the moment.

Page 10 of 12

ATPL

Table 20 ICAO Annexes


Annex
Subject
1
Personnel Licensing (Getting a license is my Number 1 priority)
2
Rules of the Air (2 Sets of Rules, VFR and IFR)
3
Meteorological Services (3C/100ft DALR)
4
Aeronautical Charts (4 Cardinal Points)
5
Dimensional Units (CRP 5)
6
Operation of Aircraft (DC6)
7
Nationality and Registration Marks (The League of Seven Nations)
8
Airworthiness (Looks like a propeller)
9
Facilitation (NEIN in German Immigration)
10
Aeronautical Communications (100 for the Operator)
11
Air Traffic Control Services (1 to 1 Personal Services)
12
Search & Rescue (The one before Accident Investigation)
13
Accident Investigation (Unlucky for some)
14
Aerodromes (14 Aerodromes around Heathrow)
15
Aeronautical Information Services (Looks like IS)
16
Environmental Protection (16 Age of Consent, use protection)
17
Security (17ft security fence required)
18
Dangerous Goods (At 18 you can drink but its DANGEROUS to drive)
Table 21 Licensing Requirements

ATPL (21-59)
500 MPA
Transport
Category a/c
CPL (185yrs
PPL (17IR (A)
for C/PPL

Total Hours
1500
100 sim
25 Proc trainer
150

PIC Hours
250 PIC/P1s
100 PIC

XC Hours
200
100 PIC/P1s

Night Hours
100 PIC/P2

Instrument Hours
75
30 ground

20
300nm flight

5
5 FSTOL as PIC

10
5 Ground

50 PIC
10 in Airplanes

Table 22 - Visual Flight Rules

Height Vis/Class
8km @ > 10,000ft

B
Clear

5km @ <=10,000ft

Of
Cloud

CDE
Clear of Cloud by

FG

1500m Horizontally
1000ft Vertically

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3km @ < 3000ft


COC/ISOS
<140kt

ATPL

Table 23AIP Contents and Subdivision

AIP Section
GEN
ENR
AD

Coverage
Location Indicators (1.56)
Charges for aerodromes and air navigation (6.67)
SIGMET Service
Prohibited and Danger Areas
Holding, Approach and Departure procedures
Detailed description of met info at AD and indication of met office responsible.
Refuelling Services

Table 24 ATS and SAR Classification

Air Traffic Services


(ATS)
ATC

Flight Information
Alerting Service

Subdivision/Phase

Notes

Area Control
Approach Control
Aerodrome Control
Uncertainty
Alert
Distress

Attempted communications fails/late ATS RCC


Apprehension init by Flgt Info or ATC
Damaged a/c, impaired needs immediate assistance

Table 25 Holding Speeds

Normal
170kts (A&B)/230kts
240kts
265kts

FL140
FL200
FL340

Turbulent
170kts (A&B)/280kts
280kts
280kts

Table 26 Intenational Conventions

Subject
Withdrawal

Warsaw
(1926)
Liability

Tokyo (1963)
Hague (1970)
Hijacking/
Jurisdiction
Inform ICAO

Montreal
(1971)
NonHijacking
6 Months
notice to
contracting
states

Page 12 of 12

Rome
(1933/38/52)
Ground
Damage